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International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing

 

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International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing (48 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • Expected-mode augmentation method for group targets tracking using the random matrices   Order a copy of this article
    by Yun Wang, Guoping Hu, Hao Zhou 
    Abstract: In order to improve the estimation performance of interactive multiple models (IMM) tracking algorithm for group targets, a new EMA-VSIMM tracking algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, by using the expected-mode augmentation (EMA) method, a more proper expected mode set has been chosen from the basic model set of group targets, which can make the selected tracking models match up to the unknown true mode availably. Secondly, in the filtering process of variable-structure interactive multiple model (VSIMM) approach, the fusion estimation of kinematic state and extension state have been implemented by using classical weighting method and scalar coefficients weighting method, respectively. We use the trace of the corresponding covariance matrix of extension state to calculate the weight coefficient. We calculate the prediction value of the extension state parameter by using a fuzzy reasoning approach to improve the estimation accuracy of the covariance matrix, which takes the elliptical area of extension and its change ratio as the input of the fuzzy controller. The performance of the proposed EMA-VSIMM algorithms is evaluated via simulation of a generic group targets manoeuvring tracking problem.
    Keywords: interactive multiple models; expected-mode augmentation; group targets; maneuvering tracking.

  • Evaluation on multithreaded queue test data for multi-channel filter rod forming machine   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianhong Cao, Xu Kong, Qi Ji, Min Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper takes the real-time problems of cigarette industry multithreaded queue test data for multi-channel filter rod forming machine, under the existing evaluation system has not adapted the premise of the entire inspection business, through the information technology tools to assist in establishing business operational standards, and processes involved in the production and business management, based on dynamic statistics analysis the multi-threaded process for different queues to ensure the output results in real time. This method guarantees the DF10 double pole filter rod forming machine 1000 metres per minute production quality control, real-time visualisation of process quality, and fills the trade gap in this technically area.
    Keywords: cigarette equipment; multithread; queue; testing data.

  • Low financial cost with ant colony optimisation in intelligent agriculture   Order a copy of this article
    by Xu Gaofeng 
    Abstract: With the development of wireless sensor networks, industrial automation and other computer and information related high technologies, a lot of practical IoT applications have greatly increased the productivity. Currently, more and more capital is being invested in IoT, especially intelligent agriculture as many countries begin to pay more attention to basic and intelligent agriculture. For large intelligent agriculture systems, it will cost a lot of time and energy (which further will cost investors' money) for the mobile sink to collect all the data of the sensing system with the help of cluster head node. In this paper, we try to solve this issue that minimizes the data collection path of the mobile sink, with the help of the ant colony optimisation algorithm. We implement the algorithm in Python and conduct two experiments that show that we can get the best path of the given example and show how the efficiency changes when the numbers of ants and loops increase. The better the optimal path becomes, the less financial cost we can achieve.
    Keywords: financial cost; wireless sensor network; ant colony optimisation; intelligent agriculture.

  • Sliding mode control with PI-based saturation for nano-positioning   Order a copy of this article
    by Liu Yang, Donghao Xu 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a modified sliding mode controller design with proportion-integral (PI)-based saturation (PISSMC) for nano-positioning of piezoelectric actuators (PEAs). Based on the sliding mode theory, the controller can consider hysteresis as the uncertainty of the system, and the nonlinearities of hysteresis and model imperfection can be processed to achieve precise positioning and tracking control. The PI term of this controller can decrease the steady-state error of the system and alleviate the chattering of the discontinuous part of the SMC controller. Further, as the only measurable information is the position, a high-gain observer is adopted to estimate the states. The designed controller employs a linear PEA system as parameters estimation of the model to estimate the control gain and compensate for the process nonlinearity. The robust stability of the PISSMC is proved through a Lyapunov stability analysis. Experimental results demonstrate that compared with the traditional SMC, the proposed controller can accomplish better control performance, such as more accurate resolution, less steady-state error and slighter chattering.
    Keywords: sliding mode control; piezoelectric actuators; hysteresis; nano-positioning; nonlinear system.

  • Application of Q-learning based on adaptive greedy considering negative rewards in football match system   Order a copy of this article
    by Xue Fei, Li Juntao, Yuan Ruiping, Liu Tao, Dong Tingting 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problem that the multi-robot task allocation method in a soccer system can easily fall into the problem of local optimal solution and real-time performance, a new multi-robot task allocation method is proposed. First, in order to improve the speed and efficiency of finding optimal actions and make better use of the disadvantages that traditional Q-learning cannot often propagate negative values, we propose a new way to propagate negative values, that is, Q-learning methods based on negative rewards. Next, in order to adapt to the dynamic external environment, an adaptive ε greedy method of which the mode of operation is judged by the ε value is proposed. This method is based on the classical ε-greedy. In the process of solving problems, ε can be adaptively changed as needed for a better balance of exploration and exploitation in reinforcement learning. Finally, we apply this method to the robot's football game system. It has been experimentally proven that dangerous actions can be avoided effectively by the Q-learning method which can spread negative rewards. The adaptive ε-greedy strategy can be used to adapt to the external environment better and faster so as to improve the speed of convergence.
    Keywords: task assignment; Q-learning; negative reward; ε algorithm; adaptive technology.

  • Full-duplex relay selection analysis for decode and forward and amplify and forward relaying   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatima Ezzahra Airod, Houda Chafnaji, Ahmed Tamtaoui 
    Abstract: In this paper, we explore the cooperation over a modern wireless communication network, where we promote the communication between a pair of moving nodes, the source and the destination, to exchange information. We assume that fading constraints overrun this environment, so accordingly the direct link between the source and the destination nodes is not considered. Therefore, full-duplex (FD) relays cooperate with the source to send data packets to the destination. In this new generation of networks, the crucial issue for wireless devices is their limited battery capacity that impacts mainly, the network lifetime. Note that this constraint has as much as importance when devices forward data to other terminals. Thus, with the regard of keeping a good compromise between the power consumption and the system performance, this paper studies an optimal relay selection to select one best relay to forward data to the destination based on Decode-and-Forward (DF) and Amplify-and-Forward (AF) relaying techniques. We derive the DF and AF outage probability closed form expressions and the AF numerical approximation for the relay selection strategy. For verification, simulation results are presented. We also perform an analysis of asymptotic results in order to evaluate the impact of the power transmission on the system performances.
    Keywords: full-duplex relay; relay selection; amplify-and-forward; decode-and-forward; Doppler effect; outage probability; power transmission.

