Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal (22 papers in press)
Towards Sustainable Automobiles-Advancements and Challenges
by Zaid Ulllah Baba, Wani Khalid Shafi, Mir Irfan Ul Haq, Ankush Raina
Abstract: The growing energy demands and the negative ecological impact of the industrialization has led to increased focus towards sustainability. This paper presents different strategies being adopted to mitigate the environmental degradation caused due to automotive sector. A systematic approach is adopted to present all the environmental conscious technologies in vogue in the automotive sector. The paper focuses on the production processes adopted, materials used, fuels, recyclability issues and the environmental hazard mitigation during the operation of the automobiles. An overview of the potential of natural fiber reinforced composites in the automotive sector is also included. Moreover, recent advances in automobile tribology, fuel efficient engines, hybrid electric cars and technologies which aid in the treatment of the exhaust gases are also discussed. The paper also presents the scope of vegetable oils as bio-fuels and their use as sustainable lubricants. A summary of the global market trends with regard to use of greener vehicle alternatives is also provided in this work.
Keywords: Design; Automobiles; Environment; Lightweight Materials; Tribology; Engine Emissions.
The impact of industrial practice on carbon emissions in the BRICS: A panel quantile regression analysis
by Fortune Ganda
Abstract: Considering the heterogeneous effect of industrial practice on carbon emissions in carbon emitting countries is imperative in relation to devising effectual policies that address natural environmental concerns. More so, industrial practice appears to be a major contributor of emissions and exercises a significant role in global warming and climate change. This study suggests a panel quantile regression approach to determine the effect of industrial practice on carbon emissions in the BRICS based on data from 1992 to 2014. The empirical findings demonstrate that industrial practice shows varied significant negative (10th and 20th quantile) and positive (30th, 40th and 50th) links respectively with carbon emissions in the lower carbon emitting countries. On the other hand, that relationship was significantly positive for higher emission countries. Secondly, an inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznet Curve (EKC) involving industrial practice and carbon emissions was overwhelmingly found to exist in both lower and higher carbon emitting countries. As well, industrial practice was ascertained to have both direct and indirect effects (which was positive in most cases) through its role on per capita income. The overall analysis indicates that current industrial practices within BRICS have the potential to continue causing more environmental damage.
Keywords: Industrial practice; Carbon emissions; Environmental Kuznet Curve; BRICS; Panel quantile regression.
Aqua-Ammonia based Thermally Activated Combined Power and Cooling System
by Kolar Deepak
Abstract: The use of aqua-ammonia based power generating system is a promising way to utilize low temperature heat sources originating either from a renewable energy resource or industrial process waste heat up to a temperature of 150 oC. A thermally activated combined power and cooling system to produce electricity and refrigeration effect simultaneously has been modelled and analysed. The proposed system is a Kalina cycle based power generating system that utilizes aqua-ammonia as working fluid. Refrigeration effect is produced by the working fluid from the turbine exit. The combined system produces mechanical power and as well as cooling effect simultaneously. A simulation study has been conducted to analyse the performance of the proposed system and to develop the optimum operating parameters. Result shows thermal efficiency of 18.20% operating with the source fluid temperature at 135 oC. This research work provides a new approach to produce cooling effect from low temperature heat sources.
Keywords: air conditioning and refrigeration; energy conversion; renewable energy; power and cooling combined cycle; energy efficiency; waste heat utilization.
AN EVALUATION OF CLASSROOM-ILLUMINATION: A CRITICAL-REQUIREMENT FOR EFFECTIVE DESIGNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF NATURALLY-ILLUMINATED SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
by Osagie IBHADODE, Oluseyi Olarenwaju AJAYI, Abiodun Ayodeji ABIOYE, Joseph ISMAILA
Abstract: In this research paper, an attempt was made to experimentally investigate the indoor lighting-levels (illuminances) of one hundred and eighty (180) classrooms in sixty (60) public [primary and secondary] schools located in all six (6) geopolitical zones of Nigeria, from October 2012 September 2015. Consequently, twelve (12) field-studies were periodically carried-out to determine the indoor illuminances of all 180 classrooms under three (3) different sky-conditions [Clear', Partly-clear' and Overcast'] using the Hagner digital lux-meter model EC1'. The empirical data of classroom illumination-levels obtained under different sky-conditions were collated, tabulated, graphically illustrated and analyzed. From the research findings, while the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on desks' tops near Windows exposed to direct Sunlight and/or higher illumination () ranged from , the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on desks tops near Windows exposed to indirect Sunlight and/or lower illumination () ranged from , the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on desks tops at Center of Classroom () ranged from , and then, the Mean Indoor illuminance for tasks on boards () ranged from . Thus, based on the global standard values recommended by the CIE-ISO, IESNA, and EN, for minimal and optimal lighting-levels for classroom-activities like reading on the blackboard (= 500lux) and writing, drawing & reading etc., on the desks (= 300lux) in educational environments; it is evidently clear that the illumination-levels in majority of all investigated classrooms in the selected Nigerian schools swing to either extreme of being excessively higher or incredibly lower than the above-recommended levels. Furthermore, the Sign Test' analyses showed that the four alternative hypotheses , , and are statistically-significant and should be acceptedas a clear indication of the dangers of excessive solar irradiation and/or hazardously inadequate illumination in the classrooms of the investigated public [primary and secondary] schools in Nigeria. Hence, it is recommended that the Nigerian government should urgently address these issues by adopting the understated remedial/control measures.
