Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal (27 papers in press)
IMPORTANCE OF AGAVE SALMIANA METABOLISM IN TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS TO MEZCAL AGROINDUSTRY SUSTAINABILITY
by Christian Michel-Cuello, Noé Aguilar-Rivera, Lucía Gabriela García-Pedraza
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify non-structural carbohydrates in raw and hydrolysates juices, in stem and leaf that increase the sugars use from the plant and are a materials source for the mezcal agroindustry. We worked with maguey plants (Agave salmiana) from three maturity stages. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for carbohydrates characterization was applied. The determinations confirmed the presence of significant proportions of fructose, glucose and sucrose, and a lesser xylose and maltose proportion. The differences in carbohydrates concentration depend of studied factors as part of the plant, maturity state and thermal treatment (raw or hydrolysates juices). Therefore, technological and innovative actions to present synergies are necessary, for this reason these treatments should be considered for better sugar content use and thus improve the use conditions that will maintain the environmental sustainability in the mezcal agroindustry development.
Keywords: Agave salmiana; carbohydrates; HPLC; mezcal; agroindustry development; environmental sustainability.
Environmental and Health Impact of Small Garages and Workshops: a Case Study Based on Sri Lanka
by R. PATHBERIYA, S.W.S.B. DASANAYAKA, OMAR AL SERHAN, H. ROUDAINA
Abstract: This paper assesses the health and environmental impact of small informal businesses that are located in garages and workshops on the employees and the people who live in the vicinity of these establishments. Various key stakeholders and people living in the surrounding areas were interviewed and asked to complete a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was conducted in the Gampaha District, the second most populated district in Sri Lanka. A total of thirty-six small garages and workshops were randomly selected based on the population density of the area. A structured survey questionnaire was administered to obtain the data results of this research which showed that the use of personal safety equipment and standards were very poor. Results showed that a high percentage of environmental damage was due to waste generated by the industry. The soil, water, noise and air is being polluted by these small garages and workshops and as a result, the general public living in the vicinity are living with a great health risk. The findings and policies recommended in this study can be used as a guide to conduct similar types of studies in other parts of the world. This paper provides a review of the hazardous effects on the environment and the people surrounding it, in order to take the necessary precautions to bring down the levels of carcinogens in the small garages and work places, where individuals share space and work long hours.
Keywords: Health; Environmental; hazard; garages; informal sector; small workshops; Sri Lanka.
Determination of regional industrial symbiosis opportunities by using relationship mimicking with ESOTA
by Sibel Uludag Demirer, Goksel N. Demirer
Abstract: Lack of information about potential collaborators, proven tools, and techniques for Industrial Symbiosis (IS) was stated to be among the major barriers towards its wider implementation. These barriers become more pronounced when the number of enterprises to be handled and the complexity of the IS opportunities become higher.
This study presented a regional industrial symbiosis opportunity determination methodology along with a case study conducted in Gaziantep, Turkey. ESOTA
Keywords: Industrial symbiosis (IS); information and communications technology (ICT); resource efficiency; industrial park; regional planning.
Training sustainability through role playing in higher education
by Konstantinos Vatalis
Abstract: The main purpose of this work is to present how the complex process of sustainability course in higher education can provide a useful framework in order to create an experiential learning environment for sustainable development. During an academic semester, the technique of role-playing exploited to the teacher to bring three groups of cyclically alternating players/students of higher education in order to understand betters the deeper concept of sustainable development goals. The proposed methodology increases the understanding of the theme that is beyond the trainees direct experience. However, the ability of the groups breeds a positive stimulus for experiential learning. The value of prior knowledge and personal involvement that are discussed are of great significance. Finally, this work contributes on how sustainability can be designed through role playing in higher education.
Keywords: role playing game; students/players; sustainability; higher education.
Waste to Energy: Effect of reaction parameters on the transesterification of animal fat oil to biodiesel over a solid hydroxy sodalite (SOD) catalyst
by Chabisha Makgaba, Thomas Aniokete, Michael O. Daramola
Abstract: In this study, production of biodiesel via the transesterification of beef tallow oil with methanol over a solid hydroxy sodalite (SOD) catalyst was investigated, particularly the effect of process variables on the yield of biodiesel. First and foremost, beef tallow oil (BTO) was checked for Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content to confirm the need for the use of a heterogeneous catalyst. SOD crystals were synthesized via a hydrothermal synthesis method for use as basic solid catalyst to convert beef tallow oil into biodiesel. Transesterification reaction was conducted at methanol-to-animal fat oil ratio of 7.5:1 using 3 wt. % SOD catalyst with variation in the mixing intensity (700 1250 rpm), catalyst particle size (200 300
Keywords: Biodiesel; Animal fat; Hydroxy sodalite; Waste beneficiation; Solid catalyst.