  • A novel quantum-inspired binary wolf pack algorithm for difficult knapsack problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Yangjun Gao, Fengming Zhang, Yu Zhao, Chao Li 
    Abstract: 0-1 knapsack problem is a classical combinatorial optimization problem, which is often used to validate the search performance of binary intelligent algorithms. Although the traditional binary wolf pack algorithm (BWPA) can provide an effective solution to the general knapsack problem, it cannot achieve satisfied optimization results for the difficult knapsack problems such as the high-dimensional KP01 and often fall into the local optimum in some extreme cases. In order to improve the BWPAs applicability and searching ability in difficult knapsack problem which has not been well resolved, a novel Quantum-Inspired WPA (QWPA) which based on quantum encoding to enhance the performance of WPA for difficult knapsack problem is presented. In this paper, we have introduced the detailed quantitative design of the three important behaviours in presented QWPA and a modified form of quantum collapse which brings better diversity has been proposed. Moreover, a new diversity analysis mechanism is given to verify the diversity of the proposed algorithm compared to other quantum-inspired intelligent algorithms which including QIEA-PSA, QPSO, and QGA. Numerical simulation is obtained from both general and difficult benchmark instances of knapsack problem and the simulation results show that the QWPA has a more competitive performance than other Quantum-Inspired algorithms with the increasing of the size of knapsack problems
    Keywords: binary wolf pack algorithm; quantum encoding; combinatorial optimization; diversity; difficult 0-1 knapsack problem.

  • A game theoretic approach to maximise payoff and customer retention for differentiated services in a heterogeneous network environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Pushpa Singh, Rajeev Agrawal 
    Abstract: Future networks are being devised with the vision of heterogeneity in which a mobile user/device will be able to connect seamlessly to multiple wireless networks (WLAN, cellular, WMAN, WPAN) and evolve simultaneously. Coexistence of the underlying network is the requirement of telecom industry, which leads to an open competition among the service providers. To survive in the market, telecom operators are investing more in retaining the valuable users rather than acquiring new users. This paper introduces the user agent to check the loyalty of user and application preference, and the network agent is used to rank the network as social, quality and normal network. The user can also set his preference as social trust, quality trust and normal trust. The game between the user agent and the network agent constructs a payoff matrix for loyal users and normal users. Results show seven equilibrium cases for loyal users where the user agent and network agent have equal payoff. In the case of normal users, there is only one case of equilibrium and for the other cases the network agent can maximise his payoff.
    Keywords: heterogeneous network; QoS; loyalty; payoff; game theory; traffic class; service provider.

  • Reliable and energy-aware routing in mobile ad-hoc networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Sajal Sarkar 
    Abstract: In a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET), energy-awareness is a crucial design issue as it consists of a group of mobile nodes. The mobile nodes with limited battery power act as router in MANET. Though establishment of an appropriate and efficient route is an important design aspect, a more challenging task is to establish and select a reliable and energy-efficient route between a source-destination pair. Thus, power failure of a mobile node constituent influences data routing, link failure and network lifetime. Therefore, to meet the above mentioned goal and overcome energy-aware routing design issues, in this paper routing protocols are proposed to construct a reliable and energy-aware route considering energy consumption and remaining energy of nodes. The remaining energy and the energy factor (the ratio of remaining energy and initial energy of a node) are used as important parameters for selection of a node in a route. Under the considered parameters, the proposed routing protocols ensure reliability and energy-awareness in the MANET and avoid link failure due to the node's low power in an established route. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocols perform better than the similar kind of popular existing routing schemes in terms of energy consumption, throughput, delay and routing overhead in different network scenarios.
    Keywords: MANET; routing protocol; energy consumption; energy-aware routing; reliability.

  • IPCA-SVM based real-time wrinkling detection approaches for strip steel production process   Order a copy of this article
    by Tong Zhao, Xiong Chen, Lirong Yang 
    Abstract: Strip steel wrinkling is one of the common problems in strip steel production line. The wrinkling phenomenon has a serious impact on the quality of the products, resulting in product waste, and even leading to the entire production line downtime. The key point to solve the problem is real-time detection for strip wrinkling while making an early warning. This paper proposes an IPCA-SVM based online wrinkling detection approach. IPCA is used to compress each frame image from industrial camera and extract effective features from frame images. The projection coefficients of each frame image on the principal components are the inputs to SVM model for classification. Experiment results show that the proposed method is valid for real-time wrinkling detection for strip steel production process.
    Keywords: strip wrinkling; IPCA-SVM; real-time detection.

  • Constrained solution of CEC 2017 with monarch butterfly optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Hu, Zhaoquan Cai, Song Hu, Yingxue Cai, Jia Chen, Sibo Huang 
    Abstract: Recently, inspired by the behaviour of monarch butterflies in North America, Wang et al. proposed a new kind of swarm intelligence algorithm, called Monarch Butterfly Optimisation (MBO). Since it was proposed, it has been widely studied and applied in various engineering fields. In this paper, we apply MBO algorithm to solve CEC 2017 competition on constrained real-parameter optimisation. Also, the performance of MBO on 21 constrained CEC 2017 real-parameter optimisation problems is compared with five other state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms. The experimental results indicate that MBO algorithm performs much better than the other five evolutionary algorithms on most cases. It is strongly proven that MBO is a very promising algorithm for solving constrained engineering problems.
    Keywords: monarch butterfly optimisation; migration operator; butterfly adjusting operator; constrained optimisation.

  • Surface EMG electrode distribution for thumb motion classification based on wireless communication equipment   Order a copy of this article
    by Wanfen Xu, Gongfa Li, Zhaojie Ju, Honghai Liu 
    Abstract: The interaction between humans and computers has become more necessary and more specific, and the informatisation of human hands has made the human-machine interaction based on gesture recognition more and more extensive. The thumb, as the most important finger, plays a decisive role in decoding the gesture, especially in controlling of the smart phones and many other smart devices. As a result, this study aims to decode the different thumb gestures from sEMG signal and to improve the robustness of gesture recognition and decrease the influence of physiological conditions and the electrode displacement between different users. In this article, we use the Bluetooth wireless communication and focus on the relationship between the EMG signal and the electrode identifier number. We change the electrode's number into a new feature and combining the traditional features with the new features to verify the electrode's number has a correlation with the thumb gesture. Experiments show that after adding new features, the gesture recognition rate has increased.
    Keywords: EMG; thumb; gesture recognition; wireless communication.