Keywords: illuminance; solar irradiation; classroom lighting; naturally illuminated schools; sky condition.
Special Issue on: TMREES Technological Innovation for Sustainable Development
The Effects of Copper Additives on the Glass transition temperature and Hardness for Epoxy Resin
by Kareem Jasim, Rihab Fadhil, Auday Shaban, Harith Jaafar, Bushra Maiyaly, Suad Aleabi, Ebtisam Salman
Abstract: Abstract: The polymeric composites material considered as one of the most isolated materials, but they have a good mechanical flexibility. The main idea of modifying these materials to be one of the applicable materials in environmental aspects. Reducing the temperature inside buildings by coating them with the modified materials will give very good results in decreasing the electrical power used. In this study , polymeric composites material were prepared a by hand- layup technique from epoxy resin (EP) as a matrix and Copper (Cu) powder with average diameter (240.91 nm) as fillers with different weight percentage (5%, 15%,25%, 35%, and 45%) to resin. Glass transition temperature and Hardness testing were investigated. The results show the maximum Glass transition temperature (Tg) of (EP/Cu) composites were the value (58.949oC) at (65%EP+35%Cu). Increase hardness with Copper concentration increase, and it has maximum values of (83.9) for (55%EP+45%Cu). This composite can be used in the coating surfaces and floors to match the temperature of our country warm in summer.
Keywords: Copper,; Glass transition temperature,; Epoxy,; hardness.
Effect of V, in and Cu Doping on Properties of P- type ZnSe/Si Heterojunction Solar Cell
by Bushra Hussein, Iman Khudayer, Mohammed Hamid, Auday Shaban
Abstract: Abstract: The enhancement of ZnSe/Si Heterojunction by adding some elements (V, In and Cu) as impurities is the main goal, because they contributes the manufacturing of renewable energies equipments, such as solar cells. This paper describes the preparation of thin films ZnSe with V, In and Cu doped using thermal evaporation method with vacuum of 10-5 Torr. The thin film were obtained from this work could be applied in heterojunction solar cell because of several advantages including high absorption coefficient value and direct band gap. The samples prepared on a glass and n type -Si wafer substrate. These films have been annealed for one hour in 450K. X-ray diffraction XRD results indicated that ZnSe thin film possesses poly-crystalline structure after doping with preferential orientation (111) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to examine the surface morphology. Optical studies were done using UV-Visible spectroscopy and the band gap energy was found to decrease with doping. Hall measurements showed that all the films are p-type with high carriers concentration (3.26 x 1017 cm-3) in ZnSe:Cu thin film. The built in potential was determined from the CV measurements which revealed an abrupt junction for all heterojunction samples. The conversion efficiency calculated from dark and illuminated I-V characteristics of ZnSe/Si solar cell pure and doping. The chances for achieve type of doping can be improved by designing growth conditions that destabilize the formation of compensating centers, which is important for optical device applications, the effect of doping on main different factors such as open-circuit voltage , short-circuit current density, fill factor, photovoltaic conversion efficiency of ZnSe pure and doped. The results reveals high efficiency for ZnSe:Cu heterojunction solar cell.
Keywords: ZnSe:Cu heterojunction ; photovoltaic ; AFM ; conversion efficiency.
