International Journal of Services Operations and Informatics (21 papers in press)
Managing Service Performance based on Multidimensional and Categorical Satisfaction Data
by Yan-Kwang Chen, Fei-Rung Chiu
Abstract: As customer service plays a major role in the success of a firm, the issues of how to assess the performance of customer service and how to keep it under control have become the popular themes of research. In this paper, a new performance index is proposed for managing the service performance of a service system based on the sample data of categorical scale satisfaction on multidimensional service elements. With the new performance index, the level of service performance can be assessed and judge whether the level deviates from the desired level. To prevent unavoidable sampling errors that results in incorrect conclusions, a hypothesis-testing procedure of the new performance index is proposed. Furthermore, a marginal performance index is proposed to recognize the service elements that fail to meet service standards when the service performance of the service system is in the status of out-of-control status. To validate the usefulness of the proposed approach, an illustrative example is demonstrated. The contributions and innovation points of this study are: (1) the categorical data used in this study is neither limited to ordinal, nor limited to nominal scale, and thus the approach can provide a wider range of applications; (2) the new method can be used for a firm to monitor the overall performance achieved by the service system, and give an out-of-control interpretation when detecting disappointed service performance.
Keywords: service performance; multidimensional service elements; categorical scale; customer satisfaction; performance index.
Value evaluation method of industrial product-service based on customer perception
by Pengpeng Wang
Abstract: It has become an important trend in the manufacturing industry that service is used to enhance the competitiveness of businesses as well as an important source of values. Aiming to realize the performance evaluation of industrial product-service and lay a basis for further development and application of industrial product-service systems, a value evaluation method based on customer perception is presented in this paper. Firstly, performance evaluation index system of industrial product-service is proposed based on product-service value properties. The performance evaluation method is developed based on Ordered Weighted Averaging operator of fuzzy language. Secondly, ability evaluation index system of service value creation is proposed based on value demands of customers. And the ability evaluation method is developed based on fuzzy synthetic and hierarchy analysis. Finally, the proposed approach to product-service value evaluation is demonstrated by an example of automobile marketing service from XX 4S shop.
Keywords: Industrial product-service systems; Performance evaluation; Value evaluation; Customer perception.
The impact of information and communication technologies on bilateral trade in services
by Christina Tay
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on bilateral trade in services. Two sets of measurements are included in our estimation models. The first set of measurements is related to trade determinants (GDP, population, common language and distance) and the second set of measurements is related to ICT (fixed broadband, fixed telephone, Internet and mobile-cellular phone). Each ICT variable is disaggregated to estimate and compare for their individual impacts using three variations of service trade: (a) service trade sum of service export and service import, (b) service export, and (c) service import. Using data from 2000 to 2013 on the US and 34 partnering countries we use a total of six models to test for the impact of ICT on bilateral trade in services. Two estimation models including the fixed effects model and pooled ordinary least squares are used. We find that trade determinants such as GDP, population and common language have significant impacts for all three variations of service trade. Distance shows mixed results significant for overall trade and service import, but insignificant for service export. We also find that ICT determinants such as fixed broadband and fixed telephone have significant impacts on service trade, service export and service import. However, mobile-cellular is insignificant for all three variations of service trade. Finally, the Internet is significant for service trade and service export, but not for service import. The results suggest that greater access to ICT along with trading with countries of larger population sizes, greater wealth and having a common language can help boost trade in services. Furthermore, since distance is not a significant factor for service exports, developed nations such as the US can opt to trade with countries of greater distances. Modern ICT technologies such as mobile-cellular phones can be greater capitalized to stimulate both service export and service import.
Keywords: Information and Communicative Technologies; fixed broadband; fixed telephone; Internet; mobile-cellular phone; service trade; service export; service import; bilateral trade in services.
Eenergy-performance optimization for the dynamic consolidation of virtual machines in cloud computing
by Li He, Li Tang, Shuhua Zhang
Abstract: Dynamic consolidation of Virtual Machines (VMs) can reduce energy consumption by switching idle hosts to sleep mode. However, to meet the Quality of Service (QoS) of customers, it is necessary to achieve the trade-off between energy and performance. This paper firstly puts forward a new dynamic threshold adjustment method using the variation coefficient of historical CPU utilization, actual CPU utilization and MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second) requests by VMs in migration list. Furthermore, it devises a novel VM allocation policy based on the grey correlation degree model, and formulates a conversion model of CPU utilization for achieving better trade-off between energy consumption and performance. Finally, some experiments are carried out on the CloudSim and the PlanetLab workloads. The experimental results show that the methods proposed in this paper have obvious advantages on the trade-off between energy and performance during the VM consolidation.
