International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (27 papers in press)
Ship Scheduling Problems in Tramp Shipping considering static and spot cargoes
by Bin Yu, Keming Wang, Can Wang, Baozhen Yao
Abstract: Tramp shipping is the main transportation mode for dry bulk cargoes in international trade, which is possible to be affected by several stochastic factors (e.g. uncertain demand, weather). The focus of this paper is to study on the ship scheduling problems by taking into account the uncertainty of cargo demand (called spot cargo in the paper), seasonal fluctuation of demand and unseaworthy condition caused by weather factors. To solve the ship scheduling problem (SSP), a mixed integer programming model is constructed by maximizing the profit of all the voyages of a company during the planning period. Since the problem is similar to one of the NP-hard problems, a heuristic method is proposed to process it. Then, the data of a shipping company in China are used to test the model and the approach. The computed results show that the proposed method can provide good ship routing and scheduling solutions to real-instances. Moreover, the results also show that the heuristic is an efficient way for the scheduling of tramp ship.
Keywords: tramp shipping; ship scheduling; uncertain demands; spot cargo; weather factors.
ROBUST OPTIMIZATION OF LINER SHIPPING NETWORK ON YANGTZE RIVER WITH CONSIDERING WEATHER INFLUENCES
by Zhongzhen Yang
Abstract: With robust optimization method, the liner shipping network on Yangtze River is designed, which takes the influences of the bad weather into account. Firstly, a model to optimize the liner shipping network is built based the attributes of the River, which can determine the network structure, the fleet size and the operation frequency simultaneously. Secondly, in order to consider the influences of the bad weather, the robust optimization method is used to evolve the original model to a robust one. Moreover, a numerical examination is done by taking 12 ports and 28 inland cities along the River as the nodes. The results show that only one type of vessels will be used for the whole River without considering the weather influences, while when the weather influences are taken into account different types of vessels should be used in different river segments for the liner service. Under the robust optimized network, containers may change from waterway transport to highway transport and the profit of waterway transport declines by 30.5%, however, the reliability of the transport in the region along the River increases by 25%
Keywords: Yangtze River; liner shipping; network; robust optimization; weather influences
Governments' Sequential Facility Investments and Ports' Pricing Under Service Differentiation and Uncertainty
by Hsiao-Chi Chen, Tae-Woo Lee, Shi-Miin Liu, Tsung-Chen Lee
Abstract: This paper examines optimal facility investments of risk-averse governments and optimal pricing of risk-neutral ports under service differentiation and demand uncertainty. We construct a three-period game, in which governments 1 and 2 choose their facility investments in the first and the second periods respectively, and then the two ports decide their service prices in the third period. We find that government 2 will invest more in facilities if government 1 does so when variations of the market demand are large. However, government 2 may not own higher expected utility than government 1. Moreover, we explore how the model's parameters affect optimal behaviors of governments and their ports. All of these outcomes remain true if uncertainty comes from the cost-side, or if the demand for ports' services depends on their facility levels.
Keywords: facility investment, price competition, service differentiation, sequential game, uncertainty
Cost Allocation in a Container Shipping Alliance Considering Economies of Scale: A CKYH Alliance Case Study
by Shi Yuan Zheng, Rudy Negenborn, Xiaolin Zhu
Abstract: This paper proposes and investigates three schemes for cost allocation in a container shipping alliance considering the economies of scale. In order to deal with the complicated interactions between carriers and the impact of the economies of scale on shipping cost, a duality-based, an inverse optimization-based and a Shapley value-based scheme are discussed and compared to the conventional demand-based and turnover-based schemes. The theoretical models are applied in a case study involving the Asia-Europe container shipping lines of the CKYH alliance. The application results and the sensitivity analysis illustrate the practicability of our schemes.
Keywords: Cost allocation; Container shipping alliance; Economies of scale; Multicommodity flow game; Inverse optimization
A hybrid heuristic technique for optimal coordination in intermodal logistics scheduling
by Cheng-Chieh (Frank) Chen, Paul Schonfeld
Abstract: This paper specifies a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP) for assisting intermodal logistics operators with coordination decisions in freight transfer scheduling. An optimization model is developed for coordinating vehicle schedules and cargo transfers at intermodal freight terminals, which is done primarily by optimizing coordinated service frequencies and slack times, while also considering loading and unloading, storage and cargo processing operations. A hybrid technique combining sequential quadratic programming and genetic algorithms (GA-SQP) is developed to solve the proposed MINLP. This study also provides flexibility in managing general and perishable cargos with different cargo value functions that depend on dwell times. In a case study we derive insights which support intermodal logistics operators in planning their freight service schedules. Numerical results indicate that the developed algorithm is capable of producing optimal solutions efficiently for both small and large intermodal freight networks.
