International Journal of Tourism Policy (9 papers in press)
Economic aspects of cyclical implementation in Greek sustainable hospitality
by Angeliki N. Menegaki
Abstract: The circular economy has appeared at the forefront of the agendas of global economic, environmental and social institutions. While the European Commission has stressed the emphasis on zero waste, the circular economy implies more than that. This paper uses a sample of twenty five 4* and 5* hotels in Greece with published sustainability reports and explains how and up to what degree, they can be regarded as circular economies. This paper will aid hotel management to understand the loops present in the hospitality industry and can be used for benchmarking as well as the education of their green teams and the set-up of a green marketing tool. Foremost, the paper can enable targeted policy implementation by central, regional and municipal governments as well as systemized information on the state-of-the art of the Greek hotels, through the first sustainability databank the paper compiles, which otherwise would remain fragmented without much use.
Keywords: Circular economy; hotel business; resources; smart sustainable technologies;.
An analysis of the impact of the micro environment on airline performances in South Africa using Porters Five forces model
by Osward Mhlanga
Abstract: The reliability and dependability of carriers to perform consistently is of critical importance to the tourism industry. This article focuses on the impacts of the micro environment on airline performances in South Africa. A mixed-methods research design was followed. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from 154 respondents from eight different airlines. From the study it is clear that two forces, namely rivalry amongst existing competitors and the bargaining power of suppliers significantly (p<0.05) and negatively impacted on the performances of all airlines whilst the threat of substitute products significantly (p<0.05) and negatively impacted on the performances of state carriers. The bargaining power of customers significantly (p<0.05) and negatively impacted on the performances of Comair, Mango, SAX and SAA. To improve airline performances, the South African government must create a level playing field for airline operators and stop overprotecting national carriers.
Keywords: Tourism; state-carriers; mixed-methods; threats; airline performances; micro environment; competitors; suppliers; customers; substitute products.
AUDIO MANAGEMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND BRANDING OF KRK ISLAND
by Christian Stipanovic, Diana Grguric, Natasa Jurina
Abstract: The paper studies music as an essential element of both the tourism offering and promotion in branding the destination and making it distinctive. Theoretical determinants are based on a multi-disciplinary approach to studying the research subject and build upon the recent literature. To analyse the current state and actively create the future of the audio offering and promotion of Krk Island, applied research was conducted based on a survey of stakeholders and destination managers, a study of the acoustic quality of a music concert and the proposals of the authors based on the scientific literature. An audio management model that incorporates the valorization of sound and music within a soundscape approach, as well business operations within the framework of a tourism product club as a new collaborative way of doing business, is put forward to facilitate the development of audio products aimed at ensuring a one-of-a-kind tourist experience as well as profit multiplication.
Keywords: music; soundscape; audio management; acoustic quality; acoustic design; Krk Island; development concept; development; branding; tourism product club; innovation.
Antecedents of domestic tourists' behavioral intentions in visiting water parks: evidence from Iran
by Davood Ghorbanzadeh, Hamidreza Saeednia, Atena Rahehagh
Abstract: This research examined the antecedents of domestic tourists' behavioral intentions in visiting water parks in Iran. Based on convenience sampling, a sample of 400 visitors from four water parks in Mashhad, Iran was selected. Data were subjected to partial least squares analysis based on structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The findings of this study showed that the quality of visitors' experiences significantly affects water park image, perceived value, and visitor satisfaction. Moreover, perceived value and water park image exert a direct influence on visitor satisfaction, and they also positively affect behavioral intentions. Finally, visitor satisfaction significantly affects visitors' behavioral intentions (e.g., revisit and positive word of mouth). Hence, the findings of this study provide insights for water park managers and marketers, allow them to understand the relationship between the experiences of water park visitors and their behavioral intentions, and enable them to design and organize services to meet the needs of visitors.
Keywords: Experience Quality; Behavioral Intentions; Water Park Image; Iran.
Requirements for Rural Tourism Branding: A Case Study in Trenggalek
by Muhamad Saiful Hakim, Berto Mulia Wibawa
Abstract: City branding is a prominent subject in city development for tourism. However, the number of studies that focus on city branding process for rural areas is still limited. In this paper, we demonstrate the city branding process of Trenggalek and compare the process and results with those of major city branding. This study employed content analysis to investigate key icons of Trenggalek city branding using an in-depth interview as a primary research instrument to collect data from Trenggalek stakeholders, followed by a focus group discussion and a survey using a structured questionnaire addressed to Trenggalek citizens. The results showed that the city components used in branding comprised beach, mountain, and Turonggo Yakso . This research results confirm the outcomes of previous research that for small cities, icons, in most cases, will consist of related historical or cultural themes. City branding process for rural areas has been proven to be much simpler than that for major cities.
