International Journal of Technology Management (48 papers in press)
Exploratory Research on the Mechanism of Latecomer Advantages in the Asian LCD Industry
by Hiroyuki Nagano, Shuichi Ishida, Kiminori Gemba
Abstract: This exploratory study proposes a new concept, production innovation. In the capital-expenditure-intensive electronic device industry, the object of this research, latecomers from foreign countries often surpass the first mover. This paper attempts to explain the factors driving this latecomer advantage from the perspective of industry lifecycles. Several studies have adopted the AbernathyUtterback model in order to understand industry lifecycles. Suarez explored the relation between dominant design and the survival of firms. Mathews attempted to explain the entry of latecomers in the LCD industry. However, using those frameworks had not helped explain the mechanism of latecomer advantages in the electronic devices industry. This research aims to further this discussion through a reappraisal that focuses on innovation types based on the AbernathyUtterback model, as well as the ideas of Schumpeter and Kirzner. This research observed that production innovation, as it relates to the global supply chain, emerges through product and process innovation and revealed that latecomers are always alert to opportunities to realise this type of innovation. We defined this production innovation as the process by which latecomers belonging to a country different from that of the first movers seize opportunities offered by newly standardized manufacturing processes to establish new customer markets, create large-scale, highly efficient plants, and reduce costs through the in-house and domestic manufacturing of materials and facilities.
Keywords: latecomer advantage; electronic device; LCD; industry lifecycle; innovation
A Dynamic Perspective on Diversities and Network Change: Partner Entry, Exit and Persistence
by Jiancheng Guan, Jingjing Zhang, Yan Yan
Abstract: We depart from prior research on the outcomes of egocentric network structure by shifting focus to the antecedents of the network change. Partners and knowledge composition are crucial for the evolution and change of egocentric networks which received insufficient theoretical attention. Our study advances extant literature by linking two types of diversities (i.e. collaborative diversity and knowledge diversity) with three kinds of partner dynamics (i.e. entry, exit and persistence of partners). To test our hypotheses, we choose 6,066 patents from United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database applied by a high-technology firm in the period 1976-2013. Through seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR), findings indicate that collaborative diversity contributes significantly to the entry and exit of partners. Knowledge diversity, on the other hand, facilitates adding and retaining partners, but hinders the exit of partners. In addition, we expect that tenure needs to be considered to fully understand the effectiveness of diversities. Hence, we not only conceptually and empirically link diversities with network dynamics, but also reveal how the relationships are moderated by knowledge worker tenure. We contribute to the theoretical understandings of the mechanism underlying the network dynamics as well as to the management practice.
Keywords: collaborative diversity; knowledge diversity; network dynamic; tenure.
A DYNAMIC CAPABILITIES PERSPECTIVE ON MANAGING TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE: A REVIEW, FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH AGENDA
by Stefan W. Konlechner, Barbara Müller, Wolfgang H. Güttel
Abstract: The dynamic capabilities view has emerged as the central approach for addressing the question of how firms cope with technological change. Capturing the essence of dynamic capabilities and understanding what they are and how they actually support technological innovation and change, however, has hitherto posed an exacting challenge. This paper adresses these issues (1) by reviewing the current state of research and (2) by investigating the role of three established theoretical lenses ambidexterity, absorptive capacity, and technology management for dynamic capability-driven adaptation to technological change. In particular, we analyse how these three concepts unfold as dynamic capabilities and facilitate technological change through strategic managerial decision-making, resource reconfiguration and continuous learning. We subsequently propose a comprehensive framework that provides an integrative perspective on how dynamic capabilities support the management of technological change, e.g. developments toward digital transformation, new ICTs or cyber physical systems. Finally, we discuss future research directions based on the findings of our synthesis and framework.
Keywords: absorptive capacity; ambidexterity; dynamic capabilities; literature review; organizational change; technological innovation; technology management
Factors influencing innovation capability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Korean manufacturing sector: facilitators, barriers and moderators
by Moon-Koo Kim, Jong-Hyun Park, Jong-Hyun Paik
Abstract: Securing and expanding innovation capability is a critical challenge for the survival and growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as they normally lack internal resources and show limited environmental responsiveness. However, few prior studies focus on the factors influencing the innovation capability of SMEs in terms of facilitators, barriers, and moderators. Using survey data collected from Korean SMEs in the manufacturing sector, we show that innovation capability is a fundamental determinant of firm performance. Top management leadership and external networking serve as facilitators, while organizational rigidity and insufficient resources act as barriers to firm performance, and have a significant impact on innovation capability. This study reveals that commercialization capabilities serve as moderators between innovation capability and firm performance. The implications and directions for future research are also suggested.
Keywords: Innovation; SMEs; Innovation capability; Firm Performance; Barriers to innovation; Commercialization capabilities
Strategic Technology Roadmapping for Inter-ministry R&D Cooperation
by Sangil Kim, Changtaek Choi
Abstract: Since the 2008 global economic crisis, South Korea has actively invested in R&D for technological competitiveness and new markets access. Systematic strategies and cooperation between government departments investing in R&D are needed for maximum impact of these investments and efficient use of limited government financial resources. However, technology roadmaps established by individual ministries of the Korean government lack linkages with national goals and do not provide clear guidance. Additionally, existing technology roadmaps provided by the Korean government include only technology trees and timetables, but no other technology-supporting measures. This paper provides a strategic technology roadmapping process for inter-ministry R&D cooperation and offers selection criteria for the roadmaps target technologies and supporting measures such as improved legal systems, professional personnel training, and infrastructure replenishment for commercialization of the target technologies. Finally, the paper presents a process to align national technology roadmaps with the governments R&D programmes and budget allocation.
