International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (24 papers in press)
Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem with Cooperative Strategy in Disaster Relief
by Seyed Mohammad Gholami-Zanjani, Ruholla Jafari-Marandi
Abstract: Many studies have focused on static vehicle routing problems (VRP) in which all information is known in advance. However, in recent years, the growth of technology has brought about a new range of problems, referred to as dynamic vehicle routing problems. In these problems, a part of the orders are received in advance before departure of vehicles from depots, but some new orders will come in after the vehicles departure. In both situations utilizing multiple vehicles and cooperative strategy can decrease costs. Although cooperative strategy has not received considerable attention in the literature, it could be a possibility in practice which can help reduce costs. Multiple vehicles in this strategy are allowed to travel and they can transfer goods between one another (from the main vehicle) when they meet in demand points so as to better satisfy the late demands. The benefits of such optimizations, which consider dynamic orders, are evaluated in case of emergencies far from the expected zones and the distribution centers. A mixed integer nonlinear mathematical model is proposed for multi-vehicle routing problem considering product transshipment between vehicles in dynamic situations. The objective function is to minimize the total cost of transportation as well as the number of lost sales. A robust genetic algorithm is then developed to deal with the complexity of the problem. The experimental results show that cooperative strategy is an attractive possibility to reduce unsatisfied late received demands and costs.
Keywords: Cooperative Strategy; Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem; Disaster Relief Management; Robust Genetic Algorithm.
Analysis of risk factors influencing the safety of maritime container supply chains
by Zaili Yang, Chengpeng Wan, Xinping Yan, Di Zhang
Abstract: This paper aims to identify the major risk factors influencing the safety and security of maritime container supply chains (MCSCs) to aid the effective management of the associated risks. By doing so, the definition and classification of supply chain risks in a general context are first reviewed to provide a reference for the understanding and analysis of risk factors in MCSCs. A novel risk classification framework, incorporating a Delphi survey and a risk matrix approach, is proposed to identify the major risk factors of significant safety concerns from five perspectives, including society, natural environment, management, infrastructure and technology, and operations. As a result, different types of risk factors in MCSCs are identified through a systematic review of previous studies. Then, a Delphi expert survey is undertaken to explore the emerging hazards that have not yet been raised/studied in the literature. The survey is carried out by interviewing different groups of maritime stakeholders, who own the world leading commercial container fleets and container ports. Relevant data for the assessment of all identified risk factors are collected through a large-scale questionnaire survey, and the identified risk factors are quantitatively evaluated regarding their occurrence likelihood and consequence severity. This paper extends the risk analysis from the segment level (e.g. nodes and links) to a supply chain level, and realises the hazard identification and risk evaluation of different MCSC segments on the same plate so that they can be better understood and managed from a systematic perspective. The research results will provide useful insights for risk control and accident prevention, which is beneficial to different types of stakeholders involved in the shipping industry.
Keywords: Maritime risk; container shipping; maritime transport; maritime safety; maritime security; Delphi; maritime transport.
Supply Chain Security Management: A Citation Network Analysis
by Xun Tong, Chris K.Y. Lo, Kee-hung Lai, T.C.E. Cheng
Abstract: Security management has become a topical issue in supply chain management (SCM) and operations and production management (OPM). Researchers are keen to address issues related to the prevention, mitigation, and recovery from security incidents and to the development of security management systems with cost efficiency consideration. This study presents a citation network analysis (CNA) of supply chain security (SCS) by analyzing 143 sample SCS articles. Specifically, we conduct a cluster analysis and a main path analysis to identify the research clusters in SCS literature and show knowledge transformation in SCS chronically. We identify four research clusters, which are (1) SCS Conceptualization and Application, (2) Security Management Systems, (3) Transportation Security, and (4) Terrorism, and the research gaps in each cluster are discussed in this review through an in-depth analysis of the articles in each cluster. This study helps scholars in SCM and OPM reveal the current trend in SCS management research and suggest potential research directions for future study in SCS.
Keywords: supply chain management; risk management; literature review; citation analysis; main path analysis.
