International Journal of Technology Management (41 papers in press)
Growth intention and sales revenue growth in small Business: The mediating effect of firm size growth
by Beate Cesinger, Katherine Gundolf, Mickael Géraudel
Abstract: While the direct influence of growth intention on small business growth has been examined in entrepreneurship literature, little research distinguishes the different forms of growth and how they are interrelated. This article draws upon growth intention to examine whether firm size growth is the channel through which growth intention influences sales revenue growth. Results from the analysis of a dataset of 20,472 French new ventures reveal that: (1) growth intention has a positive impact on sales revenue growth; (2) firm size growth has a positive impact on sales revenue growth; and (3) firm size growth mediates the effect of growth intention on sales revenue growth. These findings show that firm size growth is a means to achieve sales revenue growth and not only a finality per se.
Keywords: growth intention; growth; small business.
The Impact of Strategic Orientations on Development of Manufacturing Strategy and Firms Performance
by Uma Kumar, Irfan Butt, Vinod Kumar
Abstract: This study empirically tests a comprehensive set of strategic orientations that influence the development of manufacturing strategy and examines manufacturing capability to show the impact of manufacturing strategy on a firms financial and non-financial performance. The manufacturing strategy is posited to be influenced by customer orientation, competitor orientation, resource orientation, and innovation orientation. The findings of this study are based on a sample of the top management of 194 manufacturing concerns from the Canadian technology sector. The analysis using structural equal modelling informs that customer orientation impacts quality and flexibility strategies while competitor orientation influences cost and delivery strategies. Innovation strategy is impacted by innovation orientation. Resource orientation did not significantly impact manufacturing strategy. Quality strategy has the strongest influence on manufacturing capability, followed by cost, innovation and flexibility strategies. Manufacturing capability, in turn, influences both financial and non-financial performance.
Keywords: manufacturing strategy; customer orientation; competitor orientation; manufacturing capability; innovation orientation.
A new model based on patent data for technology early warning research
by Ying Guo, Ganlu Sun, Lili Zhang, Fan Yang
Abstract: As technology competitions among enterprises become more intense, technical crisis occurs in enterprises, such as technological substitution and technology divulges. Thus, it is necessary to warn enterprises of those technical crises that can be called technology early warning. As patent data contains much technology information, it becomes an efficient source to analyze technology. This paper proposes a technology early warning model based on patent data to help enterprises execute technology early warning from the perspective of its technology status. To do so, we set ten indicators from four aspects to evaluate the enterprises technology status at first, calculate the index of enterprises technical crisis with AHP, and then propose five early warning levels. China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) and the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) are taken as comparative case studies.
Keywords: technology early warning; patent data; forecast; technical crisis.
MAPPING THE TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT LITERATURE USING HYBRID BIBLIOMETRIC NETWORKS
by Fabian Meyer-Brötz, Birgit Stelzer, Edgar Schiebel, Leo Brecht
Abstract: During the past few decades, the body of literature attributed to technology and innovation management (TIM) has significantly increased and diversified. To map the scientific evolution of this subject, we analyzed more than 12,000 articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used a hybrid similarity measure combining bibliographic coupling and textual information to create bibliometric networks and to cluster the literature on TIM. Compared with prior bibliometric studies in the field, we examined a larger data sample, analyzed the most recent publications, and identified the latest research fronts. Conclusively, we illustrated in a flowchart the evolution of the TIM landscape during five three-year periods. In this article, we describe in detail six latest research fronts and their evolution. Furthermore, we discuss the thematic differences of TIM specialty journals in contrast to strategic management journals.
Keywords: Bibliometrics; Innovation Management; Technology Management; Hybrid Similarity; Research Fronts; Bibliographic Coupling; Textual Similarities; Knowledge Management; Innovative Capabilities; Technological Transitions; Quantitative Literature Review.
Are Technology Improvement Rates of Knowledge Industries Following Moores Law? -An Empirical Study of Microprocessor, Mobile Cellular, and Genome Sequencing Technologies-
by Yu Sang Chang, Jinsoo Lee, Yun Seok Jung
Abstract: Critical technologies in knowledge economy may advance at an exponential rate of improvement. The best known example of such exponential trend of improvement has been provided by Moores Law. First, this paper shows that Moores Law is still valid by examining the development of microprocessor technology for the period from 1971 to 2010. Second, this paper finds that such exponential rate of improvement can be found in other technologies such as mobile cellular and genome sequencing technologies. However, their exponential improvement rates vary from technology to technology. Lastly, this paper examines whether the improvement rate has been slowed down in recent years. This paper finds that the improvement rate has been slowed down in the clock speed of microprocessors. However, there is no such downward trend in transistor density, million instructions per second, and mobile cellular technology. On the other hand, the improvement rate became higher over the last 10 years in genome sequencing technology which is in the early stages of development.
Keywords: Knowledge Industry; Exponential Trends of Improvement; Moore’s Law; Microprocessor; Mobile Cellular; Genome Sequencing.
The Linkage between TMT Knowledge Diversity and Firm-level Innovation: the Role of Organizational Search Scope and Managerial Discretion
by Doohee Chung, Theresa Cho, Jina Kang
Abstract: In this study, we develop a new perspective on the linkage between the knowledge base of the top management team (TMT) and innovation performance. Using longitudinal data on the patent activities of 120 firms in U.S. manufacturing industries, we find that the knowledge diversity based on a TMTs prior experiences affects organizational innovation. Specifically, firms can achieve greater innovativeness if their top teams have a higher degree of knowledge diversity, i.e., a more generalized knowledge base. In addition, the degree of organizational search scope positively moderates this linkage between TMT knowledge diversity and firm innovation. In addition, we also found that the degree of managerial discretion at the industry level enhances the linkage between TMT knowledge diversity and firm innovation.