  • Survey on WiFi infrastructure attacks   Order a copy of this article
    by Rui Guo 
    Abstract: This article describes WiFi hacking techniques that attackers have used, and suggests various defensive measures. It also shows how easy it is to forge disassociation and deauthentication packets. Its less secure than wired connections because an intruder does not need a physical connection. It also explains man-in-the-middle attacks, Rogue AP, Race Conditions attacks, in wireless networks, and gives a list of selected open-source tools. The article includes several recommendations that will help to improve security in a wireless infrastructure.
    Keywords: WiFi network; Rogue AP; Race Conditions; MITM.

  • A novel DV-hop method based on coupling algorithm used for wireless sensor network localisation   Order a copy of this article
    by Yechuang Wang, Penghong Wang, Jiangjiang Zhang, Xingjuan Cai, Wuchao Li, Yanyan Ma 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) localisation is an essential requirement in the increasing prevalence of WSN applications. As an important part of the Internet of Things (IOT) it has become a hot research area. Distance vector-hop algorithm (DV-Hop), an range-free algorithm, is widely deployed to solve the localisation problem in WSN. However, the results of the estimation precision are usually not satisfactory. In order to improve the WSN positioning accuracy, in this paper, we propose a new coupling algorithm based on bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA) and glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO) (BFO-GSO). The algorithm has good convergence speed, local search ability of BFO and global convergence of GSO. The optimisation performance is verified by CEC2013 benchmarks in those designs against the original algorithm. Furthermore, Wilcoxons rank-sum non-parametric statistical test and Friedman test were carried out to judge whether the results of the proposed algorithm differ from those of the other algorithms in a statistically significant way. The numerical results prove that it is able to significantly outperform others on majority of the benchmark functions. Finally, the proposed algorithm is also combined into the DV-Hop algorithm to improve the WSN positioning accuracy. Experimental results show that our improve algorithm achieves better performance when compared with others DV-Hop algorithms.
    Keywords: WSN; localisation; DV-Hop; coupling algorithm; BFO algorithm; GSO; CEC2013.

  • Demand estimation of water resources based on algorithm comparison   Order a copy of this article
    by Junyan Wang, Jiangjiang Zhang, Xingjuan Cai, Yanyan Ma 
    Abstract: Water is the source of life and the correct assessment of water resources is an important prerequisite for the rational use of water resources. In this paper, water resources are evaluated and predicted by three different algorithms, including Bat Algorithm (BA), Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) and Pigeon-inspired Optimisation (PIO). Comparing the errors of water resources assessed for the three algorithms, we select an algorithm of the minimum error to predict the future water demand. In the experiments, firstly, the water data from 2003 to 2012 are used to find the optimal weights of the models. Then the weight factor is combined with the given model to gain the error between predicted value and the rest data (2013-2015). Finally, the simulation results show that PIO algorithm has a better performance than the BA and PSO algorithms.
    Keywords: water resources; bat algorithm; particle swarm optimisation; pigeon-inspired optimisation.

  • Research on parameter search of the worst operating condition for explosion overpressure in utility tunnels based on genetic algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Shangqun Xie, De-Ying Li, Hui Lv, Rui Zhou 
    Abstract: In this paper, the 2D numerical simulation model for the gas pipe tank of utility tunnels is established. Aiming at optimising the maximum overpressure produced by an explosion in the gas pipe tank, in restricted conditions of vent position, premixed gas concentration in the tank and ignition position, a method of parameter optimisation of the worst operating condition for explosion overpressure in the gas pipe tank of utility tunnels is proposed by combining computational fluid mechanics and genetic algorithm. The results show that genetic algorithm is feasible in searching for the worst operating condition for explosion overpressure in the gas pipe tank of utility tunnels and can improve the searching efficiency significantly. Methane-air premixed gas under the two conditions being both pre- and post-optimised can form deflagration phenomenon. The deflagration wave is the direct factor of the overpressure formed at the boundary of the model. Both the pressure and temperature imposed by the deflagration wave acting on the model boundaries show an evident rise compared with those before optimisation. The maximum overpressure is increased by 15% and the maximum temperature is increased by 7%.
    Keywords: genetic algorithm; utility tunnel; explosion overpressure; numerical simulation.

  • A novel method for user relationship measuring in social networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jie Wang, Chonghuan Xu 
    Abstract: Recommender systems are widely used to provide users with appropriate items, and have emerged in response to the problem of information overload. The measuring method of user relationship in social networks is the core of personalised recommendation. To a certain extent, the measuring quality of users relationships determines the accuracy of recommendation results. In this paper, we propose a novel measuring method of user relationship that considers direct and indirect relationships among users. The experimental results on two famous microblog datasets shows that the presented algorithm is of high performance.
    Keywords: online social networks; user relationship; direct relationship; indirect relationship.

  • Contact analysis and simulation of high performance round link chain   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiangjuan Bian, Youping Gong, Longbiao Gao 
    Abstract: High performance round link chains are applied in many fields, such as mining, metallurgy, hoisting, shipping, etc., and accidents can easily happen under bad and complicated working conditions. This paper studies the dynamic analysis of the round link chain transmission process. The kinematics analysis is carried out first, and then the dynamic analysis is carried out after the force analysis of each component. By establishing the mathematical equation of the structural model of the round link chain, the two static analysis models for the contact of the chain links are derived. Then, the collision process between the round link chains is simulated and analysed. Finally, the fatigue fracture mechanism of round link chain and the propagation law of fatigue crack are studied, and experiments verified that the round link chain satisfies the actual requirement in special needs such as mining.
    Keywords: round link chain; kinetic analysis; fatigue analysis; numerical simulation.

  • A dynamic resource allocation scheme based on cognition in LTE system   Order a copy of this article
    by Junshe Wang, Yanfei Wang, Songhua Wang 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a dynamic spectrum allocation scheme based on cognition in LTE system. The new scheme is to address the poor communication service problem caused by co-channel interference between the cell-edge users in the LTE system. The scheme leverages the cognitive characteristic in the LTE system to enable the base station to dynamically obtain the idle resource status information of the adjacent cells and integrates the idle resource information of the target cell, and then employs the ant colony optimisation technique to allocate the resource blocks to users. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme allows the cell-edge users to dynamically use the idle resource blocks of adjacent cells, which enhances resource blocks usage and system throughput while ensuring fairness among users, which may improve the quality of user service at the cell-edge.
    Keywords: LTE system; resource allocation; cell edge user; cognitive characteristic; ant colony optimisation.