Keywords: VM consolidation; energy and performance optimization; VM allocation; self-adaptive thresholds; grey correlation degree.
An Extension ImportancePerformance Analysis Method Integrated with Fuzzy MICMAC
by Jih Kuang Chen
Abstract: Importance－Performance Analysis (IPA) has attracted the interest of various academics and practitioners from different fields. However, many scholars have put forward some shortcomings of IPA, as well as some methods to improve it. This study focus on a new perspective which the interaction between attribute shall be considered, and proposes an new approach that integrating IPA into another complex problem analysis technique -- Impact Matrix Cross-Reference Multiplication Applied to a Classification (MICMAC) to achieve more convenient calculation and application. Its contribution and innovation are mainly, measuring the interaction between attribute and effectively quantifying the integration of IPA model; may modify the importance and the performance of attribute by influence degree and dependence degree; and integrating the Fuzzy theory to make the assessment results more accurate. Through an empirical study, this method should have certain usability.
Keywords: IPA; MICMAC; influence and dependence.
Research on Decision Making and Coordination Model of Fresh Food Supply Chain with Price and Quality
by Qianwen Liu, Shun Zhang, Chen Zhao
Abstract: With the increasing concern on the quality of fresh food, the competition among enterprises extends from the simple price competition of fresh food to the price and quality. The effectiveness and feasibility of a two-level supply chain is analyzed in the centralized decision making model, the decentralized decision making model and the coordinated decision making model are analyzed respectively, which is taking into account price coefficient and quality influence coefficient. Through the numerical analysis, the retailers, manufacturers and the change of the supply chain of each decision variable are studied. The results show that the sales price and fresh food quality are related to the introduction of variables under three different decisions. After the revenue sharing and the cost sharing contract are coordinated, the manufacturers profit is positive when the revenue sharing coefficient and the cost commitment system are reasonable. Outside the reasonable scope, the retailer is supposed to compensate the manufacturer a fixed fee, and the supply chain overall benefits are greater than the decentralized decision-making benefits.
Keywords: Price and quality competition; Supply chain decision-making and coordination; Revenue sharing cost sharing contract.
General Parallel Execution Model for Large Matrix Workloads in Hadoop MapReduce Framework
by Song Deng
Abstract: Large-scale statistical computing technology is used by both large companies and research scientists to extract useful information from huge amount of data. It has been developed in the high performance community over the last decades and runs only on high-end computers or computer clusters. The cost to maintain such dedicated computer clusters is prohibitive. So the cloud computing technology becomes more attractive as computer clusters can be rented based on time used or by pay-as-you-go plan. It also provides better system features including scalability and fault tolerance. In this paper, a simple and general parallel execution engine(GPEE) for large matrix workloads has been proposed and is implemented in Hadoop MapReduce framework with Map-only jobs. An untraditional but straight forward method for data access is proposed, reducing the number of MapReduce jobs required for each matrix operation. Extensively study reveals different ways to do matrix multiplication within the system. Two physical operators are developed and compared in various cases.The test shows that the execution time for matrix multiplication can be reduced by half with GPEE on Hadoop.
Keywords: Statistical Analysis; MapReduce; Hadoop; Parallel execution model; Map-only jobs.
An Efficiency Measurement Research on Innovation Network Synergy Evolution of High Technology Enterprises
by Zhenyuan Liu, Shuhua Hu, Renyan Mu, Xindong Yu, Lijun Wang, Jialong Xie
Abstract: The cluster development of high technology enterprises become a crucial support of the High-tech zone to enhance competitiveness. This paper develops its arguments from innovation networks of high technology enterprises, focuses on the efficiency measurement of innovation network synergy evolution and builds a "3D" measurement system, the space-time differentiation dimension, the hierarchy system dimension, the synergy efficiency dimension, selects 7 secondary indicators and 21 tertiary indicators. Then, using the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, this paper measures the synergy evolution efficiency of high technology enterprises of Wuhan East Lake High-tech zone. Finally, it verifies that there are differences in evolution efficiency of space-time differentiation dimension, hierarchy system dimension and synergy efficiency dimension when the national high-tech zone is in different life cycle stages.
Keywords: Innovation network of high technology enterprises; Synergy evolution; Efficiency measurement; National high-tech zone.