Keywords: intermodal logistics; schedule coordination; hybrid heuristic algorithm; genetic algorithm; sequential quadratic programming
Optimal Design of Container Terminal Gate Layout
by Minh Chu
Abstract: Over the last fifty years, international trade of goods has grown significantly in the U.S., and as a result, U.S. ports have become bottlenecks in the freight supply chain and logistics. A particular issue that most U.S. ports are contending with is gate congestion (i.e. queuing of trucks outside the container terminal gate. This research provides planners and engineers of container terminals a set of methodologies to design an optimal gate layout to reduce gate congestion. The use of the methodologies to determine the optimal number of service gates is illustrated considering various truck arrival rates, gate service rates, and waiting time thresholds.
Keywords: queuing model; pooled queues; gate layout; optimization; queuing time
SELECTION OF THE MOST PRACTICAL MALAYSIAN PORT FOR ENHANCING THE MALAYSIA-CHINA KUANTAN INDUSTRIAL PARK BUSINESS TRADE
by Noorul Shaiful Fitri Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Fayas Ahmad Najib
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the methodology for selection of the most practical Malaysian port for enhancing the Malaysia-China Kuantan Industrial Park (MCKIP) business trade. A selection is conducted using a combination decision making method of Analytical Hierarchy Process and Evidential Reasoning methods by considering five criteria namely, 1) distance, 2) journey time, 3) bunker cost, 4) port facilities and 5) distribution centre. A case study is constructed accordingly, whereby Shanghai Port has selected as a main port in China and four alternatives Malaysian ports namely 1) Kuantan Port, 2) Johor Port, 3) Port Tanjung Pelepas and 4) Port Klang will be examined. The result shows that Kuantan Port is the most practical port for enhancing the MCKIP business trade compared to others hub ports in Malaysia. It capable of helping China shipping liners enjoys the high cost saving for cargoes loading and discharging processes.
Keywords: MCKIP; Decision Making Method; Shipping and Port Studies; Malaysian Ports; Evidential Reasoning; Analytical Hierarchy Process.
THE BRAZILIAN CABOTAGE MARKET: A CONTENT ANALYSIS
by Ana Cristina Paixão Casaca, Cassia Bömer Galvão, Leo Tadeu Robles, Sérgio Sampaio Cutrim
Abstract: The development of domestic short sea shipping (SSS) (hereinafter cabotage) services along the Brazilian coast has drawn the attention of economic and political players since the early 1800s, when the Brazilian internal market was under development. In 1993, subject to the Port Modernization Act, the Federal Government adopted a new regulatory framework to provide cabotage services, which resulted in a non-competitive situation derived from capacity and operational restrictions. This situation is a tough challenge, particularly after 2003, when Brazil has witnessed an economic boom. Despite this, cabotage came to the forefront of the industry and of research and development and numerous studies and papers of an industry and academic nature have been presented and published nationally. The paper consolidates the available information coherently, which is scattered among many documents, investigates the Brazilian cabotage market by mapping demand and supply and by analysing its strengths and weaknesses. The paper identifies that cabotage faces numerous weaknesses and presents a set of solutions, that can only be solved and implemented in the medium-long term, respectively, which require high investments and regulatory changes. The paper suggests some economic and political changes to be performed at an industry and government levels.
Keywords: Brazil, Literature Review, Cabotage, Domestic Short Sea Shipping, Advantages and Disadvantages
Assessment of Differences in Efficiency across Strategic Groups in the Container Shipping Context: A Data Envelopment Analysis
by Wong-Hsiu Huang, Shih-Liang Chao, Chih-Ching Chang
Abstract: This study examines efficiency across strategic groups in container shipping by using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) with data collected from 17 global container carriers between 2006 and 2011. Four strategic groups of global container carriers are defined according to their strategic variables such as fleet capacity, asset/debt ratio, owned/chartered-in fleet ratio , non-container revenue ratio , and revenue. The four strategic groups are proactive-prudent group, proactive-chance group, conservative-prudent group and conservative-chance group. DEA results indicated that there were significant differences of efficiency across the strategic groups. Proactive-prudent group that possesses a higher fleet capacity and lower leverage on debt had a higher efficiency than other strategic groups. Practical implications from the research findings are discussed for container shipping carriers to improve their operations efficiency.