A Tabu Search Approach to the Cargo Prioritization and Terminal Allocation Problem
by Jingjing Tong, Heather Nachtmann
Abstract: To mitigate inland waterway disruption impacts, we develop a tabu search (TS) approach to solve the cargo prioritization and terminal allocation problem (CPTAP) to minimize the total value loss of disrupted barge cargoes by offloading the cargoes to the land transportation modes. CPTAP is formulated as a nonlinear binary integer program, and problems of realistic size can be efficiently and effectively solved with an efficient heuristic approach. Given different neighborhood structures, multiple TS variants are attempted and compared. Solving CPTAP with our TS heuristic leads to the lowest cargo value loss and the shortest response time for the disrupted barges compared to a genetic algorithm approach and a na
Keywords: Metaheuristics; OR in maritime industry; Inland waterway transportation; Cargo prioritization.
Seaport competitiveness research: the past, present and future
by Ziaul Haque Munim, Naima Saeed
Abstract: This study presents a review of articles with a focus on seaport competitiveness from the maritime literature. We investigated how port competitiveness research has evolved during the last two decades using bibliometric citation analysis tools and techniques. Bibliography data, collected from the ISI Web of Science database, consisted of 267 research papers by 465 authors in 117 journals. Based on citation analysis, we identified the key universities, journals and articles and their impact on port competitiveness research. Also, seven key research streams with few sub-streams were revealed as a result of a mixed co-citation and in-depth content analysis of the most cited articles. A bibliometric co-citation mapping technique was used to show how the key articles are built on each other. Key research papers and their concepts, methods and findings are also discussed. Finally, we present some strategic research challenges and future research agendas.
Keywords: literature review; bibliometric analysis; co-citation analysis; port competitiveness; port management; port competition.
Evaluation of Key Success Factors of Port-City Waterfront Development
by Kamonchanok Suthiwartnarueput, Paul Tae-Woo Lee, Krisana Visamitanan, Zaili Yang, Adolf K.Y. Ng
Abstract: This paper further investigates the key successful factors in waterfront port development (WPD). Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relation(CFPR), with the combination of the Preference Ranking Organization METHods for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE), is applied to six ports, namely Busan, Incheon Inner Port, Bangkok, Kaohsiung, Montreal and Liverpool. The latter technique is to evaluate performance of the WPD among the studied cases, while the former to draw KSFs of the selected ports. To draw meaningful comparison with the test results from Lee et al. (2014; 2016), this paper takes the same evaluation hierarchy in the questionnaire form in the previous studies. With a further validity of the previous findings in WPD studies, this paper does not only provide insight on exploring the generalization of KSFs in WPD in a longitude manner, but also contributes to the literature of WPD and port-city interplays.
Keywords: Key successful factor; Waterfront port development; Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relation; Preference Ranking Organization METHods for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE).
Special Issue on: Decision Analytics in Port and Shipping Logistics
A statistical forecasting model applied to container throughput in a multi-port gateway system: the Barcelona-Tarragona-Valencia case
by Manel Grifoll
Abstract: This contribution investigates the container throughput flow in a multi-port gateway system: Barcelona-Tarragona-Valencia (BTV). First, the paper examine the recent dynamics of the total and transshipment flow showing a relevant shifting of traffic share from Barcelona to Valencia. A statistical model based on a two-state Markov model in conjunction with a Monte Carlo experiments is implemented to estimate the predictions of container throughput in BTV system. Verification tests shows how the predictions are reasonable good with an error metrics similar to other methods based on time series analysis. The method is considered suitable for short-term forecasting with a strong potential to be used as a complement of qualitative methods due to the statistical nature of the results. The implementation of the method considers separately the import/export and transhipment container throughput revealing a differentiate dynamics in both container flows. The transhipment flow is more volatile and induce more data dispersion in the container throughput predictions.
Keywords: Markov chain; traffic predictions; Monte Carlo method; TEU; transshipment.
