Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal (16 papers in press)
IMPORTANCE OF AGAVE SALMIANA METABOLISM IN TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS TO MEZCAL AGROINDUSTRY SUSTAINABILITY
by Christian Michel-Cuello, Noé Aguilar-Rivera, Lucía Gabriela García-Pedraza
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify non-structural carbohydrates in raw and hydrolysates juices, in stem and leaf that increase the sugars use from the plant and are a materials source for the mezcal agroindustry. We worked with maguey plants (Agave salmiana) from three maturity stages. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for carbohydrates characterization was applied. The determinations confirmed the presence of significant proportions of fructose, glucose and sucrose, and a lesser xylose and maltose proportion. The differences in carbohydrates concentration depend of studied factors as part of the plant, maturity state and thermal treatment (raw or hydrolysates juices). Therefore, technological and innovative actions to present synergies are necessary, for this reason these treatments should be considered for better sugar content use and thus improve the use conditions that will maintain the environmental sustainability in the mezcal agroindustry development.
Keywords: Agave salmiana; carbohydrates; HPLC; mezcal; agroindustry development; environmental sustainability.
Environmental and Health Impact of Small Garages and Workshops: a Case Study Based on Sri Lanka
by S.W.S.B. Dasanayaka, R. PATHBERIYA
Abstract: This paper assesses the health and environmental impact of small informal businesses that are located in garages and workshops on the employees and the people who live in the vicinity of these establishments. Various key stakeholders and people living in the surrounding areas were interviewed and asked to complete a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was conducted in the Gampaha District, the second most populated district in Sri Lanka. A total of thirty-six small garages and workshops were randomly selected based on the population density of the area. A structured survey questionnaire was administered to obtain the data results of this research which showed that the use of personal safety equipment and standards were very poor. Results showed that a high percentage of environmental damage was due to waste generated by the industry. The soil, water, noise and air is being polluted by these small garages and workshops and as a result, the general public living in the vicinity are living with a great health risk. The findings and policies recommended in this study can be used as a guide to conduct similar types of studies in other parts of the world. This paper provides a review of the hazardous effects on the environment and the people surrounding it, in order to take the necessary precautions to bring down the levels of carcinogens in the small garages and work places, where individuals share space and work long hours.
Keywords: Health; Environmental; hazard; garages; informal sector; small workshops; Sri Lanka.
Special Issue on: Biosphere Management
The influence of ZnO nanoparticles amount on the optimization of photo degradation of methyl orange using decorated MWCNTs
by Sedigheh Abbasi, Mehri-Saddat Ekrami-Kakhki, Mostafa Tahari
Abstract: In the current study, we want to optimize the removal efficiency of methyl orange using decorated MWCNTs with different amount of ZnO nanoparticles. For this purpose, we investigate the influence of several parameters such as UV irradiation time, pH of solution and weight fraction of photocatalysts on the removal efficiency using 2-level factorial design. The statistical analysis results using Half-normal plot demonstrate that all of the main factors have a significant effect on the removal efficiency of pollutant. Meanwhile, the results of t test and pareto charts reveal that UV irradiation time and weight fraction have positive effect on the responses. However, the influence of pH on the removal efficiency of methyl orange is negative. The results of the optimization process show that for maximizing the removal efficiency of pollutant, the optimal level of irradiation time, pH and weight fraction should set to 25 min, 4 and 0.5 %wt, respectively.
Keywords: decorated MWCNTs; ZnO nanoparticles; removal efficiency; optimization; Factorial design.
Urban Environments Sustainable Development through Low Impact Approaches
by Mahdi Montazerolhodjah
Abstract: The rapid rate of urbanization and cities growth is putting pressure on ecological condition and ecosystems in cities and their surrounding area. This procedure caused to producing changes on hydrological processes and specially increasing of storm-generated flows and water pollutants. Traditional urban catchment management methods has concentrate on the hydrologic infrastructures to decrease the risks of flooding and just resolve basic water quality problems. This methods has overlooked many opportunities to perform water-sensitive urban development and public space design strategies, to decrease impacts on the natural water cycle and help to store and reuse water and develop natural ecosystems within urban areas. During recent years, the low impact approaches in urban development have been recommended as an alternative to these traditional stormwater management. The main objective of this paper is to define what low impact approaches such as LID and LIUDD are and what they are not, by defining principles and practices and to show the relationship between the principles and implementation actions. This paper reviews the literature on low impact approaches like LID and LIUDD and presents some relevant designing tools and processes that can be used by urban planners and designers in the urban development plans.
