Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics


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International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (29 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Catastrophe Risk Assessment Framework of Ports and Industrial Clusters: A Case Study of the Guangdong Province   Order a copy of this article
    by Xinhu Cao, Jasmine Siu Lee Lam 
    Abstract: Seaports, as critical infrastructures, are vulnerable to natural catastrophes such as hurricane/typhoon, earthquake, and tsunami. The inoperability of a port caused by these hazards tends to activate domino effects to the adjacent industrial clusters in the hinterland. Limited works addressed high-impact and low-probability (HILP) catastrophe risks and fewer studied industrial cluster risks resulting from catastrophe-induced port disruptions. This paper aims to assess ports and industrial clusters catastrophe risks, based on a three-layer port-cargo-industrial cluster (PCI) model. By using the Guangdong province in China and the typhoon hazard as a case study, we find that the petrochemical industrial cluster is the most vulnerable in the Guangdong province against typhoon-induced port disruptions in the import mode, while the textile and apparel industrial cluster is the least vulnerable. These two industrial clusters exchange rankings under the export mode. Proactive preparations can thus be made to avoid any possible prolonged production downtimes.
    Keywords: port; industrial cluster; catastrophe; natural hazard; port disruption; risk assessment; risk analysis; typhoon; port-cargo-industrial cluster model.

    by Haiying Jia, Vishnu Prakash, Tristan Smith 
    Abstract: The cargo size or payload of a merchant vessel is a crucial variable in calculating revenue for a particular voyage and estimating global trade flows for key commodities. However, due to the opaque nature of the industry, payload information is usually not publicly available. This research utilizes, for the first time, vessel draught information reported by the Automatic Identification System (AIS) to estimate vessel payloads. The applicability and reliability of draught measurements from AIS captured via satellites and terrestrial receivers are addressed in the process of identifying the most efficacious way to estimate vessel payloads. In particular, conditions are put in place to reduce the uncertainty surrounding the applicability of each draught measurement and its validity to be associated with a particular known payload. The performance of estimating vessel payloads using AIS draught data is compared to two models that rely on principles from physics and naval architecture, and the results show similarity and consistency. We therefore show that the AIS reported draught measurements are reliable, to a certain extent. Being able to reliably estimate a vessels payload in operating conditions is essential in assessing vessel utilisation, fleet productivity, and subsequently the supply and demand conditions in the shipping markets.
    Keywords: AIS; payload; draught; utilisation; big data.

    by Pablo Coto-Millan, Marta De La Fuente, Xose Luis Fernandez, Miguel Angel Pesquera 
    Abstract: This study evaluates the impact of deregulation and the introduction of competition in the hydrocarbon sector on the efficiency of eleven Spanish ports of import of hydrocarbons. To this end, using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA), an input-oriented distance model has been estimated for the 1986-2013 period. This paper contributes to the literature by establishing a direct correlation between the hydrocarbons reforms and the change in port efficiency. The main conclusion was that Law 15/1992 and Law 34/1998 focused on the deregulation and the introduction of competition in the field of hydrocarbons have had a positive impact on the efficiency of the main Spanish ports of import of hydrocarbons.
    Keywords: Deregulation; Competition; Hydrocarbons; Technical efficiency; Stochastic Frontier Analysis; Spanish ports.

