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International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing

 

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International Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing (37 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • Expected-mode augmentation method for group targets tracking using the random matrices   Order a copy of this article
    by Yun Wang, Guoping Hu, Hao Zhou 
    Abstract: In order to improve the estimation performance of interactive multiple models (IMM) tracking algorithm for group targets, a new EMA-VSIMM tracking algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, by using the expected-mode augmentation (EMA) method, a more proper expected mode set has been chosen from the basic model set of group targets, which can make the selected tracking models match up to the unknown true mode availably. Secondly, in the filtering process of variable-structure interactive multiple model (VSIMM) approach, the fusion estimation of kinematic state and extension state have been implemented by using classical weighting method and scalar coefficients weighting method, respectively. We use the trace of the corresponding covariance matrix of extension state to calculate the weight coefficient. We calculate the prediction value of the extension state parameter by using a fuzzy reasoning approach to improve the estimation accuracy of the covariance matrix, which takes the elliptical area of extension and its change ratio as the input of the fuzzy controller. The performance of the proposed EMA-VSIMM algorithms is evaluated via simulation of a generic group targets manoeuvring tracking problem.
    Keywords: interactive multiple models; expected-mode augmentation; group targets; maneuvering tracking.

  • Group maintenance strategy for stochastic selective maintenance   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianchao Zeng, Jing Zhao 
    Abstract: Selective maintenance is often applied to many industrial environments in which the maintenance actions are performed between sequence missions. When the length of maintenance or work mission time is stochastic and there are multiple maintenance workers with different capacities, previous works that determine maintenance and mission time are unsuitable. Assuming that the time of work mission is random and maintenance time is determined, to maximise system reliability of the next work mission, this paper proposes a stochastic model for a two-state system comprising several series-parallel components with multiple maintenance workers under the maintenance time limit. The optimal maintenance plan is obtained by hybrid intelligent optimisation algorithm. The validity and feasibility of the model are verified by the simulation.
    Keywords: stochastic model; stochastic selective maintenance; mission time; maintenance time; group maintenance.

  • A hybrid harmony search algorithm for node localisation in wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhaolu Guo, Shenwen Wang, Baoyong Yin, Songhua Liu, Xiaosheng Liu 
    Abstract: Harmony search (HS) has been widely used in the field of wireless sensor networks. However, the search strategy of the basic HS has excellent exploration capability but weak exploitation capability. To enhance the search capability of HS, this paper presents a hybrid harmony search algorithm (HBHS) for node localisation in wireless sensor networks. The proposed HBHS employs the best solution to enhance the exploitation capability. Moreover, HBHS uses an adaptive search step-size scheme to further enhance the search capability. To verify the search performance, HBHS is compared with two HS algorithms on a suite of classical benchmark problems. The comparisons confirm that HBHS can achieve better performance than the compared HS algorithms on the most of the benchmark problems. Further, HBHS is applied for node localisation in wireless sensor networks.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; localisation; harmony search; hybrid strategy.

  • Global minimisation of fuzzy level set for image segmentation   Order a copy of this article
    by Guoqi Liu, Chenjing Li, Ming Deng 
    Abstract: Level set is an important method in image segmentation, and some models based on level set method have obtained great success, such as Chan and Vese (C-V) and its convex formulation, local binary fitting (LBF) model. However, these models have two drawbacks to be simultaneously solved. One is the non-convexity of energy function; the other difficulty is segmenting objects in the background of inhomogeneous intensity. In order to simultaneously cope with these shortcomings, a fuzzy level set energy function is proposed. In order to robustly deal with intensity inhomogeneity, a fuzzy factor is introduced in the original LBF model to describe the intensity inhomogeneity. Besides, the edge information is also integrated into the proposed model to improve the robustness of extracting objects. Finally, a regularisation optimisation method is introduced to obtain the global minimisation of the proposed model. Experimental results with quantitative evaluation confirm that the proposed method could segment objects in images with inhomogeneous intensity, and they also show that the proposed method is robust to initialisation because of the convexity of the proposed energy function.
    Keywords: image segmentation; fuzzy level set; global minimisation; intensity inhomogeneity.

  • Cellular automata-based model of formation of aerobic granular sludge   Order a copy of this article
    by Benzhai Hai, Jie Yang, HaiLei Wang, Zongbo Qiu 
    Abstract: In this paper, aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using synthetic wastewater. A cellular automata (CA) model was established to simulate the formation of an aerobic granular sludge. The results indicate that the model not only visualised the complex formation process of aerobic granules, but also allowed qualitative and quantitative study of the aerobic granules. Thus, the CA model is suitable for simulation of the formation process of aerobic granules cultivated in a granular SBR.
    Keywords: cellular automata; aerobic granular sludge; wastewater treatment.