Keywords: top management team; knowledge diversity; search behavior; managerial discretion; innovativeness.
The impact of knowledge attributes on technological learning routine within industrial clusters
by Jingjing Guo, Bin Guo, Xiaoling Chen, Jian Du
Abstract: From a knowledge processing perspective, this paper defines the concept of technological learning routine based on four distinct processes in technological learning: knowledge acquisition, knowledge maintenance, knowledge reactivation and knowledge transformation. We propose that knowledge attributes (i.e., knowledge tacitness and knowledge heterogeneity) have significant impacts on the intensity and the variety of the technological learning routine within industrial clusters. Survey data from 231 industrial cluster firms reveals that knowledge tacitness has a positive and significant influence on both the intensity and the variety of the technological learning routine, while knowledge heterogeneity is negatively related to the variety of the technological learning routine within industrial clusters. This study contributes to the literature through clarifying the operationalization of the technological learning routine construct, and providing a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the knowledge attributes and technological learning routine within industrial clusters.
Keywords: knowledge tacitness; knowledge heterogeneity; technological learning routine; industrial cluster.
The Strategy of Repeated Open and Narrow Approaches for Standardized Media
by Haruo Awano, Koji Tanabe
Abstract: International standardization contributes to market expansion. The standardization also leads to the rapid spread of the technology and allows easy entry for many competitors into the market. This often leads to severe price erosion, with the result that a company which develops business opportunities from innovation fails to profit therefrom. This paper examines the way in which Sony was able to succeed in profiting from the business of 130 mm MO media in spite of the fact that the media was ISO standardized which allowed many competitors to enter the market. A key factor for the success is a strategy of repeated open and narrow approaches. One approach is to build an entry barrier by creating a market in demand for highly reliable media. The other approach is periodic introduction of a new generation of the media with double capacity and its periodic standardization upon customers' demands. The market, which is once open to competitors through standardization, is narrowed again by the aforementioned strategy. The paper also studies the business of standardized 8 mm data tape media, accordingly, the research results can be applied to the business of tape media.
Keywords: international standardization; MO media; strategy; tape media; Sony; alliance; open approach; narrow approach; standardized media; repeated approaches; Magneto-Optic; entry barrier; periodic standardization; technology management.
Technology-driven Mergers and Acquisitions of Chinese Acquirers: Development of a Multi-Dimensional Framework for post-innovation performance
by Xiao Zhou, Liliana Mitkova, Lu Huang, Scott Cunningham, Lining Shang
Abstract: While some studies have observed the beneficial impact of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) on a firms innovation performance in developed countries, others have found the consequences to be neutral or even negative. This article develops an integrated framework to elucidate how the combination of technological relatedness and product relatedness between acquiring and target firms affects post-innovation performance of technology-driven M&As. This performance is investigated by using a set of parameters, namely R&D input, patent and product activity, and the financial results from commercialization. We conducted case studies on Chinas high-tech firms derived from three diverse industry sectors, and the empirical results indicate that both types of relatedness between the partners of technology-driven M&As are conducive to the intensification of R&D expenditures. The acquisition of similar technologies and products has more significant effects on R&D input and output, and M&As without technology relatedness have better financial performance, since they lead acquirers to new technology sectors or sub-sectors. In comparison, M&As with technological complementarity and product complementarity have negative effects on related innovation processes in the short term.
Keywords: Mergers and Acquisitions; Technology-driven Mergers and Acquisitions; Technology relatedness; Product relatedness; Innovation performance.
The Knowledge Protection Paradox: Imitation and Innovation through Knowledge Sharing
by Kim Van Oorschot, Hans Solli-Sæther, Jan Terje Karlsen
Abstract: Western multinational corporations (MNCs) that want to get market access in China have to share knowledge with Chinese partners. Because this may invoke imitation, MNCs prefer to protect knowledge. This is a strategic paradox: MNCs have to share and protect knowledge. To analyze this paradox we develop a theoretical conceptual model capturing tensions and feedback cycles of this paradox. Next, based on data from the shipbuilding industry, a system dynamics model is developed to simulate long-term effects of sharing and protecting strategies. The results indicate that protection is detrimental to long-term success, because it undercuts the trust of the Chinese supplier and irreparably reduces innovation rates. Knowledge protection thus reduces instead of increases the ability to share (new) knowledge in the future. A sharing strategy increases imitation but also trust and knowledge sharing by the Chinese partner, such that it enhances the MNCs innovation rate and long-term performance.
Keywords: knowledge protection; knowledge sharing; strategic paradox; innovation; imitation; system dynamics.
Absorptive capacity, technological innovation capability and innovation performance: an empirical study in Hong Kong
by Antonio K.W. Lau, William Lo
Abstract: This study examines how different learning processes of absorptive capacity (AC) influence technological innovation capability (TIC), leading to better innovation performance and product competitiveness under a new industrial context. Data from a self-administrative industrial survey conducted in 200 firms in Hong Kong was used. The results show that the combination of four individual learning processes (i.e. acquisition, assimilation,rntransformation and exploitation) of AC provides the better fit of the study than a single construct of AC. All the learning processes affect innovation performance through TIC. The assimilation and exploitation have direct effects on product competitiveness. The finding of this study increases our understanding of how the learning processes of AC relates to TIC andrnfirm performance. This study also addresses the current weaknesses of AC in empirical studies by using direct measures of AC, breaking down AC into four components separately, and also studying the intangible outcomes of AC.