Keywords: strategic technology roadmap, inter-ministry, R&D, cooperation, budget, technology management, R&D programme, roadmap framework, roadmapping, R&D planning
Competition vs. Collaboration: A Four Set Game Theory - Innovation, Collaboration, Imitation, and Do Nothing
by Mo Li, Bang Nguyen, Xiaoyu Yu
Abstract: Opinions on when competition or collaboration are optimal differ, particularly in the case of product innovation. To examine the broad determinants of both collaboration and innovation patterns, the present study takes a game theoretic approach and develops a four-strategy set (innovation, collaboration, imitation and do nothing) to understand when competition or collaboration is optimal. The model explores the collaboration determinants in depth, focusing on the sharing of collaboration costs. By designing and using the MATLAB animation software, the study generates the equilibrium solution for each strategy set. Based on the game theoretic approach, 10 predictions about (a) the probability of collaboration, (b) the collaboration costs and (c) the effect of technology on price and revenue are generated. The study concludes with policy implications at both firm and national levels under conditions of weak intellectual property rights (IPR) such as in China, based on the game theoretic approach.
Keywords: Competition, innovation, collaboration, imitation, game theory.
How firms synergise: understanding motives and management of co-creation for business-to-business services
by Stephan Schwetschke, Christopher Durugbo
Abstract: This article explores the motives for service co-creation in business-to-business (B2B) relationships and provides insight into the management practices for service co- creation. A literature review scrutinises the state of current literature on co-creation and B2B relationships. The insights build the foundation for a theoretical research model. This is followed by semi-structured interviews with twelve key informants from firms in B2B relationships for service co-creation. The empirical data was used to evaluate the applicability of the research model in practice and to refine it accordingly. The findings from the case firms suggest that co-creation is a catalyst for synergetic effects derived from competitive advantage and business transformation. This catalytic capability is dependent on the nature of collaboration, interaction, governance and the value co-creation activities themselves provide that underlie how entities are co-opted and involved. The implications of the study and potential future research directions are also discussed.
Keywords: Value Co-creation; Industrial Services; B2B Relationships
European business venturing in times of digitisation An analysis of for profit business incubators in a triple helix context
by Nico Kreusel, Natalie Roth, Alexander Brem
Abstract: Business incubators have been developed as a key component of entrepreneurial activities in countries all over Europe. These incubators have a non-profit or a for-profit profile, with one-third located in Germany. The increased engagement of private business in what was a public-dominated incubation landscape may influence established theoretical frameworks. Within this context, this paper analyses eleven German business incubators to look at the most common types of for-profit business incubators in Germany and their main characteristics. Moreover, it introduces classification criteria for these incubators. Another aspect of the analysis is the effect of the triple helix dimensions of the different incubation types. The results show that two additional types of incubators can be identified in addition to the traditional public business incubator model, namely company builders and accelerators. Implications for research and practice, as well as directions for future research, are also discussed.
Keywords: Business incubator; digitisation; digitisation; for-profit incubators; non-profit incubators; business ventures; start-up; company builder; business model; University Business collaboration; Triple Helix.
Growth intention and sales revenue growth in small Business: The mediating effect of firm size growth
by Beate Cesinger, Katherine Gundolf, Mickael Géraudel
Abstract: While the direct influence of growth intention on small business growth has been examined in entrepreneurship literature, little research distinguishes the different forms of growth and how they are interrelated. This article draws upon growth intention to examine whether firm size growth is the channel through which growth intention influences sales revenue growth. Results from the analysis of a dataset of 20,472 French new ventures reveal that: (1) growth intention has a positive impact on sales revenue growth; (2) firm size growth has a positive impact on sales revenue growth; and (3) firm size growth mediates the effect of growth intention on sales revenue growth. These findings show that firm size growth is a means to achieve sales revenue growth and not only a finality per se.
Keywords: growth intention; growth; small business.
The Impact of Strategic Orientations on Development of Manufacturing Strategy and Firms Performance
by Uma Kumar, Irfan Butt, Vinod Kumar
Abstract: This study empirically tests a comprehensive set of strategic orientations that influence the development of manufacturing strategy and examines manufacturing capability to show the impact of manufacturing strategy on a firms financial and non-financial performance. The manufacturing strategy is posited to be influenced by customer orientation, competitor orientation, resource orientation, and innovation orientation. The findings of this study are based on a sample of the top management of 194 manufacturing concerns from the Canadian technology sector. The analysis using structural equal modelling informs that customer orientation impacts quality and flexibility strategies while competitor orientation influences cost and delivery strategies. Innovation strategy is impacted by innovation orientation. Resource orientation did not significantly impact manufacturing strategy. Quality strategy has the strongest influence on manufacturing capability, followed by cost, innovation and flexibility strategies. Manufacturing capability, in turn, influences both financial and non-financial performance.
Keywords: manufacturing strategy; customer orientation; competitor orientation; manufacturing capability; innovation orientation.
A new model based on patent data for technology early warning research
by Ying Guo, Ganlu Sun, Lili Zhang, Fan Yang
Abstract: As technology competitions among enterprises become more intense, technical crisis occurs in enterprises, such as technological substitution and technology divulges. Thus, it is necessary to warn enterprises of those technical crises that can be called technology early warning. As patent data contains much technology information, it becomes an efficient source to analyze technology. This paper proposes a technology early warning model based on patent data to help enterprises execute technology early warning from the perspective of its technology status. To do so, we set ten indicators from four aspects to evaluate the enterprises technology status at first, calculate the index of enterprises technical crisis with AHP, and then propose five early warning levels. China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) and the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) are taken as comparative case studies.
Keywords: technology early warning; patent data; forecast; technical crisis.
MAPPING THE TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT LITERATURE USING HYBRID BIBLIOMETRIC NETWORKS
by Fabian Meyer-Brötz, Birgit Stelzer, Edgar Schiebel, Leo Brecht
Abstract: During the past few decades, the body of literature attributed to technology and innovation management (TIM) has significantly increased and diversified. To map the scientific evolution of this subject, we analyzed more than 12,000 articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used a hybrid similarity measure combining bibliographic coupling and textual information to create bibliometric networks and to cluster the literature on TIM. Compared with prior bibliometric studies in the field, we examined a larger data sample, analyzed the most recent publications, and identified the latest research fronts. Conclusively, we illustrated in a flowchart the evolution of the TIM landscape during five three-year periods. In this article, we describe in detail six latest research fronts and their evolution. Furthermore, we discuss the thematic differences of TIM specialty journals in contrast to strategic management journals.