Selection of Logistics Service Modes in E-commerce based on Multi-oligopolies Cournot Competition
by Lin Ma, Chun Jin, Yunfu Huo
Abstract: The importance of e-commerce logistics service modes is becoming more and more prominent. This paper focuses on the selection of e-commerce logistics service modes. The current researches are mainly limited by using the empirical method but rarely considering the multi-oligopolies competition and comparison among different modes. Four types of e-commerce logistics service modes are modeled in this paper based on multi-oligopolies Cournot competition theory. The results show that the improvement of logistics service management and technological progress are the basis of the mode selection, the marginal service cost is the most important in the mode selection, then, the transaction cost and the scale effect. When the logistics service ability is given, the mode of Opened Platform provides to online stores (PO) is an advantage strategy for e-commerce platform and common online stores. The mode of Opened 3PL Providers provide to online stores (TO) is an advantageous strategy with competitive price for opened platform and is more attractive to small online stores. The study on logistics service has important academic value and practical guidance, and has a certain reference value for the selection of logistics service mode of global e-commerce.
The current researches are mainly limited by using the empirical method but rarely considering the multi-oligopolies competition and comparison among different modes.
Keywords: E-commerce; Logistics Service Mode; Multi-oligopolies Cournot Competition; Mode Selection.
The Impact of Operational Strategies on Vessel Handling Times (VHT): A simulation approach
by Maria D. Gracia, Julio Mar-Ortiz, Rosa G. González-Ramírez
Abstract: This paper reports a study of the ship loading and discharging process at a container terminal. Our objective was to analyze the impact of different operational strategies on vessel handling times in order to derive managerial insights that can be used by terminal operators to manage this key performance indicator. As a basis for our study, a simulation model was implemented, validated, and verified to gain insight into the containers loading and discharging process. Four scenarios were constructed to resemble possible instances under which a vessel would operate at a Mexican Container Terminal, with the different operational strategies that were designed and evaluated for each scenario. An experimental framework was proposed, based on comparisons of scenarios and search experimentation, and employing a fractional factorial design to evaluate the impact of several factors on the vessel handling times. Our results emphasize that with an adequate design of the operation parameters, combined with the implementation of efficient stacking policies, it is possible to keep VHT under control. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are also discussed.
Keywords: Container Terminals; Simulation Analysis; Vessel Handling Times; Operational Strategies; Port Logistics.
Development of a maritime safety management database using relational database approach
by Siyu Xu, Hao Hu
Abstract: Many types of maritime incident databases have been established that allow people to learn from past incidents and develop corresponding mitigation measures. However, our investigation of multiple international and national databases shows that most existing databases only record basic information regarding incidents in a single table. Lots of useful information is not included in the database (i.e., limited extension of the database). Meanwhile, some basic information is recorded tautologically (i.e., data redundancy). In this paper, two widely used databases are taken as examples, the Global Integrated Shipping Information System and the Lloyds List Intelligence, to explain these common problems of existing databases. To overcome these limitations and improve the efficiency of data maintenance, this paper develops a relational maritime safety management database. The Entity-Relationship model is first used to depict the inter-related semantic information surrounding maritime incidents, and a relational database model is subsequently formed. Microsoft Access is employed to implement the proposed database, and a database application is also designed to demonstrate the utility of the database. Our preliminary study shows that the proposed database is implementable and has potential usage for both industry and academic research.
Keywords: maritime incident; data maintenance; Global Integrated Shipping Information System; Lloyd’s List Intelligence; relational database; entity-relationship model; Microsoft Access.
Special Issue on: Waterborne Transport Information and Safety
Remote Interactive Platform for Matching Design of Ship Screw Propeller and Diesel Engine Based on Internet Plus
by Kun Yang, Biao Hu
Abstract: In order to meet the requirements of the remote ship propeller matching design, and can feed the measurement data to the offshore calculation model to guide the design of the ship propulsion system, this paper designed a screw propeller matching computing platform based on the Internet. The platform was built on the B/S architecture, combined with MATLAB and C# for mixed programming, and used Easyui plug-in set to design user interface. The open water characteristics of the ship were selected as the fundamental data of the whole process of matching calculation. The platform was tested by three parts: the preliminary matching, ultimate matching and cavitation checking. By comparison, the difference between calculated value and actual value is very small, which can meet the accuracy requirements. This platform can provide an engineering basis for the online working condition monitoring of the ship power system and the dynamic matching of the ship propeller in the "Internet plus" environment in future.
Keywords: Ship Screw Propeller; Diesel Engine; NET; MATLAB; B/S.