Keywords: Absorptive capacity; technological innovation capability; empirical study; Hong Kong.
Describing different integrated solutions
by Siri Jagstedt, Magnus Persson
Abstract: Integrating products and services seamlessly into a solution enables a more valuable offering to be created, described as an integrated solution. This paper investigates how various dimensions can be used to describe different integrated solutions, expanding the knowledge on how such solutions co-exist within different companies and how they can be described. A case study involving two companies shows that different integrated solutions correspond to different ways of relating to three dimensions: addressing the customer, integration and customization.
Keywords: Integrated solutions; servitization; product-service offerings.
Are Innovation Resources and Capabilities Enough to Make Businesses Sustainable? An Empirical Study of Leading Sustainable Innovative Firms
by Sarah Behnam, Raffaella Cagliano
Abstract: Increasingly, innovations aimed at sustainable development have occupied a top position in businesses planning. Thus, this paper is aimed at contributing to the ongoing and current debate on sustainability-oriented innovation (SOI) development. Despite SOIs ability to bring forward new opportunities for companies, it is accompanied by increased complexity, which, in turn, may require adjustments to innovation resources and capabilities to address the challenges that arise. Starting from a conceptual framework of requisite resources and capabilities for innovations, we test these resources and capabilities empirically in five leading SOI firms. The results show that innovative SOI firms need to strengthen their exploration and exploitation capabilities, including unifying the incorporation of internal and external resources with a clear orientation. In that sense, these adjustments are hypothesized to be more important than R&D expenditures, symbolic capital growth and knowledge formalization.
Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable development; Innovation management; Sustainability oriented innovation; Intangible Resources; Organizational Capabilities; Exploration and Exploitation; Knowledge Retention; Internal collaboration; External Collaboration; Open innovation; Research and development.
Citation Impact of Public and Private Funding on Nanotechnology-Related Publications
by Leila Tahmooresnejad, Catherine Beaudry
Abstract: Government agencies, which have a long history of funding academic research, are one of the primary forces fostering new technologies in recent decades. Nanotechnology seems to have a huge potential to bring benefits for economic growth and has shown its ability to attract interest from the private sector. This paper analyzes the effects of public and private funding on the subsequent scientific output of academic research in this emerging technology. We investigate whether public grants increase the citation of publications, as well as whether private funding is complementary in enhancing citation impact. Using a panel dataset in Quebec, we examine autoregression models, the binary case and continuous treatment analysis of funding to find evidence that funding can positively affect the citation of research publications. The results show that the influence of public grants on the number of citations follows almost an inverted U shape curve, which has a positive impact proportional to the amount of public funding received. In contrast, industry funding does not exhibit robust effectiveness on citations. The estimates suggest that private research funding from industry can be detrimental to publication impact.
Keywords: Research funding; Private funding; Scientific papers; Citations; Nanotechnology.
Worldwide IP coverage of patented inventions in large pharma firms: to what extent do the internationalisation of R&D and firm strategy matter?
by Patricia Laurens, Christian Le Bas, Antione Schoen
Abstract: The paper deals with the determinants of worldwide IP coverage of patented inventions in large pharmaceutical firms. We support the core idea that the internationalisation of firm R&D is a positive key factor which explains global IP coverage. For the global pharmaceutical industry we estimate logit models on the probability that a patent will be expanded worldwide. We retain two categories of worldwide patent: the well-known triadic patent and the new triadic one (triadic+ China + Korea). The data set encompasses the 17487 priority patents applied by 69 enterprises from several countries over the period 2003-2005. One important finding is that patenting in Japan sets up an important barrier, giving Japanese firms an advantage when triadic patenting is considered. For European and US firms our estimation results confirm the idea that the level of firm R&D internationalisation is a significant explanatory factor in international IP coverage, together with control variables. We highlight an inverted U-shaped relationship between these two variables.
Keywords: global patent coverage; pharma firms; internationalisation of R&D; strategy; globalisation of technology.
Classifying different types of modularity for technical system
by Hao Li, Miying Yang, Steve Evans
Abstract: Modular design is regarded as an effective approach to reduce production cost and increase mass customization and personalization in industries. The implementation of modularization requires the support of the entire technical system, including product, service and supply chains. However, most modularity studies only focus on product modularity. There is a need for comprehensive understanding of modularity in product, service and supply chains. This paper addresses this need by defining the modularity of the technical system, including product, service and supply chains; and providing classifications for modularity across product modularity, service modularity and supply chain modularity separately. The contributions of this paper are: (a) a review on the classification of technical system modularity; (b) the analysis of internal relationship among different types of product modularity, (c) a proposal for different types of service modularity and supply chain modularity. This study can assist manufacturing companies to improve modular design and management of technical system.
Keywords: technical system; product modularity; service modularity; supply chain modularity.
Investigating technological strategy and relevance of knowledge domains in R&D collaborations
by Antonello Cammarano, Francesca Michelino, Emilia Lamberti, Mauro Caputo
Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to provide a patent-based framework exhibiting how companies manage their R&D collaborations at the knowledge domain level. Two characteristics of the knowledge fields involved in alliances are examined - technological strategy and technological relevance - proposing an original mapping of R&D collaborations. Focal companies are selected from automotive, bio-pharmaceutical and technology hardware & equipment industries. By focusing on dyadic collaborations, the analysis is performed for both focal companies and their partners, and the significance of the mapping is tested with patent quality.
