International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation (8 papers in press)
SOCIAL VENTURES: EXPLORING ENTREPRENEURIAL EXIT STRATEGIES WITH A STRUCTURATION LENS
by Yolanda Sarason
Abstract: Social venturing is an emerging field of research for entrepreneurship scholars. The question of how these firms differ from more traditional entrepreneurial firms is an important, yet underexplored, question. In particular there is a dearth of theory driven research focusing on the entrepreneurial exit of social ventures. Drawing upon structuration theory as our lens, we explore exit for social ventures in the discovery, evaluation and exploitation of opportunities. Our discussion is illustrated with rich examples from the stories of exit decisions by the founders of Toms of Maine, The Body Shop, Patagonia, Ben & Jerrys, New Belgium Brewing Company. We offer a foundation for future empirical exploration of entrepreneurial exit strategies of social ventures.
Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship; structuration theory; exit strategy; social venture; acquisition.
Mobilising money for social change The advantage of having a business model
by Asceline Groot, Ben Dankbaar
Abstract: Social entrepreneurs see it as their main goal to realize social change. To reach this goal they need to mobilise resources such as human capital, knowledge and money. Compared to other actors aiming at social change like non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and social movements, social entreprises may have an advantage, because they have a business model that can generate sufficient income to enable them to survive in the long run. The literature on social movements has paid considerable attention to issues of resource mobilisation. This paper uses insights from that literature in analysing the funding policies of three Dutch foundations that invest in social enterprises. Several dimensions in which resource mobilisation by social entrepreneurs differs from that by social movements are uncovered. A viable business case gives start-up social enterprises an advantage in their resource mobilisation approach over other organisations that aim to change society.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship; social change; social movements; resource mobilisation.
Corporate social responsibility typology: The influence of cross-cultural dimensions
by Carri Tolmie, Yung-Hwal Park, J.C. Blewitt
Abstract: What constitutes and influences corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been debated among cross-cultural researchers worldwide. Building on a previously established typology, with the addition of the natural environment dimension, this paper explores the different domains of CSR. Further, by using Hofstedes cultural framework, we examine what cultural dimensions have the most influence on which CSR type. In doing so, several managerial implications emerge for multinational enterprises (MNEs) to capitalize on. This conceptual work paves the way for future empirical subjects addressing the various aspects to fully understand CSR in practice.
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; stakeholder pressure; culture; environment.
Understanding the IIRC framework through the perspective of accounting profession and international organisations
by Ioana-Maria Dragu
Abstract: The international IR framework generated high interest from accounting professional bodies, international organisms/organisations that provided feedback for the first consultation draft framework issued by the IIRC. The main impact accounting profession and international organisations had on integrated reporting is materialised in the suggestions made for the consultation draft framework initially issued by IIRC in 2013 (IFRS, IASB, ICAEW, IFAC, ACCA, FEE, CIMA, CDSB, GRI, etc.). The IIRC received a total of 359 responses to the consultation draft framework, out of which 25 come from accounting professional bodies and members of accounting profession at international and national level. For the purpose of the current research, we considered the most prominent representatives of accounting profession and international organisations. Further on, we are going to explain the reaction of the most important organisations/accounting professional bodies/members of accounting profession with respect to the release of the IR consultation draft framework.
Keywords: integrated reporting; IIRC framework; accounting profession; international organisations.
Exploring the livelihood transitions of female former sugarcane farmers in St. Kitts and Nevis: a multiple case study
by Nelson A. King
Abstract: The termination of operations in the sugarcane industry of St. Kitts and Nevis in 2005 was a shock and economic setback for all employees. A review of the mainstream literature indicates that the nation's female former sugarcane farmers had a difficult time adjusting to the industry's closure, and continue to have high unemployment and difficulty in livelihood transitions ten years later. A qualitative, multiple case study was conducted to explore how these female farmers perceive their livelihood transitions from the closure of the sugarcane industry ten years ago to today's job market. The study's most significant findings rival the mainstream literature and challenge generalised conclusions regarding these female farmers' livelihood transitions after the closure of the local sugarcane plantations. This paper includes recommendations for practical applications and future research to address the needs of female former sugarcane farmers and other workers affected by the closure of agricultural and other industries.
Keywords: St. Kitts and Nevis; sugarcane; female farmers; agriculture; livelihood transition.
Impact of incubators on social entrepreneurship intention: an empirical study related to Tunisia
by Ines Ben Chikha, Anis Jarboui
Abstract: In recent years, social entrepreneurship is considered as a solution to minimise social, environmental and economic problems. In order to know how to stimulate social entrepreneurship, the current study focuses on the formation of social entrepreneurial intention based on partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Our empirical research, which utilises 209 Tunisian who pursue incubators programs, showed that the incubators positively influence the perception of the desirability and feasibility. Indeed, the awakening positively influences the desirability. The network integration, the availability of resources, the learning and the psychological support have a positive impact on the feasibility. In addition, the desirability and feasibility positively act on the social entrepreneurial intention. Therefore, it is important to promote the incubators that participate in boosting social entrepreneurship since they can act in the promotion of this kind of entrepreneurship and in the emergence of social projects by acting on the entrepreneurial intention.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship; social entrepreneurship intention; incubators; awakening; network integration; availability of resources; learning; psychological support; partial least squares structural equation modelling; PLS-SEM; Tunisia.
Working life inclusion through social innovation in cultural health
by Malin Lindberg
Abstract: This article scrutinises the development of a socially innovative service concept for cultural health, where approaches from the cultural areas are employed to improve the well-being, life-quality and empowerment among people in long-term unemployment or sick-leave, thus potentially serving to increase the inclusiveness in working life. The study delineates the preconditions for conceptualising, packaging and implementing the concept, in light of previous studies on social innovation and service innovation. The results expose that these preconditions are dependent on the attained social value creation, where target groups and concerned organisations from various societal sectors are actively involved in the identification of needs, in the development of innovative solutions and in the strive for social change on individual, organisational and societal levels. The study thus serves to further expand the field of innovation studies, regarding knowledge on the mechanisms of attaining an inclusive working life.
Keywords: culture; health; inclusion; service innovation; social innovation; working life.
Saving a rural Ukrainian town's cultural heritage - a case study of effective partnerships in action
by Roger A. Ritvo
Abstract: Using the Bolman and Deal (2013) framework for organisational diagnosis and managing planned change, this case study reviews the development, growth, impediments, current status and future prospects of the NGO Light of Culture. The historical town of Zhovkva in the Western Ukrainian countryside is only a 30-minute bus ride from L'viv, but it is a world apart from the commerce, tourism, urban development of its closest urban area. Started by one man with a vision, this NGO survived the collapse of the Soviet Union, corruption, economic downturns, financial crises and often a lack of public interest. Perseverance combined with vision and an engineering background lead to the formation of project-specific partnerships to keep the NGO operational and fulfil much of its mission to preserve the town's cultural heritage. The article concludes with a set of provocative questions for discussion and reflection.
Keywords: NGO; Ukraine; cultural heritage; cultural preservation; Zhovkva; strategic planning; Lee Bolman; Terry Deal.