Keywords: Container shipping; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Strategic group, Efficiency evaluation
Novel 3D Model for Prioritising the Attributes of Port Service Quality: Cases involving Major Container Ports in Asia
by Kai-Chieh Hu, Paul Tae-Woo Lee
Abstract: The measurement and evaluation of port service quality (PSQ) have become critical issues in port management. Certain studies have offered several methodologies and empirical case studies for evaluating service quality, among them SERVQUAL, Kanos model, and importance-performance analysis (IPA). However, the research gap is twofold. First, although Kanos model and IPA have 2D viewpoints for identifying and improving PSQ, they neglect the difficulties in so doing by relying on the resources and capability available at the shipping companies. Second, none of the extant literature considers service quality improvement from the viewpoint of port operators, although studies should evaluate their perceptions of PSQ correctly, and they must identify the prioritisation of port service attributes undergoing improvement based on the limitations of available resources and capabilities. To fill the research gaps, this study proposes and reports on the testing of a 3D model for prioritising PSQ attributes by introducing a novel dimension called goal difficulty into the port service contributory improvement index. The index represents the composite satisfaction index derived from Kanos model and the standardised weight derived from IPA. The data for testing the proposed 3D model were collected from the managers of five major container ports in Asia (i.e. Shanghai, Singapore, Hong Kong, Busan, and Kaohsiung). The test results were compared against those acquired using 2D methods (e.g., IPA), and managerial implications were drawn. The newly developed model is expected to help port managers allocate their limited resources efficiently in their prioritisation of PSQ improvement and in optimising port service user needs.
Keywords: Port Service Quality; Importance-performance Analysis; Kano’s Model; Goal Difficulty; Asian Container Port
The Influence of Organizational Green Climate on Employees` Green Behaviors: Evidence from the Eco Port of Kaohsiung
by Hsu-Li Tsai, Chin-Shan Lu, Chih-Ching Chang
Abstract: This research identifies the constructs and measures of organizational green climate and examines its influence on employees` green behaviors. This paper has used survey data collected from 164 respondents who are working at the Eco Port of Kaohsiung in Taiwan. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that there are four green climate dimensions: green port policy, green training, green communication, and green motivation. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to examine the effects of organizational green climate dimensions on employees` green behaviors. Study findings have indicated that organizational green climate dimensions are positively related to employees` green behaviors. The results have suggested that green motivation has the most important influence on employees` green behaviors, followed by green port policy, green communication and green training. Theoretical and practical implications of the research findings for the development of organizational green climate are discussed.
Keywords: Port; Organizational Green Climate; Green Behavior; Structural Equation Modeling
A literature review of port competition research
by Ioannis Lagoudis, Ioannis Theotokas, Dimitrios Broumas
Abstract: Research interest in the port industry has increased significantly during recent decades, mainly due to the integration of ports in global supply chain strategies. Ports around the world are facing strong competitive pressures in order to meet modern demand characteristics. The present global environment favours a continuous restructuring of the way ports operate incorporating a number of issues in any decision-making process among the many being global competition, profit maximization and social responsibility. So far research has supported the idea that competition among ports leads to improved port efficiency; thus, significant amount of the research in the literature is devoted on exploring competitiveness related issues. The main motivation behind the present work has been to gather, categorize and analyse the works present in academic journals, which fall under the Port Competition umbrella, and identify areas of niche research opportunities.
The present study provides a detailed analysis of the different research angles of port competition being: (i) port selection, (ii) port productivity and (iii) port competitiveness. The works that fall under the above three clusters are illustrated here emphasising the methodologies and tools used. For the latter purpose the following categories have been created: (i) mathematical modelling, (ii) economic managerial modelling, (iii) simulation and (iv) stochastic modelling.