Keywords: Bibliometrics; Innovation Management; Technology Management; Hybrid Similarity; Research Fronts; Bibliographic Coupling; Textual Similarities; Knowledge Management; Innovative Capabilities; Technological Transitions; Quantitative Literature Review.
Are Technology Improvement Rates of Knowledge Industries Following Moores Law? -An Empirical Study of Microprocessor, Mobile Cellular, and Genome Sequencing Technologies-
by Yu Sang Chang, Jinsoo Lee, Yun Seok Jung
Abstract: Critical technologies in knowledge economy may advance at an exponential rate of improvement. The best known example of such exponential trend of improvement has been provided by Moores Law. First, this paper shows that Moores Law is still valid by examining the development of microprocessor technology for the period from 1971 to 2010. Second, this paper finds that such exponential rate of improvement can be found in other technologies such as mobile cellular and genome sequencing technologies. However, their exponential improvement rates vary from technology to technology. Lastly, this paper examines whether the improvement rate has been slowed down in recent years. This paper finds that the improvement rate has been slowed down in the clock speed of microprocessors. However, there is no such downward trend in transistor density, million instructions per second, and mobile cellular technology. On the other hand, the improvement rate became higher over the last 10 years in genome sequencing technology which is in the early stages of development.
Keywords: Knowledge Industry; Exponential Trends of Improvement; Moore’s Law; Microprocessor; Mobile Cellular; Genome Sequencing.
The Linkage between TMT Knowledge Diversity and Firm-level Innovation: the Role of Organizational Search Scope and Managerial Discretion
by Doohee Chung, Theresa Cho, Jina Kang
Abstract: In this study, we develop a new perspective on the linkage between the knowledge base of the top management team (TMT) and innovation performance. Using longitudinal data on the patent activities of 120 firms in U.S. manufacturing industries, we find that the knowledge diversity based on a TMTs prior experiences affects organizational innovation. Specifically, firms can achieve greater innovativeness if their top teams have a higher degree of knowledge diversity, i.e., a more generalized knowledge base. In addition, the degree of organizational search scope positively moderates this linkage between TMT knowledge diversity and firm innovation. In addition, we also found that the degree of managerial discretion at the industry level enhances the linkage between TMT knowledge diversity and firm innovation.
Keywords: top management team; knowledge diversity; search behavior; managerial discretion; innovativeness.
Special Issue on: Collaborative Innovation A New Paradigm in Emerging Countries
Changing Collaboration Partner Portfolio along the Growth of Firm Innovation Capability: Evidence from China
by Rongkang Ma, Fengchao Liu, Yutao Sun
Abstract: This paper examines collaboration partner portfolio by utilizing patent data in State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) of China in order to get us a comprehensive view of R&D collaboration patterns in Chinese firms. Results show that: most Chinese mainland enterprises (CMEs) tend to participate in R&D collaboration and adjust their portfolio structure to collaborate more with other firms rather than public research organizations (including universities and research institutions) during 1985-2008. However, universities are the most prominent actors in CMEs partner portfolios. Only a few Taiwan-invested enterprises (TIEs) and foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) have collaboration with others. They mainly absorb knowledge spillover from local universities or exploit market resource by establishing joint ventures with CMEs. Finally, several typical collaboration patterns are drawn from in-depth analyses of collaborating firms.
Keywords: Chinese firms; co-patenting; partner portfolio; collaboration patterns
Special Issue on: Emerging Economy Multinationals, Innovation and Knowledge Flows
Performance effects of explorative and exploitative knowledge sharing within Korean chaebol MNEs in China
by Jingoo Kang, Jeoung Yul Lee
Abstract: Do explorative and exploitative nature of knowledge shared within emerging multinational enterprises (EMNEs) (here, Korean chaebol MNEs) affect the EMNE subsidiaries financial performance? The international business and strategy literature has emphasized the importance of intra-multinational enterprise (MNE) knowledge sharing yet researchers have remained largely silent about explorative and exploitative nature of knowledge shared within EMNEs. Further, when we consider explorative and exploitative nature knowledge shared within emerging economy business groups (EEBGs) (here, Korean chaebols), we still do not know much about how the foreign subsidiaries within EEBGs mobilize their knowledge sharing across networked units in order to promote innovations. Using a sample of 646 subsidiaries in China of 175 Korean MNEs within 37 chaebols, we examine how intra-EMNE sharing of explorative and exploitative knowledge affects an EMNE subsidiarys financial performance. Our findings suggest that there is a positive interaction effect between increased sharing of both explorative and exploitative knowledge and a negative effect of the relative imbalance between sharing of explorative and exploitative knowledge. Our findings show that both the effectiveness in intra-chaebol knowledge sharing and explorative and exploitative nature of knowledge shared within a chaebol have a substantial influence on the chaebol EMNE subsidiarys performance.
Keywords: subsidiary performance; emerging multinational enterprise; chaebol; intra-MNE knowledge sharing; explorative knowledge sharing; exploitative knowledge sharing.
The Internationalisation of New Technology-Based Firms from Emerging Markets
by Fernanda Ribeiro Cehen, Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Jr., Felipe Mendes Borini
Abstract: This paper offers an analysis of the factors influencing the accelerated internationalisation of new technology-based firms (NTBFs) from emerging economies. This type of firm is typically called born global, and they have been reported primarily in high-tech sectors. Existing International Business (IB) theories have focused consistently on NTBFs from developed countries, however NTBFs from emerging markets remain under-studied. A survey was applied to small Brazilian NTBFs. The results indicate that NTBFs that have an entrepreneur, or a group of executives with international management skills, are more likely to have an accelerated internationalisation. In contrast to previous research in the field, the results demonstrate that NTBFs that take more than five years to enter the international market capitalise on their competence for innovation and abilities in international marketing, in the internationalisation process. Therefore, this research contributes new perspectives on studies on NTBFs from emerging markets.