Energetic transition within thermal machines and co-generation: Effect of mass flux on Critical heat flux
by Mohamed Mebarkia, Messaoud Louafi, Zoubir Aoulmi
Abstract: Topics associated with the critical heat flux in industry sector are at the heart of the hot interesting issues on the global agenda. In this paper, we introduce a new method of energy analysis of heat transfer in new generation heat exchangers applicable to the innovative sector of energy recovery. A statistical analysis is performed to study the effect of mass flux on the critical heat flux of an evaporator boiler. Assessment of critical heat flux is essential for conception and safety analysis of numerous industrial thermal transfer machinery like boilers, heat exchangers, and heated pipes...etc. The aim of the present study is to provide insights into the effect of mass flux on the critical heat flux (CHF) when porous tubes are used. Independent sets of full 23 factorial designs with 3 central points were employed in case of porous coated tubes. Results revealed that the CHF could be influenced by some factors which were dominated in the studied conditions. More specifications of CHF and its relation with the input variables were detailed in this paper. Significance evaluation and testing of results revealed that CHF increases with the increase of mass flux for low L/D values in case of porous tubes.
Keywords: CHF (critical heat flux ); design of experiments; porous coated; Mass flux; round vertical Tubes; Ultra low consumption thermal machines; renewable energies; co-generation.
Hybrid control strategy for wind turbine system driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator
by Youssef Errami, Abdellatif Obbadi, Smail Sahnoun, Mohammed Ouassaid, Mohamed Maaroufi
Abstract: This paper investigates control algorithms for wind turbine systems driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). Direct Torque Control (DTC) method and Backstepping approach are used. Also, generator side and grid-side converter with filter are used as the interface between the wind turbine and grid. The generator side rectifier controls the velocity of the PMSG with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique. The grid-side converter is used to inject the extracted power into the electrical network and to sustain the DC-bus voltage. Lyapunov stability theory is employed to found the conditions for the existence of the Backstepping approach. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink verify the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.
Keywords: Variable speed-wind energy system; Permanent magnet synchronous generator; Maximum power point tracking; Direct torque control; Backstepping; Lyapunov theory; grid.
Effects of different Charging and Discharging Strategies of Electric Vehicles under various Pricing Policies in a Smart Microgrid
by Georgios Vokas, Anestis Anastasiadis, Georgios Kondylis, Apostolos Polyzakis
Abstract: Over the recent years, more and more policies that encourage the development and proliferation of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) are being followed. EVs present the advantage of battery use; therefore, they constitute emission-free mobility. The large penetration of electrical vehicles is expected to have multiple advantages for both the electricity grid and the Distribution System Operator (DSO), as well as the owner. Moreover, it has the ability to contribute to further increase of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). These advantages originate from the double role of the electrical vehicles battery. Thus, it may constitute firstly a controllable load that we are able to optimally control at convenient time frames and secondly, it may store and inject energy, acting as a storage device. Nowadays, a significant number of EVs use power grids around the world to charge and discharge their batteries. The effects of the incorporation of EVs have to be taken into consideration with care, since it may result in unfeasible operations for the grids (especially for the Smart Microgrids). Smart Microgrids (SMs) seem to be the best solution for the management of modern Low Voltage (LV) grids with Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Furthermore, when the SMs operation is focused on the economic optimization of its DER, it becomes crucial to know for example where and how many EVs could connect, when it would be better to connect and under what rules they should charge/discharge and which is the best charging technology. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of different EVs charging and discharging strategies in a SM. With EVs and absence of DERs and therefore satisfaction of the full load from the upstream network, is considered as the base case. For each scenario, six different charging technologies are examined (Dump Charging, Dual Tariff Charging, Smart Charging, Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G), Dump Charging-Dual Connection, Vehicle To Grid-Dual Connection). In addition, three different pricing policies based on System Marginal Price (SMP) are considered. All different cases are compared between them to determine which one is the most advantageous in terms of operational cost. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to determine how the variation of some parameters such as batteries size, EVs number, charging and discharging limits etc. changes the results. All data are taken from Hellenic Distribution/Transmission System Operators and Hellenic Operator of Electricity Market. Matlab software is used for all cases of studies.
Keywords: Smart Microgrid; Electric Vehicles; Batteries; Pricing Policies; DER; System Marginal Price; Charging techniques.
Evaluation, Comparison and Selection of Photovoltaic Systems
by Olga Shepovalova
Abstract: A general method of comparison, evaluation and selection of photovoltaic (PV) systems of the same type is presented. The method is based on provided or inferred from specifications systems technical parameters. Stand-alone and grid backed up (with no feed to the utilities) PV systems have been considered. General requirements for PV system selection and evaluation ensuring required system operability and operational efficiency have been presented. Generic principles of determination and evaluation of PV systems characteristics have been considered. The described method is mainly targeting at PV engineers and customers considering purchasing of PV systems. It can be also applied to PV projects evaluation, used for feasibility studies or bidding on PV systems, etc.
Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) systems; comparison; evaluation and selection; off-grid PV systems; stand-alone PV systems; grid backed up PV systems; sustainable development; general requirements; selection criterions; significant output parameters; characteristic days.
Special Issue on: Advancements in Renewable Energy
Performance, Emission, and Combustion analysis of diesel engine fuelled with Emulsified biodiesel
by Radha Krishna Gopidesi, Premkartikkumar SR
Abstract: The present investigation is mainly focused on the reduction of NOX emissions from the diesel engine. In this experimental work the diesel engine has initially run by diesel alone, secondly 10% cottonseed methyl ester biodiesel (B10) and finally emulsion of 10% water with B10 (WiB10E) in combination. The emulsified biodiesel WiB10E shows the maximum reduction of NOX emissions in comparison with the pure diesel and B10 fuel operations. Also due to the cooling effect provided by the water in the combustion chamber, the WiB10E shows the slight increase of the HC and CO emissions. Since WiB10E fuel has boiling point difference, it leads to secondary atomization. The WiB10E has shown the higher cylinder pressure of 65.92 bars at a crank angle of 366
Keywords: biodiesel; combustion; emissions; emulsion; performance; Emulsified Biodiesel.
Improving the performance and emission of CI engine using bio-fuel (botricoccus)
by Kuberan Jayaraman, N.ALAGUMURTHI Alagumurthi
Abstract: In this modern world the technology is developing day by day and hence the demand on fossil fuels and power keeps on increasing. Since the demand is very high, it is impossible to power up the entire world using petrol and diesel. The depletion of fossil fuels and the worst impact on environmental pollution have led to the search for renewable clean energies. Micro algae are presently the favourable source of biofuels for the substitution of fossil fuels. The micro algae oil is used as the bio fuel in the direct injection (DI) diesel engine. There are different species of micro algae among which the bio-oil extracted from the botricoccus sp algae has high lipid content, this is possible by using pyrolysis method. The 90% diesel is blended with 10% Botricoccus algae oil and the test was carried out to analyze the effect of diesel-biofuel on the engine performance, emission and properties such as specific fuel consumption, Brake thermal efficiency, Calorific value, CO, NOx, and HC. The experiment was conducted on a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine with diesel and bio-fuel blend at varying loads. The performance and emission results of the blended bio- fuel and diesel were compared, and the performance results, shows the bio-fuel blend is almost closer to the diesel, and the bio-fuel gives less emission than the diesel
Keywords: Botricoccus algae; Pyrolysis; Diesel; Bio-fuel; and Diesel Engine.
Improvement in Wind Energy Production through Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades Using Vibration Signatures and ARMA Features: A Data-Driven Approach
by Joshuva A, Sugumaran Vaithiyanathan
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to improve the wind energy productivity by implementing the condition monitoring technique for wind turbine blades through vibration source. The fault detection and the isolation of the fault which affects the wind energy productivity were carried using machine learning algorithms. In this study, a three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine was chosen and the faults like blade bend, blade cracks, hub-blade loose connection, blade erosion and pitch angle twist were considered as these are the faults which affect the turbine blade. Initially, vibration sources were collected from the wind turbine using piezoelectric accelerometer and from that vibration source; needed features are extracted using ARMA through MATLAB. From the extracted feature, the dominating feature is selected using J48 decision tree algorithm and with the selected features, fault classification has been carried out. The fault classifications were carried out using Bayesian, Function and Lazy classifiers.
Keywords: Condition monitoring; wind turbine blade; ARMA features; machine learning; vibration signals.
Selection of a Meta Classifier-Data Model for Classifying Wind Turbine Blade Fault Conditions Using Histogram Features and Vibration Signals: A Data-Mining Study
by Sugumaran Vaithiyanathan, Joshuva A
Abstract: The modern developments in wind turbine fault diagnosis and condition monitoring are urged in recent times. This paper aims to identify different types of faults which occur on wind turbine blade as they are prone to vibration stress due to environmental and weather condition. The fault diagnosis problem was carried out using machine learning approach. This study was carried out using vibration sources which has been acquired from good and other fault condition blades using data acquisition system. From the recorded signals, histogram features were extracted and classified using Meta classifiers. From the classifiers, a better data-model is suggested for a multi-class problem in wind turbine blade fault diagnosis.
