International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics (28 papers in press)
SELECTION OF THE MOST PRACTICAL MALAYSIAN PORT FOR ENHANCING THE MALAYSIA-CHINA KUANTAN INDUSTRIAL PARK BUSINESS TRADE
by Noorul Shaiful Fitri Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Fayas Ahmad Najib
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the methodology for selection of the most practical Malaysian port for enhancing the Malaysia-China Kuantan Industrial Park (MCKIP) business trade. A selection is conducted using a combination decision making method of Analytical Hierarchy Process and Evidential Reasoning methods by considering five criteria namely, 1) distance, 2) journey time, 3) bunker cost, 4) port facilities and 5) distribution centre. A case study is constructed accordingly, whereby Shanghai Port has selected as a main port in China and four alternatives Malaysian ports namely 1) Kuantan Port, 2) Johor Port, 3) Port Tanjung Pelepas and 4) Port Klang will be examined. The result shows that Kuantan Port is the most practical port for enhancing the MCKIP business trade compared to others hub ports in Malaysia. It capable of helping China shipping liners enjoys the high cost saving for cargoes loading and discharging processes.
Keywords: MCKIP; Decision Making Method; Shipping and Port Studies; Malaysian Ports; Evidential Reasoning; Analytical Hierarchy Process.
Assessment of Differences in Efficiency across Strategic Groups in the Container Shipping Context: A Data Envelopment Analysis
by Wong-Hsiu Huang, Shih-Liang Chao, Chih-Ching Chang
Abstract: This study examines efficiency across strategic groups in container shipping by using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) with data collected from 17 global container carriers between 2006 and 2011. Four strategic groups of global container carriers are defined according to their strategic variables such as fleet capacity, asset/debt ratio, owned/chartered-in fleet ratio , non-container revenue ratio , and revenue. The four strategic groups are proactive-prudent group, proactive-chance group, conservative-prudent group and conservative-chance group. DEA results indicated that there were significant differences of efficiency across the strategic groups. Proactive-prudent group that possesses a higher fleet capacity and lower leverage on debt had a higher efficiency than other strategic groups. Practical implications from the research findings are discussed for container shipping carriers to improve their operations efficiency.
Keywords: Container shipping; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); Strategic group, Efficiency evaluation
Novel 3D Model for Prioritising the Attributes of Port Service Quality: Cases involving Major Container Ports in Asia
by Kai-Chieh Hu, Paul Tae-Woo Lee
Abstract: The measurement and evaluation of port service quality (PSQ) have become critical issues in port management. Certain studies have offered several methodologies and empirical case studies for evaluating service quality, among them SERVQUAL, Kanos model, and importance-performance analysis (IPA). However, the research gap is twofold. First, although Kanos model and IPA have 2D viewpoints for identifying and improving PSQ, they neglect the difficulties in so doing by relying on the resources and capability available at the shipping companies. Second, none of the extant literature considers service quality improvement from the viewpoint of port operators, although studies should evaluate their perceptions of PSQ correctly, and they must identify the prioritisation of port service attributes undergoing improvement based on the limitations of available resources and capabilities. To fill the research gaps, this study proposes and reports on the testing of a 3D model for prioritising PSQ attributes by introducing a novel dimension called goal difficulty into the port service contributory improvement index. The index represents the composite satisfaction index derived from Kanos model and the standardised weight derived from IPA. The data for testing the proposed 3D model were collected from the managers of five major container ports in Asia (i.e. Shanghai, Singapore, Hong Kong, Busan, and Kaohsiung). The test results were compared against those acquired using 2D methods (e.g., IPA), and managerial implications were drawn. The newly developed model is expected to help port managers allocate their limited resources efficiently in their prioritisation of PSQ improvement and in optimising port service user needs.