Keywords: Urban environment; urban sustainable development; runoff; stormwater; LID; LIUDD.
System Dynamics Approach for the Relationship between Different Types of Hospitals and Hospital Waste Management (Case Study: Tabriz)
by Seyed Mehdi Musavi, Reza Khosropour, Seyed Abolfazl Musavi, Alimohammad Ahmadvand
Abstract: Hospital is the centre of providing different health services to society and its activities may include nutrition therapy, rehabilitation prevention and health education promotion. During performing activities, the hospital may produce the waste of medical and non-medical activities. Health waste management is similar to other waste management systems and includes production, separation, gathering, storing, purification and final disposal.
If hospital waste is not managed correctly, it will be converted to one of the major factors of infectious diseases in the world, regarded as a serious health problem. This will increase the need for hospital waste management. Health and therapy waste management is related to health and safety risks of transportation of produced waste from health centres. Our long-term objective was to develop a planning and selection system supporting the future waste disposal capacity. The present research included using a system dynamics model by means of Vensim software for prediction of the produced waste in health waste system in different hospitals.
Keywords: Hospital Waste Management; Hospital Types; System Dynamics; Environment.
Optimum Design of Water-based Drilling Fluid in Shale Formations in Khangiran Oilfields
by Reza Ghamarpoor, Arash Ebrahimabadi
Abstract: In this study, using the results of performed shale formation Characterizatins and the history of drilling in Iranian oil fields, an environmentally friendly water based drilling fluid is designed to replace the oil based drilling fluids. This drilling fluid has desirable properties in drilling water sensitive formations. New drilling fluid additives including shale inhibitors, new polymers and sized solid particles have been used to prepare this new drilling fluid. The most important properties of this new drilling fluid are controlling the mud filtrate and pressure invasion to the formation, clay mineral alteration and activity reduction, improvement of the integrity of drilling cuttings, reduction in formation damage, stability at high temperatures, stability in acidity changes and the compatibility by drilling fluids dilution during drilling operation. The lubricity and shale cuttings recovery of this new drilling fluid are better than those of other similar water based drilling fluids. Replacing this drilling fluid by oil based drilling fluids in drilling industry will be a great means to protect the environment and drilling personnel in addition to being economically advantageous.
Keywords: Drilling; Shale; Borehole Instability; Water Based Drilling Fluid; Oil Based Drilling Fluid; Polymer; Glycol.
Special Issue on: Green and Material Processing Technologies for a Sustainable Environment
Investigation of combustion, performance and emission characters of Compression Ignition engine fuelled with diesel blends of Linseed and Cottonseed oil
by Saravanan Supramani
Abstract: The recent trend in increase in number of automotive vehicles around the world clearly shows that people depend on energy derived from fossil fuel for transportation. People prefer to use fossil fuel instead of bio based renewal energy resources due to its availability. Increasing environmental pollution and reducing fossil fuel reserves are the twin crisis that force the automotive industry today to develop bio based sustainable alternative fuel with properties comparable to that of petroleum based fuels. Most of the biodiesels are considered to be good alternatives to diesel as their properties are close to that of diesel and are capable of reducing the net CO2 emission apart from unburned hydrocarbon and NOX emissions. This paper aims to study the performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with blends of diesel, biodiesel derived from linseed oil and cottonseed oil as fuel. Four samples namely, neat diesel, 5% biodiesel blended with diesel, 10% biodiesel blended with diesel and 15% biodiesel blended with diesel are referred as sample 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Experiments were conducted by changing the blend proportions of biodiesel at different engine loads. Marginal difference in engine performance was observed when the engine was operated with sample 1. Significant increase in smoke emission by 24% and 47% was observed with sample 3 and 4 when compared sample 1. On average, reduction in unburned hydrocarbon emission by 52% and 37% was achieved with sample 3 and 2 when compared to sample 1. When compared to sample 1, NOx emission was observed to be reduced by 24 % when the engine was operated with sample 4.