  • Energy balanced adaptive clustering routing protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Hu Zhongdong, Wu Hualin, Wang Zhendong 
    Abstract: In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the main problem is how to design an energy efficient routing protocol, but one of the bottlenecks is that the WSN's energy is limited. Owing to the current cluster routing protocols unconsidered node location and adopted single hop routing mechanism in routing communication in heterogeneous WSNs, a large number of cluster heads that are far away from the base station will consume a large amount of energy. In this paper, an energy balanced adaptive clustering routing protocol is proposed for heterogeneous WSNs, node location and the residual energy are considered to improve the cluster heads elected mechanism, which increases the probability to become cluster heads that the nodes are close to the base station and have high residual energy. In addition, the protocol uses an adaptive routing communication mechanism combining multi-hop with single-hop to balance the network energy consumption. Theoretical and simulation results show that compared with DEEC and SEP, the protocol can prolong the lifetime of the network and increase the network throughput.
    Keywords: heterogeneous wireless sensor networks; energy consumption; adaptive; clustering protocol.

  • Efficient multi-vehicle navigation based on trajectory vector features considering non-uniform destination distribution for emergency evacuation   Order a copy of this article
    by Yang Cao, Zhiming Ding, Fujie Ren, Limin Guo 
    Abstract: In recent years, large-scale events have been held frequently, and more and more people are participating in these activities. When encountering an emergency, it is necessary to quickly evacuate the participating people. A reasonable traffic evacuation plan is an important part of the efficient evacuation. However, the uneven geographical distribution of a large number of vehicles and participants poses a challenge for efficient evacuation planning. An efficient emergency evacuation plan needs to minimise evacuation time and traffic congestion. Reasonable route selection and traffic flow assessment are key to the evacuation plan. In this paper, we propose an efficient multi-vehicle navigation method based on trajectory vector features considering non-uniform destination distribution for emergency evacuation. First, we employed the CrossRank algorithm to extract the real-time state vector of roads and then navigate the vehicles based on these state vectors. In addition, spatial diversity theory is introduced into our model for the non-uniform distribution of multi-vehicle evacuation. We conduct a series of multi-vehicle navigation simulation experiments on a real taxi trajectory dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is effective and efficient.
    Keywords: multi-vehicles navigation; vector features; trajectory data; non-uniform destination distribution; emergency evacuation.

  • A novel firefly algorithm for parameter estimation   Order a copy of this article
    by Gan Yu 
    Abstract: Firefly algorithm (FA) is a recently proposed optimisation technique, which has shown good optimisation performance. However, FA suffers from slow convergence and low accuracy of solutions. To improve this case, this paper presents a novel FA (NFA) by combining two strategies. First, a local search operator is constructed for better fireflies in the population. Second, a concept of opposition-based learning is used for improving the accuracy of the global best solution. The experiment consists of two parts: 1) seven classical benchmark functions are used to verify the optimisation ability of NFA; and 2) NFA is used for parameter estimation of frequency modulated sound synthesis. Simulation results show our NFA approach can achieve promising performance.
    Keywords: firefly algorithm; local search; opposition; parameter estimation.

  • New blind equalisation for non-constant modulus signals using a segment cost function   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Rao, Huijun Xu, Jianqiu Zhang 
    Abstract: It is well known that for constant modulus (i.e., magnitude) signals the famous constant modulus (CM) blind equalisation algorithm implemented in a fractionally spaced equaliser can present a zero steady-state mean square error (MSE), which means completely eliminating the distortions introduced in transmitting signals through channels. But for non-constant modulus signals it suffers a large steady-state MSE. In order to overcome this defect, a segment cost function according to the CM criterion is suggested. The distinctive feature of the segment cost function is that the equalised signals (of the non-constant modulus signals) are divided into three segments to form a n shape where the ideal signals have a constant modulus instead of non-constant. Then a new blind equalisation algorithm seeking to minimise this segment cost function by applying a stochastic gradient method is proposed. When employing the proposed algorithm to equalise the 4-PAM or 16-QAM non-constant modulus signals, just as using the CM blind equalisation algorithm to equalise the 4-QAM constant modulus signal, a zero steady-state MSE can be obtained, which is derived. Compared with the classical bind equalisation algorithms, such as CMA, MMA, MCMA, or CMA+SDD, the proposed algorithm yields improved performance, especially for higher SNR.
    Keywords: adaptive equaliser; blind deconvolution; blind equalisation; constant modulus algorithm.

  • A novel estimation model for user relationship intensity in social network   Order a copy of this article
    by Huijian Xu, Wanqiong Tao, Feipeng Guo 
    Abstract: With the development of social networks, the relationship intensity of social network users has become an increasingly important topic. This paper proposes an approach based on Sina and Tencent microblog, which can be used to calculate the relationship intensity among users. It has considered the various relationship intensities in seven different fields, such as working, shopping, travelling, sports, entertainment and so on. However, most of the existing approaches only focus on the direct relationship intensity between different users in one activity field. They havent taken the indirect relationship intensity into consideration. Therefore, in this paper we propose a general relationship intensity that consists of both direct and indirect relationship intensity in the same activity field, even if there is only the indirect relationship between users. We conduct the experiment on Sina and Tencent microblog datasets, using the users profile and interaction activities information. The analysis results on real datasets show that our approach achieves performance superior to the existing methods.
    Keywords: social network; relationship intensity; direct relationship; indirect relationship.

  • A multiple relay selection scheme Based on QPO in cognitive relay networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Gao Hongyuan, Su Yumeng, Zhang Shibo 
    Abstract: Cognitive relay networks, which can increase the channel gain of wireless transmission and strengthen the anti-fading ability of the channel, have recently been considered as an effective way to improve the throughput of a cognitive radio system. Therefore, determining the appropriate relay selection scheme is of vital importance to improve the quality of communication. In this paper, we study the difficulty of multiple relay selection (MRS) in cognitive relay networks (CRNs). Considering the scenario of spectrum sharing, we adopt simple power control strategy to limit the power of secondary sources and relays in order to satisfy the interference constraint. To get a better solution for the discrete MRS problem in CRNs, we propose a novel intelligent algorithm which is named as quantum-inspired physics optimisation (QPO) algorithm. For QPO, the law of gravity, Newton's second law, and quantum mechanism are combined effectively. We have designed three different quantum rotation angles. Based on the quantum mechanism, the convergence rate and the searching ability of the algorithm are improved. The good performance of the proposed scheme in MRS is demonstrated according to the simulation results.
    Keywords: cognitive relay networks; multiple relay selection; quantum-inspired physics optimisation; intelligent algorithm.