  • Artificial bee colony algorithm for energy efficiency optimisation in massive MIMO system   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatma Bouchibane, Messaoud Bensebti 
    Abstract: This paper deals with antenna selection for multi-user massive MIMO systems, with the aim of maximising energy efficiency. Massive MIMO technology, by employing a large number of antennas at a base station, provides huge improvements in throughput and energy efficiency. However, the increased number of antennas leads to additional energy consumption due to RF chains and signal processing circuit. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the optimal subset of antennas at the base station that should be activated to serve a given number of active user devices. This idea is implemented using an artificial bee colony algorithm, which has proven its efficiency by specifying the best control parameters.
    Keywords: 5G; massive MIMO; energy efficiency; antenna selection; artificial bee colony.

  • Hyperheuristic for steelmaking casting rescheduling based on strong disturbance   Order a copy of this article
    by Guozhang Jiang, Xiaowu Chen, Bingze Wu, Feng Xiang, Gongfa Li 
    Abstract: The stochastic disturbance in steelmaking casting often leads to failure of the production plan. So rescheduling is necessary for the manufacturing system. In the background of the increasing scale of scheduling and the numerous kinds of disturbance, the different algorithms are designed for different rescheduling problems, which will greatly increase the workload of the scheduling. In this paper, the disturbances are classified as strong disturbance and weak disturbance, and a rescheduling driven rule of strong disturbance is designed. Especially, the various disturbances that impact on the production plan could be reflected as time changes, so a rescheduling model under time strong disturbance is established. In this paper, a hyperheuristic genetic algorithm (HHGA) is designed based on the heuristic rules and genetic algorithms. The simulation results of the rescheduling model under strong time disturbance indicate the success with the HHGA.
    Keywords: steelmaking casting; strong disturbances; rescheduling; hyperheuristic.

  • Cascading failures to attack on edges in interdependent networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Dan Cui, Charles Shen, Feniosky Peña-Mora, Jianguo Chen 
    Abstract: Networks mostly interact with and depend on each other in modern society, operating and functioning as interdependent networks. In this paper, the cascading process of the interdependent networks against the attack on edges is studied. Then the robustness of the heterogeneous coupled networks and homogeneous coupled networks under random attack and targeted attack is fully explored. It is found that for heterogeneous and homogeneous coupled networks, no particular type always performs better than others. However, in general, homogeneous coupled networks exhibit better robustness than the heterogeneous ones in most cases. It is also found that under targeted attack, no matter what the type of the interdependent network, it gets more vulnerable as the value of the alpha parameter increases, whereas the similar feature cannot be observed in the case of random attack.
    Keywords: interdependent networks; edge attack; cascading failures; network robustness.

  • Safety evaluation for evacuation system under serious emergency from interdependent network perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Huafu Jiang, Youhong Dong 
    Abstract: In urban safety risk management, many systems can be represented by networks. Major emergency evacuation risk control systems, which are complex systems, are affected by some factors including subjective personnel movement, obstacles, environment and subgroup coordination, which makes the action of the crowd in the system uncertain. It is difficult to examine the risk management related problems under such an uncertain environment. In this paper, the personnel evacuation system is selected as the research objective, and the cascade failure process is modelled and simulated through the complex network theory. Firstly, based on the mutual influence of individual decision-making and overall behaviour in the network, cascading failure processes due to attacks on edges are explored and the S-C-B load redistribution model is innovatively proposed. Secondly, based on the random attack and intentional attack scenarios, we explore the effectiveness of the S-C-B model at improving the system security compared with the original allocation mechanism. Through simulation, we find that owing to the correlation between two subsystems, such as people, objects and management, the tiny destruction in the subsystem will spread rapidly across the network, which will lead to the large-scale destruction of the evacuation network. In addition, for the three subsystems [human, material, management], improvement of any one of these three, can effectively cut off the accident domino and improve the effectiveness of evacuation.
    Keywords: interdependent network; serious emergency; risk management; evacuation; safety.

  • Task selection strategies of self-interested robots in skill games   Order a copy of this article
    by Hao Wang, Minglan Fu, Baofu Fang 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on task allocation for skill games involving a coalition of multiple self-interested robots. When the self-interested robots select tasks, it is difficult for them to maximise both their individual revenues and the system revenue simultaneously. But through reasonable distribution of the tasks utilities, the two matrices can be kept consistent to some extent. Based on this idea, an algorithm is proposed to allocate tasks to self-interested robots that can be in conservative state or radical state. Conservative task selection strategies ensure that the game will converge to Nash equilibrium. Radical task selection strategies help the algorithm to jump out of the Nash equilibrium. Tasks utilities are distributed according to the robots powers in the game. Meanwhile, the algorithm endows each robot with a numerical value, called patience, so that the robots can transform between these two states. Finally, the simulation results verified the effectiveness of the algorithm.
    Keywords: multi-robot coordination; self-interested robot; coalition skill games; Nash equilibrium; best response strategy.