  • Benchmarking container port security risks by applying a FIS methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by Dimitrios I. Stavrou, Nikolaos P. Ventikos, Zaili L. Yang 
    Abstract: This paper presents a fuzzy inference approach to estimate the security level of a port in a manner that it provides essential information to the stakeholders when evaluating security risks under uncertainty. A fuzzy inference system (FIS) methodology is developed on account to four predefined security factors. A team of experts is used to rank and survey potential port security risks whereas the experts' ordinal preferences were combined using the Cook and Seiford method to come up with a consensus risks' ranking. To validate the model, results are compared with those from an established fuzzy evidential reasoning approach given the same security risk inputs. The verified FIS can provide useful insights for security analysts to conduct security risk quantification under high uncertainty in data in the maritime sector as well as a wider range of other industries (e.g., aerospace and process) facing high terrorism threats with appropriate tailor and adaptation.
    Keywords: maritime; port safety; port security; fuzzy inference system; FIS; International Ship and Port Facility Security; ISPS; risk assessment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2018.10014638
  • Analysis on the determinants of shipment size and type-of-truck choices using a discrete-continuous hybrid model   Order a copy of this article
    by Víctor Cantillo, Javier Visbal, Julián Arellana 
    Abstract: When modelling freight demand, a common assumption is that decision makers decide on the commercial vehicle that best suits their transportation needs. Even though the discrete choice of vehicle type depends on the shipment size, which is a continuous variable, vehicle type choice models usually do not include any shipment size factor. The origin and destination of the cargo, the type of product, attributes related to the level of service (e.g., travel time and cost), trucking operational patterns and shipper's characteristics are also factors that determinate both choices. This paper proposes a joint estimation procedure for the discrete-continuous model based on the integrated choice and latent variable model. Our approach explicitly includes the shipment size as a continuous latent variable within the discrete type-of-truck choice. The application of the model in the Colombian context highlights the importance of considering the interrelationship between freight mode and shipment size decisions. Modelling results also suggest the presence of unobserved common factors influencing both decisions. The model was used to evaluate policies oriented to promote cargo consolidation. The evaluation suggests that increasing the tolls for small vehicles is feasible because of their higher cost sensitivity.
    Keywords: shipment size; type of truck choice; discrete-continuous model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2018.10014641
  • The impact of changing market requirements on dock labour employment systems in northwest European seaports   Order a copy of this article
    by Theo E. Notteboom 
    Abstract: This paper contributes to existing dock labour literature by presenting a market-driven perspective on the organisation of dock work in light of changing market requirements. We conceptualise how changing market requirements affect the characteristics and the design of dock labour employment systems in seaports. The demand for a high dock labour performance is decomposed into three underlying dimensions: labour productivity, cost efficiency and more qualitative factors such as labour flexibility and service delivery. The internal organisation of dock labour takes place within a wider setting of legal and social conditions and the state of technology. Using the conceptual framework, we analyse how terminal operators try to meet changing market requirements through the deployment of new technology and advances in dock labour organisation. We provide empirical evidence by zooming in on the evolution of dock labour arrangements and employment systems in a number of northwest European ports.
    Keywords: dock labour; labour performance; productivity; Europe; market dynamics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2018.10014642
  • GHG emissions from China's international sea freight transport: a review and the future trend   Order a copy of this article
    by W.M. To, Peter K.C. Lee 
    Abstract: This paper reviews the development of China's international sea freight throughput during the period 1980-2015 and uses logistic model to estimate the future growth of international sea freight and the associated increase in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). The review showed that China's international sea freight throughput increased from 353.2 billion ton-km in 1980 to 5423.6 billion ton-km in 2015. Meanwhile China's international container throughput increased from 64.3 thousand 20-foot equivalent units (TEU) to 189 million TEU (over 27% of the world's container traffic flow) in 2015. The associated GHG emission increased from 2.60 million tons CO2-eq in 1980 to 39.95 million tons CO2-eq in 2015. Although the logistic growth model indicated that China's international sea freight and container throughputs reached maximum growth rates in 2008, GHG emissions due to China's international sea freight would continuously increase to over 53 million tons in 2020.
    Keywords: sea freight; China; greenhouse gases emission; One Belt-One Road.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2018.10014655
  • Decision making technique for analysing performance of Malaysian secondary ports   Order a copy of this article
    by Noorul Shaiful Fitri Abdul Rahman, Alisha Ismail, Mohammad Khairuddin Othman, Rabiatul Adawiyah Mohd Roslin, Y.H. Venus Lun 
    Abstract: This paper aims to study the performance of the secondary ports in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER) of Malaysia by analysing the selected criteria and sub-criteria involved. A total of 12 respondents were selected as the sample for the study and the data were analysed using a decision-making method that incorporated an analytical hierarchy process, fuzzy-link based approach and evidential reasoning. To analyse the performance of the secondary ports, five criteria were considered, which include: 1) operational; 2) physical; 3) shipping demand; 4) financial and 5) manpower performances. To realise this performance benchmarking, two secondary ports that were positioned on the ECER, namely, the Kemaman Port (Kemaman Supply Base) and Kertih Port were used as the case studies. The findings of this study showed that the operational and physical performances played a significant role in contributing to benchmark the performance of the secondary ports.
    Keywords: port performance; secondary ports; port business; decision making techniques; maritime studies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2018.10014643