  • An evolutionary model of urban comprehensive service function based on cooperative development   Order a copy of this article
    by Bo Wei, Hui Zheng, Gang Chen, Xianliang Zong, Fuying Zhang 
    Abstract: The level of urban comprehensive service function reflects the state of a city's sustained, coordinated and healthy development. It is the essence of a city's competitiveness. With continuous expansion of a citys scale, finding key driving forces to enhance urban comprehensive service function, and developing its subsystems and elements coordinately have become an important basis for government decision making, especially for making industrial development policies. An urban comprehensive service function mainly includes five subsystems: transportation, financial, trade and business, high-end manufacturing and social environment service. Interactions among these subsystems are generally nonlinear and constrained by external factors. In this study, firstly, theoretical analysis and expert consultation method are used to select state parameters which are representative, available and reliable. Through calculating correlation degree of these parameters by canonical correlation analysis, parameters with higher correlation coefficient are selected as the state parameters of urban comprehensive service function system. Then, by establishing a collaborative development model, we quantitatively describe the nonlinear interaction among the five subsystems, and obtain order parameters-main forces behind coordinated development of urban comprehensive service function. In this study, a northern China city, Tianjin, is selected to illustrate the mathematical model. The calculation results show that the decisive order parameters of urban comprehensive service function for Tianjin are: available tonnage of civil aviation, domestic and foreign currency deposits per capita, scale of social financing, gross import and export value of customs per capita, output value of high-tech industry, number of patent authorisation per capita and annual volume of urban garbage disposal. This result corresponds to the actual development of the city in recent years
    Keywords: urban comprehensive service function; collaborative development model; self organisation; order parameter.

  • Computational intelligence based energy-efficient routing protocols with QoS assurance for wireless sensor networks: A survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Tarunpreet Kaur, Dilip Kumar 
    Abstract: Over the decades, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have reached great heights and started to emerge into various applications, ranging from health care to multimedia transmission. In these application domains, energy efficiency and quality of service (QoS) assurance remains a challenging issue owing to dynamic network conditions and resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes. This challenging issue has received considerable research attention at the network layer, which requires efficient routing protocols to meet the application-specific requirements. Therefore, WSN researchers have turned to different Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques in an attempt to address various routing issues in WSN. This paper presents a systematic survey on CI techniques based routing protocols in WSN. Moreover, a comparative analysis of reviewed protocols with their strengths and limitations is also included in the survey. Finally, this paper discusses various potential directions that guide researchers to design efficient routing protocols by combining WSN with CI techniques
    Keywords: quality-of-service; routing protocol; energy-efficiency; end-to-end delay; packet delivery ratio; computational intelligence.

  • A novel evaluation method of roundness error based on equilateral polygon search algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Feng-hua Xu, Shenghuai Wang, Jie Wang 
    Abstract: For the evaluation of roundness error, a novel roundness error evaluation method is introduced, which is based on the equilateral polygon search algorithm. The principle and the calculation steps of the evaluation method for roundness error are described in detail. The proposed method is that a series of certain length of equilateral polygons are set with the centre of the least squares circle of the measured roundness firstly, the radius values of all the measured points are calculated using every vertex of the equilateral polygon as the new centre secondly. Roundness error values according to minimum circumscribed circle method, maximum inscribed circle method, and minimum zone method according to relevant standards are obtained through comparison, judgement and reinvention of equilateral polygons. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the evaluation of roundness error can be satisfied by the evaluation method of roundness error based on equilateral polygon search algorithm.
    Keywords: roundness error; roundness evaluation; equilateral polygon; search algorithm.

  • Filling missing values by local reconstruction for incomplete label distribution learning   Order a copy of this article
    by Xue-Qiang Zeng, Su-Fen Chen, Run Xiang 
    Abstract: Label Distribution Learning (LDL) deals with the problems when we care more about the relative importance of different labels in the description of an instance, where labels are associated with each instance to some degree. LDL has achieved great success in many applications, but most existing LDL methods cannot handle learning tasks with incomplete annotation information. In this paper, we propose a novel incomplete label distribution learning method based on local reconstruction (IncomLDL-LR). Both the feature matrix and label information are included in a unified Principal Component Analysis (PCA) model to describe the intrinsic structure of original data in the supervised low-dimensional space. Based on the reasonable assumption that the incomplete label of each instance can be linearly reconstructed from its neighbors labels, IncomLDL-LR gradually recovers the missing label values by the averaged column score of corresponding neighbors in the PCA space. The proposed algorithms are compared with state-of-the-art algorithms using five LDL evaluation metrics on 15 public datasets. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of our proposal.
    Keywords: incomplete label distribution learning; local reconstruction; neighborhood information; label distribution learning; principal component analysis.

  • Congestion adaptive load balanced clustering scheme for prolonging network lifetime in mobile ad-hoc networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Naghma Khatoon, Mrs Amritanjali 
    Abstract: Clustering in a Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is the most effective technique to improve scalability and network lifetime. However, congestion and load balancing are still a major concern for optimising energy consumption and packet loss. Most of the existing routing protocols for MANET provide a solution for congestion control or load balancing among cluster heads separately. In this paper, a congestion adaptive load-balanced clustering scheme is proposed where we are emphasising not only on the problem of appropriate cluster head selection, but also on assigning mobile nodes to cluster heads efficiently, based on the congestion status of cluster heads. Thus, our proposed algorithm revolves around three benefits for load-balanced clustering with congestion control, i.e. the selection of most suitable nodes to serve as cluster heads, minimising the overall loads to cluster heads, and congestion control, which improve network lifetime with minimal overhead. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed clustering algorithm compared with the existing algorithms in terms of average number of clusters formed, average end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, average number of re-clustering required and network lifetime.
    Keywords: ad-hoc networks; clustering; load balancing; congestion status.

  • A heuristic channel allocation model with multi-lending in mobile computing network   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunil Kumar Singh, Deo Prakash Vidyarthi 
    Abstract: Radio channel allocation is broadly studied in the framework of cellular networks. Channels are scarce resources and must be used judiciously by the cells of the network. During the course of channel allocation, channels are normally lent/borrowed to the neighbour cells. Most of the available channel allocation techniques apply only single lending/borrowing. With the emergence of cognitive radio, it has become possible to use the channels opportunistically. Availing the channels are the services which are normally categorised into real-time and non-real-time services. Of these, real-time services are given more priority to serve over the non-real-time services. Further, among the new call and handoff services, the latter are given priority to serve. This paper proposes a novel heuristic approach for better channel usage for these services, blending the ideas of cognitive radio and multi-channel lending/borrowing. The performance study of the proposed model is done by simulation, which alludes to the effective channel usage in terms of blocked and dropped services.
    Keywords: cognitive radio; channel allocation; cellular systems; single-channel lending; multi-channel lending; co-channel interference.