EFFECT OF CORNCOB ASH BLENDED CEMENT ON THE PROPERTIES OF LATERITIC INTERLOCKING BLOCKS
by OYEBISI SOLOMON, OLUTOGE FESTUS, OFUYATAN OLATOKUNBO, ABIOYE ABIODUN
Abstract: The increase in carbon dioxide emissions due to cement manufacturing and improper disposal of corncob leads to environmental pollution and agricultural wastage respectively. This study investigates the use of corncob ash (CCA) as cement additive in producing lateritic interlocking blocks (LIB). Portland limestone cement (PLC) was replaced by CCA in varying percentages 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Effect of CCA on compressive strength and water absorption were determined and compared with the Nigerian standard requirements. The experimental findings showed that 3% PLC, 15% CCA with a compressive strength of 4.49MPa and water absorption of 6% at 28 curing days met the recommendations of the Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute and the Nigerian Industrial Standards. Recycling of CCA as a promising raw material supplement appears to be a viable solution not only to the environmental problem but also to the problem of adopting indigenous waste material in the production of LIB.
Keywords: portland limestone cement; corncob ash; lateritic interlocking block; compressive strength; and water absorption.
Energetic transition within thermal machines and co-generation: Effect of mass flux on Critical heat flux
by Mohamed Mebarkia, Messaoud Louafi, Zoubir Aoulmi
Abstract: Topics associated with the critical heat flux in industry sector are at the heart of the hot interesting issues on the global agenda. In this paper, we introduce a new method of energy analysis of heat transfer in new generation heat exchangers applicable to the innovative sector of energy recovery. A statistical analysis is performed to study the effect of mass flux on the critical heat flux of an evaporator boiler. Assessment of critical heat flux is essential for conception and safety analysis of numerous industrial thermal transfer machinery like boilers, heat exchangers, and heated pipes...etc. The aim of the present study is to provide insights into the effect of mass flux on the critical heat flux (CHF) when porous tubes are used. Independent sets of full 23 factorial designs with 3 central points were employed in case of porous coated tubes. Results revealed that the CHF could be influenced by some factors which were dominated in the studied conditions. More specifications of CHF and its relation with the input variables were detailed in this paper. Significance evaluation and testing of results revealed that CHF increases with the increase of mass flux for low L/D values in case of porous tubes.
Keywords: CHF (critical heat flux ); design of experiments; porous coated; Mass flux; round vertical Tubes; Ultra low consumption thermal machines; renewable energies; co-generation.
Environmental appraisal of alternative municipal solid waste management scenarios: The case of Chania, Greece
by Ioanna Manousaki, Foteini Konstandakopoulou
Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a contestable subject in many countries over thepastyears, due to the dissension among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies. The increasing production of MSW is a major problem, especially for large urbanareas with inadequate landfill capacities and insufficient waste management systems. Greece is an EU country which suffers from a rather low level of organizationin breach of the Waste Framework Directives. Although Greece has been condemned several times by the European Court of Justice, Greek cities still dump their waste in landfills, an issue which represents a serious environmental and social problem. The determination of the optimal solution requires the consideration of several technical, economic, environmental legislation and social aspects. This study is aimed at the evaluation of two alternative solid waste local strategies in the Municipality of Chania, a coastal city in Greece, giving a different management perspective. In the first scenario, the contribution of a home composting program to the waste management of Municipality is examined. In the second alternative scenario, the construction of a combustion unit is developed and analyzed. Furthermore, these scenarios are investigated fortheir environmental impact assessmentin order to achieve the goalsof the EU in combination to the local needs and conditions.
Keywords: Environmental impact assessment; environmental legislation; local strategies; municipal solid waste; waste management.
