International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications (18 papers in press)
Modeling and Global Predictive Control for Distributed-driven High Speed
by Wei Yongsong, Wu Jing, Li Shaoyuan
D-BEENISH: Distance Incorporated Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogeneous Protocol for WSN
by Rakesh Kumar, Rakesh Mathur
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used for various applications such as habitat monitoring, automation, agriculture, and security. Battery consumption of sensor nodes is directly related to the amount of communication it deals with other nodes or with the Base Station. Communication mechanism is decided by the routing strategies being followed. Among two modes of the network, i.e. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous WSN, heterogeneous have been into limelight in the most recent times. There has been a lot of research exploited in the various levels of heterogeneity. In this paper, four levels of heterogeneity are being considered of BEENISH protocol. BEENISH is being investigated for enhancement of stability period by modifying the probabilistic selection of cluster head by considering the distance approach along with the energy factor. The primary reason for taking the distance factor into account is the selection of cluster head of those nodes that would be favored which are closer to the Base Station and will ultimately reduce the energy consumption that would have incurred in the otherwise case. Simulation results demonstrate that D-BEENISH (Distance Incorporated Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogeneous) protocol outperform the BEENISH with the improvement of 17.47%in stability period and with much escalated throughput.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN); Stable Election Protocol (SEP); Developed Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DDEEC); Enhanced Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering Scheme for heterogeneous WSN (E-DEEC); Balanced Energy Efficient Network Integrated Super Heterogeneous Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (BEENISH).
Second Order Sliding Mode PI-PD Controller for Inverted Pendulum
by Kirtiman Singh, Prabin Kumar Padhy
Abstract: In this paper, a Second Order Sliding Mode PI-PD Controller is designed for
Inverted Pendulum which helps to avoid the chattering problem existing in the first order sliding mode control. In this paper, a PI (Proportional-Integral) type surface based second order sliding mode controller is designed using modified reaching law to improve the performance for nonlinear state differential equations with unknown parameters. To remove the problem of singularity and peak overshoot, a PD type sliding surface based sliding mode controller is connected through the feedback. This paper highlights feedback compensator design for different sliding surface based sliding mode controller and the important features of multiplexing different control inputs resulting in robustness and higher convergence of output. Stability study of the system has been done by using direct Lyapunov stability criterion. Simulations and experimental studies have been carried out to validate the controller.
Keywords: Inverted Pendulum; second order sliding mode control; Lyapunov stability criterion.
Design of robust fractional order PID controllers for coupled tank systems using multi-objective particle swarm optimization
by Nitish Katal, Shiv Narayan
Abstract: Liquid level control in multiple connected tanks is a non-linear control problem and is center to various diverse industrial establishments especially chemical process industries. The quality of products and process safety greatly relies upon the quality of control. In this paper, robust liquid level control for coupled tank systems has been proposed using optimal fractional order PID controllers. The controller tuning has been posed as multi-objective mixed sensitivity minimization problem and is solved using multi-objective variant of particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). At the end of the optimization process, Pareto optimal set (POS) of solutions has been obtained. For choosing an optimal solution from the POS, there are several graphical methods like Pareto front, scatter matrices, parallel coordinate representations etc. But these methods offer a very compact representation of the data and the problem arises for m-dimensional problems. So to ease the decision making process, the paper also explores the use of level diagrams for aiding the decision maker in choosing the ideal solution from the Pareto optimal set. The designed fractional order PID controllers present robust behavior to external disturbances and efficient tracking of the reference signal and the results obtained has been compared with different controller tuning algorithms.
Keywords: Multi-objective optimization; Coupled tank system; Fractional order control; Particle swarm optimization; Robust controller design.
Multi-objective Bat Algorithm Tuned Optimal FOPID Controller for Robust Aircraft Pitch Control
by Parvesh Kumar, Shiv Narayan
Abstract: Algorithms based on swarm intelligence, to resolve robustness issue for the optimization problem of the real world applications, like pitch control of an aircraft system, is now a days common amongst the researchers. Bat algorithm is one of the voiced algorithms in todays context. This paper is an explanatory attempt to discuss tuning of fractional order PID and classical PID parameters using bat algorithm for the weighted multi-objective optimization. The optimized values obtained from the techniques have been implemented for the pitch control of an aircraft system to obtain the desired robust response. In this paper, a mixed sensitivity H∞ problem has been designed and simulated using Matlab programming. The efficacy of the results has been established compared with other tuning methods. It has been shown that the design of multi-objective bat algorithm tuned fractional order controller gives better results.
Keywords: Fractional Order PID Controller; PID Optimization; Mixed Sensitivity Problem; MOBA; Optimization; Pitch Control of an Aircraft System.
Distribution Transformer Monitoring for Smart Grid using FPGA: A case study implementation in Indian Conditions
by Sanjeev Kumar Aggarwal, Jaswinder Singh, Amrinder Kaur
Abstract: In this paper, a pilot implementation of a Distribution Transformer Monitoring System (DTMS) using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based technology integrated with wireless communication modules has been explained in the context of smart grid developments in India. The field implementation consists of a network of sensors, energy meters and communication over wireless network. The whole architecture and the hardware & software flow of the DTMS have been explained. ZigBee technology has been used between end nodes and data concentrator for local area network (LAN) communication; whereas, General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) has been used for communication between data concentrator and utility control center. The system is installed at a group of distribution transformers to test its performance in the field. The developed approach effectively monitors the operating state of a network of transformers, dispatches the critical information to maintenance personal, such that they can take timely actions to avoid the interruption & transformer failure. The system has the scalability to interface the range of sensors and energy meters, and communicate over the different protocols. The main advantage of the system is the significant cost savings and its reliability. A number of smart actions and applications, such as smart metering, condition monitoring of transformer, load forecasting, power quality monitoring are come out of the system.
