International Journal of Smart Grid and Green Communications (7 papers in press)
Low Cost Smart Breaker Panel for Load Disaggregation
by Dale Persad, Arvind Singh, Sean Rocke, Craig Ramlal
Abstract: The electricity industry is in the middle of a shift from operating as a transparent servicernto one reliant on everyday customer engagement. Understanding consumer behaviour isrnbecoming even more central to the future planning of operations. Load Disaggregation,rnthe process of identifying device usage from aggregated load profiles has, therefore, becomernan important field of study. This paper details a prototype low cost breaker level meterrndeveloped as an intermediary between meter level monitoring, which yields the cheapestrnbut most aggregated load profile to plug level monitoring which is the most expensive butrnrequires no disaggregation. The system developed provides real time access to apparentrnpower consumption via a web application. The solution is economical, flexible and easilyrnexpandable. The prototype exhibited a low power consumption of less than 1 watt, and isrncapable of monitoring up to 15 circuits.
Keywords: Load Disaggregation Hardware; Smart Breaker; Raspberry Pi.
Security risk analysis approach for smart grid
by Dharmendra Yadav, Anjali Mahajan
Abstract: The paper comprehensively defines the effective research from the correspondence sources examines to assess the risk that is connected to smart grid systems. The research gives a defined framework like of Smart Grid network have fizzled in light of an absence of appropriate risk assessment from the beginning. Specialists have after sometimes utilized risk assessment to determine the suitability of programming items in the business sector. The substances of this paper are centred around assessment of such risk on frameworks attached to the smart grid. Security risk has become the worst threat to all industrial control systems. Cyber-crime has been moved to another level probing the manufacturers and operators to focus more on risk and exposure levels of systems before launch. This study is focused on evaluating the risk posed to a system like smart grid while providing solutions that will help to curb the risk. The qualities of a well-designed system and best practices is evaluated and then on this line, the standard measure is proposed for a properly functional grid. The threats posed to the system as a software and as a network will be discussed and backed up by the previous study. The solution to the Smart Grid framework is provided for vulnerability. The paper gives the solutions and recommendations that apply to systems of the same nature.
Keywords: Smart-grid; cybercrime; vulnerability; reliability; security; risk.
QoS Provisioning in a Service Oriented Architecture Targeting the Smart Grid World
by Christos Chrysoulas
Abstract: In todays liberalized market of energy, dynamic selections of services (energy consumption or even energy production) and by extension of service providers are crucial. It is equally important for Service Providers to spot the one QoS Module that offers the best QoS level in a given cost. Attributes like type of service, response time, throughput, availability and cost, form the basic set of attributes that should be taken into consideration when building a concrete/stable Grid network. In the proposed QoS architecture, Prosumers request services based on the aforementioned set of attributes. The Prosumer requests the service through a QoS Module. Afterwards, it is the QoS Modules responsibility to seek the Service Provider that best serves the needs of the client.
Keywords: QoS; Service Oriented Architecture; Smart Grid.
Product Opinion Analysis Using Text Mining And Analysis
by Marimuthu Karuppiah, Anuj Shankar, Rashmi Ranganathan, Niranchana R
Abstract: The enormous growth and usage of e-commerce offer positive ways to any business by sharing the emotions, feelings and experiences. Web users are benefited with valuable online reviews. There are many instances, where these reviews are not considered for evaluation of a product in the market, thus affecting the sales of the products. We intend to solve the problem of sentiment polarity computation, which is one of the most basic problems of sentiment analysis. A general process for sentiment polarity computation, department wise classification and feature extraction is proposed with detailed procedure. Data on online product reviews from Amazon.com was used in this study. ProSent is a real-time web service, which provides insights of the product by applying sentiment analysis on the reviews. It eases the way to manage bulk customer reviews and also simplifies handling of customer reviews with customizable workflow processes and meaningful graphs and charts.
Keywords: Review Analysis; User Registration; Dashboard; NLP; Overview of Product; Text Mining.
A Sliding mode Observer Design for Single phase Photovoltaic Grid integration
by Pradipta Kumar Sahoo, Pravat Kumar Ray, Pranati Das
Abstract: In this paper solar array current is estimated and observed with a sliding mode observer instead of having a sensor, the observer is based on sliding-mode control and is constructed from the dynamic equations of the considered system viz. a single phase grid connected photovoltaic system that has a photovoltaic module and a single-phase H-bridge inverter. The solar array current is observed by the known values or measured values of the array voltage and inductor current. The current estimation is governed by the sliding mode observer gain, with decrease in the value of the gain, chattering problems become reduce. Observer gain has been varied from 100 % of designed value to 6.25 % of its value. A compromise has been made between estimation accuracy and chattering, to get an effective result at 12.5 % of the designed value of observer gain. The estimated value almost follows the original current and hence, is used to track the MPP rapidly. Methodology of grid integration of distributed photovoltaic systems is explored and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method for efficient grid integration.
Keywords: Sliding mode observer; Photovoltaic; Grid integration; Maximum power point tracking.
Active and Reactive power control of Three phase grid connected PV System
by Pradipta Kumar Sahoo, Pravat Kumar Ray, Pranati Das
Abstract: This paper deals with active and reactive power control of a three phase grid connected photovoltaic system. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm is used to track the MPP. The MPPT algorithm uses the IPV and VPV of the PV array and gives the MPP and a Vdc, ref. This voltage is then passed on to the inverter and then further to the three-phase grid. The behaviour of the active and reactive power of the grid which is supplied by the PV array is investigated. The various currents such as inverter current, grid current and load currents are also investigated. MATLAB/Simulink has been used to carry out the simulations. Proposed work has also been experimentally verified.
Keywords: Photovoltaic; Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory; MPPT; Voltage Source Inverter; Hyseresis band controller.
Multistage Hybrid Evolutionary Computing Based Optimal PMU Placement for Large Scale Power Grid Network
by ARUNKUMAR PATIL
Abstract: The high pace rise in energy consumption across industrial-social horizon, the reliable and quality power provision have become inevitable need. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) is one of the most significant grid components that plays vital role in ensuring reliable power transmission and distribution. However, maintaining cost effective and efficient electrical grid network design have been the dominating motivations for researchers. The optimal PMU placement (OPP) in power system can not only ensure grid cost reduction, real-time monitoring and control, but can reduce the operational complexities and overheads significantly. This paper proposes a novel multistage hybrid evolutionary computing scheme for OPP solution. Our proposed model applied Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA) for initial state point retrieval for OPP, which was then fed as input to the Pattern Search (PS) based PMU placement optimization. Our proposed AGA-PS scheme ensures OPP solution by retrieving minimum number of PMUs and its optimal location across grid network to make power system completely observable under varied cases such as single PMU loss and zero injection bus conditions. The simulation results with IEEE 14, IEEE 39, IEEE 118 and KPTCL 155 bus networks has exhibited that the proposed AGA-PS outperforms major existing approaches in terms of optimal OPP solutions. Performance with KPTCL 155 reveals that the AGA-PS can be useful for cost-effective large scale power grid design purpose.
Keywords: PMU Placement; Evolutionary Computing; Adaptive Genetic Algorithm; Pattern Search; IEEE bus networks.