Special Issue on: Biosphere Management
The influence of ZnO nanoparticles amount on the optimization of photo degradation of methyl orange using decorated MWCNTs
by Sedigheh Abbasi, Mehri-Saddat Ekrami-Kakhki, Mostafa Tahari
Abstract: In the current study, we want to optimize the removal efficiency of methyl orange using decorated MWCNTs with different amount of ZnO nanoparticles. For this purpose, we investigate the influence of several parameters such as UV irradiation time, pH of solution and weight fraction of photocatalysts on the removal efficiency using 2-level factorial design. The statistical analysis results using Half-normal plot demonstrate that all of the main factors have a significant effect on the removal efficiency of pollutant. Meanwhile, the results of t test and pareto charts reveal that UV irradiation time and weight fraction have positive effect on the responses. However, the influence of pH on the removal efficiency of methyl orange is negative. The results of the optimization process show that for maximizing the removal efficiency of pollutant, the optimal level of irradiation time, pH and weight fraction should set to 25 min, 4 and 0.5 %wt, respectively.
Keywords: decorated MWCNTs; ZnO nanoparticles; removal efficiency; optimization; Factorial design.
Urban Environments Sustainable Development through Low Impact Approaches
by Mahdi Montazerolhodjah
Abstract: The rapid rate of urbanization and cities growth is putting pressure on ecological condition and ecosystems in cities and their surrounding area. This procedure caused to producing changes on hydrological processes and specially increasing of storm-generated flows and water pollutants. Traditional urban catchment management methods has concentrate on the hydrologic infrastructures to decrease the risks of flooding and just resolve basic water quality problems. This methods has overlooked many opportunities to perform water-sensitive urban development and public space design strategies, to decrease impacts on the natural water cycle and help to store and reuse water and develop natural ecosystems within urban areas. During recent years, the low impact approaches in urban development have been recommended as an alternative to these traditional stormwater management. The main objective of this paper is to define what low impact approaches such as LID and LIUDD are and what they are not, by defining principles and practices and to show the relationship between the principles and implementation actions. This paper reviews the literature on low impact approaches like LID and LIUDD and presents some relevant designing tools and processes that can be used by urban planners and designers in the urban development plans.
Keywords: Urban environment; urban sustainable development; runoff; stormwater; LID; LIUDD.
System Dynamics Approach for the Relationship between Different Types of Hospitals and Hospital Waste Management (Case Study: Tabriz)
by Seyed Mehdi Musavi, Reza Khosropour, Seyed Abolfazl Musavi, Alimohammad Ahmadvand
Abstract: Hospital is the centre of providing different health services to society and its activities may include nutrition therapy, rehabilitation prevention and health education promotion. During performing activities, the hospital may produce the waste of medical and non-medical activities. Health waste management is similar to other waste management systems and includes production, separation, gathering, storing, purification and final disposal.
If hospital waste is not managed correctly, it will be converted to one of the major factors of infectious diseases in the world, regarded as a serious health problem. This will increase the need for hospital waste management. Health and therapy waste management is related to health and safety risks of transportation of produced waste from health centres. Our long-term objective was to develop a planning and selection system supporting the future waste disposal capacity. The present research included using a system dynamics model by means of Vensim software for prediction of the produced waste in health waste system in different hospitals.
Keywords: Hospital Waste Management; Hospital Types; System Dynamics; Environment.
Optimum Design of Water-based Drilling Fluid in Shale Formations in Khangiran Oilfields
by Reza Ghamarpoor, Arash Ebrahimabadi
Abstract: In this study, using the results of performed shale formation Characterizatins and the history of drilling in Iranian oil fields, an environmentally friendly water based drilling fluid is designed to replace the oil based drilling fluids. This drilling fluid has desirable properties in drilling water sensitive formations. New drilling fluid additives including shale inhibitors, new polymers and sized solid particles have been used to prepare this new drilling fluid. The most important properties of this new drilling fluid are controlling the mud filtrate and pressure invasion to the formation, clay mineral alteration and activity reduction, improvement of the integrity of drilling cuttings, reduction in formation damage, stability at high temperatures, stability in acidity changes and the compatibility by drilling fluids dilution during drilling operation. The lubricity and shale cuttings recovery of this new drilling fluid are better than those of other similar water based drilling fluids. Replacing this drilling fluid by oil based drilling fluids in drilling industry will be a great means to protect the environment and drilling personnel in addition to being economically advantageous.
Keywords: Drilling; Shale; Borehole Instability; Water Based Drilling Fluid; Oil Based Drilling Fluid; Polymer; Glycol.