Results show that the largest share of dyadic collaborations is focused on technological fields that are non-core for both partners. Also, from the standpoint of the focal firm, a prevalence of exploitation on exploration is uncovered. Different best practices emerge for each industry.
Keywords: R&D collaborations; Joint development; Knowledge domains; Technological strategy; Exploitation vs. exploration; Technological relevance; Core technologies; Innovation quality; Forward citations; Patent data; Automotive; Bio-pharmaceutical; Technology hardware & equipment.
Collaboration partner portfolio along the growth of Chinese firms' innovation capability: configuration, evolution and pattern
by Rongkang Ma, Fengchao Liu, Yutao Sun
Abstract: This paper examines R&D collaboration of Chinese firms along the growth of innovation capability from the portfolio perspective. Taking advantage of longitudinal patent data from the State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) between 1985 and 2008, the configuration, evolution and pattern of collaboration partner portfolio of Chinese firms are investigated. The results show that: 1) Chinese mainland enterprises (CMEs) are active to engage in R&D collaboration, while most Taiwan-invested enterprises (TIEs) and foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) still develop innovation capabilities on their own; 2) the partner portfolios of CMEs with high growth rate are characterised by a smaller number of partners, lower level of repeated partnerships and higher collaboration intensity, while the low-growth CMEs just show an opposite trend; 3) universities have gradually become the most prominent partners of both high-growth and low-growth CMEs, but the firms are also experiencing a significant growth in their portfolios. By contrast, the role of research institutes is decreasing rapidly, especially in low-growth CMEs. Finally, four typical collaboration patterns are drawn from in-depth analysis of Chinese collaborating firms.
Keywords: Chinese firms; co-patenting; collaboration; partner portfolio; configuration; evolution; pattern.
A dynamic capabilities perspective on managing technological change: a review, framework and research agenda
by Stefan Konlechner, Barbara Müller, Wolfgang H. Güttel
Abstract: The dynamic capabilities view has emerged as the central approach for addressing the question of how firms cope with technological change. Capturing the essence of dynamic capabilities and understanding what they are and how they actually support technological innovation and change, however, has hitherto posed an exacting challenge. This paper addresses these issues; 1) by reviewing the current state of research; 2) by investigating the role of three established theoretical lenses - ambidexterity, absorptive capacity and technology management - for dynamic capability-driven adaptation to technological change. In particular, we analyse how these three concepts unfold as dynamic capabilities and facilitate technological change through strategic managerial decision-making, resource reconfiguration and continuous learning. We subsequently propose a comprehensive framework that provides an integrative perspective on how dynamic capabilities support the management of technological change, e.g., developments toward digital transformation, new ICTs or cyber physical systems. Finally, we discuss future research directions based on the findings of our synthesis and framework.
Keywords: absorptive capacity; ambidexterity; dynamic capabilities; literature review; organisational change; technological innovation; technology management.
Factors influencing innovation capability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Korean manufacturing sector: facilitators, barriers and moderators
by Moon-Koo Kim, Jong-Hyun Park, Jong-Hyun Paik
Abstract: Securing and expanding innovation capability is a critical challenge for the survival and growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), as they normally lack internal resources and show limited environmental responsiveness. However, few prior studies focus on the factors influencing the innovation capability of SMEs in terms of facilitators, barriers, and moderators. Using survey data collected from Korean SMEs in the manufacturing sector, we show that innovation capability is a fundamental determinant of firm performance. Top management leadership and external networking serve as facilitators, while organisational rigidity and insufficient resources act as barriers to firm performance, and have a significant impact on innovation capability. This study reveals that commercialisation capabilities serve as moderators between innovation capability and firm performance. The implications and directions for future research are also suggested.
Keywords: innovation; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; innovation capability; firm performance; barriers to innovation; commercialisation capabilities; Korea.
Strategic technology roadmapping for inter-ministry R&D cooperation
by Sangil Kim, Changtaek Choi
Abstract: Since the 2008 global economic crisis, South Korea has actively invested in R&D for technological competitiveness and new market access. Systematic strategies and cooperation between government departments investing in R&D are needed for maximum impact of these investments and efficient use of limited government financial resources. However, technology roadmaps established by individual ministries of the Korean Government lack linkages with national goals and do not provide clear guidance. Additionally, existing technology roadmaps provided by the Korean Government include only technology trees and timetables, but no other technology-supporting measures. This paper provides a strategic technology roadmapping process for inter-ministry R&D cooperation and offers selection criteria for the roadmap's target technologies and supporting measures such as improved legal systems, professional personnel training, and infrastructure replenishment for commercialisation of the target technologies. Finally, the paper presents a process to align national technology roadmaps with the government's R&D programs and budget allocation.
Keywords: strategic technology roadmap; inter-ministry; R&D; cooperation; budget; technology management; R&D programme; roadmap framework; roadmapping; R&D planning.