Special Issue on: Port Sustainability and Resilience
A Holistic Sustainability Framework for Oil Terminals: The Case of China
by Xuemuge Wang, Shaofeng Liu, Jingjing Xu, Michael Roe
Abstract: This research provides a sustainability framework for the Chinese oil terminal sustainability performance evaluation in oil terminals operational and managerial conditions. Due to the lack of holistic oil terminal sustainability research in the existing literature and the increasing demand for sustainability pursuits, the developed sustainability framework is expected to be able to act as holistic guidance for port managers to systematically improve oil terminal sustainability performance by showing which indicators and groups should be considered. In the beginning, a rich amount of comprehensive existing Sustainability Performance Indicators from the literature are identified. Then, by the conduction of semi-structured interviews with 34 experts within the field, omitted practical or included unpractical indicators are added to / eliminated from the framework to finalise a holistic and practical Chinese oil terminal sustainability framework. After the thematic analysis of interview results, 14 categories and 65 indicators are identified for the practical holistic sustainability framework. Convincingly, this research emphases combining theories into practices via the validation and replenishment of the existing Sustainability Performance Indicators by experts to enhance the reliability and feasibility of the forwarded sustainability framework. As a result, this research contributes to the existing literature a holistic oil terminal sustainability framework, and for the first time assimilates the overproduction issue into terminal sustainability management.
Keywords: Sustainability Framework; Sustainable Indicators; Oil Terminal; Port Overproduction.
Special Issue on: Maritime Transportation Innovative Models and Algorithms
Optimization for quay crane scheduling problem under uncertainty using PSO and OCBA
by Hongtao Hu, Xiazhong Chen, Si Zhang
Abstract: This paper addresses the quay crane scheduling problem (QCSP) under uncertain conditions at container terminals. Variations in container volume, arrival time, equipment functionality and weather conditions create significant uncertainties when scheduling loading and unloading tasks. In order to maintain the service level of the port under various conditions, port operator urgently need to execute a robust schedule. In this paper, a stochastic programming model is formulated to minimize the makespan of quay crane service, using a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm integrated with optimal computing budget allocation (OCBA) to improve computational efficiency. Numerical experiments show that the applied algorithm performs well under uncertainty.
Keywords: Quay crane scheduling; uncertainty; Particle swarm optimization; optimal computing budget allocation.
Berth allocation and quay crane-yard truck assignment considering carbon emissions in port area
by Wang Tingsong, Man Li, Hongtao Hu
Abstract: As environmental issues become increasingly prominent, the green port has been the focus of marine industry to sustain the development of global economy. Carbon emissions of port area mainly come from two aspects: a) port water area, produced by vessels sailing near port, waiting and berthing in port; and b) port land area, discharged by equipment including quay cranes (QCs) and yard trucks (YTs) when serve for the vessels. The effective resource allocation and equipment assignment can not only reduce the carbon emissions, but also improve the service efficiency. Thus, this paper considers the berth-quay crane-yard truck allocation problem (B-QC-YTAP) and formulates it as a multi-objective model, where the objectives are to minimize the total carbon emissions in port area, and minimize the average waiting time in port and departure delay for each vessel. To solve the proposed model as well as obtain the Pareto optimal solutions, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is also introduced. Finally, a numerical experiment is conducted to test the effectiveness of model and algorithm, followed by the trade-off analysis between the two objectives.
Keywords: B-QC-YTAP; carbon emissions; service efficiency; multi-objective; NSGA-II.
Impact analysis of the traffic convoy system and toll pricing policy of the Suez Canal on the operations of a liner containership over a long-haul voyage
by Yuquan Du, Qiang Meng, Wenming Shi
Abstract: This paper takes an initiative to quantitatively assess the impact of the traffic control scheme and the stepwise toll pricing policy of the Suez Canal on the optimal sailing schedule of a liner containership. We first develop a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for the optimal sailing schedule of a containership over a long-haul voyage via Suez subject to the traffic convoy system of the Suez Canal and its piecewise transit due structure. To improve the computational performance and take advantage of off-the-shelf optimization solvers, we linearize the nonlinearity in clock-time calculation, reformulate the power function in bunker fuel calculation with the second order cone programming technique, and cast the MINLP model into a mixed-integer second order cone programming (MISOCP) model. Various impact analyses can be carried out using the MISOCP model. A case study on a 13000-TEU containership running on the LP4 service operated by APL shows several managerial insights: (a) ignoring the traffic control system at Suez in ship speed optimization may lead to an infeasible sailing schedule, and underestimate the operating cost (even the bunker cost) of a containership on a long-haul voyage via Suez; (b) the optimal ship recovery plan in terms of its sailing speeds is mainly determined by the predefined port time windows, delay situation and Suez-clock time, but not pretty much affected by the levels of bunker price and transit due.