  • Adaptive video contrast enhancement with low noise amplification via local data analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhi Dou, Shixun Wang, Hualei Shen, Guoqi Liu 
    Abstract: Unlike global enhancement methods, the proposed algorithm analyses an image in local areas to take full advantage of the local information, and enhances it in two channels to obtain the exact result. Furthermore, the algorithm can restrain noise amplification by virtue of local statistic characteristics analysis. To enhance videos, the proposed method can make use of temporal information regarding the Kullback-Leibler distance between frames to reduce computational complexity. Experimental results show that the resultant images from the proposed algorithm are comparable or better than those from previous state-of-the-art methods. On the other hand, the computational complexity of the proposed method is much lower than the current local-data-based contrast enhancement algorithms.
    Keywords: contrast enhancement; local-data-based; low noise amplification.

  • Research on the logistics robot task allocation method based on improved ant colony algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Xue Fei, Tingting Dong 
    Abstract: In this paper, multiple logistics robot task allocation in an intelligent warehouse system is studied. First, the task allocation model is developed based on two objectives of time balancing among logistics robots and the correlation between tasks. Then, the model is solved using the improved ant colony algorithm which innovates from the updating rule of pheromone and the setting of the heuristic function. Finally, by simulation experiment, on the one hand, the improved ant colony algorithm can be used to solve the logistics robot task allocation and get a task allocation scheme. On the other hand, the validity of the improved ant colony algorithm can be verified by comparing the improved and original ant colony algorithms.
    Keywords: task allocation; logistics robot; intelligent warehouse system; ant colony algorithm.

  • A improving clustering algorithm for order batching of an e-commerce warehouse system based on logistic robots   Order a copy of this article
    by Xue Fei, Tingting Dong, Zixiang Qi 
    Abstract: In this paper, the batching model and strategy of orders in an e-commerce warehouse system based on logistic robots are studied. First, different order-picking patterns are put forward by analysing the operation process of logistic robots in the e-commerce warehouse system. Then the order-batching model is established based on the two objectives of the minimisation of the total picking and travelling time of logistic robots and the minimisation of the longest picking time used among all the picking stations. The model is solved using the improved clustering algorithm. Finally, the results show that the picking pattern of batching first and combining last has the advantages of higher put-out-storage efficiency by simulating experiment and the comparison analysis of order-picking efficiency corresponding to different order-picking patterns.
    Keywords: logistic robots; e-commerce warehouse system; order batching; clustering algorithm.

  • Optimal decisions of a retailer-owned dual-channel supply chain with demand disruptions under different power structures   Order a copy of this article
    by Song Huang, Shuting Chen, Hui Li 
    Abstract: This paper studies the optimal restoration policy when a retailer-owned dual-channel supply chain experiences unexpected demand disruptions. We study three different supply chain power structures: the manufacturer Stackelberg (MS) game, the retailer Stackelberg (RS) game and the vertical Nash (VN) game. By defining a virtual production cost function, we establish an easy way to restore the supply chains performance. We find that the original wholesale price is robust with demand disruptions if the disruption is mild and the disruption costs are borne by the retailer. In the VN market, the optimal adjusted wholesale price when the disruption costs are borne by the manufacturer is higher than that when the disruption costs are borne by the retailer, if and only if the demand disruption is negative. Moreover, the supply chain power structures have no impact on the robustness of the original production quantity in the decentralised dual-channel supply chain.
    Keywords: dual-channel supply chain; disruption management; power structures; game theory.

  • RJDSS: a storage system for released judicial data   Order a copy of this article
    by Yun Teng, Dong Guo 
    Abstract: A storage system for released judicial data (RJDSS) plays an important role in a judicial publicity visualisation analysis system, which can provide convenience for the government and the general public. Released judicial data presents a number of challenges to the underlying storage system owing to the characteristics of huge amount, wide variety and rapid growth. In order to improve the performance of the upper visualisation system, RJDSS is designed and implemented based on the access characteristics of the released judicial data. Furthermore, it is optimised in system expansion, storage density and read/write performance through such key technologies as scalable distributed storage organisation strategy, highly reliable data dynamic layout mechanism, and exponential-decay-based cache algorithm. The experimental results of effectiveness analysis, data import and video playback show that the RJDSS system achieves performance improvement by 3.5x, compared with the existing judicial data storage systems.
    Keywords: released judicial data; storage system; scalability; I/O performance.