How firms synergise: understanding motives and management of co-creation for business-to-business services
by Stephan Schwetschke, Christopher Durugbo
Abstract: This article explores the motives for service co-creation in business-to-business (B2B) relationships and provides insight into the management practices for service co-creation. A literature review scrutinises the state of current literature on co-creation and B2B relationships. The insights build the foundation for a theoretical research model. This is followed by semi-structured interviews with 12 key informants from firms in B2B relationships for service co-creation. The empirical data was used to evaluate the applicability of the research model in practice and to refine it accordingly. The findings from the case firms suggest that co-creation is a catalyst for synergetic effects derived from competitive advantage and business transformation. This catalytic capability is dependent on the nature of collaboration, interaction, governance and the value co-creation activities themselves provide that underlie how entities are co-opted and involved. The implications of the study and potential future research directions are also discussed.
Keywords: value co-creation; industrial services; B2B relationships.
Competition vs. collaboration: a four set game theory - innovation, collaboration, imitation, and 'do nothing'
by Mo Li, Bang Nguyen, Xiaoyu Yu, Yuqing Han
Abstract: Opinions on when competition or collaboration is optimal differ, particularly in the case of product innovation. To examine the broad determinants of both collaboration and innovation patterns, the present study takes a game theoretic approach and develops a four-strategy set (innovation, collaboration, imitation and 'do nothing') to understand when competition or collaboration is optimal. The model explores the collaboration determinants in depth, focusing on the sharing of collaboration costs. By designing and using the MATLAB animation software, the study generates the equilibrium solution for each strategy set. Based on the game theoretic approach, ten predictions are generated about: a) the probability of collaboration; b) the collaboration costs; c) the effect of technology on price and revenue. The study concludes with policy implications at both firm and national levels under conditions of weak intellectual property rights (IPR) such as in China based on the game theoretic approach.
Keywords: competition; innovation; collaboration; imitation; game theory.
Special Issue on: Quo Vadis Entrepreneurial University New Theoretical and Empirical Insights from an Inter- and Intra-Organisational Perspective
University coworking-spaces: Mechanisms, examples, and suggestions for entrepreneurial universities
by Ricarda B. Bouncken
Abstract: Universities can take the recent global trend of coworking-spaces to establish university coworking-spaces build integrated concept for entrepreneurial universities. This conceptual paper discusses how university coworking-spaces can enrich entrepreneurial universities using the development of a new venture community, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, inspiration, autonomy, and knowledge flows, even international ones. Examples show how universities are pioneering with coworking-spaces. This paper also suggests how university coworking-spaces can integrate entrepreneurship education, linkages to firms, and admission structures, and use synergies through proper governance.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial University; Coworking-Spaces; Coworking; New Venture; Student Entrepreneurship.
Entrepreneurial Academics and Academic Entrepreneurs: A Systematic Literature Review
by Kristel Miller, Allen Alexander, James Cunningham, Ekaterina Albats
Abstract: Universities are now viewed as key economic actors within regions and are central actors in shaping and influencing entrepreneurial ecosystems.This has meant that universities now have to become more entrepreneurial in offerings, outlook and culture. However, a core actor in this process who is often overlooked is the academic. The ability of an academic to effectively transfer knowledge to industry is key to universities achieving their entrepreneurial mission and ambition. This paper explores the changing roles of academics to identify key distinctions between entrepreneurial academics and academic entrepreneurs. This is done through a systematic literature review spanning 25 years drawing on selected high impact journals in innovation, entrepreneurship and higher education studies. We categorise the types of activity that academics typically engage in and identify the motivations and challenges they face. From this we identify two types of academics, the entrepreneurial academic and academic entrepreneur. We posit that there is a need for both types of academics to contribute to the success of the entrepreneurial university and conclude by outlining some avenues for future research.
Keywords: University-industry knowledge transfer; entrepreneurial academic; academic entrepreneur; systematic literature review; entrepreneurial university.
A performance-based taxonomy of entrepreneurial universities
by Leire Markuerkiaga, Juan Ignacio Igartua, Nekane Errasti
Abstract: The European higher education landscape has experienced dramatic changes in the last decades and the entrepreneurial university has turned into a potential solution to these perceived problems. Therefore, this paper proposes a taxonomy of entrepreneurial universities. Based on a cluster analysis, three distinct groups are identified, within different phases of the transformation into an entrepreneurial university: one group of universities is in the first phase of the path, since they are not obtaining high entrepreneurial university results yet; another group is in the second phase of the path, obtaining good results in hard academic entrepreneurship activities; and, finally, the last group is composed of the most entrepreneurial universities. Moreover, universities are not motionless within a specific group, they can improve and move from one stage to the upper one; indeed, this paper shows the main levers for moving from one stage to another.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial university; Performance; Taxonomy; Academic Entrepreneurship activities; Cluster analysis; Entrepreneurial university results; Academic entrepreneurship; Higher education; Internal entrepreneurship support factors; External entrepreneurship support factors.