Performance and Cost Analysis of a Finite Capacity Queue with Two Heterogeneous Servers under F-policy
by Dong-Yuh Yang, Nien-Che Yang
Abstract: All previous works on F-policy queues with multiple servers have focused on multiple homogeneous servers. This paper presents an analytical analysis on the F-policy M/M/2/K queue with heterogeneous servers. We obtained the steady-state distribution of the number of customers in the system and developed a variety of performance measures. The expected cost function was constructed to determine the optimal threshold value and optimal service rates with the objective of minimizing the expected cost per unit time. To this end, we developed an algorithm based on the quasi-Newton method to solve the problem of cost minimization. Finally, sensitivity analysis was conducted using numerical examples.
Keywords: F-policy; heterogeneous servers; optimization; quasi-Newton method; sensitivity analysis.
Population Distribution Patterns and Urban Social Structure: A Spatial Statistical Analysis of Suzhou City
by C.A.O. Can-ming, DUAN Jin-jun
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to reveal the population distribution pattern and socio-spatial structure of Chinas secondary metropolis. The global autocorrelation analysis and local autocorrelation analysis were used to explain the population distribution pattern of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The socio-spatial structure of Suzhou was revealed by factor analysis. The results showed spatial characteristics of spatial distribution of population in Suzhou were very significant, and positive correlation was evident, the shape of the population distribution of old city was HH mode (high population density around higher population density); and the shape of the population distribution of Tong an town and Dongzhu town was LL mode (low population density around lower population density); The main social factors included floating population factor, the agricultural population factor, urban residential factor, the poverty factor of old central city, intellectuals factor and retired personnel factor. Urban social areas of Suzhou in 2010 were divided into six areas, Social-spatial areas differentiation of Suzhou was a significant circle structure, but some social-spatial areas were fan-shaped distribution and it was Circle + fan structure model as a whole.
Keywords: spatial statistical analysis; socio-spatial structure; factorial analysis; social areas.
Comparative Study on Comprehensive Competitiveness of the Comprehensive Innovation and Reform Pilot Area under Chinese Innovation Evolutionary Path Perspective
by Zhenyuan Liu, Shuhua Hu, Renyan Mu
Abstract: After analyzing the connotation of regional strategy of Chinese innovation evolutionary path, this paper builds comprehensive competitiveness evaluation system of the pilot area, combining internal relations and differences among the comprehensive innovation and reform pilot area, the national high-tech Development Zone, and the indigenous innovation demonstration zone. By using composite correlation entropy matter-element model of grey correlation, this paper evaluates development of eight regions (those are Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Sichuan, Anhui, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Wuhan, Xi'an, Shenyang etc.) from four dimensions of support vector ability, innovation ability, social contribution, export earning power, and comprehensive competitiveness of the eight regions is ranked. Finally, countermeasures and suggestions are proposed for advantages and shortcomings of the eight pilot zones.
Keywords: Chinese innovation evolutionary path; regional strategy; comprehensive innovation and reform pilot area; innovation-driven.
Cost Minimization for Television Advertising Schedules Designed by Media Agencies
by Po Yu Chen
Abstract: This study explored advertising schedule design from the perspective of media agencies. The objective was to minimize the total cost of advertisements to be broadcast within a unit time. This study makes the following three main contributions: (a) In contrast to previous advertising scheduling studies that have focused on the perspective of single advertisers, the present study considered decision-making problems comprehensively, because the optimal scheduling of media agencies does not represent that of a single advertiser and may not satisfy multiple advertisers optimal scheduling requirements. (b) When advertising volume is used to compare various forms of television advertisements (e.g., marquees and news tickers), media agencies can evaluate the advertising volume demand per unit time after accepting television advertising commissions from businesses; subsequently, media agencies can determine whether the advertising time sessions of specific television channels meet their demands of advertising volume per unit time. (c) The optimal integer programming solution of the proposed model is determined, and the results of sensitivity analysis are displayed as an additional research outcome.
Keywords: Advertising Schedules; Media Agencies; Mathematical models; Advertiser; Commercial break.