  • Demand forecasting for transportation service network of food cold chain based on a combined model of trend double exponential smoothing and improved grey methods   Order a copy of this article
    by Xing Xu, Ren-wang Li, Yun Zhao, Xin-li Wu, Timo Nyberg 
    Abstract: In a competitive market, the accurate forecasting of short-term transport demand is critical to the transportation service network of a food cold chain. In this paper a model that combines trend double exponential smoothing and improved grey forecasting methods is proposed to predict the short-term cold chain transport demand of transportation service networks of a food cold chain, showing changes in trends and seasonal fluctuations having irregular periods. The combined model is constructed to fit the changing trends and the featured seasonal fluctuation periods. In order to improve forecasting accuracy and model adaptability, the combined model is modelled repeatedly to fit the remnant tail time series of the main combination model until forecast accuracy is achieved. The modelling approach is applied to the freight companies engaged in the transportation of the food cold chain in China. The results demonstrate that the proposed modelling approach produces acceptable forecasting results and goodness of fit, also showing good model adaptability in an uncertain environment. This fact makes the modelling approach an option for predicting the short-term transportation demands of the food cold chain transportation service network.
    Keywords: demand forecasting; transportation service network; combination model; time series analysis.

  • PAPR reduction in OFDM using various coding techniques   Order a copy of this article
    by Priyanka Mishra, Mehboob Ul Amin 
    Abstract: OFDM is a transmission scheme that offers diversity in frequency selective fading environments but suffers from high PAPR. Many researchers have studied the appropriate coding scheme to reduce PAPR and offer good error control properties as well. This article reviews the major results obtained up to date for the reduction of PAPR. Various scrambling techniques, such as PTS and SLM, have been combined with clipping-filtering and DCT to reduce PAPR. The various coding techniques, such as block coding and Reed Muller codes, have been evaluated in this paper to obtain significant reduction in PAPR. CCDF graphs depict the performances of the proposed techniques.
    Keywords: OFDM; PTS; SLM; CCDF;DCT.

  • Optimal cluster head selection by hybridisation of firefly and grey wolf optimisation   Order a copy of this article
    by T. Senthil Murugan, Amit Sarkar 
    Abstract: Clustering is one of the fundamental techniques for prolonging the life expectancy of a WSN. However, cluster head selection still remains the major challenge in WSN with respect to energy stabilisation. This paper proposes the Firefly Cyclic Grey Wolf Optimisation (FCGWO) to simulate the optimal cluster head selection framework. The main objective of this paper is to select the cluster head optimally by focusing on the stabilisation of energy, minimisation of the distance between nodes and minimisation of delay. It hybridises the Firefly (FF) and Grey Wolf Optimisation (GWO) algorithms to attain the best performance. After the simulation, it compares the performance of the FCGWO-based cluster head selection over the traditional algorithms, such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Group Search Optimisation (GSO), Artificial Bee Colony (ABC), Fractional Artificial Bee Colony (FABC), FF, Firefly with Cyclic Randomisation (FCR) and GWO-based cluster head selection. The performance comparison appears to analyse the network lifetime, energy efficiency and statistics of dead nodes. The simulation outcomes show that the proposed cluster head selection model is more efficient to prolong the lifetime of the network.
    Keywords: WSN; clustering; cluster head selection; hybridisation; FCGWO.

  • Research on parallelisation of collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on Spark   Order a copy of this article
    by Yang Yongli, Ning Zhenhu, Cai Yongquan, Liang Peng, Liu Haifeng 
    Abstract: More and more people become conscious of the recommendation system to make good use of the data through their inherent advantages faced with the large amount of data on the internet. The collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm cannot avoid the bottleneck of computing performance problems in the recommendation process. In this paper, we propose a parallel collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm, RLPSO_KM_CF, which is implemented based on Spark. Firstly, the RLPSO (Reverse-learning and local-learning PSO) algorithm is used to find the optimal solution of particle swarm and to output the optimised clustering centre. Then, the RLPSO_KM algorithm is used to cluster the user information. Finally, effective recommendations are made to the target user by combining the traditional user-based collaborative filtering algorithm with the RLPSO_KM clustering algorithm. The experimental results show that the RLPSO_KM_CF algorithm has a significant improvement in the recommendation accuracy and has a higher speedup and stability
    Keywords: collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm; RLPSO algorithm; K-means algorithm; Spark.