Results show that most of the present research focuses on topics related to port selection, efficiency, performance and competitiveness. Significant space for future research appears to be in the areas of geographic comparisons of ports and terminals, financial indicators linked with environmental efficiency, efficiency in liquefied and liquid cargo terminals, port competitiveness and IT systems, port management related issues to strategy and marketing management and finally intra port competition.
Keywords: Port, Competition, Literature Review
Capital Structure Determinants of Shipbuilding Companies
by Roar Adland, Joakim Noraas, Rikke S. Iversen
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to ascertain the major determinants of capital structure decisions for globally listed shipbuilding companies, and how quickly these companies adjust their capital structures when deviating from their target leverage ratios. Using a range of multiple regression models we find size, asset risk, and the market-to-book ratio to be the most influential observable determinants of capital structure, though unobserved company-specific effects remain highly influential. Shipbuilders can be said to have relatively lower adjustment than deviation costs compared to other industries, as they tend to adjust their capital structures significantly faster.
Keywords: shipbuilding, capital structure, speed of adjustment
Spatial effects of container ports on production of the leather, bag and shoe industry in Korea
by Yong An Park, Francesca Romana Medda
Abstract: Container port operations are widely regarded as beneficial for regional economies particularly in aggregated terms. The present paper examines this common knowledge using the specific case of the leather, bag and shoe industry in Korea, which was once a major export industry in the early 1990s but evolved into an importer in 2003. The authors use two panel datasets of the leather, bag and shoe industry, one dataset of 16 regions from 1991 to 2011 and the other dataset of enduring establishments during the same period. The panel datasets also add port activity variables including container throughput. In our panel regression analysis with panel data of the16 regions, the authors find that an increase of container throughput in ports affects production of the industry positively during the examined period. When dividing the examined period into two periods in accordance with change in global competitiveness of the industry: the period before 2003 and the period from 2003 to 2011, the authors observe the negative effects in the first period and primarily in the groups of regions without large ports. The panel regression analysis of enduring establishments presents a negative coefficient of port throughput on production. The contradictory results may be caused by the characteristics of the two different panels.
Keywords: Container port; panel regression; manufacturing; regional effect; Korea.
USING DRY PORTS FOR PORT CO-OPETITION: THE CASE OF ADRIATIC PORTS
by Tomaz Kramberger, Jason Monios, Gregor Strubelj, Bojan Rupnik
Abstract: This paper explores the use of dry ports as a tool of both inter-port competition and potential co-opetition. The case examined is of hinterland access to central Europe by Adriatic ports, a production and consumption area that is mostly served by North European ports despite a much shorter sailing distance from Asia to ports in the Adriatic. The paper tests to what degree use of single or combined dry ports can enable the Adriatic ports to overcome their lower preference rate compared to Northern competitors.
A port choice model based on preference rates is presented to determine the trade-off between subjective port choice preference and transport distance as determinants of a ports hinterland using linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. The model investigates the gap between truly captive (based on shortest rail distance, the key metric according to previous research) and competitive (based on the result of the PR model).
Results suggest that individual dry ports established by individual Adriatic ports make only a small difference but a combined dry port could enable them to capture some of the hinterland from Northern ports, not only by reducing transport costs but also by improving the PR due to the provision of better access and facilities.
Keywords: port; competition; hinterland; rail; dry port; intermodal; terminal; port choice.
Ships Time in Port
by Brian Slack, Claude Comtois, Bart Wiegmans, Patrick Witte
Abstract: Much of the success of containerisation is due to time economies, in particular the way in which the length of time ships spend in port has been reduced. Although vessels now spend a small amount of time in port compared with the time at sea, it is still a cost factor. The focus of this study is on the amount of time container vessels spend in port. An extensive literature review indicates that earlier researchers had to rely on general estimates drawn from ship schedules. With the availability of accurate geographic positioning of ship locations it is now possible to obtain comprehensive determinations of vessel turnaround times in port. The average vessel turnaround times (ATTs) involving 70 ports of call, are considered this study encompassing three major East-West trades and one North-South service. The principal research question addressed is: how do ATTs vary among ports and how this time metric is related to port performance? ATTs are compared with factors such as numbers of containers handled and several measures of port efficiency. The results are disappointing and lead to a hypothesis that ATTs are differentiated regionally and functionally, rather than globally. Evidence is presented for this hypothesis. Several theoretical issues are considered out of the results and questions for further research are presented.