Evolutionary Stability Analysis of Government Supervision on Recycling of E-wastes
by Yuxiang Yang, Zuqing Huang
Abstract: Facing an increasing number of e-wastes, we should take effective and efficient method to solve this problem. In this paper, we develop an evolutionary game model between the government and the manufacturers. We analyze the two groups stability conditions and their behaviors. Moreover, we study the effect of some parameters on their stability. Results show that whether manufacturers recycle e-wastes or not is closely related to recycling cost, profit of recycling, and governmental subsidies or penalties. Therefore, the government should provide subsidies to encourage manufacturers to recycle more e-wastes, and increase the punishment for those who have not recycled e-wastes. In order to promote local governments to perform their functions in terms of waste reduction, the penalties from superior departments should be increased, and it is feasible to introduce a third-party supervision mechanism to decrease the cost of government supervision.
Keywords: e-wastes; evolutionary stationary analysis; government supervision; evolutionary game theory; equilibrium analysis.
Logistics Resource Optimized Allocation Based on Object Identifier-Unified Degree
by Huiqi Zhu, Mingli Yu
Abstract: With the unification of object identifiers gradually, communication between enterprises becomes more and more smooth, which is helpful to reduce logistics costs, improve logistics services and promote logistics resources utilization. Although scholars have studied logistics resource allocation, the role of object identifiers that have been unified is still paid no attention. Based on the above situation, object identifier-unified degree (OIUD) is proposed in this paper, which is used to describe unified level of object identifiers. To analyze how logistics resource optimized allocation process is influenced by OIUD, an optimization model is formed, allowing for its multi-objectives and multi-constraints characteristics. The model selects total logistics cost, total service time and logistics resources utilization as its objective functions, while OIUD is as its influence parameter. Genetic algorithm based on technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is adopted to solve the model. In the end, an instance of WDQ company is employed to verify the effectiveness and practicability of the model. The results indicate that the established model can provide a better logistics resource allocation program. Furthermore, the higher level of OIUD, the more optimized logistics resource allocation.
Keywords: object identifier-unified degree; logistics resource optimized allocation; genetic algorithm.
Mining Usage Profile to Improve Web Performance Testing
by Junwen Zhang, Qunqun Xue, Dalin Zhang
Abstract: Testing is an important means to ensure the high quality, high performance and high reliability of Web application system. This paper focuses on how to improve the testing performance by using usage profile generation method. First, apply the Web mining technology to performance test, proposes usage profile generation method based on historical data mining, include the log file preprocessing, presents a frequent access pattern tree generation algorithm to dig out users frequent access pattern, analyzes user behavior characteristics, and constructs user usage profile approximate to the real usage. Then applied the usage profile into the performance test design stage, and guide test scenarios; Finally, by comparison experiments to verify that the proposed usage profile can effectively guide the process of test design, and can improve the accuracy of performance test results.
Keywords: Web Performance Testing; Data mining; Usage profile; Performance Testing Model; Occurrence probability.
Big Production Enterprise Supply Chain Endogenous Risk Management Based on Blockchain
by Yong-gui Fu, Jian-ming Zhu
Abstract: In view of the influence of informations incompleteness and asymmetry to supply chain operation efficiency, making big production enterprise as the object, and applying blockchain to its supply chain endogenous risk management, to research the specific operation mechanism and application value. In the operation process of big production enterprise supply chain, because of the informations asymmetry, the fraud problem will produce among the business subjects, blockchain is a decentration distributed accounting and data storage technology, with blockchain technology we can resolve the business subjects fraud problem, can provide more accurate decision information basis for each business section, and realize group decision. The paper has descripted the system structure and intelligent contract operation mechanism under consensus authentication of blockchain applying in big production enterprise supply chain, and analyzed by the case. In view of the limitation of classical blockchain technology applying in big production enterprise supply chain, we constructed the corresponding blockchain data storage mechanism and data access mechanism. Analyzed the economics value of this paper research from the aspects of response speed, supply accuracy, cooperation integrity, business interaction economic cost, supply quality, supply price, etc. The paper research will provide ideas and model structure for developing supply chain areas blockchain system, and promote the application research development of blockchain in specific area.
Keywords: Big Production Enterprise; Supply Chain; Endogenous Risk; Blockchain.
The Effects of Market Competition Structure on the Knowledge-Sharing Intentions of Enterprises with Knowledge Demand
by Houxing Tang
Abstract: From the knowledge-based resource perspective, and for enterprises with knowledge demand, strategic value exists in improving knowledge-sharing intentions and obtaining sufficient new knowledge. Thus, it is critical not only to discover the factors affecting knowledge-sharing intentions, but also to understand their effect mechanisms. This paper proposes a new factorthe structure of market competitionwhich includes three indicators: the initial market demand, market share, and added market demand. Further, the profit of knowledge-sharing can be considered a proxy for knowledge-sharing intention. An optimisation function is then constructed based on these indicators to analyse the effects, in which the profit of knowledge-sharing is the dependent variable and the three indicators are independent variables. The results indicate that, first, an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between the knowledge-sharing intentions of enterprises with knowledge demand and initial market demand. Second, a positive correlation exists between the enterprises intention and market share. Third, a negative correlation exists between the enterprises intention and added market demand.