Keywords: Condition monitoring; wind turbine blade; histogram features; machine learning; Meta classifiers; vibration signals.
Consequences of exhaust gas temperature on emissions in CI engine fueled with calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester blends with diesel
by L. Saravana Kumar, B.R. Ramesh Bapu, R. Prakash
Abstract: In todays world, the applications of diesel engines are gradually increased in the area of agricultural and especially in commercial vehicle sectors. The present scenario emphasizes necessarily for the development of better techniques to improve the efficiency of the diesel engine and also the adverse effect of fossil fuels on the environment. The alternate solutions to avoid such problem, use of biofuel for diesel engines, which can be derived from plant oils. Biofuel has shown a promising alternative to fossil fuels and the application of newer technology for the production of biodiesel is highly related to energy demands. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consequence of biodiesel blends with diesel on exhaust gas temperature and emission characteristics. The exhaust gas temperatures were measured for the various loads for the given blends to measure the NOx emissions. In this work, the exhaust emissions and exhaust gas temperatures were measured in a 4 stroke, single cylinder, and constant speed diesel engine fueled with Calophyllum Inophyllum Methyl Ester (CIME) and its blends with diesel. The different blends such as B20, B40, B60, B80 of CIME blends with diesel and B100 (CIME) and diesel (100%) were used for this test run. The test results of different blends were compared with diesel fuel and presented in this paper.
Keywords: Calophyllum Inophyllum Methyl Ester; Biodiesel; exhaust gas temperature; NOx; CO; HC; smoke; emission;.
Influence of tilt angle on energy yields and performance ratios of grid connected photovoltaic generators in Southeast Asia
by Nallapaneni Manoj Kumar, Farah Shabila Dinniyah
Abstract: This study aims to analyze the influence of tilt angle on energy yields and performance ratio of photovoltaic (PV) systems with three PV technologies over the selected cities in Southeast Asia. 10 kWp grid connected PV generator is proposed with net-metering option in Jakarta, Jayapura, Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, and Bangkok. Simulation is carried for three different PV technologies positioned at tilt angle (0
Keywords: Solar energy; Photovoltaics; PV technologies; Si-mono; Si-poly; Si-amorph; Orientation; Tilt angle; Performance ratio; Energy performance; Grid connected photovoltaics; PV performance in Southeast Asia.
Experimental Investigation on a Coconut Coir Packed Humidifier for a Solar Desalination Plant
by Chiranjeevi Chalasani
Abstract: Desalination by humidification dehumidification processes is a promising simple, cost effective and low maintenance concept. It works on the principle of air humidification at high temperature and dehumidification at relatively low temperatures. The present study is for evaluating the performance of the humidifier with coconut coir as packing material used for air humidification in the solar humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination plant. Experiments were carried out on the humidifier packing for different flow rates of water and its temperature. Humidifier range, effectiveness and efficiency, evaporation rate of water, heat and mass transfer rates are studied by experimentally for different flow rates of hot water and its temperature. The hot water flow rate is varied from 125 to 225 LPH with an increment of 25 LPH and water temperature from 38 to 54
Keywords: air; humidification; packing material; effectiveness; desalination; range.
Special Issue on: Biosphere Management
The influence of ZnO nanoparticles amount on the optimization of photo degradation of methyl orange using decorated MWCNTs
by Sedigheh Abbasi, Mehri-Saddat Ekrami-Kakhki, Mostafa Tahari
Abstract: In the current study, we want to optimize the removal efficiency of methyl orange using decorated MWCNTs with different amount of ZnO nanoparticles. For this purpose, we investigate the influence of several parameters such as UV irradiation time, pH of solution and weight fraction of photocatalysts on the removal efficiency using 2-level factorial design. The statistical analysis results using Half-normal plot demonstrate that all of the main factors have a significant effect on the removal efficiency of pollutant. Meanwhile, the results of t test and pareto charts reveal that UV irradiation time and weight fraction have positive effect on the responses. However, the influence of pH on the removal efficiency of methyl orange is negative. The results of the optimization process show that for maximizing the removal efficiency of pollutant, the optimal level of irradiation time, pH and weight fraction should set to 25 min, 4 and 0.5 %wt, respectively.
Keywords: decorated MWCNTs; ZnO nanoparticles; removal efficiency; optimization; Factorial design.