Keywords: technology-based firms, born globals, emerging economies, small and medium firms.
Keywords: Technology-based firms, born globals, emerging economies, small and medium firms.
The impact of OFDI on firm innovation in an emerging country
by Hang Wu, Jin Chen
Abstract: This study investigates whether and to what extent EM MNEs employ OFDI for knowledge-seeking and knowledge-integration purposes to improve their innovation capability at home. Extending previous studies that have identified the knowledge-seeking motives and also provided some evidence for their validity, our study aims to examine how such OFDI can benefit the innovation performance of EM MNEs at home. Using survey data from a sample of manufacturing firms in China, we demonstrate that OFDI is positively related to innovation performance. We also find that the positive relationship between OFDI and innovation performance is stronger when foreign firms have acquired an ownership interest in an EM MNE and when they have higher R&D intensity. Finally, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Keywords: Innovation, OFDI, EM MNEs, State ownership, China
TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND EMERGING ECONOMY MULTINATIONALS: THE PRODUCT CYCLE MODEL REVISITED
by Paz Estrella Tolentino
Abstract: This paper assesses the continuing validity of three distinct propositions associated with the early versions of the product cycle model of Vernon (1966, 1979) or its extension to Third World Multinationals by Wells (1983, 1986). This is in light of recent developments in the role of rapidly evolving technological capabilities in the competitive emergence and evolution of MNCs from emerging economies (EMNCs). The first product cycle proposition states that these firms have limited scope for innovation, which consists of imitation and adaptation of the innovative activities of the technologically leading companies as standardisation proceeds in the product life cycle. The current evidence rejects this proposition on the basis of the narrow scope of innovation it allows, which is inconsistent with the broad range of technological capabilities of EMNCs that result from their unique learning experience. The second product cycle proposition is that innovations are almost always located in the home country of national firms. This hypothesis remains generally valid in the case of EMNCs since the home country is the single most important site for their innovation. However, the product cycle models focus on demand factors in the home country in determining innovation is a narrow view. Innovation generally relies on a firm-specific learning process that interacts with the growth of demand, the peculiarities of domestic and foreign production conditions, and technological capabilities. Moreover, the home country is not the most significant site for their technologically sophisticated or knowledge-intensive production which is in advanced economies, dominant centres or international centres of excellence. In the third product cycle proposition, the purpose of international operations is to exploit their unique home country-derived technological advantages internationally. This proposition would need to be broadened to consider competence exploration or the creative blending of competence exploitation and competence exploration in the international expansion of EMNCs. The concepts of localised technological change and technological accumulation, therefore, assume increasing current relevance over the product cycle model in explaining innovation in EMNCs. These concepts will doubtless become more significant as EMNCs further evolve and follow firm-specific, cumulative and differentiated technological trajectories.
Keywords: emerging multinationals; product cycle model; innovation; multinational corporations; emerging economies
Export Intensity, Domestic Competition, and Product Innovation in an Emerging Economy
by Zhenzhen Xie, Jiatao Li
Abstract: Recent studies have consistently found a positive relationship between a firms export and product innovation, attributing this to "learning by exporting". Data on 6,197 Chinese auto manufacturers were analyzed to demonstrate that the relationship is actually inverted-U shaped in this large emerging economy. Exporters in emerging economies are usually technology and market leaders in their domestic market, but technology and market laggards internationally. Less intensive exporters tend to pay attention to domestic market and make product innovation by applying the superior knowledge gained from exporting. Highly intensive exporters tend to focus on overseas markets where their competitive advantage does not lie in product innovation, which may discourage them from doing so. Domestic competition tends to intensify the inverted-U shaped relationship between export intensity and product innovation.
Keywords: exporting; competitive advantage; product innovation; emerging economy
WHEN DAVIDS START BECOMING GOLIATHS: UNIQUE CAPABILITIES OF EMERGING-MARKET MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES AND HOW THEY FOSTER GROWTH IN DEVELOPED MARKETS?
by Omar Malik
Abstract: Growth of Emerging-Market Multinational Enterprises (EMNEs) in Developed Markets (DMs) leads to two questions: What are the unique capabilities of these firms? And how do these capabilities foster growth in DMs? Drawing upon Resource-Based Theory (RBT) and the Dynamic Capabilities View (DCV), I offer an evolutionary framework illustrating how pre-liberalization asymmetries between EMNEs and Developed-market Multinational Enterprises (DMNEs) have led to unique EMNE capabilities that impel growth in DMs. The typology offered here offers frugal-innovation, political, and market-sensing as unique EMNE operational capabilities. These operational capabilities combine with post-liberalization, dynamic capabilities: relational-learning and acquisitions capabilities to underpin three sets of strategic choices. The theoretical framework offered here has implications for our understanding of EMNE-specific capabilities and prediction of their growth strategies in DMs.
Keywords: Emerging-Market Multinationals, Developed-Market Multinationals, Resource-based Theory, Dynamic Capabilities View
Emerging market multinationals, international knowledge flows and innovation
by Peter Gammeltoft, Bersant Hobdari
A Comparison of International R&D Strategies of Chinese Companies in Europe and the U.S.
by Alberto Di Minin, Xiaohong Quan, Jieyin Zhang
Abstract: Europe and the U.S. are the two popular overseas R&D investment destinations for Chinese companies. We explore whether there are significant differences or similarities in the comparison of international R&D strategies of Chinese MNCs in Europe and the U.S.. Specifically, we examine how Chinese MNCs implement R&D strategies to facilitate learning. We adopt the method of theory building from case study research to answer this question. Based on 14 R&D units of 12 Chinese companies in Europe and the U.S., our analysis investigates and compares the R&D strategies of Chinese multinationals in Europe and the U.S., focusing on their strategic motives, R&D structure, and modes of learning. Our findings have strong managerial and policy implications.