  • Research on the knowledge representation and retrieval for mechanical product design based on ontology   Order a copy of this article
    by Su Shaohui, Wang Yiting, Chen Chang, Li Pengfei, Zhang Dongyang, Chen Guojin 
    Abstract: Different subjects are applied in the design of mechanical products. For efficient sharing and reusing of knowledge in the diverse forms of information, this study presents the classification of mechanical design and the process of ontology construction. The knowledge of mechanical field can fully express the semantics and syntax of concept through the function of ontology. Furthermore, based on the representation of ontology knowledge, it establishes a knowledge retrieval model of mechanical product and proposes a corresponding retrieval algorithm, which implements much higher precision and recall in the mechanical field.
    Keywords: knowledge representation; ontology; knowledge retrieval; retrieval algorithm.

  • A unified modelling method for cyber-physical systems based on Modelica   Order a copy of this article
    by Chang Chen, Han Cao, Shaohui Su, Huipeng Chen, Youping Gong, Guojin Chen 
    Abstract: A Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is a complex system consisting of discrete asynchronous clock systems and continuous synchronous time systems that are different in structure and mathematics basis. This research aims to establish a unified modelling method for CPS based on the Modelica semantic. According to framework of the existing semantic, the clock semantics are proposed to describe the clock system. The decomposition method is proposed to separate the clock system into several sub-blocks that have different clock frequency. The clock diffusing rules consisting of single clock diffusing, clock consistent rule and clock super-rule are presented to access the variables and expressions between each of the sub-blocks. Also, the semantic integration between time and clock sub-systems is researched. The proposed method suggests that the CPS model could be built in a unified framework and the clock system and time system could be linked automatically.
    Keywords: Cyber-physical systems; unified modeling method; Modelica; continuous-discrete hybrid system.

  • Demand estimation of water resources via bat algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiangdong Pei, Youqiang Sun, Yeqing Ren 
    Abstract: In the process of urban water resources planning, the demand estimation of urban water consumption is one of the important basic contents. In this paper, a hybrid of a linear estimation model and an exponential estimation model is proposed to forecast the water consumption. The bionic intelligent algorithms are widely used in industrial engineering, so we use intelligent algorithms to solve the proposed model including Bat Algorithm (BA) and modified Bat Algorithm (FTBA). FTBA improves the global search capability, and the improvements increase the probability of solving the optimal value. In the simulation experiments, we use the data from Nanchang city during 2003 to 2015. The data from 2003 to 2012 are used to find the optimal weights, and the remaining data (2013-2015) are used to test the model. Simulation results show that the modified BA (FTBA) is superior to the standard algorithm and achieves higher accuracy in prediction.
    Keywords: demand estimation; water resource; hybrid model; bat algorithm.

  • Development and application of model of configuration for order-engineered enterprise resource   Order a copy of this article
    by Chuchu Rao, Renwang Li 
    Abstract: The paper builds a model of enterprise resource optimisation configuration for the product which is engineering to order (ETO). Firstly, it decomposes the product into several parts in different custom depth at the design stage, then uses the different enterprise surplus resources to achieve the production for different kinds of parts and components production, based on the cost and time constraints. This model can help to reduce the cost of production and improve the competitiveness of the enterprise. Finally, the paper proves the superiority of the enterprise resources optimisation allocation model by an example of a customised special machine tool.
    Keywords: order-engineered; resource optimisation; configuration model; cost.

  • Intelligent optimisation algorithm of rolling schedule for steel integrated production   Order a copy of this article
    by Le Yang, Guozhang Jiang, Xiaowu Chen, Gongfa Li 
    Abstract: The paper presents an improved algorithm-heuristic genetic algorithm which is different from the traditional algorithm. Combining this with the mode knowledge in the knowledge base, we develop an algorithm library that orients the steel production order. The algorithm, which has quick convergence speed and strong global search ability, avoids the defects of the premature convergence of traditional genetic algorithms. Firstly, we analyse the integrated steel production planning system structure, describe the rolling plan problem, give rolling planning model that considered maximum rolling miles, and give the detailed steps of the various specific rolling schedule algorithms, including the selection of clustering operator, construct initial solution, crossover operator and mutation operator and ranking operator. Then we gave the process of rolling planning algorithm. Finally, the algorithm is verified by simulation examples, and the optimal solution is obtained, which not only improves the efficiency of the calculation, but also increases the reliability of the data.
    Keywords: optimal production plan; intelligent scheduling; scheduling algorithm; heuristic genetic algorithm.

  • Mobility pattern of individual users in a dynamic mobile phone network using call data record   Order a copy of this article
    by Smita Parija, Prasanna Sahu, Sudhansu Singh 
    Abstract: The pervasiveness of cellular telephones, along with rapid advancement in cellular technology, wireless networks and mobile applications, has made them increasingly effective in our daily lives. Individual human activity with respect to travel behaviour is still in a less explored stage. In the past few decades, travel patterns and human activity have become more complex and exhibit a high degree of variations in space and time. In this study, how and to what extent call data records (CDRs) from mobile phones provide the underlying activities of anonymised customers when a user initiates or receives a voice call or message is investigated in detail. Thus, this paper attempts to discover personal human mobility patterns where location, duration and days are the essential attributes in the interpretation of results. A profile-based paging algorithm is proposed based on the individual human travel pattern. The finding suggests that the proposed algorithm is three times more efficient than conventional paging (blanket paging) and two times more effective than various other intelligent paging algorithms. Further, a substantial saving of about 35% in bandwidth is also obtained from the validation results.
    Keywords: mobility management; mobile communication; profile-based paging; call data record; optimisation of resources.

  • An enhanced gravitational search algorithm for node deployment in wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhaolu Guo, Jing Peng, Baoyong Yin, Shenwen Wang, Xuezhi Yue, Xiaosheng Liu 
    Abstract: Node deployment is a fundamental technique in wireless sensor networks, which can be converted into an optimisation issue. Gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is an popular optimisation method, which has exhibited promising performance for node deployment. However, the traditional GSA may show poor convergence when tackling some complicated node deployment issues. To improve the search efficiency, an enhanced GSA (NDGSA) is introduced in this paper for the node deployment issue in wireless sensor networks. NDGSA creates new solutions according to a linear combination of the current solution and the value drawn from Gaussian distribution. In the experiments, NDGSA is compared with the traditional approaches to the node deployment issue. The comparisons validate the efficiency of NDGSA.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; node deployment; global optimisation; gravitational search algorithm.