Keywords: Suez Canal; transit due; containership; speed optimization; second order cone programming.
Assess economic and environmental trade-off for inland port location
by Zheng Chang, Jinxian Weng, Zhuang Qi, Dong Yang
Abstract: This paper proposes a multi-objective optimization model to study the inland port location in a multimodal hinterland freight network. The model takes the different preferences of various stakeholders into consideration through minimizing the transportation cost for shippers, the fixed cost of inland port operator and the CO2 emissions for community simultaneously. A NSGA Ⅱ- solution algorithm is applied to find the Pareto optimal solutions for the multi-objective optimization model we built. A case study using actual data is conducted to validate the model and the solution method in the end. The empirical results indicate that in most cases the transportation cost and emissions decrease when more inland ports are constructed, but this is not conclusive, in few cases we find more inland ports lead to increased transportation cost. Furthermore, the construction of inland ports generates greater relative gains in environment than that in shippers economic benefit.
Keywords: inland port location; multi-objective optimization; hinterland freight network; CO2 emissions.
A multi-objective approach to analyze the effect of fuel consumption on Ship Routing and Scheduling Problem
by Saurabh Pratap, Mengdi Zhang, Christopher L.D. Shen, George Q. Huang
Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of fuel consumption on ship routing and
scheduling problem. In current trends, the anthropogenic emission due to excess fuel consumption is a topic of intense debate in the global world ship trading society. We have modeled a problem as a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which encounters the issues related to routing, fuel consumption, and customer demand. A meta-heuristic approach Controlled Elitist Non-Sorting Genetic Algorithm (CENSGA) has been proposed to solve the bi-objective problem. Finally, the utility of the model is demonstrated by a case study.
Keywords: Ship routing; carbon emission; mixed integer nonlinear programming; meta-heuristic.
A Method for Estimating Liner Shipping Time under Uncertainty
by Min Lin, Miao Li, Hao Hao, Lu Zhen
Abstract: With the rapid development of container transportation and the fierce competition among ports, container terminal operators pay more attention to meet the individual needs of customers. This study develops a system to estimate container liner shipping arrival time and the probability distribution for each time set by considering transit process and the periodicity of liner shipping. This system can give the most possible arrival time of cargoes to customers in advance, and then improve the level of port services. Also, a recursive algorithm based solution method and a parallel computing based solution method are proposed for solving the problem. Computational test is conducted on different scales and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed solution approach.
Keywords: Liner shipping time; Probability statistics; Estimating; Recursive algorithm; Parallel computing.
Collaborative stowage planning problem for a liner ship
by Wen Yi, Yi Hu, Miao Li, Lu Zhen
Abstract: This paper investigates a stowage planning problem, in which a liner ship will visit a sequence of ports, the number of available quay cranes in ports and the numbers of loading/unloading containers in ports are uncertain. This stowage planning problem is about how to assign the loaded containers to the bays of the ship with considering uncertain information in the future, so as to minimize the sum of the expected quay crane handling time at the ports. Based on stochastic programming, a two-stage decision model is proposed for this problem. A particle swarm optimization based solution method is developed to solve the model for large-scale problem instances. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the efficiency of the proposed solution method.
Keywords: Port operations; Stowage planning; Container liner ship; Maritime logistics.
Integrating route optimization with vehicle and unloading dock scheduling in LCL cargo collection
by Xuefei Liu, Meifeng Luo, Yifei Zhao
Abstract: Less Container Load (LCL) has become an increasingly important element in containerized cargo export, due to the involvement of numerous small & medium size enterprises. Traditional cargo collection and consolidation processes are extremely complex and inefficient, which provides an excellent opportunity for improvement through integration. In this paper, we design a two-stage model comprising vehicle route optimization for cargo collection and vehicle and unloading dock scheduling. In the first stage, namely, the route optimization model, the Clarke-Wright saving algorithm is used, with the objective of minimizing the total transport cost for a given shipment size, weight, and capacity constraint of cargo collection vehicles. In the second stage, the scheduling of both collection vehicles and unloading dock are modeled, using two sub-models for given constraints on the time window of the unloading docks and cargo collection routes. An application of this integrated model is illustrated based on the cargo collection problems in the hinterland of Shanghai port.