Keywords: container shipping; time in port; port efficiency; regional differences.
Mapping the hierarchical structure of the global shipping network by Weighted Ego Network Analysis
by Chengliang Liu, Jiaqi Wang, Hong Zhang, Meiyuan Yin
Abstract: An improved complex network approach named Weighted Ego Network Analysis (WENA) was employed to explore the hierarchical structure of the global shipping network. First, it was found that all centrality indices exhibited scale-free properties with obvious power-law distributions. That is, less than thirty percent of shipping ports had quite high centrality values, which indicates the powerful hubs of the global shipping system. Those very accessible shipping ports also showed significant preferential attachment properties such as rich-club and Matthew effect. Second, results of WENA revealed its core-peripheral hierarchical structure, which could be classified into five levels of subnetworks: first tier (top 5%), second tier (top 5%~15%), third tier (top 15%~30%), forth tier (top 30%~50%), and fifth tier (the remainder). Finally, five kinds of correlation analyses have been carried out, including degree vs. degree, degree vs. strength, degree vs. clustering coefficient, degree vs. distance and centrality vs. GDP ones. Results indicated that the connectivity of a shipping port was both significantly influenced by the connectivity of its directed connected ports and the shipping distance and hinterland economic scale.
Keywords: hierarchical structure; global shipping network; scale-free property; weighted ego network analysis (WENA); weighted average centrality rank (WACR).
Analyzing Business Models of Liner Shipping Companies
by Jasmine Siu Lee Lam, Hui Neng Wong
Abstract: In a highly volatile and ever-changing business environment, how to run the business efficiently with low costs while achieving high service standards is a key to success for shipping companies. This paper focuses on the liner shipping sector and aims to find out and analyze the business models used by liner shipping companies. The major types of business models are formed by literature review and information collection based on the public sources of liner companies. Interviews with expert industry practitioners are conducted for result analysis and verification. The paper broadly categorizes three business models: Cost Leadership, Service Differentiation & Innovation, and Hybrid. In contrast with the literature, findings suggest that the Hybrid model is the most desirable business model that most companies would like to achieve. Based on the analysis, the study further conceptualizes the business culture and organizational capability of liner companies in relation to the business models. Propositions and implications are then derived.
Keywords: business model; liner shipping; shipping strategy; economic value; cost leadership; service differentiation; innovation; business culture; organizational capability; market volatility.
Special Issue on: Short Sea Shipping in a Globalised World
The identification of key success factors for interstate Ro-Ro short sea shipping in Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines: a Delphi approach
by Aminuddin Md Arof, Rawindaran Nair
Abstract: This paper aims to identify key success factors for interstate roll-on-roll-off (Ro-Ro) short sea shipping (SSS) operations in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA). Although the literature has addressed a plethora of important factors, the identification of the key success factors for SSS operations is expected to inform respective stakeholders to focus their limited resources on several key determinants. The initial step in this research design involved the identification of relevant factors that have contributed towards a viable SSS operation through a literature review. However, the breath of literature on SSS outside Europe and North America, which may differ in the required variables for a successful SSS operation, is still limited. Hence, a Delphi survey has been conducted with sub-regional SSS experts to identify any new factors and assess their opinions on the relative importance of all the factors involved. This study concludes with the identification of eight key success factors peculiar to the sub-region. Due to the limited number of SSS research outside Europe and North America, this study is expected to contribute to the development of new knowledge in the realm of SSS and stimulate similar research in other corridors.
Keywords: Delphi method; critical success factors; CSFs; short sea shipping; interstate SSS; Ro-Ro ferries; ferry services; Brunei; Indonesia; Malaysia; Philippines; roll-on-roll-off ferries.