Keywords: Port Service Quality; Importance-performance Analysis; Kano’s Model; Goal Difficulty; Asian Container Port
The Influence of Organizational Green Climate on Employees` Green Behaviors: Evidence from the Eco Port of Kaohsiung
by Hsu-Li Tsai, Chin-Shan Lu, Chih-Ching Chang
Abstract: This research identifies the constructs and measures of organizational green climate and examines its influence on employees` green behaviors. This paper has used survey data collected from 164 respondents who are working at the Eco Port of Kaohsiung in Taiwan. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that there are four green climate dimensions: green port policy, green training, green communication, and green motivation. A structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to examine the effects of organizational green climate dimensions on employees` green behaviors. Study findings have indicated that organizational green climate dimensions are positively related to employees` green behaviors. The results have suggested that green motivation has the most important influence on employees` green behaviors, followed by green port policy, green communication and green training. Theoretical and practical implications of the research findings for the development of organizational green climate are discussed.
Keywords: Port; Organizational Green Climate; Green Behavior; Structural Equation Modeling
A literature review of port competition research
by Ioannis Lagoudis, Ioannis Theotokas, Dimitrios Broumas
Abstract: Research interest in the port industry has increased significantly during recent decades, mainly due to the integration of ports in global supply chain strategies. Ports around the world are facing strong competitive pressures in order to meet modern demand characteristics. The present global environment favours a continuous restructuring of the way ports operate incorporating a number of issues in any decision-making process among the many being global competition, profit maximization and social responsibility. So far research has supported the idea that competition among ports leads to improved port efficiency; thus, significant amount of the research in the literature is devoted on exploring competitiveness related issues. The main motivation behind the present work has been to gather, categorize and analyse the works present in academic journals, which fall under the Port Competition umbrella, and identify areas of niche research opportunities.
The present study provides a detailed analysis of the different research angles of port competition being: (i) port selection, (ii) port productivity and (iii) port competitiveness. The works that fall under the above three clusters are illustrated here emphasising the methodologies and tools used. For the latter purpose the following categories have been created: (i) mathematical modelling, (ii) economic managerial modelling, (iii) simulation and (iv) stochastic modelling.
Results show that most of the present research focuses on topics related to port selection, efficiency, performance and competitiveness. Significant space for future research appears to be in the areas of geographic comparisons of ports and terminals, financial indicators linked with environmental efficiency, efficiency in liquefied and liquid cargo terminals, port competitiveness and IT systems, port management related issues to strategy and marketing management and finally intra port competition.
Keywords: Port, Competition, Literature Review
Capital Structure Determinants of Shipbuilding Companies
by Roar Adland, Joakim Noraas, Rikke S. Iversen
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to ascertain the major determinants of capital structure decisions for globally listed shipbuilding companies, and how quickly these companies adjust their capital structures when deviating from their target leverage ratios. Using a range of multiple regression models we find size, asset risk, and the market-to-book ratio to be the most influential observable determinants of capital structure, though unobserved company-specific effects remain highly influential. Shipbuilders can be said to have relatively lower adjustment than deviation costs compared to other industries, as they tend to adjust their capital structures significantly faster.
Keywords: shipbuilding, capital structure, speed of adjustment
Spatial effects of container ports on production of the leather, bag and shoe industry in Korea
by Yong An Park, Francesca Romana Medda
Abstract: Container port operations are widely regarded as beneficial for regional economies particularly in aggregated terms. The present paper examines this common knowledge using the specific case of the leather, bag and shoe industry in Korea, which was once a major export industry in the early 1990s but evolved into an importer in 2003. The authors use two panel datasets of the leather, bag and shoe industry, one dataset of 16 regions from 1991 to 2011 and the other dataset of enduring establishments during the same period. The panel datasets also add port activity variables including container throughput. In our panel regression analysis with panel data of the16 regions, the authors find that an increase of container throughput in ports affects production of the industry positively during the examined period. When dividing the examined period into two periods in accordance with change in global competitiveness of the industry: the period before 2003 and the period from 2003 to 2011, the authors observe the negative effects in the first period and primarily in the groups of regions without large ports. The panel regression analysis of enduring establishments presents a negative coefficient of port throughput on production. The contradictory results may be caused by the characteristics of the two different panels.
Keywords: Container port; panel regression; manufacturing; regional effect; Korea.