  • Energy consumption prediction model of plane grinder processing system based on BP neural network   Order a copy of this article
    by Yan Zhou, Hua Zhang, Wei Yan, Feng Ma, Gongfa Li, Wentao Cheng 
    Abstract: According to the processing characteristics of high energy consumption and low efficiency of China's CNC surface grinding machine, this paper studies the process parameters influence on the energy consumption of the processing system, determines the wheel speed, feed speed of worktable and grinding depth as the main parameters, in which the grinding depth has the greatest influence on energy consumption. Then, the prediction model of the energy consumption of the processing system based on BP neural network is established, and the above three main factors are used as input and the additional load loss power. After training the model, the energy consumption ratio of the grinding machine system can be predicted. The prediction results show that the accuracy of the model is high, and it can predict the energy consumption of the grinder in the process well.
    Keywords: processing system energy consumption; process parameters; BP neural network; prediction model.

  • Optimal base station location in LTE heterogeneous network using non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II   Order a copy of this article
    by Ouamri Mohamed Amine, Zenadji Sylia, Khellaf Sylia, Azni Mohamed 
    Abstract: The main objective of radio network planning is to provide a cost-effective solution for the radio network in terms of coverage, capacity and quality of service. The network planning process and design criteria vary from region to region depending on the dominant factor, which could be capacity or coverage. However, the optimisation of base stations is an important and crucial process in cellular network planning. It represents a major challenge for mobile operators and is considered an NP-hard problem. In this work, we study the placement of the base station and configuration with an optimisation approach. In addition, a mathematical model based on set covering problem is suggested to solve the base station positioning. The main objectives of model are to maximise the coverage and minimise the financial cost. Non-Dominate Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II) is applied to find a suitable solution. Simulation results and discussions on the performance of suggested algorithm are provided.
    Keywords: base station; cellular network planning; antenna; genetic algorithm;.

  • A feature selection method based on effective range and SVM-RFE   Order a copy of this article
    by Yifei Mao, Yuansheng Yang 
    Abstract: Identification of discriminative features from information-rich data with the goal of clinical diagnosis is crucial in the field of biomedical science. Support Vector Machine Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE), an efficient feature selection method, has been widely applied in the domain and has achieved remarkable results. However, biological data are usually class-imbalanced and contain outliers, which largely affect the feature ranking in SVM-RFE. This paper proposes a new feature selection method based on SVM-RFE and Effective Range (SVM-RFE-ER). The proposed method ranks the features by means of combining the SVM weight and the feature weight based on the effective ranges. Experiments on the simulated and real datasets have shown that SVM-RFE-ER is robust, especially against outlier and imbalanced data, and it is effective in identifying biologically meaningful biomarkers for disease study.
    Keywords: feature selection; imbalanced data; outlier data; effective range; SVM-RFE.

  • Performance analysis of efficient power consumption protocols in wireless sensor networks using RELSEP and TSEP   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramkrishna Ghosh, Dipak Kumar Jana 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks have attracted worldwide attention. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) consist of wirelessly interconnected sensor nodes organised arbitrarily or deterministically in an environmental area, which can gather, distribute and route information in different application areas. Power consumption in these networks is the foremost problem. WSNs are a recent generation of sensor networks and have an ample range of applications, and their expansion and application will have an extensive impact in human life and construction of all areas. Some of the applications include diaster management, landslide detection, glaciar monitoring, wildlife tracking, health care, military applications, environmental monitoring, security surveillance, industrial process control and a large number of applications to robotics, including Internet of Things (IOTs) projects. This paper will demonstrate the elementary description of WSN followed by different energy-efficient power consumption protocols. Here we have performed the comparative performance analysis of different energy-efficient protocols. In our work we have compared MODLEACH with TSEP followed by TSEP with RELSEP.
    Keywords: WSN; LEACH; MODLEACH; SEP; TSEP; cluster head.

  • Research on conservation planning strategy of historic and cultural site islands in Shanghai based on analytic hierarchy process   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhen Wei, Wei Zhang 
    Abstract: With the continuous development of Shanghai in the process of internationalisation city construction, a variety of urban problems have emerged. The emergence and conservation planning of historic and cultural landscape site islands in Shanghai has become an important research object in academic circles. This paper applies the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to the conservation planning strategy of historic and cultural site islands in Shanghai. By establishing a protection hierarchy of historic and cultural sites and calculating the weight of elements in each layer, various important factors are ranked. The corresponding protection planning strategy is put forward, which not only provides support for the conservation planning of historic and cultural site islands in Shanghai, but also offers reference for the conservation planning of historic and cultural site islands in other cities.
    Keywords: analytic hierarchy process; conservation planning; historic and cultural landscape site islands; Shanghai.