Domestic short sea shipping services in Brazil: competition by enhancing logistics integration
by Ana Cristina Paixão Casaca, Cassia Bömer Galvão, Leo Tadeu Robles, Sérgio Sampaio Cutrim
Abstract: The economy of Brazil has the potential to further develop its existing maritime cabotage services by promoting a modal shift from the road to the sea. The road represents the biggest share in the Brazilian transport matrix, but the larger waterborne participation represents lower logistics costs and greater environmental benefits. This paper investigates cabotage users' perception and priorities in integrating cabotage into their multimodal transport systems. It analyses the cabotage and transport choice body of literature, the outcome of which was applied to 326 potential domestic cabotage users through an email survey questionnaire made up of open and closed questions, which resulted in 30 answers suitable for analysis by univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. The 59 service attributes identified were grouped into 13 factors, which explained 89.6' of the modal choice. The conclusions show that cabotage users aim to enhance the integration of logistics between transport modes and to adopt modal shift strategies if better services could be provided, including a real-time information system, shorter transit times and freight offered on a door-to-door basis.
Keywords: cabotage services; Brazil; multimodal transport; modal shift; transport choice; short sea shipping; logistics integration; user perceptions; user priorities; information systems; transit times; door-to-door freight services.
Exploring the critical success factor to the ferry transport service in short sea shipping
by Guo-Ya Gan, Cheng-Chi Chung, Hsuan-Shih Lee, Stephen W. Wang
Abstract: Along with the progress of society, people pay more attention to life quality and have more time for leisure activities. While ferry transport in short sea shipping has relative advantage of economic price, but disadvantage of lower speeds which has resulted in it being ignored for a long time. Firstly, based on factor analysis of survey questionnaires, this study aims to investigate determinants of decisions to be used by ferry transport in short sea shipping. Secondly, this study discusses the gap between expectations and perceptions of ferry transport characteristics. Further, results of gap analysis make a contribution to understanding the difference between supply and demand sides of ferry transport. It is noteworthy that the provision of free food and beverages has become one of the most critical measures for improving the service level of ferry transport. Finally, this study provides some corresponding reference suggestions about customised service for ferry providers.
Keywords: ferry transport services; short sea shipping; critical success factor; CSFs; Taiwan Strait; ferry services; expectations; perceptions; free food; free drinks.
Short sea shipping in the Atlantic Arc: a spatial shift-share approach
by Maria Jesus Freire Seoane, Fernando González Laxe, Carlos Pais Montes
Abstract: This article presents a proposal for determine, given a port region, new SSS candidates between a node and its neighbours, considering the nautical distance between ports as a distance metric. For accomplishing that, classic, homothetic and spatial shift-share decompositions are applied to the 2006-2014 throughput dataset of the 57 European Atlantic Arc main ports. The conclusions show that along the Atlantic façade of the Iberian Peninsula (Portuguese and Galician region - Spanish-ports), and for some Irish sea positions, there are growing nodes with great potential for keep their throughput increasing, in terms of inner competitiveness or by establishing new SSS services between neighbour positions. Another Atlantic Arc ports, affected by the crisis, also appear with good recovering chances based in the setting up of new SSS services.
Keywords: short sea shipping; SSS services; motorways of the sea; MoS; Atlantic Arc ports; maritime logistics; spatial shift-share; spatial econometrics.
Green routing design in short seas
by Yuanqiao Wen, Xiaoqiao Geng, Lichuan Wu, Tsz Leung Yip, Liang Huang, Dingyong Wu
Abstract: In recent years, with the development of shipping industry, the mass of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions originating from ships is also increasing rapidly. To reduce the GHG emissions from ships, designing the optimised routes with higher energy use efficiency is becoming more important for ships navigating in short seas. Based on the innovative application of energy efficiency operational index (EEOI), a route optimisation model is established. To solve the model, we divide one single voyage into several voyage segments and consider the variable speed across voyage segments. Then the navigation strategy is used to find out the sailing route of the minimum EEOI value, this sailing route is called as the green route. Finally, numerical experimental results show that the EEOI values of the experimental groups which used the optimised navigation method are 4.67%-16.95% lower than that of the control group. The results demonstrate that the green route designed in this paper can effectively improve the energy use efficiency of ships.
Keywords: green routing; energy efficiency operational index; EEOI; short sea shipping; discretisation; shipping industry; greenhouse gases; GHG emissions; ship emissions; route optimisation; navigation strategy; energy consumption.