USING DRY PORTS FOR PORT CO-OPETITION: THE CASE OF ADRIATIC PORTS
by Tomaz Kramberger, Jason Monios, Gregor Strubelj, Bojan Rupnik
Abstract: This paper explores the use of dry ports as a tool of both inter-port competition and potential co-opetition. The case examined is of hinterland access to central Europe by Adriatic ports, a production and consumption area that is mostly served by North European ports despite a much shorter sailing distance from Asia to ports in the Adriatic. The paper tests to what degree use of single or combined dry ports can enable the Adriatic ports to overcome their lower preference rate compared to Northern competitors.
A port choice model based on preference rates is presented to determine the trade-off between subjective port choice preference and transport distance as determinants of a ports hinterland using linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. The model investigates the gap between truly captive (based on shortest rail distance, the key metric according to previous research) and competitive (based on the result of the PR model).
Results suggest that individual dry ports established by individual Adriatic ports make only a small difference but a combined dry port could enable them to capture some of the hinterland from Northern ports, not only by reducing transport costs but also by improving the PR due to the provision of better access and facilities.
Keywords: port; competition; hinterland; rail; dry port; intermodal; terminal; port choice.
Ships Time in Port
by Brian Slack, Claude Comtois, Bart Wiegmans, Patrick Witte
Abstract: Much of the success of containerisation is due to time economies, in particular the way in which the length of time ships spend in port has been reduced. Although vessels now spend a small amount of time in port compared with the time at sea, it is still a cost factor. The focus of this study is on the amount of time container vessels spend in port. An extensive literature review indicates that earlier researchers had to rely on general estimates drawn from ship schedules. With the availability of accurate geographic positioning of ship locations it is now possible to obtain comprehensive determinations of vessel turnaround times in port. The average vessel turnaround times (ATTs) involving 70 ports of call, are considered this study encompassing three major East-West trades and one North-South service. The principal research question addressed is: how do ATTs vary among ports and how this time metric is related to port performance? ATTs are compared with factors such as numbers of containers handled and several measures of port efficiency. The results are disappointing and lead to a hypothesis that ATTs are differentiated regionally and functionally, rather than globally. Evidence is presented for this hypothesis. Several theoretical issues are considered out of the results and questions for further research are presented.
Keywords: container shipping; time in port; port efficiency; regional differences.
Mapping the hierarchical structure of the global shipping network by Weighted Ego Network Analysis
by Chengliang Liu, Jiaqi Wang, Hong Zhang, Meiyuan Yin
Abstract: An improved complex network approach named Weighted Ego Network Analysis (WENA) was employed to explore the hierarchical structure of the global shipping network. First, it was found that all centrality indices exhibited scale-free properties with obvious power-law distributions. That is, less than thirty percent of shipping ports had quite high centrality values, which indicates the powerful hubs of the global shipping system. Those very accessible shipping ports also showed significant preferential attachment properties such as rich-club and Matthew effect. Second, results of WENA revealed its core-peripheral hierarchical structure, which could be classified into five levels of subnetworks: first tier (top 5%), second tier (top 5%~15%), third tier (top 15%~30%), forth tier (top 30%~50%), and fifth tier (the remainder). Finally, five kinds of correlation analyses have been carried out, including degree vs. degree, degree vs. strength, degree vs. clustering coefficient, degree vs. distance and centrality vs. GDP ones. Results indicated that the connectivity of a shipping port was both significantly influenced by the connectivity of its directed connected ports and the shipping distance and hinterland economic scale.
Keywords: hierarchical structure; global shipping network; scale-free property; weighted ego network analysis (WENA); weighted average centrality rank (WACR).
Analyzing Business Models of Liner Shipping Companies
by Jasmine Siu Lee Lam, Hui Neng Wong
Abstract: In a highly volatile and ever-changing business environment, how to run the business efficiently with low costs while achieving high service standards is a key to success for shipping companies. This paper focuses on the liner shipping sector and aims to find out and analyze the business models used by liner shipping companies. The major types of business models are formed by literature review and information collection based on the public sources of liner companies. Interviews with expert industry practitioners are conducted for result analysis and verification. The paper broadly categorizes three business models: Cost Leadership, Service Differentiation & Innovation, and Hybrid. In contrast with the literature, findings suggest that the Hybrid model is the most desirable business model that most companies would like to achieve. Based on the analysis, the study further conceptualizes the business culture and organizational capability of liner companies in relation to the business models. Propositions and implications are then derived.