Recovering lead, plastic and sulfuric acid from automobile used batteries by mathematical Reverse logistics network modeling
by Najme Roghani Langarudi, ABDOLHOSSEIN SADRNIA, Amirreza Payandeh Sani
Abstract: Lead is one of the important heavy metals and its accumulation in environment results in destructive effects. Among the lead-based products, automobile battery has special importance owing to the growth of automobile manufacturing industry. In the past decade, reverse logistics as the main infrastructure for the collection and recycling of products at the end of its life cycle, has been the interest of green industry administrators. This study was conducted to design a reverse logistics network to recycle automobile used batteries and their contents like lead, scrap plastic, and sulfuric acid. This logistic network is a five layers frame work that consists of collection, remanufacturing, repair, recycling, and disposal of used batteries with two objective functions (cost and CO2 emissions minimization), modelled using mixed-integer linear programming. In order to show the practicability of the presented model, numerical example using General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) software was applied.
Keywords: reverse logistics; industrial ecology; automobile battery recycling; recovering battery; end of life cycle.
Special Issue on: ICRAME2017 Mechanical Engineering Science
PARAMETRIC OPTIMISATION OF FRICTION WELDED 17-4 PH SS ALLOY USING TAGUCHI TECHNIQUES
by Mahendiran Subramaniyan
Abstract: Friction welding (FW) is a solid state technique used mostly for joining similar or dissimilar materials owing to batch production with less time consumption. In friction welding, the joints are formed in the solid state by utilising the heat generated by friction. The objectives of this project is to obtain friction weld element of 17-4 PH Stainless steel alloy (Grade 630) and optimising the friction welding parameters in order to establish the weld strength and its quality. In this research work, the experiment is undergone to examine the tensile strength of friction welding 17-4 PH Stainless steel alloy. The experiment is conducted by varying the input parameters like rotational speed, friction and forging force, friction and forging time using Taguchis L9 orthogonal array. For each experiment tensile strength was examined and the optimum welding condition for maximising tensile strength was determined. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted for the experiment to evaluate the mean of tensile strength of the welding.
Keywords: Precipitation hardening; rotary friction welding; tensile strength; Taguchi techniques; ANOVA.
A Machine Learning Approach for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blade Using Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) Features through Vibration Signals: A Comparative Study
by Sugumaran Vaithiyanathan, Joshuva A
Abstract: Wind power is the capability to make electricity using the air flows that occur naturally in the earths atmosphere whereas, the wind turbine blades capture kinetic energy from the wind and turn it into mechanical energy by spinning a generator to creates electricity. In wind turbine, blades are the major component for capturing the wind however, due to environmental conditions it prompt to get fault. Traditional monitoring technique will leads to high labour cost and also reduce the energy production. To overcome this problem, a machine learning based condition monitoring technique is incorporated in the wind turbine to identify the fault classification which occurred in the blade. In this study, a three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine was chosen and the faults like blade bend, blade cracks, hub-blade loose connection, blade erosion and pitch angle twist were considered as these are the faults mostly affect the turbine blade. In this study, the autoregressivemoving-average (ARMA) technique has been used for the feature extraction followed by feature selection (J48 decision tree algorithm) and fault classification (through meta classifiers, misc classifiers, rule classifiers and tree based classifiers). The results were compared with respect to the classification accuracy and their computational time of the classifier.
Keywords: Condition monitoring; wind turbine blade; ARMA features; machine learning; vibration signals.
PREDICTING DISPERSION OF RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH PARALLEL APPROACH
by G. Uma Maheswari
Abstract: Radiation release from Nuclear Power Plant may prone to make harmful impacts individuals and encompassing. The arrival of radionuclides and climatic scrambling causes harming of air, water, plants, animals and soil. Apparatuses for predicting scrambling of radionuclides in air will guide individuals to clear from tormented zones. To imagine radioactive material dissipates and its result to condition, barometrical scattering process information about source term (nuclear material released), atmosphere conditions and geographical parts. The climatic scattering framework incorporate source, wind field, scattering and dosages counts. This displaying is completed utilizing PC projects to re-enact the toxin scattering spoke to utilizing numerical recipes and calculations. The thought behind this work is to create proficient parallel calculations giving subtle elements on parallelism of the solver. The calculation is solid in successive nature so another parallel calculation is proposed utilizing C programming
Keywords: MPI; runtime efficiency; nuclear power plant; speedup; Parallel Programming.