Special Issue on: Decision Analytics in Port and Shipping Logistics

  • Selection of Logistics Service Modes in E-commerce based on Multi-oligopolies Cournot Competition
    by Lin Ma, Chun Jin, Yunfu Huo 
    Abstract: The importance of e-commerce logistics service modes is becoming more and more prominent. This paper focuses on the selection of e-commerce logistics service modes. The current researches are mainly limited by using the empirical method but rarely considering the multi-oligopolies competition and comparison among different modes. Four types of e-commerce logistics service modes are modeled in this paper based on multi-oligopolies Cournot competition theory. The results show that the improvement of logistics service management and technological progress are the basis of the mode selection, the marginal service cost is the most important in the mode selection, then, the transaction cost and the scale effect. When the logistics service ability is given, the mode of Opened Platform provides to online stores (PO) is an advantage strategy for e-commerce platform and common online stores. The mode of Opened 3PL Providers provide to online stores (TO) is an advantageous strategy with competitive price for opened platform and is more attractive to small online stores. The study on logistics service has important academic value and practical guidance, and has a certain reference value for the selection of logistics service mode of global e-commerce. The current researches are mainly limited by using the empirical method but rarely considering the multi-oligopolies competition and comparison among different modes.
    Keywords: E-commerce; Logistics Service Mode; Multi-oligopolies Cournot Competition; Mode Selection

  • The Impact of Operational Strategies on Vessel Handling Times (VHT): A simulation approach
    by Maria D. Gracia, Julio Mar-Ortiz, Rosa G. González-Ramírez 
    Abstract: This paper reports a study of the ship loading and discharging process at a container terminal. Our objective was to analyze the impact of different operational strategies on vessel handling times in order to derive managerial insights that can be used by terminal operators to manage this key performance indicator. As a basis for our study, a simulation model was implemented, validated, and verified to gain insight into the containers loading and discharging process. Four scenarios were constructed to resemble possible instances under which a vessel would operate at a Mexican Container Terminal, with the different operational strategies that were designed and evaluated for each scenario. An experimental framework was proposed, based on comparisons of scenarios and search experimentation, and employing a fractional factorial design to evaluate the impact of several factors on the vessel handling times. Our results emphasize that with an adequate design of the operation parameters, combined with the implementation of efficient stacking policies, it is possible to keep VHT under control. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are also discussed.
    Keywords: Container Terminals; Simulation Analysis; Vessel Handling Times; Operational Strategies; Port Logistics.

  • A statistical forecasting model applied to container throughput in a multi-port gateway system: the Barcelona-Tarragona-Valencia case   Order a copy of this article
    by Manel Grifoll 
    Abstract: This contribution investigates the container throughput flow in a multi-port gateway system: Barcelona-Tarragona-Valencia (BTV). First, the paper examine the recent dynamics of the total and transshipment flow showing a relevant shifting of traffic share from Barcelona to Valencia. A statistical model based on a two-state Markov model in conjunction with a Monte Carlo experiments is implemented to estimate the predictions of container throughput in BTV system. Verification tests shows how the predictions are reasonable good with an error metrics similar to other methods based on time series analysis. The method is considered suitable for short-term forecasting with a strong potential to be used as a complement of qualitative methods due to the statistical nature of the results. The implementation of the method considers separately the import/export and transhipment container throughput revealing a differentiate dynamics in both container flows. The transhipment flow is more volatile and induce more data dispersion in the container throughput predictions.
    Keywords: Markov chain; traffic predictions; Monte Carlo method; TEU; transshipment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSTL.2019.10013465
  • Development of a maritime safety management database using relational database approach
    by Siyu Xu, Hao Hu 
    Abstract: Many types of maritime incident databases have been established that allow people to learn from past incidents and develop corresponding mitigation measures. However, our investigation of multiple international and national databases shows that most existing databases only record basic information regarding incidents in a single table. Lots of useful information is not included in the database (i.e., limited extension of the database). Meanwhile, some basic information is recorded tautologically (i.e., data redundancy). In this paper, two widely used databases are taken as examples, the Global Integrated Shipping Information System and the Lloyds List Intelligence, to explain these common problems of existing databases. To overcome these limitations and improve the efficiency of data maintenance, this paper develops a relational maritime safety management database. The Entity-Relationship model is first used to depict the inter-related semantic information surrounding maritime incidents, and a relational database model is subsequently formed. Microsoft Access is employed to implement the proposed database, and a database application is also designed to demonstrate the utility of the database. Our preliminary study shows that the proposed database is implementable and has potential usage for both industry and academic research.
    Keywords: maritime incident; data maintenance; Global Integrated Shipping Information System; Lloyd’s List Intelligence; relational database; entity-relationship model; Microsoft Access.