Keywords: knowledge sharing; intention; market competition structure; enterprise; knowledge demand.
An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis in Railway Industry:A case study of Pakistan Railways
by Khalid Mehmood Alam
Abstract: It is important to examine the performance of organizations to look at the efficiency levels in utilizing their inputs to produce outputs. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of each year called decision-making unit (DMU) of Pakistan Railways for the period 1950-2016. Input-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model under constant returns to scale (CRS) is employed to calculate the efficiency scores whereas the super efficiency model is used to rank the efficient DMUs. This paper uses five inputs and two outputs in order to analyze the efficiency scores. According to the findings, five out of twenty-nine DMUs have a score of 1 and are considered as efficient. The results further suggest that DMU Y1 has minimum efficiency score of 0.63 whereas DMU Y6 has maximum efficiency score of 1.11. These findings suggest that how inefficient DMUs can alter their input and outputs to improve inefficiencies.
Keywords: Efficiency; Data Envelopment Analysis; Pakistan Railways.
Capacity expansion decisions into asymmetric cost behavior: reviews and search for new determinants
by Karrar Azeez, Han DongPing, Marwah Marwah
Abstract: The effect of Capacity expansion decisions on cost response with respect to changes in capacity factors is still unclear although several studies have been conducted on asymmetric cost behavior. Reportedly, cost stickiness based on operations/production research could develop new thoughts on asymmetric cost behavior as a result of capacity expansion factors. Herein, capacity factors affecting asymmetric cost behavior was investigated by providing alternative view(s) which takes primitives of cost behavior, resources adjustment cost and capacity expansion decisions into consideration. Consequently, a theoretical framework was developed to explain and justify how capacity factors are able to drive sticky costs. The study revealed that, cost stickiness was affected by capacity factors thus, complex capacity problems and estimates of adjustment costs. Furthermore, production evaluation methods employed to measure adjustment costs which subsequently affects cost stickiness was investigated for the first time. Further and detailed studies are suggested to be conducted in the future.
Keywords: asymmetric cost behavior; capacity expansion decisions; cost stickiness; capacity factors.
Analysis on the Sharing Economy Based on Business Model Canvas: A Comparative Study of Multiple Cases
by Yanli Guo, Jie Geng, Jianbin Chen
Abstract: the purpose of this paper is a multi-case study of the sharing economy based on the business model canvas. The primary objective is to clarifying the theoretical connotation and pattern classification of sharing economy and to provide entrepreneurs with several guides about the elements and its characteristics of a sharing economic business model allowing them to build a new business model based on the sharing economy. Firstly, the time axis of sharing economy theory and practice development is proposed through researching on the literatures and practice of some enterprises; Secondly, this paper analyzes the different types and its characteristics of sharing economy models with business model canvas through comparative study of multiple cases. And then, provides the summative analysis on the key elements and its characteristics of business model based on the sharing economy which is different with the traditional business model. The conclusion is that there are three types of sharing economic model: the product or service sharing, collaborative lifestyles, collaborative production and to build a sharing economic business model, the nine factors of business model is very important and should be different with the traditional business model, such as the idle resources development, value propositions and customer relationship etc.
Keywords: Sharing Economy; Business Model; Business Model Canvas; Collaborative Consumption; Collaborative Production; Cases Study.
A Research on Friend Recommendation Based on Dynamic Trust Relations in SNS
by Yun Xue
Abstract: Aiming at getting useful information more efficiently in social network system (SNS), a discovered algorithm based on users dynamic trust relations in SNS was proposed. The proposed dynamic model combines users interest and trust relations to explore the users good friends for recommendation. Firstly, the network based on users interest and trust relations was set up. Secondly, the temporal factor was added to the model, then a dynamic model of users interest degree and trust relations was calculated. Lastly, the similarities among users were measured by this dynamic model, and the recommendation list of good friends was achieved. The experimental results shows that the proposed algorithm effectively described the changes of users interest similarity and trust relations with time, and the recommended result was more accurate and effective than the traditional ones.
Keywords: social networking service (SNS); trust relations; friend recommendation; trust computing.