Urban Environments Sustainable Development through Low Impact Approaches
by Mahdi Montazerolhodjah
Abstract: The rapid rate of urbanization and cities growth is putting pressure on ecological condition and ecosystems in cities and their surrounding area. This procedure caused to producing changes on hydrological processes and specially increasing of storm-generated flows and water pollutants. Traditional urban catchment management methods has concentrate on the hydrologic infrastructures to decrease the risks of flooding and just resolve basic water quality problems. This methods has overlooked many opportunities to perform water-sensitive urban development and public space design strategies, to decrease impacts on the natural water cycle and help to store and reuse water and develop natural ecosystems within urban areas. During recent years, the low impact approaches in urban development have been recommended as an alternative to these traditional stormwater management. The main objective of this paper is to define what low impact approaches such as LID and LIUDD are and what they are not, by defining principles and practices and to show the relationship between the principles and implementation actions. This paper reviews the literature on low impact approaches like LID and LIUDD and presents some relevant designing tools and processes that can be used by urban planners and designers in the urban development plans.
Keywords: Urban environment; urban sustainable development; runoff; stormwater; LID; LIUDD.
System Dynamics Approach for the Relationship between Different Types of Hospitals and Hospital Waste Management (Case Study: Tabriz)
by Seyed Mehdi Musavi, Reza Khosropour, Seyed Abolfazl Musavi, Alimohammad Ahmadvand
Abstract: Hospital is the centre of providing different health services to society and its activities may include nutrition therapy, rehabilitation prevention and health education promotion. During performing activities, the hospital may produce the waste of medical and non-medical activities. Health waste management is similar to other waste management systems and includes production, separation, gathering, storing, purification and final disposal.
If hospital waste is not managed correctly, it will be converted to one of the major factors of infectious diseases in the world, regarded as a serious health problem. This will increase the need for hospital waste management. Health and therapy waste management is related to health and safety risks of transportation of produced waste from health centres. Our long-term objective was to develop a planning and selection system supporting the future waste disposal capacity. The present research included using a system dynamics model by means of Vensim software for prediction of the produced waste in health waste system in different hospitals.
Keywords: Hospital Waste Management; Hospital Types; System Dynamics; Environment.
Optimum Design of Water-based Drilling Fluid in Shale Formations in Khangiran Oilfields
by Reza Ghamarpoor, Arash Ebrahimabadi
Abstract: In this study, using the results of performed shale formation Characterizatins and the history of drilling in Iranian oil fields, an environmentally friendly water based drilling fluid is designed to replace the oil based drilling fluids. This drilling fluid has desirable properties in drilling water sensitive formations. New drilling fluid additives including shale inhibitors, new polymers and sized solid particles have been used to prepare this new drilling fluid. The most important properties of this new drilling fluid are controlling the mud filtrate and pressure invasion to the formation, clay mineral alteration and activity reduction, improvement of the integrity of drilling cuttings, reduction in formation damage, stability at high temperatures, stability in acidity changes and the compatibility by drilling fluids dilution during drilling operation. The lubricity and shale cuttings recovery of this new drilling fluid are better than those of other similar water based drilling fluids. Replacing this drilling fluid by oil based drilling fluids in drilling industry will be a great means to protect the environment and drilling personnel in addition to being economically advantageous.
Keywords: Drilling; Shale; Borehole Instability; Water Based Drilling Fluid; Oil Based Drilling Fluid; Polymer; Glycol.
Recovering lead, plastic and sulfuric acid from automobile used batteries by mathematical Reverse logistics network modeling
by Najme Roghani Langarudi, ABDOLHOSSEIN SADRNIA, Amirreza Payandeh Sani
Abstract: Lead is one of the important heavy metals and its accumulation in environment results in destructive effects. Among the lead-based products, automobile battery has special importance owing to the growth of automobile manufacturing industry. In the past decade, reverse logistics as the main infrastructure for the collection and recycling of products at the end of its life cycle, has been the interest of green industry administrators. This study was conducted to design a reverse logistics network to recycle automobile used batteries and their contents like lead, scrap plastic, and sulfuric acid. This logistic network is a five layers frame work that consists of collection, remanufacturing, repair, recycling, and disposal of used batteries with two objective functions (cost and CO2 emissions minimization), modelled using mixed-integer linear programming. In order to show the practicability of the presented model, numerical example using General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) software was applied.
Keywords: reverse logistics; industrial ecology; automobile battery recycling; recovering battery; end of life cycle.