  • Efficient analytic discrete cosine harmonic wavelet transform OFDM with denoising   Order a copy of this article
    by M.N. Suma, S.V. Narasimhan 
    Abstract: Present wireless implementation needs efficient modulation methods and signal processing at physical layer to enhance system performance. OFDM is one such modulation and multiplexing method preferred for such implementation. OFDM implementation using harmonic wavelets has better performance and implementation simplicity. In this paper, denoising is applied to Analytic Discrete Cosine Harmonic Wavelet Transform OFDM (ADCHWT OFDM), which is implemented in harmonic wavelet domain. ADCHWT is simple and shift-invariant as it does not involve explicit decimation, interpolation and associated filtering and delay compensation. The reduced leakage and computational simplicity offered by ADCHWT provides an interesting opportunity to explore its application for the OFDM system. By application of denoising, BER performance is further improved in shift-invariant ADCHWT OFDM compared with its earlier version DCHWT OFDM
    Keywords: OFDM; analytic DCHWT; BER; PAPR.

  • An energy-efficient wireless sensor network routing protocol powered by ambient energy harvesting   Order a copy of this article
    by M.A. Mohamed, Abeer Twakol Khalil, Ahmed Hammad 
    Abstract: Energy and clustering are the most important elements in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Lifetime, stability period, saving energy, deployment of nodes, fault tolerance and latency are the main challenges in WSNs as a result of their wide range of applications. This paper proposes a routing algorithm using solar-powered nodes in heterogeneous WSN to reach energy-efficient clustering concept. It is shown via simulations that the proposed protocol has better network stability period, network lifetime, total remaining energy, and throughput compared with other protocols, including LEACH, Teen, DEEC, and SEP, with more effective and stability data packet messages.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy; stable election protocol; threshold sensitive energy efficient sensor network; distributed energy efficient clustering.

  • Fast computation method for privacy-preserving data aggregation protocol   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuan Jiangjun, Jie Wang 
    Abstract: Recent years have seen the rapid improvement of smart terminals and wireless networks, and a lot of smart applications have come to the fore, such as mobile sensing. Taking advantage of smart terminals, more and more complicated sensing tasks can be taken over and finished. Data aggregation is an important application that is required by many tasks, such as remote health care and smart metering. The sensing devices in mobile sensing systems get time-series data, which can be used for supply forecast and leakage detection. As people nowadays pay more attention to privacy issues, to allow people to use todays data aggregation application, the first task is to solve their privacy concerns. Here, we propose a fast encryption/decryption mechanism for addition operations on keyed hash functions, which is based on multi-threads computation and parallel computation on multi-cores architecture and multi-threads based CPU. We apply the fast encryption/decryption method to the encryption/decryption key generation process by mobile sensors and aggregator, and the decryption process by aggregator. The advanced protocol presented here works better for large systems and requires less time cost for both mobile sensors and aggregators. We implement the fast encryption/decryption method based on the advanced privacy-preserving data aggregation protocol, and the test experiments show the performance benefits of the presented protocol.
    Keywords: privacy; mobile sensing; multi-threads; untrusted aggregator.

  • Transition rate, trend and signal strength based stable routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks   Order a copy of this article
    by P. Gnanasekaran, T.R. Rangaswamy 
    Abstract: In order to have continuous connectivity for data transmission in mobile ad hoc networks, it is necessary to establish a stable path with a long lifetime. Even though much work carried out by researchers to maintain the path for a long lifetime, it is necessary to give more importance to consider the stability of the nodes during the path discovery phase itself. To increase the stability of the path, this paper proposes a Transition Rate, Trend and Signal strength based Stable Routing Protocol (TTSSRP), considering the transition trend of a node along with signal strength for a predetermined period during the route discovery process. During a predetermined period, several samples are collected from a node. The total number of transitions and rate of change of signal strength with respect to the first position is computed for all sampling times to find the stability of a particular node so as to select one of the nodes in the path. This procedure is followed until the destination is reached. Simulation results confirm the superiority of TTSSRP over the Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol and the Relative link and Path stability based Routing (RLPSR) protocol in terms of packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and route lifetime.
    Keywords: mobile ad hoc network; transition rate; signal strength; stability.

  • Maximum match filtering algorithm to defend spectrum-sensing data falsification attack in cognitive wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Pinaki Sankar Chatterjee, Monideepa Roy 
    Abstract: Cognitive wireless sensor networks (CWSNs) are a new technology to provide better bandwidth usage compared with a normal wireless sensor network. CWSNs use opportunistic spectrum access to transfer data. They transmit data through the primary user's spectrum band when there is heavy traffic in its own network. IEEE 802.22 is the first standard that tells us about the concept of cognitive radio. It also helps the network to eliminate collisions and delays in data delivery. While doing so, however, CWSNs are subject to several security threats, attacks on secrecy and authentication, attacks on network availability, stealthy attacks on service integrity, etc. The attacks on network availability are known as the Denial of Service (DOS) attacks. The Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification (SSDF) attack is a type of DOS attack. In SSDF attack the attackers modify the spectrum sensing report in order to compel the base station to take a wrong collaborative decision regarding the vacant spectrum band in other networks. In this paper, we have proposed a new algorithm for collaborative spectrum sensing and spectrum decision making in CWSNs, named the Maximum-Match Filtering algorithm (MMF). This algorithm is executed at the base station to counter the SSDF attack.
    Keywords: cognitive wireless sensor network; denial of service attack; spectrum sensing data falsification attack; multiple linear regression.