Keywords: Chinese multinational corporations; R&D Management; R&D Motive; R&D structure; Learning mode; U.S.; Europe
CHARACTERISTICS AND HOST COUNTRY DRIVERS OF CHINESE FDI IN EUROPE: A COMPANY-LEVEL ANALYSIS
by Peter Gammeltoft, Kirsten Fasshauer
Abstract: The present study of direct investment from mainland China into Europe complements and extends prior studies by building on a firm-level database comprising of 548 Chinese subsidiaries in 26 countries in EU and EFTA. The study identifies and characterizes three segments of subsidiaries, predominantly related to private companies market-seeking activities, state-owned companies production- and technology-seeking activities, and efficiency-seeking activities in Eastern Europe, respectively. Through multivariate regression the study finds that potentials for market exploitation are particularly important host country factors for attracting Chinese FDI. There is no strong correlation between aggregate national R&D spending and Chinese knowledge-seeking investments, reflecting that such investments tend to be individual and highly idiosyncratic cases. Rather than a wholesale adoption or dismissal of extant FDI-theories vis-
Keywords: emerging economy multinationals; foreign direct investment; FDI; outward foreign direct investment; Chinese investments in Europe; strategic asset-seeking investments
Special Issue on: Leveraging Technological Change the Role of Business Models and Ecosystems
Whatever happened to the great escape? Lessons from the rise and decline of the pinball ecosystem.
by Albéric Tellier
Abstract: The aim of this article is to contribute to a better understanding of the dynamic of Business Ecosystems (BE) and, more particularly, to identify mechanisms that contribute to their decline.
We conduct an historical study of the pinball ecosystem, which experienced steady growth over sixty years and then nearly disappeared.
First, it is shown that the pinball case is particularly suitable for the analysis of BE. The major BE characteristics can be identified: a value proposition created by an alignment of partners, the central role played by the platform, the presence of three types of members, and interactions among actors that are based on coopetition.
Then, the analysis reveals two factors that explain the decline: keystones inability to change their business models and their substantial dependence on dominators. The historical perspective also allows us to distinguish certain specific periods in BE decline.
Keywords: business ecosystem; business model; case study; coopetition; dominators; historical approach; keystones; lifecycle; niche players; pinball; platform.
A New Perspective on the Innovators Dilemma Exploring the role of Entrepreneurial Incentives
by Christian Sandström, Henrik Berglund
Abstract: Why do entrant firms sometimes gain the upper hand under conditions of discontinuous technological change? Previous research on this topic has either looked at the role of established competencies and/or firm incentives to invest in a new technology. In this paper we explore an alternative explanation. Drawing upon evidence from the ongoing transition from CCTV to digital, IP based video surveillance, we argue that entrant firms may be more prone to act entrepreneurially, i.e. more inclined to proactively create or transform markets and build ecosystems. As new technologies frequently require altered behaviour among customers and stakeholders, this capability is sometimes critical in order to succeed in a technological transition. Our contribution therefore lies in pointing out that not only may incentives to allocate R&D resources differ among entrants and incumbents, firms might also have different incentives to engage in entrepreneurial activities of creating or transforming markets.
Keywords: Disruptive Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Incentives; Technological Discontinuities; business model, ecosystem.
Creating and Capturing Value in a Regional Innovation Ecosystem: A Study of How Manufacturing SMEs Develop Collaborative Solutions
by Agnieszka Radziwon, Marcel Bogers, Arne Bilberg
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how a set of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) can engage in business model development within a regional innovation ecosystem. We present a case study based on an action research project on how a set of Danish manufacturing SMEs contributed to the development of their local ecosystem in collaboration with a number of external partners. We specifically examine how these SMEs interact with both competitors and complementors in an innovative automation project. The findings include key drivers and challenges that these companies faced while creating and capturing value both for them and the ecosystem at large. We find that the value creation process is enabled by common goals and financial support, while companies need to balance their core activities with their commitment to the joint initiative. Moreover, ecosystem development is centrally dependent on the value-capture process, which also takes place at the inter-organisational level. Such open innovation process implies a purposive management of knowledge flows at the level of the innovation ecosystem that fits a multi-layered structure of the business model. Through our findings, we link the notions of business model and ecosystems to contribute to the innovation management literature, and to provide practical guidance for future actions within business model and ecosystem development.
Keywords: ecosystem; open innovation; low-tech, manufacturing, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), business model; action research
Using patents to orchestrate ecosystem stability: The case of a French aerospace company
by Jamal Edddine Azzam, Cécile Ayerbe, Rani Jeanne Dang
Abstract: In this paper, we focus on how focal firms influence business ecosystem stability through patent management. We present and discuss a case study of Thales Alenia Space, a leader in the aerospace industry, and its ecosystem partners. We make two counterintuitive insights about ecosystem management. First, a focal firm can use patents in a new way in order to ensure the stability of its ecosystem. Second, patent licensing facilitates an inverted pattern of knowledge creation and commercialisation between large and small firms, in which small firms are able to commercialise innovations created by large firms in unexpected markets. Furthermore, this article contributes to the literature on patent management by providing new evidence on the external leveraging of knowledge.
Keywords: Business ecosystem, Patent management, Stability, Focal firms, SMEs.
Business models in emerging industries: Some lessons from the Better Place electric-car debacle
by F. Xavier Olleros
Abstract: In this article I explore the role of optimal target markets in developing sustainable business models for promising new technologies. On the basis of a counterfactual analysis of what a failed electric-car pioneer could have done differently in order to survive and thrive, I argue that a high-technology startup in an emerging industry needs to find the market where its value proposition stands the best chance of being perfectly scalable, fertile and lasting, and I show how these three qualities of a value proposition reinforce each other and can bring an initially reluctant market into being. I conclude that in emerging high-technology industries, the choice of the most adequate target market should be pre-eminent, since it is so pivotal to the selection and calibration of all other elements of a suitable business model. I close with a cautious plea for a more frequent use of theory-based counterfactuals in business research.