  • Hierarchical reinforcement learning based on multi-agent cooperation game theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Tang Hengliang, Dong Chengang 
    Abstract: Reinforcement learning is a good way for multi-robot systems to handle tasks in unknown or fuzzy models. MAXQ is a layered reinforcement learning algorithm, but some of its parameters are limited. In order to improve the ability of processing tasks, in this paper, the improved MAXQ method is employed to adjust the parameters of the collaborative rules. In addition, in order to improve the task allocation speed, a cooperative game method is used among multiple robots. Finally, to test our approach, we conducted a series of experiments. The experimental results demonstrated that our model achieved better as compared with other detection models. The convergence speed is increased by about 26%. It shows that our model is effective and efficient.
    Keywords: hierarchical reinforcement learning; multi-agent cooperative game; MAXQ; task assignment.

  • Performance analyses of hierarchical location management system for mobile multi-agent system   Order a copy of this article
    by Swati Singhal, Heman Pathak 
    Abstract: Location management of a Mobile Agent (MA) is necessary for a Mobile Agent System (MAS), in which many significant services are accomplished using MA communications that require specific location information. This paper gives the performance analysis of a Hierarchical Location Management System (HLMS) for a mobile MAS with the objectives to reduce the search and update cost. This work also discusses a mailbox-based approach to provide communication among MAs. Mailbox is a data structure which is used to store the messages for MAs. There are two different communication mechanisms (jump and full migration) in which mailbox has been used. In jump migration MAs mailbox always resides at the local router, and in full migration MA always carries its mailbox with it at the host it is executing. For jump migration MA periodically checks its mailbox to get the message. HLMS has been modelled using the timed Coloured Petri Net (CPN) tool. Performance of HLMS is then observed for identified parameters such as Trip Time (TT), Migration Rate (MR), Search Rate (SR), Network Overhead (ND) and Communication Time (COT). Simulation results show that HLMS can locate the MAs in a fault-free environment but TT and ND decrease as intra-region MR increases.
    Keywords: mobile agents; multi-agent system; location management; communication; jump and full migration; CPN tool.

  • Effective beaconing for better throughput in MANET   Order a copy of this article
    by Neelagiri Palanisamy, Murali V. Bhaskar 
    Abstract: The beaconing approach is the key function in geographic routing to disseminate the location. However, the node mobility is a prominent challenge to the beacon-based location broadcasting schemes, resulting in high routing overhead. The conventional methods allow some errors on location prediction. As a result, the mobile nodes update their location when the predicted location exceeds the allowable error range. However, the prediction error is more sensible for boundary nodes than adjacent nodes, as the boundary nodes located in the proximity area act as greedy nodes. Consequently, allowing the static prediction-error for all nodes does not efficiently reduce the overhead while maintaining the neighbour list accuracy. To deal with these issues, this work proposes MObility pattern-free Dynamic and Effective Location update (MODEL) protocol for the maintenance of the trade-off between overhead and precision. The main components considered in the MODEL protocol are beaconing importance and dynamic location prediction-error measurement. The beaconing importance reflects the changes in local topology, and that varies depending on the self and neighbour stability. According to the beaconing importance, the MODEL protocol employs location prediction methodology on neighboring nodes. Instead of allowing the static prediction-error, the Dynamic Acceptance Error Rate (DAR) in the MODEL protocol dynamically calculates the error range to the boundary and adjacent nodes, and enhances the neighbour list accuracy with routing overhead. Owing to the sensitivity of boundary nodes to the location being accurate, the MODEL protocol efficiently exploits the fuzzy algorithm to allow a minimum error in predicting location rather than in adjacent nodes. This work simulates the proposed MODEL protocol in NS2 simulator and compares the performance of the existing Load Balanced-Dynamic Beaconing Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (LB-DB-GPSR). The simulation results show a better performance of the proposed MODEL protocol in terms of overhead, neighbour list accuracy, and throughput.
    Keywords: MANET; location update; geographic routing; node stability; beaconing importance; prediction-error; fuzzy algorithm.

  • A prediction model for piggery ammonia concentration based on least squares support vector regression using fruit fly optimisation algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Chong Chen, Liu Xingqiao 
    Abstract: In order to predict the variation trend of ammonia (NH3) concentration accurately in a piggery and reduce the risk to livestock breeding, a prediction model is established. Because NH3 has a great influence on the health of pigs, a prediction model can provide an effective way for pig industries to determine the environmental control strategy and take effective measures to evaluate the air quality of a piggery. When the predicted value of the NH3 concentration is above the warning value, farmers can start fans in advance to maintain the health of pigs. The proposed NH3 concentration prediction model is based on least squares support vector regression (LSSVR) model with fruit fly optimisation algorithm (FOA) to search the optimal parameters γ and σ of LSSVR. As the performances of LSSVR are greatly affected by the two parameters, three optimisation algorithms, particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm, genetic algorithm (GA) and traditional LSSVR, are used to compare with FOA. The calculated mean absolute percentage errors of the four prediction models are 0.81%, 2.95%, 4.04% and 5.92%, respectively. The prediction model was used in a livestock breeding base in Zhenjiang City, China, and it performed well. The FOA-LSSVR prediction model can serve as an effective strategy applied in multivariable and nonlinear piggery environmental control systems.
    Keywords: ammonia concentration; prediction model; LSSVR; FOA; parameter optimisation.

  • User-based collaborative filtering recommendation method combining with privacy concerns intensity in mobile commerce   Order a copy of this article
    by Qibei Lu, Feipeng Guo 
    Abstract: Existing personalised recommender systems give little consideration to users' privacy concern in mobile commerce. In order to address this issue and some other shortcomings in item recommendations, this paper proposes a novel user-based collaborative filtering recommendation method combined with privacy concerns intensity, and introduces the users six dimensions privacy concerns factors, such as privacy tendency, internal control point, openness, extroversion, agreeableness, and social group influence. The paper puts forward the metric method of privacy concerns intensity with these privacy concerns influence factors, which is used to obtain the similarity preference of users for collective filtering recommendation. Experiments show that this method is more advantageous than other algorithms. More importantly, a combination of subjective privacy concern and objective recommendation technology can reduce the influence of users privacy concerns on their acceptance of mobile personalised service.
    Keywords: influence factors of privacy concerns; privacy concerns intensity; online user’s preference; collective filtering; personalised recommendation.