Keywords: business model; liner shipping; shipping strategy; economic value; cost leadership; service differentiation; innovation; business culture; organizational capability; market volatility.
Operational and Disaggregate Input Efficiencies of International Container Ports: An Application of Stochastic Frontier Analysis
by Huey-Kuo Chen
Abstract: Analysis of the performance of container ports is of great importance for the competitiveness of port business. This paper, therefore, applies stochastic frontier/metafrontier analysis to study output and disaggregate input efficiencies of international container ports during 2004-2011 with the aim that the findings obtained can be a reference for relevant industry operators to identify avenues for strengthening port operations. One output variable (i.e., container throughput), four input variables (e.g., container storage capacity, ship-to-shore container cranes, etc.) and six environmental variables reflecting different conditions or surroundings confronted by ports (e.g., geographic region, water depth, national economic growth rate, etc.) were used to evaluate technical efficiency, disaggregate input efficiency and meta technical efficiency for 35 international container ports using stochastic frontier/metafrontier analysis, a known parametric approach. Moreover, input efficiency is discussed separately for each selected input variable. The results show that the Asia-Pacific group is significantly superior to the Europe/America group in output efficiency for throughput and in input efficiency for ship-to-shore cranes and trucks; the Europe/America group is significantly superior in input efficiency of container storage. To improve performance, port operators should pay more attention to inefficient variables in each individual group and should allocate more resources to improving those. Two types of analysis show that individual surroundings variables have a significant effect on the input efficiency of trucks and vehicles. A few remarks at the end concern applications of suitable frontier/metafrontier models.
Keywords: stochastic frontier analysis; metafrontier; technical efficiency; disaggregate input efficiency; container ports.
Malmquist Productivity Indexes in Chinese Ports: A Fuzzy GMSS DEA Approach
by Peter Wanke, Zhongfei Chen, Jorge Junio Moreira Antunes, Carlos Barros
Abstract: This research focuses on the productivity assessment of 17 major Chinese ports from 2006-2015, shedding some light on how changes in cargo demand and cost structure may impact port performance in the future. Differently from previous works, a network productive structure formed by two stages was considered. In the first stage, fixed and other assets, altogether with human resources, are used to generate operating costs used as intermediate inputs, while the depreciation/amortization of such assets is considered as an exogenous output. In the second stage, each port uses these costs generated in the first stage to produce operating profit, while cargo demand is considered as an exogenous input that enters the system. Then, bootstrapped regression trees are used to predict the relationship of a set of contextual variables related to the technology, financial health and location. Results indicate that the former two determine the productivity change of Chinese ports. When the expansion of scale has not jeopardized the financial health, the productivity will increase. Implications are also derived.
Keywords: Chinese ports; DEA; GMSS; Malmquist; regression trees; bootstrapping.
Benchmarking container port security risks by applying a FIS methodology
by Dimitrios Stavrou, Nikolaos Ventikos, Zaili Yang
Abstract: This paper presents a fuzzy inference approach to estimate the security level of a port in a manner that it provides essential information to the stakeholders when evaluating security risks under uncertainty. A Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) methodology is developed on account to four predefined security factors. A team of experts is used to rank and survey potential port security risks whereas the experts ordinal preferences were combined using the Cook and Seiford method to come up with a consensus risks ranking. To validate the model, results are compared with those from an established Fuzzy Evidential Reasoning approach given the same security risk inputs. The verified FIS can provide useful insights for security analysts to conduct security risk quantification under high uncertainty in data in the maritime sector as well as a wider range of other industries (e.g. aerospace and process) facing high terrorism threats with appropriate tailor and adaptation.
Keywords: Maritime; Port Safety; Port Security; FIS; ISPS; Risk assessment.