Keywords: business models; market footholds; value propositions; target markets; emerging industries; emerging technologies; high technology; startups; complementors; electric cars; counterfactual analysis
Experimentations in emerging innovation ecosystems: specificities and roles. The case of the Hydrogen Energy Fuel Cell
by Sihem Ben Mahmoud-Jouini, Florence Charue-Duboc
Abstract: Little research has focused on the way an innovation ecosystem emerges and specifically what processes and tools support it. We argue that as in innovation development processes, experimentation may generate knowledge and reduce the uncertainties associated with this emergence. Based on a longitudinal study of hydrogen energy solutions that require a novel ecosystem, we outline four specificities of the experiments performed, designated as complete solution experiments, and their role in this emergence. They (1) involve all the players required so as to deliver and operate a complete solution, (2) target real customers using the innovation in real conditions over a significant period of time, (3) are highly refined (components and complements are representative of an industrial offer) and (4) are transparent on how the data generated will be exploited and shared with all the players who commit to the experiment, who are thus assured that they will acquire validated information.
Keywords: new market creation; business model; systemic innovation; innovation ecosystem; radical technological change; experimentation; structuration of ecosystem; emergence; complete solution experiment; uncertainties; fuel cell.
Business ecosystems and new venture business models: An exploratory study of participation in the Lead To Win job-creation engine
by Steven Muegge, Mel Mezen
Abstract: Technology entrepreneurs are launching and growing new businesses within business ecosystems, but little is known about how ecosystem participation impacts new venture business models. This research is an exploratory study of new venture business models within Lead To Win a business ecosystem developed as a job-creation engine for Canadas Capital Region. The three-phase research design is comprised of (i) a field study of the Lead To Win field setting, (ii) a multiple case-study of participating new ventures launched by six founders, and (iii) development of evidence-based propositions relating ecosystem participation and new venture business models. There are two key findings. First, more intense participation in the ecosystem is associated with higher business model differentiation, sophistication, and extent of change. Second, entrepreneurs participating more intensely in the ecosystem report a greater breadth of benefits.
Keywords: business ecosystem, business model, technology entrepreneurship, innovation, participation, new venture, job-creation, Ottawa, Canada, case study, entrepreneur
Technological Innovation Mediated by Business Model Innovation: App Developers Moving into Health
by Janna Rose, Yi Jiang, Vincent Mangematin
Abstract: Numerous technology firms are moving into Health, and with their entry they bring innovation in technologies and in business models. The impact of both types of innovation in the Health industry is still emerging. To investigate innovation in business models, we held technological innovation relatively constant by drawing data from one technologythe most downloaded apps in iTunes Health & Fitness categoryand coding the business model dimensions of the firms that developed them. This study examines the differences between incumbents and newcomers in Health in four business model dimensions: identifying customers, engaging with customers, monetisation processes, and logistics and governance of the firms. When compared to incumbents, newcomers to Health more often displayed innovation in business model dimensions. Our data suggest that newcomers bring new strategies for customer engagement, customer identity, and monetisation of services, which ultimately lead to altered relationships among actors in Health.
Keywords: Health industry; App Technology; mHealth; eHealth; value capture; value creation; customer engagement; well-being, incumbents; entrants
Microwork platforms as enablers to new ecosystems and business models: the challenge of managing difficult tasks
by Jean-Michel Dalle, Matthijs Den Besten, Catalina Martínez, Stéphane Maraut
Abstract: We explore how microwork platforms manage difficult tasks in paid crowdsourcing environments. We argue that as human computation becomes more prevalent, notably in the context of big data ecosystems, microwork platforms might have to evolve and to take a more managerial stance in order to provide the right incentives to online workers to handle difficult tasks. We illustrate this first through a name disambiguation experiment on Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), a well-known microwork platform, and second through direct analysis of the dynamics of task execution in a dataset of real microwork projects on AMT. We discuss the emergence of more specialized microwork platforms as an attempt to facilitate a better management of difficult tasks in the context of paid crowdsourcing.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing; Online Labor Markets; Human Computation; Microwork Platforms; Task Difficulty.
Special Issue on: 2014 University-Industry Interaction Conference University-Business Collaboration in Europe Current Trends and Challenges
A benefit segmentation approach for innovation-oriented university-business collaboration
by Tobias Kesting, Wolfgang Gerstlberger, Thomas Baaken
Abstract: Increasing competition in the light of globalisation imposes challenges on both academia and businesses. Universities have to compete for additional financial means, while companies, particular in high technology business environments, are facing a stronger pressure to innovate. Universities seek to deal with this situation by academic engagement, hereby providing external research support for businesses. Relying on the market segmentation approach, promoting beneficial exchange relations between academia and businesses enables the integration of both perspectives and may contribute to solving current challenges. Transferring the segmentation approach and the customer benefit perspective to university-business collaboration (UBC), this paper develops a multi-step segmentation framework aimed at identifying research customer segments in technical textile industries in Western Europe. This novel view helps to promote UBC and benefits both actors and society.
Keywords: university-business collaboration; academic engagement; universities; industrial enterprises; textile industries; market segmentation; benefit segmentation; innovation collaboration; inter-organisational collaboration; R&D; small and medium-sized enterprises
Which Firms use Universities as Cooperation Partners? The Comparative View in Europe
by Kärt Rõigas, Pierre Mohnen, Urmas Varblane
Abstract: Collaboration between firms and universities, two main actors in the national system of innovation, brings the needs of the business world to the attention of the scientific community and allow scientific progress to be diffused more quickly in the real world. The aim of the paper is to compare the determinants of university-industry cooperation across countries and to identify differences between firms that cooperate with domestic and those that cooperate with foreign universities. We use data from 14 European countries taken from the 2008 Community Innovation Survey. The degree of internationalisation is the main determinant of cooperation. Exporting or foreign-owned firms are more likely to cooperate with foreign universities. Differences in cooperation determinants also appear between the four country groupings that we extract by a cluster analysis on variables describing their institutional settings and national innovation systems. Notably different is the group of countries with a weak national innovation system.