  • Multi-objective cross-layer approach for 802.11e over MANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahadev Gawas 
    Abstract: The IEEE 802.11e protocol, which provides QoS support to real-time multimedia applications at the MAC layer, has not adequately addressed the issue of handling the data flows through congestion-based mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which results in high data loss, link breakage and re-transmissions, causing performance deterioration. The static nature of resource allocation specified in IEEE 802.11e is the main reason for this suboptimal behaviour. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective cross-layer optimisation (MOCLO) between the PHY-MAC-Network layer after conducting a thorough study of 802.11e behaviour over MANETs. First, we implement each of the queues in 802.11e as a priority queue scheduler rather than the classical FIFO queue to prioritise the transmission of the traffic flow. Next, we propose a congestion-aware QoS metric-based disjoint multipath routing scheme to route the priority traffic through the most efficient path. Using the mapping function between the MAC and network layer, the traffic is split into a set of efficient paths based on priority. We extend our cross-layer approach by exploiting the multi-rate link adaptation function to select the appropriate transmission rate on a frame basis, based on the channel state information. The performance of the proposed scheme is thoroughly evaluated through the simulations, which highlight the advantages of our cross-layer mechanism.
    Keywords: cross layer; data rate; MANETs; priority scheduling; QoS; routing; 802.11e.

  • Numerical analysis of effects of tooth anteversion angle on labyrinth sealing characteristics   Order a copy of this article
    by Guoda Wang, Shaobin Lu, Guanbing Cheng 
    Abstract: Numerical analysis on effects of tooth anteversion angles was made on one straight labyrinth sealing performances. Both labyrinth physical and computational models were established by softwares Solidworks and ANSYS CFX. Five labyrinth tooth anteversion angles were considered. Variations of airflow total pressure and velocity were obtained in one labyrinth with different anteversion angles. The mass flow leakage and its discharge coefficients were calculated accordingly. The simulation results indicate that the pressure degradation becomes more important as the tooth anteversion angle increases. The airflow accelerates across the labyrinth tooth and decelerates in the cavities. The tooth number increases oscillations of flow velocity. The bigger tooth anteversion angle affects the airflow process earlier than those in smaller ones. With increases of anteversion angle, the labyrinth mass flow leakage and its discharge coefficient decrease firstly and then decrease. There is an optimal anteversion angle of the labyrinth regardless of the tooth numbers.
    Keywords: aero-engine; labyrinth seal; mass flow leakage; discharge coefficient; numerical simulation.

  • Experimental and numerical analysis on vibration features of typical external pipe in aero-engine   Order a copy of this article
    by Guanbing Cheng, Xuan Wang, Guoda Wang 
    Abstract: The aero-engine pipe vibration phenomenon is still a serious complicated problem in engine structure design and application. In the present paper, an experimental and computational study was implemented on the aviation straight and L-shape pipe vibration characteristics. The pipe vibration shape and natural frequency were obtained by both hammering and finite element methods (FEM). Effects of fluid type, pressure and temperature were examined on pipe vibration characteristic parameters. The results show that the pipe vibrates along transverse and vertical directions. There are slight differences in pipe vibrating natural frequency in both directions. The experimental natural frequency and vibration modes agree well with those obtained in FEM computation. The fluid type, pressure and temperature can change the pipe vibrating amplitude values, but cannot influence the pipe vibration modal characteristics. Varying the fluid pressure and temperature can to some extent change the pipe natural frequencies.
    Keywords: aero-engine straight pipe; vibration characteristic parameters; experimental and computational modals.

  • QoS-aware routing in body-to-body network for emergency medical care: issues and challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Diana Olivia, Ashalatha Nayak, Mamatha Balachandra 
    Abstract: With the increase in frequencies, intensities, and unpredictability of disasters worldwide, currently there is a necessity for novel ubiquitous communication systems enabling emergency medical care (EMC) at the disaster site for e-triaging of the victims. To reduce the mortality rate at EMC, the victims have to be treated in the order of their health criticality level, where the high critical victims have to be treated before the non-critical ones. Thus, it is necessary to give importance to the transmission of critical victims' data as opposed to non-critical victims' data over the deployed communication system towards the medical caretaker at the disaster site, so that the caretaker can immediately prioritise the patients and the type of treatment. This necessity the requirement of medical condition aware Quality of Service (QoS) support for the transmission of the heterogeneous type of medical data. This paper proposes the deployment of Body-to-Body network (BBN/B2B) to transmit medical data towards the healthcare professionals at EMC to perform e-triaging and thereby to reduce the mortality rate. Further, the paper focuses on the importance of medical condition aware probabilistic and differentiated flow specific and network specific QoS support at BBN to improve the quality and speediness of the e-triage by analysing design criteria required by the routing protocol for BBN at EMC. The existing QoS aware routing protocols in wireless networks, such as Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), mobile ad-hoc network (MANET), Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and Emergency Network (EN), are investigated, along with their merits and demerits with concern to their applicability in BBN at EMC. The study revealed that the existing routing protocols are not suitable and there is a requirement for the novel routing protocol, which focuses on both flow and network specific QoS at the same time. This paper proposes medical data priority and QoS-aware scheduling and routing framework for BBN at EMC. The proposed approach is applicable to the massive scale of applications, such as disaster management, ambient assisted living, mobile health monitoring, military uses, and sports training.
    Keywords: emergency medical care; body-to-body network; wireless body area network; routing protocol; quality of service.

  • Node location algorithm for wireless sensor networks oriented to mountainous terrain   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhong Dong Hu, Tao Yi, Zhendong Wang 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problem of large positioning error in the non-ranging three-dimensional DV-Hop localisation algorithm for wireless sensor networks in mountainous terrain, the NLA-MT localisation algorithm is proposed in this paper. NLA-MT uses the characteristics of the mountain terrain environment effectively. Fitting the topographic surface of the mountain with local plane, the three-dimensional spatial positioning operation can be reduced to the positioning operation of the two-dimensional plane, which improves the positioning accuracy of the node effectively. When compared with the multi-angle simulation experiments, with different communication radii, different anchor nodes and different nodes, NLA-MT performs well in the mountain terrain model, and the accuracy of the non-ranging location algorithm of the wireless sensor network is improved, with the positioning error of about 35% with a high practical value.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; mountain terrain; DV-Hop; positioning algorithm.