Mode 3 Universities and Academic Firms: Thinking Beyond the Box Trans-Disciplinarity and Non-Linear Innovation Dynamics within Co-opetitive Entrepreneurial Ecosystems
by Elias G. Carayannis, Evangelos Grigoroudis, David Campbell, Dirk Meissner, Dimitra Stamati
Abstract: The main objective of the paper is to examine if Mode 3 universities represent a new and advanced type of an entrepreneurial university, perhaps transcending the entrepreneurial university, and identify the specific characteristics of Mode 3 universities. According to its definition, a Mode 3 university represents a type of organization capable of higher order learning and in this regard a type of open, highly complex, and non-linear knowledge production system that seeks and realizes creative ways of combining, recombining, and integrating different principles of knowledge production and knowledge application (e.g., Mode 1 and Mode 2). Thus, Mode 3 universities clearly encourage diversity and heterogeneity, while they emphasize and engender creative and innovative organizational contexts for research, education, and innovation. New formats, forms, designs, and redesigns of inter-disciplinarity and trans-disciplinarity are being opened and encouraged. Cross-employment feeds into the formation of new and newer complex networks that link together organizations and institutions in a hybrid (and trans-sectoral) fashion. The principles of an academic firm further encourage Mode 3 universities. As a final assessment we propose that Mode 3 type universities may be captured in the terminology of an entrepreneurial university, but perhaps it is better to address them as universities that express some entrepreneurial qualities, but also transcend traditional and conventional understandings of an entrepreneurial university. Several examples are offered in this context in order to demonstrate how and why the concept of Mode 3 universities is better endowed for addressing the current and future challenges compared to a simple entrepreneurial university approach. The full exploration of Mode 3 universities furthermore demands a strong linkage and contextualization with (entrepreneurial) ecosystems.
Keywords: Academic Firm; Entrepreneurial University; Innovation Ecosystem; Inter-Disciplinarity; Mode 3 University; Non-Linear Innovation; Quadruple And Quintuple Helix Innovation Systems; Trans-Disciplinarity; Co-Opetitive Entrepreneurial Ecosystems.
Business Models of Entrepreneurial Universities in the Area of Vocational Education An Exploratory Analysis
by Nizar Abdelkafi, Romy Hilbig, Sven M. Laudien
Abstract: Universities have become increasingly entrepreneurial during the last several years, and research still widely ignores the existence of independent entrepreneurial actions of universities. This paper specifically deals with entrepreneurial activities that universities have recently started to embrace. In detail, it focuses on vocational education, an innovation step that enables universities to generate additional resources. This paper applies a qualitative research approach based on case studies to explore the business models of entrepreneurial universities in the realm of vocational education. In particular, it deals with universities that offer their services in an international context. Our paper allows for a deeper understanding of the key decisions and choices related to the business model of entrepreneurial universities in the area of vocational education and identifies three business model patterns that universities can apply to extend their traditional business models and embark on an evolutionary path to satisfy the necessity of independently generating funds. Thus, this research not only sheds light on entrepreneurial activities carried out by universities in general, it also goes deeper by showing how these activities shape the business model.
Keywords: Business Model; Business Model Innovation; Modularity of Business Models; Entrepreneurial University; Vocational Education.
Entrepreneurial University: A stakeholder-based conceptualisation of the current state and an agenda for future research
by Thomas Clauss, Aurel Moussa, Tobias Kesting
Abstract: Research on the entrepreneurial university has been receiving increased attention in recent years. The growing literature stock has been leading to a rather unstructured research status quo, characterised by foci on particular elements and actors of the entrepreneurial university. Hence, our paper aims to systematically integrate the fragmented literature on entrepreneurial universities. Relying on the stakeholder theory, our paper provides a stakeholder-based conceptualisation. We identify seven research streams and devised an integrative systematic university-centred view on the entrepreneurial university itself and its core stakeholders within its organisational boundaries and beyond, such as researchers, firms, the economy and society. We illustrate and discuss the findings and conclude with a future research agenda. Due to its systemic nature, our integrative stakeholder-based conceptualization of the literature on the entrepreneurial university enables the identification of important future research directions that particularly address the linkages between the stakeholder groups and the overall ecosystem.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial university; academic entrepreneurship; university-industry collaboration; university ecosystem; stakeholder; stakeholder theory; technology transfer; triple-helix; university spin-off; mode-2 knowledge production; academic capitalism; research agenda; literature review.
Special Issue on: Unveiling the Commercialisation Mechanisms and Dynamics of University Technological Inventions
Building collaboration between academia and local authorities: a case study in Norway
by Ricardo Colomo-Palacios, Per Gunnar Fyhn, Pedro Soto-Acosta, Kåre Edvardsen
Abstract: Universities and their environments are aimed to collaborate towards a better society. Academics must spread and apply their knowledge in real settings in order to advance in their careers and, on the other hand, local players present problems that may need the application of advanced knowledge and sometimes basic research to be solved. In the specific scenario of local authorities, this collaboration presents special features given the intrinsic and close relationship among actors and the non-profit orientation of these organizations. This paper presents the construction overtime of the collaboration between a department of a public university and a municipality conducted in Norway. Results show a remarkable outcome in terms of cross-fertilization for both research institutions and local authorities.
Keywords: Intelligent Waste Management; Local Authorities and Universities Collaboration; Green IT.
Markets for university inventions: The role of patents underlying knowledge in university-to-industry technology commercialisation
by Lorenzo Ardito
Abstract: The present research examines how to improve the effectiveness of markets for university inventions from a demand side perspective. Specifically, it is examined whether and how the likelihood that university patents are purchased by companies is dependent upon the characteristics of patents underlying knowledge. Two knowledge characteristics are analysed, i.e., knowledge breadth and knowledge maturity. Furthermore, the moderating effect of the level of scientific knowledge is further considered. On the basis of a sample of 1,222 university patents related to the biotechnology sector and registered at the United States Patent and Trademark Office, this study outlines that knowledge breadth is curvilinearly related (inverted U-shaped) to the likelihood that academic patents are bought by firms, whereas knowledge maturity has a negative effect. Moreover, the level of scientific knowledge positively moderates the influence of knowledge breadth when it is at a low/moderate level, while it exerts a negative moderating effect when knowledge breadth is at a high level. Instead, the effect of knowledge maturity becomes stronger when university patents are based upon scientific knowledge.