  • BMROMP: a fast algorithm of block compressed sensing   Order a copy of this article
    by Yongping Zhang, Lei Wang, Yan Liu, Jun Gao, Qiming Liu, Rong Chen 
    Abstract: Compressed sensing (CS) is a method of signal sampling that can directly acquire the compressed form of the original signal. However, its signal reconstruction needs to solve the optimisation algorithm with high computational complexity. This paper introduces a redesigned algorithm of block CS, called BMROMP (Block More Relaxed Regularised Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), which is a fast reconstruction algorithm for 2D-signals based on the ROMP algorithm. To reduce the consumption of computational resources when reconstructing 2D-signals with big size, BMROMP uses the method of dividing blocks reconstruction. For the reconstruction of each block signal, like ROMP, BMROMP also uses the least-squares method, but relaxes the calculation of the most relevant atoms. It is realised by a newly defined parameter, regularised-entire-correlation. The parameter can help us obtain a 2D reconstructed signal directly. The experimental results show that BMROMP has great performance advantage in the reconstruction speed, i.e., it can drastically reduce the execution time of the optimisation algorithm. This point is very useful in many scenarios of CS application.
    Keywords: block CS; fast algorithm; least-square optimisation; regularised-entire-correlation.

  • Stochastic analysis of DTN routing protocols in delay tolerant network routing hierarchical topology   Order a copy of this article
    by El Arbi Abdellaoui Alaoui, Khalid Nassiri 
    Abstract: We propose in this work a topology adapted to the routing in the delay tolerant networks (DTN). This topology plays a very important role in the design and the implementation of routing protocols in this type of network devoid of any infrastructure and any centralised administration with an intermittent connectivity. Indeed, we develop a DTN routing hierarchical topology (DRHT) which incorporates three fundamental concepts: ferries messages, ferries routes, and clusters. The intra-cluster routing is managed by the cluster head, while the inter-cluster routing is managed by the ferries messages. This approach allows us to improve the performances of DTNs. In addition, we present a modelling and an analysis of the process of the bundles distribution in a DTN through a Markov process of birth and death in continuous time; our modelling takes into account the characteristics of the DTN. The simulation results have shown that our DRHT solution proves to be effective and adequate in the context of the DTNs compared with other existing approaches.
    Keywords: delay tolerant networks; bundles; stochastic processes; hierarchical cluster; DRHT; TSP.

  • Throughput enhancement of SISO parallel LTE turbo decoders using floating point turbo decoding algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Parvathy, R. Ganesan 
    Abstract: A floating point decoding algorithm for advanced turbo decoders is proposed in this paper. The analysis of the proposed algorithm is done as an alternative to the Tail Overlapped Decoding (TOD) algorithm. This article is described as a comparative analysis of the TOD and floating point turbo decoding algorithms for the throughput enhancement of the fourth generation mobile networks. The latter one is proved to be better for the throughput enrichment and latency reduction with reduced power consumption for long term evolution networks. The decoder with odd-even interleaver considerably reduces the computational complexity and thus enhances the throughput.
    Keywords: fourth generation mobile networks; tail overlapped algorithm; fully parallel turbo decoder; throughput; latency; odd-even interleavers.

  • PQISEM: Bayesian network's structure learning based on partial qualitative influences and SEM algorithm from missing data   Order a copy of this article
    by Yali Lv, Jian’ai Wu, Tong Jing 
    Abstract: The structure learning of Bayesian network (BN) is an important issue for probabilistic inference by BN modelling. In general, based on domain knowledge, experts can give easily the partial qualitative influences between variables in BN. Thus, in this paper, for missing data, a structure learning algorithm of BN, named PQISEM algorithm, is proposed by making full use of these partial qualitative influences and SEM algorithm. Specifically, firstly, we address the problem of how to modify BN's parameters, based on qualitative influence knowledge for complete data by EM algorithm, which makes the parameters of BN that have the best structure to meet the given qualitative constraint relationship in each iteration. Then, based on qualitative influences, we give random search operators in a hill climbing strategy, and then analyse the selection rule of the initial network and selection strategy of candidate networks based on these operators. Further, the PQISEM algorithm of BN's structure learning is proposed, based on partial qualitative influences and SEM algorithm, and its complexity and convergence are analysed and discussed. Finally, the learning performance of the PQISEM algorithm is verified by comparing with other algorithms on standard networks and analysing on different sample sizes and different missing value proportion.
    Keywords: Bayesian network; missing data; partial qualitative influences; qualitative influence knowledge; structure learning; SEM algorithm.