Keywords: university-industry cooperation, national system of innovation, open innovation, knowledge-based theory of the firm, competitiveness, technological change, cooperation with foreign universities, external sources of knowledge, triple helix, comparative view, European countries, Community Innovation Survey
UNIVERSITIES, INNOVATION AND COMPETITIVENESS IN REGIONAL ECONOMIES
by Martin Gjelsvik
Abstract: The paper examines how university strategies and regional development paths co-evolve. The aim is to contribute to the discussion on how regions in a path dependent way transform over time, and how local universities may take on differentiated roles in those processes. Although regional development is path dependent, I discuss how regions may overcome such intertie, by illustrating how universities contribute to create new, transform established, or extend existing economic regional development paths through collaboration with the regional industry.
The study confirms that universities take differentiated roles depending on what kind of industrial transformation is taking place in the respective regional economies. Four different regional development paths emerge: new path creation, paths new to the region through transplantation from elsewhere, path renewal through diversification into related industries, and path extension through upgrading of existing industries.
The findings draw on studies of universities and regional firms in three regions in Norway.
Keywords: innovation, industry-university collaboration, path creation, path transplantation, path diversification, path extension, university strategies, regional innovation system, regional development
Industry-university collaboration and absorptive capacity: An empirical study in a Swedish context
by Thomas Biedenbach, Agneta Marell, Vladimir Vanyushyn
Abstract: In this paper we examine the role of firms absorptive capacity in industry-university collaboration and, in particular, whether absorptive capacity moderates the effects of university collaboration on firms innovativeness. Having defined absorptive capacity as the recognition, assimilation and application of valuable external knowledge for commercial purposes, we formulated three hypotheses pertaining to firm innovativeness and tested them in an original survey comprising a representative multi-industry sample of 1,532 Swedish firms. The results suggest that benefiting from university cooperation is conditional upon the firms level of absorptive capacity. At low levels of absorptive capacity, engaging with universities does not translate into any noticeable increase in innovative output. In contrast, medium to high levels of absorptive capacity is where a firm benefits most from collaborating with a university. We also show that these effects are more pronounced for firms operating in sectors characterised by lower levels of technology and knowledge intensity.
Keywords: industry-university collaboration, innovation performance, absorptive capacity, moderating effect, business-university collaboration, academic collaboration, innovativeness, innovative output, knowledge intensity, technology intensity, survey, multi-industry sample, cross-sectoral study, Sweden.
Special Issue on: Quo Vadis Entrepreneurial University New Theoretical and Empirical Insights from an Inter- and Intra-Organisational Perspective
University coworking-spaces: Mechanisms, examples, and suggestions for entrepreneurial universities
by Ricarda B. Bouncken
Abstract: Universities can take the recent global trend of coworking-spaces to establish university coworking-spaces build integrated concept for entrepreneurial universities. This conceptual paper discusses how university coworking-spaces can enrich entrepreneurial universities using the development of a new venture community, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, inspiration, autonomy, and knowledge flows, even international ones. Examples show how universities are pioneering with coworking-spaces. This paper also suggests how university coworking-spaces can integrate entrepreneurship education, linkages to firms, and admission structures, and use synergies through proper governance.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial University; Coworking-Spaces; Coworking; New Venture; Student Entrepreneurship.
Entrepreneurial Academics and Academic Entrepreneurs: A Systematic Literature Review
by Kristel Miller, Allen Alexander, James Cunningham, Ekaterina Albats
Abstract: Universities are now viewed as key economic actors within regions and are central actors in shaping and influencing entrepreneurial ecosystems.This has meant that universities now have to become more entrepreneurial in offerings, outlook and culture. However, a core actor in this process who is often overlooked is the academic. The ability of an academic to effectively transfer knowledge to industry is key to universities achieving their entrepreneurial mission and ambition. This paper explores the changing roles of academics to identify key distinctions between entrepreneurial academics and academic entrepreneurs. This is done through a systematic literature review spanning 25 years drawing on selected high impact journals in innovation, entrepreneurship and higher education studies. We categorise the types of activity that academics typically engage in and identify the motivations and challenges they face. From this we identify two types of academics, the entrepreneurial academic and academic entrepreneur. We posit that there is a need for both types of academics to contribute to the success of the entrepreneurial university and conclude by outlining some avenues for future research.
Keywords: University-industry knowledge transfer; entrepreneurial academic; academic entrepreneur; systematic literature review; entrepreneurial university.
A performance-based taxonomy of entrepreneurial universities
by Leire Markuerkiaga, Juan Ignacio Igartua, Nekane Errasti
Abstract: The European higher education landscape has experienced dramatic changes in the last decades and the entrepreneurial university has turned into a potential solution to these perceived problems. Therefore, this paper proposes a taxonomy of entrepreneurial universities. Based on a cluster analysis, three distinct groups are identified, within different phases of the transformation into an entrepreneurial university: one group of universities is in the first phase of the path, since they are not obtaining high entrepreneurial university results yet; another group is in the second phase of the path, obtaining good results in hard academic entrepreneurship activities; and, finally, the last group is composed of the most entrepreneurial universities. Moreover, universities are not motionless within a specific group, they can improve and move from one stage to the upper one; indeed, this paper shows the main levers for moving from one stage to another.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial university; Performance; Taxonomy; Academic Entrepreneurship activities; Cluster analysis; Entrepreneurial university results; Academic entrepreneurship; Higher education; Internal entrepreneurship support factors; External entrepreneurship support factors.