Keywords: markets for technologies; markets for university inventions; university-industry relationship; entrepreneurial university; university-to-industry technology commercialisation; knowledge breadth; knowledge maturity; scientific knowledge; open innovation.
The Ecosystem of Entrepreneurial University: The Case of Higher Education in a Developing Country
by Noor Hazlina Ahmad, Hasliza Abdul Halim, Thurasamy Ramayah, Simona Popa, Armando Papa
Abstract: In recent times, the propensity to establish a reciprocal association between universities and industries through an interchange of knowledge is becoming greater. In developing countries, the perception of academicians in entrepreneurial universities, however, is mixed. This research aims to satisfy a clear gap in the main field of research whereabouts only recent studies analysed the challenges imposed by knowledge management. The main objective looks into the factors contributing towards advancement of entrepreneurial university paradigms in a developing country, Malaysia. This study carried out a survey among academicians who are currently employed in fifteen public and private universities. The majority of the respondents believe their university contains strong elements of entrepreneurism. With respect to previous literature, this study is useful for government and university authorities to formulate guidelines and policies to implement and reinforce the concept of entrepreneurial universities, in order to extend debates concerning the creation of entrepreneurship ecosystem.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial University; Entrepreneurial Orientation; Academic; Challenges; developing countries; entrepreneurial propensity; Ecosystem of academic entrepreneurship.
Peeking beyond the wall: analysing university technology transfer and commercialisation processes
by João Lopes, Luis Farinha, João J. Ferreira, Fernando Ferreira
Abstract: This paper aims to study the dynamics underlying university technology transfer and commercialization mechanisms. We adopt a qualitative research methodology incorporating different case studies, interviews and applied research of key players involved in universities, business incubators and start-ups. While this study remains limited to three case studies, it does highlight the technology transfer mechanisms and the support provided to commercialisation, including the identification of the difficulties and opportunities present within the context of cooperation networks. Through this practical approach, which is grounded on surveying those running incubators and incubator company managers in conjunction with analysis of research, development and innovation (RDI) cooperative projects backed by European funding, we were able to gain insights into the different processes of transferring and commercializing technology. Falling within the framework of the third component of the universities mission, this article demonstrates not only the importance of RDI cooperation networks but also how the consequent commercialisation of new products and services generates positive consequences for economic growth.
Keywords: Knowledge and Technology Transfers; University Technology Transfers and Commercialisation; TTO; Triple Helix.
Assessing the Impact and Antecedents of University Scientific Research on Firms Innovation Commercialisation
by Luca Dezi, Gabriele Santoro, Filippo Monge, Yue Zhao
Abstract: University-firm links have stimulated a lot of attention. In fact, with the increasing knowledge and technologies created within university laboratories, firms have identified business opportunities by accessing the knowledge developed by external actors and commercialising universities inventions. In this case, they adopt a knowledge acquisition strategy to foster innovation, reducing risk and exploiting new technological opportunities. This underlines a shift in the role of universities from education providers to scientific knowledge and technologies producers in the current knowledge-driven economy. In this context, the main goal of this paper is to assess the impact of knowledge acquisition on firms innovation commercialisation, with a specific focus on knowledge developed by university scientific research. By applying hierarchical regressions on a sample of 185 Italian knowledge-intensive firms (KIFs), the findings indicate that firms benefit from research partnerships with and services from universities, especially when they also seek knowledge from other counterparts and when they possess higher levels of internal absorptive capacity.
Keywords: university-firm collaborations; knowledge acquisition; open innovation; knowledge-intensive firms; university scientific research.
A Glance at Research-Driven Universitys Technology Transfer Office in the UAE
by Farkhund Iqbal, Patrick C. K. Hung, Suaad Mohammed Qayed Ahmed Mohammed
Abstract: In many countries, Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) in research-driven universities serve as an intermediary between suppliers of innovations and those who can potentially commercialize them. TTOs are always run as cost-centers on campus, often have business or operation managers, and facilitate intellectual property licensing activities. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), TTOs are expected to take an important role in the evolution of successful spin-off companies from innovation to production to sales to sustainable profit. Further, TTOs aim to help businesses to innovate and prosper leading to improving local and national economic prosperity. An innovative technology from a research outcome may have value as an application or product with commercial potential in the market. TTOs often support spin-off companies becoming a learning organization and easing into an articulated management of activities complementary to the research and development activities that create the innovation and drive the transition from innovation to product lines. Academic entrepreneurs have built and run entities such as research centers that are like small businesses. Although these entrepreneurs have learned how to secure and manage revenues to sustain cash flows for their companies, they still may not be sustainable in the market. This paper aims to investigate the current situation of research-driven universitys TTO in UAE using a case study of Etisalat BT Innovation Center (EBTIC) at Khalifa University and Masdar Institute for university policy implications. The findings suggest that TTOs assist university researchers in many ways.
Keywords: Research-driven University Entrepreneurship; Technology Transfer Office; Spin-off companies; Business Incubation.
Equity crowdfunding inTechnology Transfer Strategies and Licensing
by Luca Dezi, Valentina Cillo, Antonio Usai, Paola Pisano
Abstract: The main aim of this study is to investigate to what extent equity crowdfunding could enable firms to outsource research and development activities. Likewise, the present study aims at analyzing the relationship between desorptive capacity and equity crowdfunding performance. We also aim at studying the mediation role of ICT firms capabilities, connective capacity and minor equity ownership. In this regard, this study intends to pioneer into connecting the knowledge management theory with the crowdfunding studies. A sample of 180 projects based on the top ten European equity crowdfunding platforms has been used. Findings indicate that desorptive capacity enables companies in developing external knowledge retention and expoitation wich in turn enhance equity crowdfunding performance.