Special Issue on: Advances in Shipping, Maritime Transport and Logistics
An analysis of entry and exit decisions in shipping markets under uncertainty
by Matteo Balliauw
Abstract: For single shipowners, an important question to ask is when the optimal moment of buying or selling a ship has arrived. This decision of buying or selling a ship can be seen as entering or leaving the shipping market. The prices and revenues in this market were proven to follow a cyclical evolution. A real options model involving a discrete-time Markov process is applied in this article to analyse the described decisions in the cyclical environment of container ship owners who charter out their ships under time charter agreements. Parameters are estimated using real data. The outcomes show robust and realistic results. The methodology and the insights from the analysis can be used by shippers to make funded entry and exit decisions. Finally, some advice for future research is given.
Keywords: Cyclical markets, Real options, Shipping markets, Container, Entry and exit decisions
Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Eco-Efficiency in Container Terminals
by Gabriela Assuncao Siqueira, Ilton Curty Leal Junior, Leticia Ciqueira da Cunha, Vanessa de Almeida Guimaraes, Ricardo Cesar da Silva Guabiroba
Abstract: This paper shows the results of performance assessments of fifteen container terminals in Brazil, considering both eco-efficiency and technical efficiency measures. It was necessary to determine indicators and measures in order to apply a multi-criteria decision making technique known as Grey Relational Analysis, to aggregate values that have different scales and units of measurement and to rank the container terminals according to their performance levels. It was possible to determine that higher performance levels in eco-efficiency do not, necessarily, mean that higher technical performance is taking place. Variations in the weights assigned to technical efficiency and eco-efficiency measures might influence the performance ranking of the terminals.
Keywords: port; container terminal; eco-efficiency; technical efficiency; performance assessment; Grey Relational Analysis.
A new hub network design integrating deep sea and short sea services at liner shipping operations
by Fábio Francisco da Costa Fontes, Gilles Goncalves
Abstract: Liner shipping is an increasingly attractive maritime transport, not only by the growing volume of goods transported in the world, but also by the diversity of products that can be carried and its service stability. At liner shipping operation, a hub and spoke structure is often used in which deep sea services take place at the hub network and short sea services can be done in the regional network between the hub and its respective spoke nodes. In this work a new hierarchical structure of hub and spoke with sub-hub is presented. Deep sea services and short sea services are depicted in circular form and the sub-hubs are intersection points of neighbors regional networks. Both cargo-routing with transhipment in hub ports or in sub-hub ports are allowed. The binary integer linear programming model proposed in this work offers, together, a hub location with multiple spoke allocation problem, a service design problem and the cargo routing problem. Experimental results show good performances comparatively to the classic hub and spoke network structure.
Keywords: Maritime transport; liner shipping; deep sea; short sea; network design; service design; hub and spoke; hierarchical structure; sub-hub; routing-cargo; transhipment; hub location; multiple allocation; binary integer linear programming.
Estimating the performance of the logistics services attributes influencing customer satisfaction in the field of refrigerated transport
by Teresa Gajewska, Evangelos Grigoroudis
Abstract: Customer satisfaction measurement is one of the most important issues concerning business organisations of all types, which is justified by the customer orientation philosophy and the main principles of continuous improvement of modern enterprises. By analysing the existing research in the area of logistics services evaluation, including refrigerated transport, it should be noted that the issues concerned are presented in a selective manner.
The aim of the paper is to estimate the performance of logistics services attributes in the field of refrigerated transport. More specifically, the objective of the presented research is the identification and evaluation of the expectations of purchasers regarding the quality of logistics services in the examined area. Furthermore, the paper focuses on analysing the performance gaps between the estimated importance and the performance evaluation of the quality attributes. The analysis comprised 10 attributes of logistics services influencing customer satisfaction.
In order to respect the qualitative nature of collected information, an ordered weighted averaging (OWA) technique was applied (i.e., Rank Reciprocal RR). In turn, the rationale of the RR approach can also be applied in order to estimate the performance of the logistics services attributes as evaluated by the customers. The findings obtained from the interviews regarding the expectations and the evaluation of the quality level were used to perform a series of analyses based on the so-called fifth vulnerability, developed by the Parasuraman team and included in the SERVQUAL method.
The presented research focuses on the analysis of the key criteria for the evaluation of logistics services quality in the examined area.
The research was based on a questionnaire designed for purchasers of logistics services. The respondents were companies using refrigerated transport.
Keywords: estimation; logistics services; qulity services; customer satisfaction; refrigerated transport; ordered weighted averaging (OWA); SERVQUAL method; RR approach; service providers; purchasers of logistics services