International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation (5 papers in press)
SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: AN EMERGING MARKET PERSPECTIVE, SOME FRESH EVIDENCE FROM GHANA
by Kwame Adom, Abdallah Abdul-Rahaman, Francisca Duah- Agyemang
Abstract: The study examined social entrepreneurship (SE) activities, SE environmental factors and the nexus of SE environment and SE. Scarce SE literature in Ghana necessitated this study. Thus, its critical to understand what brings about and influences SE in Ghana. A qualitative research methodology was adopted for the study. Accordingly, a multiple case study approach is employed to establish the empirical patterns and linkages among the variables of interest of the study. Qualitative in-depth interviews of four social entrepreneurs in Ghana involved in the arts industry, clean energy, human development and manufacturing revealed: corruption and bureaucracy, regulatory framework, tax and tariff regime, infrastructure, illiteracy, exchange rate, wealth distribution, and technological innovations as critical factors that affect SE operations. Consequently, this calls for prudent policies to ameliorate the impact of these factors for a sustainable human development.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship; emerging market; environmental factors; political economic social and technological; PEST; bureaucratic corruption; regulatory framework; tariff regime; infrastructure; illiteracy; exchange rate; wealth distribution; technological innovations; Ghana.
Social Entrepreneurship and the Institutional Environment
by Irene Goll
This study examines the effects of a countrys institutional environment on economic social entrepreneurship. The measures of a countrys institutional environment include Porters Social Progress Index (SPI) and the World Economic Forums Global Competitiveness Index (GCI). The GCI measures the economic environmental munificence of a country which supports entrepreneurial ventures. I used the SPI to measure social munificence or social welfare of a country. The dependent variable is the number of Ashoka social entrepreneurs working to address the economic needs in a nation. The study includes 82 countries with Ashoka fellows. Of the 82 countries, 58 countries had Ashoka economic social entrepreneur fellows. The control variables include the log of GNI per capita and the log of population. I hypothesized that the less the SPI, the greater the number of social entrepreneurs focusing on the economy. That is, the less the social munificence, the greater the need for social entrepreneurs. I also hypothesized a positive relationship between GCI and the number of economic social entrepreneurs in a nation. That is, the more the institutional environment supports entrepreneurial ventures, the greater the number of economic social entrepreneurs. Results of the study are significant and support both hypotheses. The results show a significant negative relationship between SPI and the dependent variable. They also show a significant positive relationship between GCI basic resource requirements and efficiency driven subindices.
Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; Institutional Environment; Institutional Theory; economic environmental munificence; social munificence.
Influence of environment on social entrepreneurship intention: an empirical study related to Tunisia
by Ines BEN CHIKHA, Anis Jarboui
Abstract: Social entrepreneurship has emerged recently as one of the best solutions that reduces social, economic and environmental problems. In this study, we focus on investigating the impact of environmental factors on the formation of social entrepreneurial intention using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). To this end, a statistical analysis was done using 305 Tunisians who pursue incubation programs. Results show that the favorable environmental factors positively influence the social entrepreneurial intention. While, unfavorable environmental factors, such as poor infrastructure, financial constraints, inadequate form of accompaniment, lack of education and entrepreneurial training, and cumbersome administrative procedures, negatively influence social entrepreneurial intention. Hence, the state, incubators and financial institutions should intervene by acting on these factors in order to stimulate social entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurial intention; environmental factors; infrastructure; financial constraints; accompanying form; entrepreneurial education and training; administrative procedures; PLS-SEM.
Characteristics of Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth for the MENA Region
by Walid Haddad, Nicholas Harkiolakis
Abstract: Despite increases of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows to various parts of the world, the MENA region lagged the global economy with respect to the levels of FDI. The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative research was to examine the causal-comparative relationship between FDI inflows and economic growth in MENA region between 2005 and 2014. The study relied on archival data from the World Bank and it focused on the short and long-run relationship between FDI and GDP in MENA region, and tested hypotheses based on bivariate regression modeling. It was found that a short and long-run causality link existed stemming from FDI to GDP based on an FDI-enthused growth testable hypothesis. The test of causality using Wald statistics resulted in an F-Stat = 37.7498 and p = 0.000, which indicated significance at the 5% levels. It also found a short-run causality link stemming from GDP to FDI based on a growth-compelled FDI testable hypothesis. In this case, the test of causality using Wald statistics resulted in an F-Stat = 8.850676 and p = 0.0035, which indicated significance at the 5% levels. The results of this study suggest the need to increase FDI inflows to MENA region so that short and long-run economic growth were sustainable.
Keywords: MENA Region; Economic growth; GDP; FDI.
Influence of personal traits on social entrepreneurship intention: an empirical study related to Tunisia
by Ines BEN CHIKHA
Abstract: Today, social entrepreneurship is one of the main solutions for solving social, economic and environmental problems. To participate in this area of research, we focus in this work on investigating the impact of personal traits on the formation of social entrepreneurial intention. Our empirical research was based on 317 questionnaires from Tunisians who are pursuing incubation programs in the context of social entrepreneurship. Using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) method, we have shown that specific personal traits that include agreeability, conscientiousness, openness to experience, extraversion, and emotional stability, as well as general personal traits such as self-efficacy, responsibility, risk-taking, locus of control and personal initiative positively influence social entrepreneurial intention. This reinforces the conclusions that said personality traits have an effect on entrepreneurship in general.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurial intention; general personal traits; specific personal traits; PLS-SEM.