The role of Agility and Organizational Learning Culture in forming Long Lasting relations in Shipping
by Angelos Pantouvakis, Maria Karakasnaki
Abstract: The current study aims to introduce and examine the role of agility and organizational learning culture towards enhancing customer relationship quality at the corporate environment level. Using a sample of 17 ports internationally, the study results revealed that the ability of a firm to ensure a long lasting quality relationship with its customers is directly and positively influenced by its agility and its learning culture. Following the organic view of the firm, this study advocates that in order to establish strong and committed quality relationships, focusing solely on organization learning is not enough; organizations should constantly and effectively adapt to changes in their external environment and reorganize their internal structures and systems or in other words be agile.
Keywords: agility; organizational learning culture; relationship quality; shipping.
The effect of CSR practices on organisational performance in the container shipping in Taiwan
by Chung-Shan Yang
Abstract: This study empirically examined the relationships between corporate social responsibility (CSR), customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and organisational performance in the container shipping context in Taiwan. We collected data from a survey of 124 maritime shipping firms and agencies and used a structural equation model to test the research hypotheses. We confirmed that CSR implementation increases customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, which in turn enhance organisational performance. The link between CSR and organisational performance was found to be direct and indirect (i.e. mediated by customer satisfaction and customer loyalty). This study contributes to container shipping CSR literature by providing a better understanding of the dimensions of container shipping CSR and mediate variables of organisational performance, and therefore, provides theoretical and managerial implications to improve CSR implementation and enhance organisational performance.
Keywords: Container shipping; Corporate social responsibility (CSR); Customer satisfaction; Customer loyalty; Organisational performance.
Top 50 Authors, Affiliations, and Countries in Maritime Research
by Young-Tae (YT) Chang, Kyoung-Suk Choi, Ahhyun Jo, Hyosoo (Kevin) Park
Abstract: This paper examines the top 50 authors, affiliations, and countries in the maritime transportation field. The analysis covers articles published in 65 journals in maritime and transportation. Three indicators are used for ranking: number of papers, the weighted score that reflects the contribution of the authors, and the impact score which considers the impact factor. Temporal changes of ranking are examined in five-year intervals. The potential correlation between methodological popularity and author performance is also discussed.
Keywords: author; affiliation; school; country; maritime; ranking.
Ship scheduling problems in tramp shipping considering static and spot cargoes
by Bin Yu, Keming Wang, Can Wang, Baozhen Yao
Abstract: Tramp shipping is the main transportation mode for dry bulk cargoes in international trade, which is possible to be affected by several stochastic factors (e.g., uncertain demand, weather). The focus of this paper is to study the ship scheduling problems by taking into account the uncertainty of cargo demand (called spot cargo in the paper), seasonal fluctuation of demand and unseaworthy condition caused by weather factors. To solve the ship scheduling problem (SSP), a mixed integer programming model is constructed by maximising the profit of all the voyages of a company during the planning period. Since the problem is similar to an NP-hard problem, a heuristic method is proposed to process it. Then, the data of a shipping company in China are used to test the model and the approach. The computed results show that the proposed method can provide good ship routing and scheduling solutions to real-instances.
Keywords: tramp shipping; ship scheduling; uncertain demands; spot cargo; weather factors.
Governments' sequential facility investments and ports' pricing under service differentiation and uncertainty
by Hsiao-Chi Chen, Paul Tae-Woo Lee, Shi-Miin Liu, Tsung-Chen Lee
Abstract: This paper examines optimal facility investments of risk-averse governments and optimal pricing of risk-neutral ports under service differentiation and demand uncertainty. We construct a three-period game, in which governments 1 and 2 choose their facility investments in the first and the second periods respectively, and then the two ports decide their service prices in the third period. We find that government 2 will invest more in facilities if government 1 does so when variations of the market demand are large. However, government 2 may not own higher expected utility than government 1. Moreover, we explore how the model's parameters affect optimal behaviours of governments and their ports. All of these outcomes remain true if uncertainty comes from the cost-side, or if the demand for ports' services depends on their facility levels.
Keywords: facility investment; price competition; service differentiation; sequential game; uncertainty.