Keywords: Biodiesel; Transesterification; Linseed oil; Cottonseed oil; Performance; Emission.
Preparation of Co3O4 -H2O nanofluid and application to CR-60 Concentrating Solar Collector
by Sekhar Tvr
Abstract: Co3O4-H2O solution along with surfactant is subjected to magnetic stirring and ultra-sonication at 60oC.The obtained homogenous dispersant was divided into four samples of varying volume fractions 0.1vol% to 0.4vol%.Each sample was filled in a metered tank and recirculated in a closed loop solar thermal collector. The setup was subjected to incident solar flux with an average value of 650W/m2.At a constant fluid flow of 4LPM, the heat transfer coefficient was evaluated for different volume fractions of nanofluid. The obtained values are compared with the values for water as the working fluid.It was observed that at 0.4vol% of nanofluid and 60oC fluid temperature, the heat transfer coefficient increased by 8% when compared to the values for water.
Keywords: Cobalt oxide; CR 60; Nanofluid; Solar thermal.
Modeling and Analysis of Energy Conservation in Turning of Lead Free- Micro Alloyed Steel using D-Optimal Design
by MUNIRAJ Subramaniyam, Nambi Muthukrishnan
Abstract: This article deals the power consumption in turning of Lead free-micro alloyd steel eco friendly by comparison on energy conservation in turning of lead free micro alloy steel (MAS38MnSiVS5) of cylindrical rods with 80 mm diameter and length of 350 mm using the medium-duty lathe of 7.5 kW spindle power at 1600 rpm. To comprehend the power consumption at the lathe spindle while performing turning operation of MAS using K20 uncoated, single layer (TiN) coated and multi-coated (TiN-TiCN-Al2O3-ZrCN) carbide insert. The mathematical modelling and optimum turning parameters have been identified by Response Surface Method (RSM) Based D-Optimal Design technique. Significant contribution of parameters can then be determined by Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) at 95% level of confidence. These approach successfully shown that the selection of best insert with optimized machining parameters on power consumption. The results exhibits the relation between the machining parameters such as cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate at three levels and the power consumption for the three types of K20 inserts. It is concluded that the experimental values and the proposed model values are in reasonable conformity. rnrn
Keywords: D-optimal method; K20insert; Micro alloyed steel,Power Consumption.
Finite Element Modelling of Electromagnetic Forming of Tractor Muffler
by Sagar Pawar, Pravin Ghatule, Sachin Kore
Abstract: Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a non-contact, high-speed forming process in which electrically conductive workpiece is formed by applying a magnetic field. In this research work, detailed study of manufacturing of an automobile muffler used in exhaust system made out of an Aluminum alloy tube by electromagnetic forming has been done. Finite Element Analysis of Electromagnetic forming of Al muffler tube with die has been carried out to design a coil for the successful expansion of the Al tube with EM forming without failure. Finite Element Analysis of process has been conducted with the help of EM module in LS-DYNATM. In the simulations, Finite element method (FEM) and Boundary element method (BEM) air were implemented for the conductor and for surrounding respectively. The difference in the deformation is observed because of the difference in the current density and thus, the Lorentz force. The tube area which comes in contact with die gets rebound back due to the excess kinetic energy of workpiece. For the minimum rebound and maximum die filling, suitable coil diameter and discharge voltage have been determined, and it was found that at 12 kV for 56.7 mm outer diameter coil, maximum die cavity got filled with minimum rebound.
Keywords: Electromagnetic forming; Finite Element Analysis; 3D modeling of electromagnetic expansion.