Keywords: City Branding; Tourism; Rural Areas; City Logo.
Comparing the effects of service quality and value-for-money on customer satisfaction, airline image and behavioural intention between full-service and low-cost airlines: Evidence from Indonesia.
by Ayu Muthia Kusumawardani, Daniel Tumpal Aruan
Abstract: This research examines the effects of value-for-money and service quality on customer satisfaction, airline image, and behavioural intention of full-service and low-cost airline passengers. A total of 229 young passengers departed from an airport in Jakarta, Indonesia, participated in the survey. A variance based Structural Equation Modelling was employed to examine the causal-effect relationships. Results revealed that the behavioural intention of full-service and low-cost airline passengers could not be directly determined from value-for-money and service quality, but they are mediated through the chronological path of customer satisfaction and airline image. Further, for full-service airline passengers, service quality plays an important role to affect behavioural intention, whereas, for low-cost airline passengers, perceived value-for-money is more concerned. Also, the effects of both value-for-money and service quality on airline image were found to be different between these two categories.
Keywords: airline image; behavioural intention; customer satisfaction; full-service airline; low-cost airline; service quality; value for money.
Regional Tourism in Inter-Governmental Authority on Development: A Comparative Policy and Institutional Best Practice Approach
by Jim Ayorekire, Joseph Obua, Geoffrey Manyara
Abstract: Tourism is increasingly being adopted as a path to economic development and integration by Regional Economic Communities (RECs). This study examined tourism policy and institutional frameworks of RECs in Africa, Asia, Caribbean and Europe to document attributes and best practices to be adopted for establishing a regional tourism framework for Inter-Governmental Authority on Development region. Multi-case study approach and framework analysis were applied to analyse information from the RECs. Results reveal that most RECs have lean institutional structures with strong regional tourism policy and institutional planning frameworks that have helped to strengthen their global competitiveness. In spite of having a Sustainable Tourism Master Plan, the region has continued to lack a policy and institutional framework - a gap which this paper endeavours to fill based on a comparative framework analysis of other RECs. The paper presents best practices and recommends a lean organisational structure for the region with a sustainable financing mechanism.
Keywords: Regional tourism; policy and institutional framework; framework analysis; Inter-Governmental Authority on Development.
Measuring the competitiveness of Irans health tourism
by Hassan Mohammadian Mosammam, Mozaffar Sarrafi, Jamileh Tavakoli Nia
Abstract: High competitiveness of the destination is one of the key factors of success and reaping the benefits of tourism in the international tourism market. Accordingly, this paper seeks to identify the determinants of health tourism competitiveness in Iran using customized indicators and Dwyers integrated model. The selection of competitiveness indicators is based on a three-stage web-based Delphi survey. After selecting the 138 indicators and categorizing them into six groups, the questionnaire was developed and 119 questionnaires were completed through a web survey. The results revealed that among six key determinants of health tourism competitiveness, only endowed resources have relatively favorable conditions and the overall images of Irans health tourism are not competitive. Such results may be an important step to understand the strengths and weaknesses of health tourism in Iran and can be used as a guide for tourism planners and policy-makers to adopt appropriate policies.
Keywords: competitiveness;health tourism;integrated model;Iran.
STAKEHOLDERS´ MOTIVATION TO ADOPT CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES IN THE LODGING INDUSTRY IN AN ISLAND DESTINATION:
Balearic Islands case study
by Juan Carlos Valdivieso
Abstract: The lodging industry is very competitive and hotels have to search for new methods to attract clients. Some firms are applying social and environmentally friendly behavior beyond what is required by law. The tourism industry is one of the most important sectors in the world´s economy and the social and environmental responsibility is vital for this industry. This paper is an empirical work showing the motivation that hotel stakeholders located in islands have to adopt Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategies. To prove the motivation, an index containing seven important social and environmental factors was created using three different approaches. The results show significant influence in some of the variables while no positive relations were found in other variables.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Hotel industry; Sustainable development; Tourism; Island Destination; Balearic Islands.