  • Using PSO-TVAC to improve the performance of DV-Hop   Order a copy of this article
    by Fang Juanyan, Feng Junhua 
    Abstract: Particle swarm optimisation with time-varying accelerator coefficients is a novel variant of particle swarm optimisation algorithms. Different from the standard version, the cognitive coefficient and social coefficient are both adjusted with the different generations to balance the exploitation and exploration capabilities. In this paper, particle swarm optimisation is incorporated into the methodology of DV-Hop algorithm to estimate the beacon nodes' positions. To show the performance, it is compared with two other algorithms, and simulation results show it is effective.
    Keywords: particle swarm optimisation; time-varying accelerator coefficients; DV-Hop algorithm.

  • Using machine learning methods for detecting network anomalies within SNMP-MIB datasets   Order a copy of this article
    by Ghazi Al-Naymat, Mouhammd Al-kasassbeh, Eshraq Al-Harwari 
    Abstract: The exponential increase in the amount of malicious threats on computer networks and internet services, due to the large number of attacks, means that the network security is at continuous risk. One of the most prevalent network attacks is Denial of Service (DoS) flooding attacks. DoS attacks have recently become the most attractive type of attack to attackers and have posed devastating threats to network services. Hence, there is a need for effective approaches that can efficiently detect any intrusion in a network. This paper presents an efficient mechanism for network attacks detection and types of attack classification, within the Management Information Base (MIB) data, which is associated with the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), through machine learning techniques. This paper also investigates the impact of SNMP-MIB data in the detection of network anomalies. Three classifiers, namely Random Forest, AdaboostM1 and MLP, are used to build the detection model. The use of different classifiers presents a comprehensive study on the effectiveness of SNMP-MIB data in detecting different types of attack. In our approach, we categorised the MIB variables into five MIB groups (Interface, IP, ICMP, TCP and UDP) where each group includes a number of MIB variables that are affiliated to it. The empirical results show that the classifiers can successfully detect and classify the attacks with a high detection rate. The Random Forest classifier achieved the highest accuracy rate with the IP group (100%) and with the Interface group (99.93%). In addition, results show that among the five MIB groups the Interface and IP groups are the groups that are affected the most by all types of attack, whereas the ICMP, TCP and UDP groups are less affected.
    Keywords: anomaly detection; DoS attack; SNMP; MIB; machine learning classifier.

  • An investigation on metaheuristic techniques for solving cell to switch assignment problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Mridul Chawla, Manoj Duhan 
    Abstract: The assignment of cells to switches in a Personal Communication Services Network (PCSN) is a Non-deterministic Polynomial time (NP) hard problem with exponential complexity and is among the hardest combinatorial optimisation problems of great practical importance in wireless communication systems. The objective is to assign cells to switches in an optimal manner, such that the cost comprising of the sum of handoff, cabling and switching cost is minimised with reasonable accuracy in an acceptable time scale, while obeying the constraints that each cell must be assigned to exactly one switch and total load of all the cells which are assigned to a switch is below the capacity of the switch. The aim of this article is to experimentally investigate the performance of three recent metaheuristic algorithms namely Bat Algorithm (BA), Firefly Algorithm (FA), and Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) for solving the Cell to Switch Assignment (CSA) problem.
    Keywords: metaheuristics; personal communication service network; cell to switch assignment; bat algorithm; firefly algorithm; flower pollination algorithm.

  • Denial of service attack mitigation addressing all the security attributes in OLSR MANET   Order a copy of this article
    by Ramaswamy Bhuvaneswari, R. Ramachandran 
    Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network is formed instantly by mobile nodes that exist in a particular radio range. The infrastructure for the network can be laid when and wherever required. The nodes themselves serve as routers to forward the data from the source to the destination through multiple hops. The protocols for these ad hoc networks are built in such that every node is considered as trustworthy, and they work cooperatively among themselves. But in the real environment some nodes are malicious and disrupt the actual communication. In this paper. we discuss the security of the OLSR protocol by mitigating various active attacks and the role of elliptic curve cryptography and fictitious nodes in strengthening the security attributes.
    Keywords: routing protocols; security attributes; DoS attacks; elliptic curve cryptography; OLSR; network layer attacks.