Special Issue on: Maritime Transportation Innovative Models and Algorithms

  • Optimization for quay crane scheduling problem under uncertainty using PSO and OCBA   Order a copy of this article
    by Hongtao Hu, Xiazhong Chen, Si Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper addresses the quay crane scheduling problem (QCSP) under uncertain conditions at container terminals. Variations in container volume, arrival time, equipment functionality and weather conditions create significant uncertainties when scheduling loading and unloading tasks. In order to maintain the service level of the port under various conditions, port operator urgently need to execute a robust schedule. In this paper, a stochastic programming model is formulated to minimize the makespan of quay crane service, using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm integrated with optimal computing budget allocation (OCBA) to improve computational efficiency. Numerical experiments show that the applied algorithm performs well under uncertainty.
    Keywords: Quay crane scheduling; uncertainty; Particle swarm optimization; optimal computing budget allocation.

  • Berth allocation and quay crane-yard truck assignment considering carbon emissions in port area   Order a copy of this article
    by Wang Tingsong, Man Li, Hongtao Hu 
    Abstract: As environmental issues become increasingly prominent, the green port has been the focus of marine industry to sustain the development of global economy. Carbon emissions of port area mainly come from two aspects: a) port water area, produced by vessels sailing near port, waiting and berthing in port; and b) port land area, discharged by equipment including quay cranes (QCs) and yard trucks (YTs) when serve for the vessels. The effective resource allocation and equipment assignment can not only reduce the carbon emissions, but also improve the service efficiency. Thus, this paper considers the berth-quay crane-yard truck allocation problem (B-QC-YTAP) and formulates it as a multi-objective model, where the objectives are to minimize the total carbon emissions in port area, and minimize the average waiting time in port and departure delay for each vessel. To solve the proposed model as well as obtain the Pareto optimal solutions, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is also introduced. Finally, a numerical experiment is conducted to test the effectiveness of model and algorithm, followed by the trade-off analysis between the two objectives.
    Keywords: B-QC-YTAP; carbon emissions; service efficiency; multi-objective; NSGA-II.

  • Impact analysis of the traffic convoy system and toll pricing policy of the Suez Canal on the operations of a liner containership over a long-haul voyage   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuquan Du, Qiang Meng, Wenming Shi 
    Abstract: This paper takes an initiative to quantitatively assess the impact of the traffic control scheme and the stepwise toll pricing policy of the Suez Canal on the optimal sailing schedule of a liner containership. We first develop a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for the optimal sailing schedule of a containership over a long-haul voyage via Suez subject to the traffic convoy system of the Suez Canal and its piecewise transit due structure. To improve the computational performance and take advantage of off-the-shelf optimization solvers, we linearize the nonlinearity in clock-time calculation, reformulate the power function in bunker fuel calculation with the second order cone programming technique, and cast the MINLP model into a mixed-integer second order cone programming (MISOCP) model. Various impact analyses can be carried out using the MISOCP model. A case study on a 13000-TEU containership running on the LP4 service operated by APL shows several managerial insights: (a) ignoring the traffic control system at Suez in ship speed optimization may lead to an infeasible sailing schedule, and underestimate the operating cost (even the bunker cost) of a containership on a long-haul voyage via Suez; (b) the optimal ship recovery plan in terms of its sailing speeds is mainly determined by the predefined port time windows, delay situation and Suez-clock time, but not pretty much affected by the levels of bunker price and transit due.
    Keywords: Suez Canal; transit due; containership; speed optimization; second order cone programming.

  • Assess economic and environmental trade-off for inland port location   Order a copy of this article
    by Zheng Chang, Jinxian Weng, Zhuang Qi, Dong Yang 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a multi-objective optimization model to study the inland port location in a multimodal hinterland freight network. The model takes the different preferences of various stakeholders into consideration through minimizing the transportation cost for shippers, the fixed cost of inland port operator and the CO2 emissions for community simultaneously. A NSGA Ⅱ- solution algorithm is applied to find the Pareto optimal solutions for the multi-objective optimization model we built. A case study using actual data is conducted to validate the model and the solution method in the end. The empirical results indicate that in most cases the transportation cost and emissions decrease when more inland ports are constructed, but this is not conclusive, in few cases we find more inland ports lead to increased transportation cost. Furthermore, the construction of inland ports generates greater relative gains in environment than that in shippers economic benefit.
    Keywords: inland port location; multi-objective optimization; hinterland freight network; CO2 emissions.

