Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal (7 papers in press)
Energy-Driven Refurbishment of Existing Buildings: Review and a Solution Framework
by Issam Srour, Maggie Khaddaj, Mario Saab
Abstract: Population growth, rapid economic development, and urbanization have increased the demand for energy worldwide leading to increased levels of CO2 emissions, and, consequently, contributing to global warming. More than 40 percent of this energy is consumed in buildings. Assessing energy performance of existing buildings with the goal of determining an optimal rehabilitation strategy offers a chance to reduce the rising demands for energy. Several studies have advocated and demonstrated the energy savings from energy-driven renovations of existing commercial and residential buildings. This paper builds on these studies by developing a framework for completing renovation projects of existing buildings. The theoretical framework is generic in nature and can be applied to any facility that is looking for ways to enhance its energy efficiency. Implementing the framework is expected to lead to significant savings in energy consumption, resulting in both economic and environmental benefits.
Keywords: energy; refurbishment; existing buildings; BIM; building information modelling; sustainability; energy performance; energy consumption.
Environmental and economical study for a prospective ethanol industry in Fiji
by Vineet Vishal Chandra
Abstract: The study was performed to study the effect of producing ethanol from molasses or sugarcane juice and blend with gasoline and produce E10 fuel for the Fijian car fleet. Such a strategy would reduce imports of gasoline and achieve significant reductions in national carbon dioxide emissions. Two cases were developed to assess the economic and environmental impacts of producing ethanol from molasses and sugarcane juice in Fiji and blending with imported motor spirit (to produce E10) was found to offer many benefits. In doing so, Fiji can add approximately FJ$ 7.2 million and save 22,730 tCO2 emissions annually and provide employment to many. The continuous increase in the importation of motor spirit demands the biofuel policy to be reviewed to encourage (E10) blending locally. Conversion of sugarcane juice to ethanol directly could sustain the current income generated from sugar and molasses exported. This sounds to be future solution to sustain the industry after the end of EU sugar quota and if the sugar price offered thereafter are not profitable.
Keywords: Sugarcane; molasses; ethanol fuel; emissions; mitigation; Fiji.
The diffusion of green innovation technology in the construction industry - European Passive House knowledge transfer to China
by Fawzi Halila, Joakim Tell, Maya Hoveskog, Qi Lu
Abstract: The booming Chinese construction market has created both economic growth and environmental problems. Some 65 000 buildings in Europe have been constructed in accordance with the voluntary construction standard called Passive House that aims for energy efficiency. In China, however, by 2015, only twenty such projects were planned and only two Passive House projects were completed. In this paper we identify and describe the barriers to the diffusion and adoption of Passive House construction in China. We review the relevant literature (Chinese and Western) and conduct two case studies of Passive House construction in China. Two broad groups of barriers the bounded rationality of construction developers/managers and the high transaction costs of green innovation are found to be most responsible for the slow diffusion and adoption of the Passive House concept in China. Unless these barriers are overcome, prospects for the advance of green technology in the Chinese construction market are unfavourable.
Keywords: innovation; barriers; bounded rationality; transaction costs; Passive House; construction industry; China; technical risk.
Harvesting Mechanical Torque and Electrical Power in a Micro-Hydro Power System: Effect of Multiplier Gear Train
by Ebenezer Ige
Abstract: Low hydraulic head has been attributed as the limiting challenge to hydropower generation in many rural settlements situated to natural water bodies. This study presented speed boosting innovation (multiplier) system designed and constructed to compensate for the low head. Pelton turbine and artificial water-body with 3m head was constructed for the experimental rig set-up. Initial speed of the turbine, torque and voltage generated at multiplier gear-train ratios of 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10. Average speed, torque and voltages of different multiplier ratios showed
536.25 rpm, 23Ncm, 0.05V; 643.75rpm, 63Ncm, 0.11V; 751.25rpm, 103Ncm, 0.16V; 1251.9rpm, 183Ncm, 0.28V for the respective gear-train ratios. Speed of the turbine shaft without and with multiplier was 200rpm and 1253rpm respectively with efficiency of 63%. The shaft-torque increased with increasing gear-train ratio while output-voltage increased with increased speed. Conclusively, gear-train could be applied to boast torque and power harvesting for mechanization of minimum-sized agricultural machineries.
Keywords: Voltage generation; Renewable Energy; Multiplier System; Rural development.
LEVEL OF LEAN PRACTICES AMONG LARGE SCALE MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA
by Tunde Ogedengbe, Taiwo Abioye, Ridwan Apalowo
Abstract: This paper investigated the level of lean manufacturing (LM) practice among large scale engineering companies in the South West region of Nigeria. Data for the study were collected using questionnaire administered to the respondents and backed up with personal interview where it was considered necessary. Twenty-four randomly selected industries and thirty-nine respondents responses were analysed. The result of the analysis revealed that the degree of LM practice is low but the level of understanding of lean related terms is relatively high. The analysis shows that most of the industries are low implementers of lean manufacturing. Also, the obstacles to the implementation of LM practice were identified. Based on the respondents observations, lack of support from top management, employee resistance to change and ignorance of LM benefits are identified as main obstacles. More effort should be geared towards educating Nigerian manufacturers about the concept and benefits of LM to their organisations.
Keywords: Lean manufacturing; Implementation; Large scale; Nigeria; Engineering.
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PRODUCTION and CHARACTERIZATION of BIOCHAR from TEA WASTE and ITs NICKEL REMOVAL CAPACITY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
by Gökçen Akgül, Ayten Ates, Gökhan Yaşar, Hakan Hatipoğlu
Abstract: Biochar, a carbon-rich solid product of slow pyrolysis of biomass, has gained considerable interest due to its application in the various aims. Investigating of adsorption properties of biochar for removing pollutants from waste water is among current research areas. The objective of this study is to obtain biochar from industrial tea waste, characterize it in detail and determine biochars heavy metal adsorption potential to Ni(II) ions. Biochar prepared at 300 and 400
Keywords: biochar; tea waste; Ni; adsorption.
GREEN BUILDING RATING SYSTEMS AS A DESIGN TARGET FOR PUBLIC BUILDINGS CASE STUDY ANALYSIS
by Mady Mohamed
Abstract: Building performance and occupants comfort lie at the core of Building design targets. In previous researches (Mohamed and Gado 2006; Mohamed 2009; Mohamed 2013), the author of the current research had set a detailed methodology to aid the integration of the principles of the Green Architecture in the early stages of design. The outputs of these researches have been employed in several real life building projects on the regional level. The current research presents one of these projects as a case study analysis. The adopted methodology employs the environmental assessor Leadership for Environmental and Energy Design (LEED) to measure the compatibility of the design with principles of sustainability. Also, several environmental software and tools (Autodesk Ecotect, HTB2, and Weather Tool, the Psychometric Chart, Mahoney Tables, the Stereograph Diagram and the Solar Tool) have been used in order to analyse the context and quantify the effectiveness of proposed passive strategies and measures on the environmental performance of the case study. By such, design proposals in the early stages of design; (I.e. design concept, the orientation of buildings, using passive strategies and techniques, fa
Keywords: Rating Systems; Green Architecture; LEED; Autodesk Ecotect; Weather Tool; Sustainability.