HAIWF-based fault detection and classification for Industrial Machine Condition Monitoring
by Sathish T, Karthick S
Abstract: The machines role is increased day to day in human life style and now it took a major role. A person mostly depends on machines for their daily work and attitude. The modern peoples are well knowledgeable to handle the machines. Even though they face some problem and also they cant able to get the full efficiency while using machines. Hence the research are involved in the research to rectify the problems before it occur. As a part of the machine based research the researcher also made research on rotating machines. The main aim of these researches is to cure the problem before it occurs. For this when equipment and process parameters are controlled then the process outcomes are also well controlled. Fault Detection and Classification (FDC) is based on the idea that you can detect changing conditions within equipment and use that knowledge to improve process. The techniques for detecting faults can be distinguished as a pattern matching from the values of a sensor and the difference between the sensor readings and expected value. In which if the difference goes beyond a threshold value then a fault is said to be occurred. On the other hand, researchers interested in the field of fault detection of rotating machineries have used Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) over years to detect the faults. But these ANNs suffer from data diversity and training. In this work, to avoid the issues of data diversity and for training in ANN, the inertia weight firefly algorithm (IWF) has been used to train the neural network by replacing the traditional back propagation training. The efficiency of the Hybrid ANN IWF (HAIWF) in detecting and classifying machine faults is compared with the efficiency of PSO, GA, APSO and AGA. The results suggest that the proposed technique detects machine faults more effectively.
Keywords: Industrial Machine Maintenance; Fault detection; Artificial Neural Networks; Particle Swarm Optimization; Genetic Algorithm.
Review on effects of Performance, Emission and Combustion characteristics of Emulsified fuel in Bifuel engine
by Radha Krishna Gopidesi, Premkartikkumar SR
Abstract: The emission norms of diesel engines are turned more stringent due to continuous increasing of environmental pollution. Thus, global researchers explore to reduce emissions from diesel engines by fulfilling the performance parameters. Generally, dual fuel engines play a vital role in regulating both emission and performance parameters. The major emissions in the diesel engines are the NOX emissions due to the higher combustion temperatures. Different techniques are adopted for the reduction of NOX emissions. Diesel engines are converted to dual fuel mode by using the techniques such as blend, fumigation, and emulsion. Among these, water-diesel emulsions can lessen the emissions of NOX and other pollutants promptly. But it also shows the diminution in thermal efficiency since water has a tendency of low heating value. However, it can be overcome by a bifuel method. In this paper, a review on the various emulsion preparation techniques and effects of different gaseous fuels used with emulsified fuels in bifuel engines has been presented. It is observed that the combination of emulsified fuel and the gaseous fuels showed a simultaneous improvement in the thermal efficiency and reduction of NOX emissions.
Keywords: bifuel; blend; emissions; emulsion; performance.
Role of Non-Consumable Tool Design on Tensile Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium alloy Joints
by Swami Nathan, Sathiyamurthy S, Naveenchandran P
Abstract: A solid state welding, like friction stir welding is commonly suitable for joining dissimilar aluminum plates. A non-consumable revolving tool was used to induce heat and plastic distortion between abutting surfaces of the plates. This paper, presented the influence of tool revolving speed, axial force and weld transverse speed on tensile and impact strength properties were evaluated for the joint by using destructive test. The friction stir welding has been done at tool revolving speed of 1000, 1100, 1200 rpm, weld speed of 30, 45, 60 mm/min and tool plunge force of 3, 4, 5 kN on dissimilar aluminum alloy AA7075 and AA6063 by two different tool profiles of Triangle and square. Better mixing of both aluminum alloy joints was achieved at lower welding transverse speed of 30 mm/min with high tool revolving speed of 1200 rpm. Also it is found that the use of the triangular profile of the tool gives better mechanical properties. The growth in mechanical properties is attributed to the maturation of fine grain and intermetallic compound in the weld region.
Keywords: Tool Pin shape; Mechanical Properties; Tool revolving speed; weld transverse speed and tool plunge force.