  • A multi-objective approach to analyze the effect of fuel consumption on Ship Routing and Scheduling Problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Saurabh Pratap, Mengdi Zhang, Christopher L.D. Shen, George Q. Huang 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of fuel consumption on ship routing and scheduling problem. In current trends, the anthropogenic emission due to excess fuel consumption is a topic of intense debate in the global world ship trading society. We have modeled a problem as a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which encounters the issues related to routing, fuel consumption, and customer demand. A meta-heuristic approach Controlled Elitist Non-Sorting Genetic Algorithm (CENSGA) has been proposed to solve the bi-objective problem. Finally, the utility of the model is demonstrated by a case study.
    Keywords: Ship routing; carbon emission; mixed integer nonlinear programming; meta-heuristic.

  • A Method for Estimating Liner Shipping Time under Uncertainty   Order a copy of this article
    by Min Lin, Miao Li, Hao Hao, Lu Zhen 
    Abstract: With the rapid development of container transportation and the fierce competition among ports, container terminal operators pay more attention to meet the individual needs of customers. This study develops a system to estimate container liner shipping arrival time and the probability distribution for each time set by considering transit process and the periodicity of liner shipping. This system can give the most possible arrival time of cargoes to customers in advance, and then improve the level of port services. Also, a recursive algorithm based solution method and a parallel computing based solution method are proposed for solving the problem. Computational test is conducted on different scales and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed solution approach.
    Keywords: Liner shipping time; Probability statistics; Estimating; Recursive algorithm; Parallel computing.

  • Collaborative stowage planning problem for a liner ship   Order a copy of this article
    by Wen Yi, Yi Hu, Miao Li, Lu Zhen 
    Abstract: This paper investigates a stowage planning problem, in which a liner ship will visit a sequence of ports, the number of available quay cranes in ports and the numbers of loading/unloading containers in ports are uncertain. This stowage planning problem is about how to assign the loaded containers to the bays of the ship with considering uncertain information in the future, so as to minimize the sum of the expected quay crane handling time at the ports. Based on stochastic programming, a two-stage decision model is proposed for this problem. A particle swarm optimization based solution method is developed to solve the model for large-scale problem instances. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the efficiency of the proposed solution method.
    Keywords: Port operations; Stowage planning; Container liner ship; Maritime logistics.

  • Integrating route optimization with vehicle and unloading dock scheduling in LCL cargo collection   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuefei Liu, Meifeng Luo, Yifei Zhao 
    Abstract: Less Container Load (LCL) has become an increasingly important element in containerized cargo export, due to the involvement of numerous small & medium size enterprises. Traditional cargo collection and consolidation processes are extremely complex and inefficient, which provides an excellent opportunity for improvement through integration. In this paper, we design a two-stage model comprising vehicle route optimization for cargo collection and vehicle and unloading dock scheduling. In the first stage, namely, the route optimization model, the Clarke-Wright saving algorithm is used, with the objective of minimizing the total transport cost for a given shipment size, weight, and capacity constraint of cargo collection vehicles. In the second stage, the scheduling of both collection vehicles and unloading dock are modeled, using two sub-models for given constraints on the time window of the unloading docks and cargo collection routes. An application of this integrated model is illustrated based on the cargo collection problems in the hinterland of Shanghai port.
    Keywords: Cargo Collection; LCL; Route Optimization; Vehicle Dispatching; Unloading Dock Scheduling; Integrated Scheduling.

Special Issue on: Shipping and Port Economics and Policy In Memory of Richard Goss

  • Port Policy: Are The Goss Principles Still Relevant Today?
    by Sheila Farrell 
    Abstract: In 1990 Richard O. Goss wrote four seminal articles about the economic principles underlying port policies, which were published in Maritime Policy and Management under the title Economic Policies and Seaports. These explored the economic functions of seaports, the diversity of port institutions, the need for port authorities, and the strategies that ports might adopt to promote port efficiencies. Economic principles included the existence of seaports for the benefit of traders, the use of competition to maximise public welfare, the customisation of port institutions to meet local circumstances, and the need to involve all levels of government in seaport governance. This paper looks at the relevance of these principles today, and asks what further research is needed to fully understand that relevance.
    Keywords: Seaports; port policies; port reform; governance; institutions; port competition; regulation