Cost allocation in a container shipping alliance considering economies of scale: a CKYH alliance case study
by Shiyuan Zheng, Rudy R. Negenborn, Xiaolin Zhu
Abstract: This paper proposes and investigates three schemes for cost allocation in a container shipping alliance considering the economies of scale. In order to deal with the complicated interactions between carriers and the impact of the economies of scale on shipping cost, a duality-based, an inverse optimisation-based and a Shapley value-based scheme are discussed and compared to the conventional demand-based and turnover-based schemes. The theoretical models are applied in a case study involving the Asia-Europe container shipping lines of the CKYH alliance. The application results and the sensitivity analysis illustrate the practicability of our schemes.
Keywords: cost allocation; container shipping alliance; economies of scale; multicommodity flow game; inverse optimisation.
A hybrid heuristic technique for optimal coordination in intermodal logistics scheduling
by Cheng-Chieh Chen, Paul Schonfeld
Abstract: This paper specifies a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP) for assisting intermodal logistics operators with coordination decisions in freight transfer scheduling. An optimisation model is developed for coordinating vehicle schedules and cargo transfers at intermodal freight terminals, which is done primarily by optimising coordinated service frequencies and slack times, while also considering loading and unloading, storage and cargo processing operations. A hybrid technique combining sequential quadratic programming and genetic algorithms (GA-SQP) is developed to solve the proposed MINLP. This study also provides flexibility in managing general and perishable cargos with different cargo value functions that depend on dwell times. In a case study we derive insights which support intermodal logistics operators in planning their freight service schedules. Numerical results indicate that the developed algorithm is capable of producing optimal solutions efficiently for both small and large intermodal freight networks.
Keywords: intermodal logistics; schedule coordination; hybrid heuristic algorithm; genetic algorithm; sequential quadratic programming; SQP.
The Brazilian cabotage market: a content analysis
by Ana Cristina Paixão Casaca, Cassia Bömer Galvão, Leo Tadeu Robles, Sérgio Sampaio Cutrim
Abstract: The development of domestic short sea shipping (SSS) (hereinafter cabotage) services along the Brazilian coast has drawn the attention of economic and political players since the early 1800s, when the Brazilian internal market was under development. In 1993, subject to the Port Modernization Act, the federal government adopted a new regulatory framework to provide cabotage services, which resulted in a non-competitive situation derived from capacity and operational restrictions. This situation is a tough challenge, particularly after 2003, when Brazil has witnessed an economic boom. Despite this, cabotage came to the forefront of the industry of research and development and numerous studies and papers of an industry and academic nature have been presented and published nationally. The paper consolidates the available information coherently, which is scattered among many documents, investigates the Brazilian cabotage market by mapping demand and supply and by analysing its strengths and weaknesses. The paper identifies that cabotage faces numerous weaknesses and presents a set of solutions, that can only be solved and implemented in the medium-long-term, respectively, which require high investments and regulatory changes. The paper suggests some economic and political changes to be performed at an industry and government levels.
Keywords: Brazil; cabotage; literature review; demand and supply; advantages and disadvantages.
Robust optimisation of liner shipping network on Yangtze River with considering weather influences
by Zhongzhen Yang, Dongxu Chen
Abstract: With robust optimisation and considering the weather influences, liner shipping network on Yangtze River is designed. A model optimising shipping network is built based on the attributes of the river to determine the network, the fleet size and the operation frequency. To consider the bad weather, the robust optimisation method is used to evolve the former model to a robust one. A numerical examination is done by taking 12 ports and 28 cities along the river as the nodes. It is shown that only one type of vessel will be used if the weather influences are considered, while when the weather influences are not considered different types of vessels should be used in different river segments. In the robust network, containers may change from waterway to highway and the profit of waterway declines by 30.5%, while the reliability of the transportation in the region along the river increases by 25%.
Keywords: Yangtze River; liner shipping; network; robust optimisation; weather influences; containerised transportation; user equilibrium.
Optimal design of container terminal gate layout
by Chu Cong Minh, Nathan Huynh
Abstract: Over the last 50 years, international trade of goods has grown significantly in the USA, and as a result, US ports have become bottlenecks in the freight supply chain and logistics. A particular issue that most US ports are contending with is gate congestion (i.e., queuing of trucks outside the container terminal gate). This research provides planners and engineers of container terminals a set of methodologies to design an optimal gate layout to reduce gate congestion. The use of the methodologies to determine the optimal number of service gates is illustrated considering various truck arrival rates, gate service rates, and waiting time thresholds.