Keywords: Crowdfunding; Technology transfer; Licensing; External knowledge management; Desorptive capacity; Connective capacity; ICT capabilities; Equity ownership.
Special Issue on: International Technology Strategy, Industry and Trade Policies, Innovation Processes, and Technology Sourcing and Transfer the Search for Synthesis in a Global Economy
What drives success in product innovation? Empirical evidence in high-tech and low-tech manufacturers in China
by Kris M.Y. Law, Antonio K.W. Lau, W.H. Ip
Abstract: The study aims to determine what are the major factors affecting the performance of innovation systems in both high- and low- tech industries in China. Multiple regression and PLS analyses were used to analyze a survey data from 152 manufacturers in China.
This study showed that internal R&D and competitors are the major drivers of innovation that improves the sales of new-to-market products. Major barriers of innovation include law regulations, standards and tax issues and the potential market being owned by other firms. The motivating factors include new market entry, improvement of product quality, and increase in market share. Low-tech and high-tech firms may follow different innovation paths and are promoted by differential sources of innovation, barriers and motivating factors. Some innovation activities such as acquisition of external knowledge and preparations are found to have significant mediating effects on the above relationships.
The research project brings about specific guidelines for local legislative bodies to enact effective innovation policies that align closely with the innovation characteristics of local industries.
Keywords: Innovation; motivating factors; barriers; China manufacturers; empirical study.
Special Issue on: Memoriam of Michael Radnor
Advanced Analytics Group and Intraorganizational Power
by Martin L. Bariff
Abstract: Organisations are challenged by increased environmental complexity
and uncertainty. Advanced analytics and the processing of big data offer a
potential solution to reducing this challenge. Advanced analytic groups
have been established in organisations to provide services and support for
these new tools and their related data. The degree of intraorganisational power
accumulated by these groups could help promote adoption of these services and
improve organisational performance. A research framework and propositions
are developed to promote the evaluation of intraorganisational power as a
mediating variable toward understanding the contribution of advanced analytics
groups contributions to organisation performance.
Keywords: intraorganisational power; IPW; advanced analytics; big data;
organisation effectiveness; organisational performance.
The impact of design architecture choices on competitiveness: Comparison of Korean and Japanese Shipbuilding Firms
by Yuichiro Mukai, YoungWon Park, Paul Hong, Geon-Cheol Shin
Abstract: This study examines why shipbuilding firms use both standardised
and customised designs and analyses the impact of design architecture choices
on competitiveness. Case study findings suggest that Korean and Japanese
firms have different strategies. Hyundai Heavy Industry Corporation (HHIC)s
development processes utilise package unit design for its suppliers. It has
contributed reducing its production processes by half. Samsung Heavy Industry
Corporation (SHIC) emphasises dual strategic options that integrate both
standardisation and customisation orientations. Meanwhile, some Japanese
companies are still successful. They adopt standardised ship strategies making
a bulk carrier which is not so complex or sophisticated. However, overall
design is still customised for each requirement. Some successful companies
adopt modularisation or closed-standardisation at the subsystem level for
the design and manufacturing productivity. These cases show the probability
of the ability of architectural dynamics contributing to the productivity and
competitiveness in the matured technological category
Keywords: .design architecture choices; Japanese shipbuilding firms; product
architecture; product development; Korean shipbuilding firms.
Dynamics of ex post uncertainty and negative behavioral direction in alliances
by Inwon Kang, Jiwon Lee
Abstract: Adopting ex post dynamism, we introduce a novel approach to the
negative behaviour in strategic alliance where firms evaluation of accumulated
risk during alliance operation leads to risk-aversive behaviour. To examine this
process, a total of 395 employees from China and Korea completed a survey on
risk-aversive behaviour in strategic alliance. Based on the collected data, the
study measures firms re-evaluation of alliance and their antecedents and
outcomes. Key results show that among the ex post uncertainties, task
uncertainty had the largest influence on risk-aversive behaviour. Moreover, the
study finds that when EA firms perceive high level of uncertainty during an
alliance operation, they show intentions to undertake contractual renegotiation
whereas non-EA firms were likely to protect their core assets. Based on the
findings, theoretical and practical implications on the management of riskaversive
behaviour in strategic alliance are discussed.
Keywords: .technology uncertainty; task uncertainty; partnership uncertainty;
equity alliance; non-equity alliance; core asset protection; contractual
What Determines the Range of Supply Chain Integration? Comparison of Korean and Japanese Steel Firms
by SungWoo Byun, YoungWon Park, Geon-Cheol Shin
Abstract: Supply chain strategies depend on competitive environments as well
as the nature of the particular business. Consequently, supply chain integration
(SCI) strategies should also be evaluated under the conditions a firm is facing.
This paper examines the determinants of range of supply chain integration. By
comparing the SCI strategies of Korean and Japanese steel firms, the paper
shows that SCI should be evaluated in light of supply chain flexibility and
uncertainty. Additionally, it is argued that although SCI with customers helps
diminish demand uncertainty, it can also bring inflexibility, which is a
customer lock-in phenomenon.
Keywords: supply chain integration; SCI; flexibility; uncertainty; Korean steel
firms; Japanese steel firms.