  • Goss and ensuing research in shipping and port
    by Young-Tae Chang, Paul Tae-Woo Lee 
    Abstract: The late Professor Richard Goss published twenty-five journal papers and edited two books and three monographs during his academic life of three decades. This paper revisits his work and examines whether ensuing research in shipping and port areas have been aligned with his academic thought and ideology. To this end, we first review his work to identify key concepts, theories and methodologies underlying his academic reasoning. Moreover, we utilize Chang et al. (2018)’s research outcomes to examine whether his theoretical propositions are still valid today in terms of both theory and empirical findings. We discuss whether there is a foregone conclusion on Goss’ major themes and propositions or requires further empirical testing, and whether there exists the possibility to develop new theories and hypotheses. Based on our findings, we suggest future research directions in the shipping and port sectors.
    Keywords: Richard Goss; Maritime economics; Port and shipping; Shipping policy; Port efficiency.

  • Principles in Practice: An Examination of Cascading   Order a copy of this article
    by Trevor D. Heaver 
    Abstract: This article examines the concept of cascading of container ships and the relationship of cascading to fleet management. It is written to apply two of the legacies that Richard Goss left to the maritime community: discussion of maritime topics through conferences and journals; and the application of basic economic principles to shipping. Richard had a special interest in the many aspects of the economics of ship size. The increases in the size of container vessels on the East Asia to Northwest Europe route since 2000 gives rise to the type of concept that Richard might have examined; the cascading of ships. The concept of cascading is examined in the light of basic aspects of the economics of ships size. It is shown that cascading does not take place simply because of the displacement of large vessels from certain routes but is dependent on the presence of various dynamic forces affecting the fleet deployment decisions of lines. Cascading is shown to be a process guided by management decisions affected by financial as well as economic considerations. It is not as simple as water running downhill.
    Keywords: Ship cascading; container vessel deployment; optimal ship size.

Special Issue on: Liner Shipping and Terminal Operations

    by Peter Dzakah Fanam, Hong-Oanh Nguyen, Stephen Cahoon 
    Abstract: This empirical paper identifies the critical factors influencing ocean container carriers selection and examines the impact of the influential factors on the competitiveness of ocean carriers from the freight forwarders perspectives. Data for the study was collected from 105 freight forwarding organisations. The significant factors influencing the competitiveness of ocean carriers were identified using structural equation modelling. Results indicated that the factors affecting the competitiveness of ocean carriers are schedule reliability, document accuracy, service quality, freight rate, door-to-door service and environment. This paper also proposes a model that shows the direct effects of the influential factors on the competitiveness of the ocean carriers. The model validates the competitiveness of ocean carriers from the freight forwarders perspective. To the best of authors knowledge, this study is the first of its kind that measures the competitiveness of ocean carriers from the freight forwarders perspective. This model can become a basis for other empirical studies to be built on to examine competitiveness of carriers. The understanding of the factors that the freight forwarders employed when making ocean carriers choice is paramount to the liner shipping companies because it shall enable the liner shipping companies to formulate relevant strategies to attract freight forwarders in patronising their shipping services.
    Keywords: Competitiveness; ocean container carriers; freight forwarders; influential factors; liner shipping.

  • A Non-structural Approach to Assess Competitive Conditions in Container Liner Shipping Market: 2009-2014   Order a copy of this article
    by Enna Hirata 
    Abstract: This paper aims to assess the demand elasticities and competitive conditions in Container Liner Shipping (henceforth: CLS) market. Using a dynamic model, the regression results reveal that the degree of competition measured by Panzar-Rosse (P-R) H statistic varies from 0.37 to 0.97 for the period of 2009 to 2014. It implies that CLS market can be described as displaying monopolistic competitive behaviour. The conclusion is consistent with previous studies conducted for earlier periods; moreover, the increasing trend of P-R H statistic value implies increasing degree of competition in the industry. The findings contribute to the understanding of theoretical explanation of competitive condition in latest CLS market. Unlike other studies, this paper establishes a dynamic model that makes it possible to measure both short-run and long-run effects.
    Keywords: container liner shipping; demand elasticity; competitive condition; non-structural; panzar-rosse h statistic; dynamic model.