Keywords: queuing model; pooled queues; gate layout; optimisation; queuing time.
Special Issue on: Advances in Shipping, Maritime Transport and Logistics
An analysis of entry and exit decisions in shipping markets under uncertainty
by Matteo Balliauw
Abstract: For single shipowners, an important question to ask is when the optimal moment of buying or selling a ship has arrived. This decision of buying or selling a ship can be seen as entering or leaving the shipping market. The prices and revenues in this market were proven to follow a cyclical evolution. A real options model involving a discrete-time Markov process is applied in this article to analyse the described decisions in the cyclical environment of container shipowners who charter out their ships under time charter agreements. Parameters are estimated using real data. The outcomes show robust and realistic results. The methodology and the insights from the analysis can be used by shippers to make funded entry and exit decisions. Finally, some advice for future research is given.
Keywords: cyclical markets; real options; shipping markets; container; entry and exit decisions.
Analysis of technical efficiency and eco-efficiency in container terminals
by Gabriela Assunção Siqueira, Ilton Curty Leal Jr., Letícia Ciqueira Da Cunha, Vanessa De Almeida Guimarães, Ricardo César Da Silva Guabiroba
Abstract: This paper shows the results of performance assessments of 15 container terminals in Brazil, considering both eco-efficiency and technical efficiency measures. It was necessary to determine indicators and measures in order to apply a multi-criteria decision-making technique known as grey relational analysis, to aggregate values that have different scales and units of measurement and to rank the container terminals according to their performance levels. It was possible to determine that higher performance levels in eco-efficiency do not, necessarily, mean that higher technical performance is taking place. Variations in the weights assigned to technical efficiency and eco-efficiency measures might influence the performance ranking of the terminals.
Keywords: container terminal; eco-efficiency; performance assessment; grey relational analysis; GRA; technical efficiency.
A new hub network design integrating deep sea and short sea services at liner shipping operations
by Fábio Francisco Da Costa Fontes, Gilles Goncalves
Abstract: Liner shipping is an increasingly attractive maritime transport, not only by the growing volume of goods transported in the world, but also by the diversity of products that can be carried and its service stability. At liner shipping operation, a hub and spoke structure is often used in which deep sea services take place at the hub network and short sea services can be done in the regional network between the hub and its respective spoke nodes. In this work a new hierarchical structure of hub and spoke with sub-hub is presented. Deep sea services and short sea services are depicted in circular form and the sub-hubs are intersection points of neighbour-39s regional networks. Both cargo-routing with transhipment in hub ports or in sub-hub ports are allowed. The binary integer linear programming model proposed in this work offers, together, a hub location with multiple-spoke allocation problem, a service design problem and the cargo routing problem. Experimental results show good performances comparatively to the classic hub and spoke network structure.
Keywords: Maritime transport; liner shipping; deep sea; short sea; network design; service design; hub and spoke; hierarchical structure; sub-hub; routing cargo; transhipment; hub location; multiple allocation; binary integer linear programming.
Estimating the performance of the logistics services attributes influencing customer satisfaction in the field of refrigerated transport
by Teresa Gajewska, Evangelos Grigoroudis
Abstract: By analysing the existing research in the area of logistics services evaluation, including refrigerated transport, it should be noted that the issues concerned are presented in a selective manner. The aim of the paper is to estimate the performance of logistics services attributes in the field of refrigerated transport. In order to respect the qualitative nature of collected information, an ordered weighted averaging (OWA) technique was applied (i.e., rank reciprocal - RR). The findings obtained from the interviews regarding the expectations and the evaluation of the quality level were used to perform a series of analyses based on the so-called fifth vulnerability, developed by the Parasuraman team (SERVQUAL method). The presented research focuses on the analysis of the key criteria for the evaluation of logistics services quality in the examined area. The research was based on a questionnaire designed for purchasers of logistics services. The respondents were companies using refrigerated transport.
Keywords: logistics services; service quality; customer satisfaction; refrigerated transport; ordered weighted averaging; OWA; SERVQUAL method; RR approach; service providers; purchasers of logistics services.