Misfire Detection in I.C. Engine Through ARMA Features Using Machine Learning Approach
by Sumedh Mulay, Sugumaran Vaithiyanathan, Babu Devasenapati S
Abstract: One of the prime problems engines are facing is Misfire, as it leads to the power loss along with the exhaust gas containing air pollutants like CO, HC and NOx. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of engine play a vital role in reducing maintenance and improving the life of the engine. This paper proposes a predictive model for misfire detection using machine learning approach. For the present study, vibration signals were taken into consideration for misfire detection as a pattern of a misfire for each is specific in nature. The piezoelectric accelerometer was used for acquiring vibration signals of each cylinder. Then, ARMA features were extracted from acquired signals. The feature selection was carried out using J48 decision tree algorithm. For feature classification, the Functional Tree classifier was used. In this study, the classification accuracy of 92.2% was achieved by the model built for detection. The proposed model was tested with the data acquired from an engine experimental test rig wherein every cylinder misfire tests were conducted. This work can be improved by analysis using different classifier algorithms for more accurate misfire detection.
Keywords: Machine learning approach; ARMA Features; Featre Extrction; Feature selection; Functional Tree Classifier.
Prediction of Springback Effect by the Hybridization of ANN with PSO in Wipe Bending process of sheet Metal
by Sathish T
Abstract: In sheet metal forming springback is a phenomenon that occurs slightly due to residual stresses in the material, while bending the sheet metal. Hence it should avoid to improve the metal quality by the prediction of springback angle. By predicting the springback angle, can reduce the angle by changing those parameters. Therefore, a good prediction method is required to predict the springback angle. One of those best prediction methods is artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the springback angle in sheet metal. So this paper aims to improve the prediction efficiency in the ANN approach by integrating Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Algorithm. Thus, by novel PSO algorithm for the ANN training, the springback angle can be predicted in an efficient way. The proposed technique is compared with the experimental results and the conventional prediction techniques such as ANN and Genetic algorithm based ANN.
Keywords: Sheet metal forming; Spring back effect; Artificial neural network; Particle Swarm Optimization.
Computational analysis of three blade vertical axis wind turbine
by Kalakanda Alfred Sunny, Pradeep Kumar, Nallapaneni Manoj Kumar, Priscilla S
Abstract: This paper discusses the airfoil section and the performance of 3 blade vertical axis wind turbine. For this purpose, 2D computational flow analysis is carried out for different rotational speeds of the blades in a plane normal to wind turbine axis. It is implied that turbine blades have infinite aspect ratio. The selection is done based on the lift and drags generated by the various NACA series airfoil (NACA 0012, NACA 0015, NACA 0018, and NACA 0021) at the different angle of attacks. During the comparison study, the NACA 0015 airfoil is found to be most suitable one for the vertical axis wind turbine. The created geometry has meshed with triangular mesh and CFD simulation is carried out. The computational analysis is performed at various speeds of VAWT blade rotation where the position of an airfoil is made with respect to the wind. Torques generated at different blade positions in a VAWT and the forces by the turbine over one full complete cycle is studied. Computational analysis of the designed VAWT depicts that the design is acceptable.
Keywords: Wind turbines; vertical axis wind turbine; 3-blade VAWT; NACA airfoil; unsteady flow; CFD; tangential forces; torque.
TAGUCHI ANALYSIS OF TOOL WEAR AND DELAMINATION IN MILLING OF GFRP COMPOSITE USING COATED K10 END MILL
by Praveen Raj Perumal
Abstract: Modern composite materials constitute a significant proportion of the engineered materials market ranging from everyday products to sophisticated niche applications. While composites have already proven their worth as weight saving materials, the current challenge is to make them machinable with minimum tool wear.In this study an attempt has been made to fabricate Glass fiber reinforced composites using hand molding techniques and test its machinability based on delamination and tool wear using Ti-Nimate Coated Carbide and Ti-Carbonitride K10 end mill.. The experiment was conducted in Vertical Machining Centre using Taguchi L8 orthogonal array. The test results showed that Ti-Carbonitride causes less damage to material during milling of GFRP ,where as Ti-Nimate Coated Carbide has less tool wear at high speed, feed and depth of cut.
Keywords: GFRP; Composite Milling; Delamination; Tool wear ,Solid Carbide,Tipped Carbide.