  • The role of the degree of use of the facilities in the port choice process: the Spanish dockside cranes case   Order a copy of this article
    by Ana Martínez-Pardo, Lorena Garcia-Alonso, Alfonso Orro 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to analyse how the degree of use of port facilities may influence port choice in the scope of export container traffic. As an indicator of the degree of use, the relationship between containers moved and the number of cranes available is selected. We estimate discrete choice models, drawing on Spanish official records of exports for the four main Spanish peninsular container ports. This article describes a multinomial logit model that includes variables of the port, the location of each one of the points that configure the hinterland and the foreland under study. As port variables, we bring into play the number of cranes and the port facilities categorised according to their degree of use. In conclusion, it can be stated that all analysed factors are relevant in port choice. Regarding how the degree of use affects port choice, it is obtained that the more traffic a port has, the more attractive it becomes due to the economies of agglomeration, scale and network effects, but there is a saturation threshold beyond which the attractiveness of the port decreases. The methodological approach to test the hypothesis allows to obtain the functional form of the relation between the degree of use and the port attractiveness without establishing it a priori.
    Keywords: port facilities; non-linearity; container port choice; port competition; agglomeration economies; economies of escale; network effects; port congestion; saturation threshold; Ship-to-Shore gantry cranes; decision making; Discrete Choice Theory; DCM; multinomial logit model; Spanish port system.

  • Cargo flow, freight rate and speed optimization of container liner services   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahlam AlMarar, Ali Cheaitou 
    Abstract: After the global economic crisis of 2008 the shipping companies have become more worried about keeping and increasing their profit. In this paper, a container liner service cargo flow, freight rates and sailing speed optimization mixed integer non-linear programming model is introduced, in which the total daily profit is maximized. The model focuses on the transportation of dry and reefer containers between a set of pre-established ports while the market sensitivity to the freight rates is considered. The model is implemented on a line of the Asia-Europe trade using the optimization software LINGO 15.0. The results show the correlation that exists between the vessel carrying capacity and the level of freight rate to be charged to the shippers. They also confirm that all the model parameters affect the optimal profit, but only some of them have an effect on the optimal quantities to transport between the ports of the service.
    Keywords: liner services; container shipping; speed; freight rate; pricing; cargo flow; profit maximization; dry and reefer containers; non-linear mixed integer programming; Asia-Europe trade; bunker fuel; demand elasticity.

  • Simultaneous optimization of seaside operations in container terminals: A case study of the Iranian Rajaee port   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Farzad Hoseini, Mohammad Mohammadpour Omran, Adolfo Crespo Marquez, Ahmad Makui 
    Abstract: In marine transport, there is a growing need for optimization surveys, which are aimed at increasing the efficiency of the whole process. In this study, the berth allocation problem, the quay crane assignment problem and the quay crane scheduling problem are simultaneously formulated into an integrated mathematical model. Afterwards, the proposed mixed integer mathematical model is coded via GAMS IDE/CPLEX software. The exact solver appears to need a huge amount of time to find the optimum solution, even for small and medium-sized problems. Hence, artificial intelligence, which is embedded in both imperialist competitive and genetic algorithms, is employed through a highly modified meta-heuristic method. This method is called a hybrid imperialist competitive and genetic algorithm (HICGA), and is designed to deal with the complexity of such problems. To check the validity of the proposed model and the performance of the designed HICGA method, historical data for 24 weeks from the Iranian Rajaee port were provided.
    Keywords: Container terminal; Berth allocation problem; Quay crane assignment problem; Quay crane scheduling problem; Imperialist competitive algorithm; Genetic algorithm.

  • What drives European port traffic? The role of competition   Order a copy of this article
    by Xavier Fageda, Marta Gonzalez-Aregall 
    Abstract: This article examines the determinants of traffic in European ports in 2010 by estimating a generalised linear model with a gamma distribution. We examine the influence of various economic and geographic attributes of the urban areas in which the ports are located, along with the influence of variables that identify the intensity of competition that the respective port authorities face. We include a range of explanatory factors of port traffic including the GDP of the urban area, location, the share of transshipment traffic, the share of dedicated terminals, the volume of traffic from neighbouring ports, the level of connectivity with other transportation modes and the ports model of governance. Our results suggest that variables outside of port manager control, like the economic size of the urban area or the amount of traffic of neighbouring ports, are key determinants of the traffic that a port is able to reach.
    Keywords: ports; traffic; competition; econometric analysis.