Mode 3 Universities and Academic Firms: Thinking Beyond the Box Trans-Disciplinarity and Non-Linear Innovation Dynamics within Co-opetitive Entrepreneurial Ecosystems
by Elias G. Carayannis, Evangelos Grigoroudis, David Campbell, Dirk Meissner, Dimitra Stamati
Abstract: The main objective of the paper is to examine if Mode 3 universities represent a new and advanced type of an entrepreneurial university, perhaps transcending the entrepreneurial university, and identify the specific characteristics of Mode 3 universities. According to its definition, a Mode 3 university represents a type of organization capable of higher order learning and in this regard a type of open, highly complex, and non-linear knowledge production system that seeks and realizes creative ways of combining, recombining, and integrating different principles of knowledge production and knowledge application (e.g., Mode 1 and Mode 2). Thus, Mode 3 universities clearly encourage diversity and heterogeneity, while they emphasize and engender creative and innovative organizational contexts for research, education, and innovation. New formats, forms, designs, and redesigns of inter-disciplinarity and trans-disciplinarity are being opened and encouraged. Cross-employment feeds into the formation of new and newer complex networks that link together organizations and institutions in a hybrid (and trans-sectoral) fashion. The principles of an academic firm further encourage Mode 3 universities. As a final assessment we propose that Mode 3 type universities may be captured in the terminology of an entrepreneurial university, but perhaps it is better to address them as universities that express some entrepreneurial qualities, but also transcend traditional and conventional understandings of an entrepreneurial university. Several examples are offered in this context in order to demonstrate how and why the concept of Mode 3 universities is better endowed for addressing the current and future challenges compared to a simple entrepreneurial university approach. The full exploration of Mode 3 universities furthermore demands a strong linkage and contextualization with (entrepreneurial) ecosystems.
Keywords: Academic Firm; Entrepreneurial University; Innovation Ecosystem; Inter-Disciplinarity; Mode 3 University; Non-Linear Innovation; Quadruple And Quintuple Helix Innovation Systems; Trans-Disciplinarity; Co-Opetitive Entrepreneurial Ecosystems.
Business Models of Entrepreneurial Universities in the Area of Vocational Education An Exploratory Analysis
by Nizar Abdelkafi, Romy Hilbig, Sven M. Laudien
Abstract: Universities have become increasingly entrepreneurial during the last several years, and research still widely ignores the existence of independent entrepreneurial actions of universities. This paper specifically deals with entrepreneurial activities that universities have recently started to embrace. In detail, it focuses on vocational education, an innovation step that enables universities to generate additional resources. This paper applies a qualitative research approach based on case studies to explore the business models of entrepreneurial universities in the realm of vocational education. In particular, it deals with universities that offer their services in an international context. Our paper allows for a deeper understanding of the key decisions and choices related to the business model of entrepreneurial universities in the area of vocational education and identifies three business model patterns that universities can apply to extend their traditional business models and embark on an evolutionary path to satisfy the necessity of independently generating funds. Thus, this research not only sheds light on entrepreneurial activities carried out by universities in general, it also goes deeper by showing how these activities shape the business model.
Keywords: Business Model; Business Model Innovation; Modularity of Business Models; Entrepreneurial University; Vocational Education.
Special Issue on: Unveiling the Commercialisation Mechanisms and Dynamics of University Technological Inventions
Building collaboration between academia and local authorities: a case study in Norway
by Ricardo Colomo-Palacios, Per Gunnar Fyhn, Pedro Soto-Acosta, Kåre Edvardsen
Abstract: Universities and their environments are aimed to collaborate towards a better society. Academics must spread and apply their knowledge in real settings in order to advance in their careers and, on the other hand, local players present problems that may need the application of advanced knowledge and sometimes basic research to be solved. In the specific scenario of local authorities, this collaboration presents special features given the intrinsic and close relationship among actors and the non-profit orientation of these organizations. This paper presents the construction overtime of the collaboration between a department of a public university and a municipality conducted in Norway. Results show a remarkable outcome in terms of cross-fertilization for both research institutions and local authorities.
Keywords: Intelligent Waste Management; Local Authorities and Universities Collaboration; Green IT.
Special Issue on: International Technology Strategy, Industry and Trade Policies, Innovation Processes, and Technology Sourcing and Transfer the Search for Synthesis in a Global Economy
What drives success in product innovation? Empirical evidence in high-tech and low-tech manufacturers in China
by Kris M.Y. Law, Antonio K.W. Lau, W.H. Ip
Abstract: The study aims to determine what are the major factors affecting the performance of innovation systems in both high- and low- tech industries in China. Multiple regression and PLS analyses were used to analyze a survey data from 152 manufacturers in China.
This study showed that internal R&D and competitors are the major drivers of innovation that improves the sales of new-to-market products. Major barriers of innovation include law regulations, standards and tax issues and the potential market being owned by other firms. The motivating factors include new market entry, improvement of product quality, and increase in market share. Low-tech and high-tech firms may follow different innovation paths and are promoted by differential sources of innovation, barriers and motivating factors. Some innovation activities such as acquisition of external knowledge and preparations are found to have significant mediating effects on the above relationships.
The research project brings about specific guidelines for local legislative bodies to enact effective innovation policies that align closely with the innovation characteristics of local industries.
Keywords: Innovation; motivating factors; barriers; China manufacturers; empirical study.
Special Issue on: Memoriam of Michael Radnor
Advanced Analytics Group and Intraorganizational Power
by Martin L. Bariff
The impact of design architecture choices on competitiveness: Comparison of Korean and Japanese Shipbuilding Firms
by Yuichiro Mukai, YoungWon Park, Paul Hong, Geon-Cheol Shin
Dynamics of ex post uncertainty and negative behavioral direction in alliances
by Inwon Kang, Jiwon Lee
What Determines the Range of Supply Chain Integration? Comparison of Korean and Japanese Steel Firms
by SungWoo Byun, YoungWon Park, Geon-Cheol Shin