DIMENSIONLESS ANALYSIS OF SPRAY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHICHA OIL METHYL ESTER AND DIESEL FUEL IN A SPRAY CHAMBER
by Raghu Palani, GANESH KUMAR SUNDARAMURTHY, Nallusamy Nallusamy
Abstract: Due to global warming and pollution, emission norms are very firm all over the world, in order to reduce these emissions the current research is going on in alternative fuel. The study of fuel spray characteristics is important, which influences the emission, combustion and mixture formation in the engine. The spray characteristics of fuel mainly depend on fuel injection pressure, fuel density, fuel viscosity, ambient pressure and temperature, combustion chamber pressure and injection duration. Among these parameters fuel injection pressure is very important parameter directly affecting spray structure. The main aim of the work is to study the macroscopic spray parameters such as spray tip penetration, spray shape factor and spray cone angle in a glass chamber by varying injection pressure under non evaporating conditions for Chicha oil methyl ester (CCOME) and diesel fuel and non dimensional analysis of spray characteristics of tested fuel (CCOME and diesel fuel) were acquired from the images captured by a high speed video camera The experimental results showed that biodiesel had different features when compared with the diesel fuel. It was found that CCOME has longest spray tip penetration and spray area when compared with diesel fuel. It was found that tested fuels exhibit better spray characteristics at higher injection pressures. The dimensionless analysis yielded dimensionless correlations for spray tip penetration and spray cone angle that provide better understanding into the spray breakup and atomization process.
Keywords: Macroscopic Spray parameters; Spray shape factor; CCOME; Diesel; Dimensionless analysis;.
Suitability of twisted natural fibre Calotropis Gigantea in automobile interior components
by RENUGADEVI KUMAR, DEVAN KUMARASAMY
Abstract: In the automobile industry, weight is one of the parameters that govern the selection of body material. In this context, an attempt was made to replace the existing artificial with natural fibre. The present work is done to suit the natural fibre for the application of automobile interior components based on mechanical properties. The natural fibre was taken from the stem of the shrub plant Calotropis Gigantea by mechanical retting process. Three types of laminates namely, unidirectional (1 & 2) and bidirectional were prepared and the mechanical properties were tested for the suitability of automobile interior components. The unidirectional Laminate1 has very less density of 1.23g/cm3 with tensile strength of 36MPa and flexural strength of 366.21N/mm2 with impact energy absorption about 1.44J/cm. The unidirectional laminate 2 has the ultimate tensile strength of 28.57MPa with less impact energy absorption of 0.3J/cm. The bidirectional laminate produces very less ultimate tensile strength of 6.3MPa with 0.82J/cm of impact energy absorption with higher shear modulus of 618.8MPa. By comparing all the three laminates unidirectional laminate 1 performs better in terms of tensile and impact strengths.
Keywords: Unidirectional Orientation; Tensile strength; Twisted Natural fibre; Compressive strength; Flexural strength.
An Empirical study on Environment Risk Management in Small and Medium Enterprises (SME)
by Gopinath S, Ashwin Muthiah, Vikram H, Narashiman K
Abstract: Manufacturing Enterprises around the world are looking for a powerful new source to gain competitive advantage in the market. It's called Supply Chain Management (SCM) and it is an integration of several activities that involve from purchasing raw materials from supplier to manufacturing of the product for the market and to create satisfied customers. SCM involves sectors from manufacturing operations, purchasing, transportation, and R&D. Claiming a seamless process through supply chain management coordinates to the success of an enterprise. Supply chain management is a prime aspect in Manufacturing Enterprises because if one section fails, the entire flow is disrupted. This paper deals with the various aspects of risks that evolve in supply chain and envoy solutions to mitigate them. This research paper primarily focuses on proposing a conceptual framework taking constructs in terms of independent variables as work environment, government regulation and facilities, economic and political scenarios and Top management commitment and supply chain performance as dependent variable. Each of these constructs have their own items to which a value is assigned in the order of 1 to 5 point Likert scale. The questionnaire was circulated to around 132 Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that are involved in manufacturing of Mechanical components spread across different industrial estates located in and around Chennai, India. The authors received 45 responses with proper data through which analysis was done by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Regression Analysis (RA) using Statistical Package for Social Science(SPSS) developed by IBM. Analysis is done to establish the relationship between the three constructs and measure of Supply Chain Performance and a conclusion is drawn.
Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s); Supply Chain Performance (SCP); Environment Risk (ER).
Special Issue on: ICRAME2017 Mechanical Engineering Science
PARAMETRIC OPTIMISATION OF FRICTION WELDED 17-4 PH SS ALLOY USING TAGUCHI TECHNIQUES
by Mahendiran Subramaniyan
Abstract: Friction welding (FW) is a solid state technique used mostly for joining similar or dissimilar materials owing to batch production with less time consumption. In friction welding, the joints are formed in the solid state by utilising the heat generated by friction. The objectives of this project is to obtain friction weld element of 17-4 PH Stainless steel alloy (Grade 630) and optimising the friction welding parameters in order to establish the weld strength and its quality. In this research work, the experiment is undergone to examine the tensile strength of friction welding 17-4 PH Stainless steel alloy. The experiment is conducted by varying the input parameters like rotational speed, friction and forging force, friction and forging time using Taguchis L9 orthogonal array. For each experiment tensile strength was examined and the optimum welding condition for maximising tensile strength was determined. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted for the experiment to evaluate the mean of tensile strength of the welding.
Keywords: Precipitation hardening; rotary friction welding; tensile strength; Taguchi techniques; ANOVA.
A Machine Learning Approach for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blade Using Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) Features through Vibration Signals: A Comparative Study
by Sugumaran Vaithiyanathan, Joshuva A
Abstract: Wind power is the capability to make electricity using the air flows that occur naturally in the earths atmosphere whereas, the wind turbine blades capture kinetic energy from the wind and turn it into mechanical energy by spinning a generator to creates electricity. In wind turbine, blades are the major component for capturing the wind however, due to environmental conditions it prompt to get fault. Traditional monitoring technique will leads to high labour cost and also reduce the energy production. To overcome this problem, a machine learning based condition monitoring technique is incorporated in the wind turbine to identify the fault classification which occurred in the blade. In this study, a three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine was chosen and the faults like blade bend, blade cracks, hub-blade loose connection, blade erosion and pitch angle twist were considered as these are the faults mostly affect the turbine blade. In this study, the autoregressivemoving-average (ARMA) technique has been used for the feature extraction followed by feature selection (J48 decision tree algorithm) and fault classification (through meta classifiers, misc classifiers, rule classifiers and tree based classifiers). The results were compared with respect to the classification accuracy and their computational time of the classifier.
Keywords: Condition monitoring; wind turbine blade; ARMA features; machine learning; vibration signals.
Special Issue on: ICESW2017 Advances in Engineering Science for a Sustainable World
Abrasion wear of cutting tool developed from recycled steel using palm kernel shell as carbon additive.
by ADENIRAN AFOLALU, Abiodun Abioye, Joseph Idirisu, Imhade Okokpujie, Omolayo Ikumapayi
Abstract: The demand for more efficient cutting tool increases continuously with technology. Most of the cutting tools in use are imported and the cost of replacement is high, hence there is need to develop them locally. Recycled medium carbon steels (scrapped crankshaft and connecting rod) of C-0.45% are available locally in adequate quantity. This research work studied the abrasion wear of cutting tools developed from recycled steel using palm kernel shell as carbon additive. The chemical composition of the charged materials was analyzed using UV-VIS spectrometer before and after melting. Alloy additives were added in order to meet the carbon and other elements content of High Speed Steel materials. It was first carburized in a muffle treatment furnace at temperature and time ranges from 800 to 950oC and 60 to 120 minutes. The toughness, surface and core hardness were carried out on all the samples including the control sample using impact tester and software driven optical microscope respectively. Better toughness, surface and core hardness of 24.0 J/cm2, 76.8 and 47.9 HR while the control sample has 17 J/cm2, 76.3 and 46.1 HR. It was observed that the tool cut the work piece (low and medium carbon steel) easily on a lathe machine with best minimum length of cut 50 mm for time of cut 1.19 and 2.02 minutes mm. It can be concluded that the developed cutting tool showed significant performances during machining.
Keywords: Cutting Tools; Wear; Palm Kernel Shell; Carbon Additives; Steel.