Keywords: Cargo Collection; LCL; Route Optimization; Vehicle Dispatching; Unloading Dock Scheduling; Integrated Scheduling.
Special Issue on: Shipping and Port Economics and Policy In Memory of Richard Goss
Principles in Practice: An Examination of Cascading
by Trevor D. Heaver
Abstract: This article examines the concept of cascading of container ships and the relationship of cascading to fleet management. It is written to apply two of the legacies that Richard Goss left to the maritime community: discussion of maritime topics through conferences and journals; and the application of basic economic principles to shipping. Richard had a special interest in the many aspects of the economics of ship size. The increases in the size of container vessels on the East Asia to Northwest Europe route since 2000 gives rise to the type of concept that Richard might have examined; the cascading of ships. The concept of cascading is examined in the light of basic aspects of the economics of ships size. It is shown that cascading does not take place simply because of the displacement of large vessels from certain routes but is dependent on the presence of various dynamic forces affecting the fleet deployment decisions of lines. Cascading is shown to be a process guided by management decisions affected by financial as well as economic considerations. It is not as simple as water running downhill.
Keywords: Ship cascading; container vessel deployment; optimal ship size.
Goss and ensuing research in shipping and port
by Young-Tae Chang, Paul Tae-Woo Lee
Abstract: The late Professor Richard Goss published twenty-five journal papers and edited two books and three monographs during his academic life of three decades. This paper revisits his work and examines whether ensuing research in shipping and port areas have been aligned with his academic thought and ideology. To this end, we first review his work to identify key concepts, theories and methodologies underlying his academic reasoning. Moreover, we utilize Chang et al. (2018)s research outcomes to examine whether his theoretical propositions are still valid today in terms of both theory and empirical findings. We discuss whether there is a foregone conclusion on Goss major themes and propositions or requires further empirical testing, and whether there exists the possibility to develop new theories and hypotheses. Based on our findings, we suggest future research directions in the shipping and port sectors.
Keywords: Richard Goss; Maritime economics; Port and shipping; Shipping policy; Port efficiency.
International port investment of Chinese port-related companies
by Weiwei Huo, Shu-Ling Chen, Wei Zhang, Kevin X. Li
Abstract: The devolution of Chinese port governance since the 1990s has resulted in not only private sectors involvement in Chinese port investment and development but also allowing local port groups and terminal operators to implement international strategies to expand their business. This paper overviews the current implementation on international port investment of these two types of Chinese port-related companies. By analysing 39 international port investment cases, this paper finds the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) may promote China's investment in foreign ports. In addition, four main investment modalities are adopted i.e. acquisition, joint venture, concession and build-operate-transfer (BOT). The companies mainly form a partnership for investment, and some of the investment projects involve an integration of the development of ports, industrial parks and cities. Of notice is that some investment projects are through a public-private partnership (PPP) model, i.e. Chinese companies as private entities and public sectors in the host countries.
Keywords: Port; China; Public-Private Partnership (PPP); Port investment; Investment modalities; International Shipping.
Port Policy: Are The Goss Principles Still Relevant Today?
by Mary R. Brooks, Sheila Farrell
Abstract: In 1990 Richard O. Goss wrote four seminal articles about the economic principles underlying port policies, which were published in Maritime Policy and Management under the title Economic Policies and Seaports. These explored the economic functions of seaports, the diversity of port institutions, the need for port authorities, and the strategies that ports might adopt to promote port efficiencies. Economic principles included the existence of seaports for the benefit of traders, the use of competition to maximise public welfare, the customisation of port institutions to meet local circumstances, and the need to involve all levels of government in seaport governance. This paper looks at the relevance of these principles today, and asks what further research is needed to fully understand that relevance.
Keywords: Seaports; port policies; port reform; governance; institutions; port competition; regulation.