EXPERIMENTING WITH RUNTIME AND ENERGY TRADEOFFS IN HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING
by G. Uma Maheswari, S. Subha
Abstract: In a given organization or society, energy dependence increases rapidly due to shipping, transportation, and even food production. This dependency generally results in high costs and pollution, which threatens to disrupt our ecosystem. At this time, the earth is rapidly approaching a point of no return that requires international cooperation. In the following decade, reliance on effective energy-computing designs will become imperative, as power and cooling begin to cause restrictions on microchip clock speeds. Therefore, personal computer organizations are fast expanding on-chip parallelism to expedite execution. Combined operations are the most fundamental part of a transmission in shared and distributed parallel applications. In this paper, the tradeoffs between energy, memory, and runtime of various algorithms that accomplish such operations are investigated. The influence of aggregate transmissions on the execution of parallel calculation, specifically, is shown. A nondirect association with execution seen in the energy required is also presented. The best streamlining between runtime, energy, and memory tradeoff is demonstrated and a better result in the energy-effective execution of calculations is displayed.
Keywords: parallel programs; performance; energy-efficient; multicore processors.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Kalina Cycle Configurations for Utilisation of Geothermal Energy
by Kolar Deepak, A. V. S. S. K. S. Gupta
Abstract: Numerical study of Kalina cycle based power generating systems has been presented to utilise low temperature geothermal heat source. Computer codes have been developed in MATLAB to evaluate the thermal properties of working fluid. The performance of systems has been analysed considering the operating parameters that suit Indian climatic conditions. Parametric analyses of the Kalina cycle configurations have been presented showing the effect of key parameters on system performance. The efficiency of low temperature Kalina cycle system is noted to be 12.95% operating at 145 oC. The cycle efficiency has improved by 2% with the incorporation of an auxiliary superheater in the system. The incorporation of an auxiliary separator increases NH3 concentration in the vapour mixture and enables operation of the system at reduced pressure. Further, a combined system has been designed that produces electricity and cooling effect simultaneously. The combined cycle shows gain in thermal efficiency by 6%.
Keywords: ammonia-water based power cycle; combined power and refrigeration; exergy analysis; geothermal energy; Kalina cycle configuration; low temperature heat utilisation.
Free Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composite Timoshenko Beam
by Soham Khilari, Rudra Sanvordekar, Samarth Kochar, Benedict Thomas
Abstract: The paper deals with the free vibrational analysis of nano-composite beams. The nano-composite beams are a combination of SWCNT (Single walled carbon nano-tubes) as reinforcement fiber and are dispersed in the epoxy matrix. Material properties of the resulting nano-composite material are extracted using the Timoshenko beam theory. FEM is employed to solve the governing equations of motion. The effect of various parameters such as boundary conditions, CNT volume fraction, slenderness ratio and the distribution of nano-material on the natural frequency of the composite structure are studied and presented. The obtained results reveal that CNT volume fraction and distribution have substantial effect on the properties of the nano-composite beam.
Keywords: Carbon nano-tube; Mori–Tanaka approach; Timoshenko beam; Finite element; free vibration and buckling analysis.
Special Issue on: ICESW2017 Advances in Engineering Science for a Sustainable World
Abrasion wear of cutting tool developed from recycled steel using palm kernel shell as carbon additive.
by ADENIRAN AFOLALU, Abiodun Abioye, Joseph Idirisu, Imhade Okokpujie, Omolayo Ikumapayi
Abstract: The demand for more efficient cutting tool increases continuously with technology. Most of the cutting tools in use are imported and the cost of replacement is high, hence there is need to develop them locally. Recycled medium carbon steels (scrapped crankshaft and connecting rod) of C-0.45% are available locally in adequate quantity. This research work studied the abrasion wear of cutting tools developed from recycled steel using palm kernel shell as carbon additive. The chemical composition of the charged materials was analyzed using UV-VIS spectrometer before and after melting. Alloy additives were added in order to meet the carbon and other elements content of High Speed Steel materials. It was first carburized in a muffle treatment furnace at temperature and time ranges from 800 to 950oC and 60 to 120 minutes. The toughness, surface and core hardness were carried out on all the samples including the control sample using impact tester and software driven optical microscope respectively. Better toughness, surface and core hardness of 24.0 J/cm2, 76.8 and 47.9 HR while the control sample has 17 J/cm2, 76.3 and 46.1 HR. It was observed that the tool cut the work piece (low and medium carbon steel) easily on a lathe machine with best minimum length of cut 50 mm for time of cut 1.19 and 2.02 minutes mm. It can be concluded that the developed cutting tool showed significant performances during machining.
Keywords: Cutting Tools; Wear; Palm Kernel Shell; Carbon Additives; Steel.