Keywords: Distribution Transformer; FPGA; DLMS; GPRS; Lower Power Radio; Mesh Network; Monitoring Unit.
Impact of Black Hole Attack on Reliability of Mobile Ad Hoc Network under DSDV Routing Protocol
by Moirangthem Marjit Singh, Jyotsna Kumar Mandal
Abstract: Abstract there has been considerable use of many devices that run on wireless infrastructure such as the MANET (Mobile Ad hoc Network). MANET has become a preferred means of communication in recent times. The reliability and security aspects of MANET need to be investigated further to provide robust and reliable communication. However, current literature shows that little work has been done towards reliability analysis of MANET. The paper gives the reliability analysis of MANET with black hole attack running DSDV routing protocol. ns-2.35 simulation software is used to analyze the impact of black hole attack on the reliability of MANET under Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) routing protocol. Simulation result shows that the reliability of MANET under multiple black hole attack is lower than the reliability of MANET under single black hole attack in DSDV routing protocol.
Keywords: Keywords— Mobile Ad-Hoc Network; Black Hole Attack; Network Reliability; Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Protocol.
Optimal Neural network Based Sliding Mode Adaptive Control for Two Links Robot
by MASSOU Siham, BOUMHIDI Ismail
Abstract: This work presents a neural network combined with the adaptive sliding mode control (NNASMC) to design a robust trajectory tracking controller for the two-links robot system. Sliding mode control (SMC) is well known for its robustness and efficiency to deal with a wide range of control problems with nonlinear dynamics. However, for complex nonlinear systems, when the unmodeled dynamics are large, the higher switching gain is needed and can produce higher amplitude of chattering. So, we propose to estimate the unmodeled functions of the system plant by using neural network (NN) with off-line weights training using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm which allows the efficient global search. The needed optimal switching control gain is obtained and updated using the adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) algorithm so that the asymptotical stability of the system can be guaranteed. And it is shown by the Lyapunov theory that the tracking error converge to a small L-vicinity of the origin. The effectiveness of the designed NNASMC is illustrated by simulations.
Keywords: Two Links Robot; Neural Network; Sliding Mode Control; Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization.
Cross-Layer Energy Efficient Protocol for QoS Provisioning in Wireless Sensor Network
by Amal Bourmada, Azeddine Bilami
Abstract: Ensuring (QoS) in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a challenging issue due to the lack of resources and energy exhausting of sensor nodes. In this paper we propose a new QoS aware routing protocol for Multi-hop wireless sensor networks based on cross-layer interaction between the network, Mac and physical layers. At Physical Layer, a Link Quality Estimator is studied for the purpose of evaluating link quality. At MAC layer, a differentiated services mechanism is used to distinguish between real time and non-real time packets and to allocate more channel resources for real time traffic; TDMA slots also have been modified to allocate more and earlier slots to real time packets. At network layer, a routing path selection algorithm is introduced for QoS optimization. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol improves networks performances in terms of energy efficiency and QoS.
Keywords: WSN; Quality of Service; Cross-Layer; Link Quality Estimator; Packet Reception Ratio (PRR); Service Differentiation; neighbouring nodes; Energy Efficiency; HEEP; CLEEP-QoS.
Fuzzy-Based Wi-Fi Localization with High Accuracy using Fingerprinting
by Ramez Daoud, Michael Ibrahim, Tarek Nabil, Hassan Halawa, Hany ElSayed, Hassanein Amer, Mohamed Ismail, Mostafa Wahish, Mohamed Ibrahim
Abstract: In this paper, a localization system based on Wi-Fi fingerprinting and fuzzy data analysis is presented. Three localization techniques were used, Euclidean Distance, K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN), and Weighted K-Nearest Neighbours (WKNN), to get three independent estimations of a users location. Then fuzzy analysis is used to combine the three estimates to achieve highly-accurate localization. Two experiments were conducted in order to test the proposed new technique versus the traditional fingerprinting techniques present in the literature. The results of the experiments proved that the proposed technique outperforms the traditional techniques.
Keywords: Localization; fingerprinting; fuzzy; Euclidean Distance; K-Nearest Neighbours; Weighted K-Nearest Neighbours.
Intelligent Block Spectral Factors Relocation in a Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
by Belkacem Bekhiti
Abstract: In the present work we have proposed a new intelligent design procedure,
which will achieve a desired latent-structure specfications via the relocation of a spectral factors. The method proposed here allows the assignment of the whole set of latent-values/vectors obtained from a desired eigenstructure. The quadrotor robot is a quite complex dynamical coupled nonlinear system, then in order to apply the MIMO linear compensation theory and avoiding the complexity of nonlinear control design we have firstly linearized the plant via a state feedback controller and thereafter a regulation and trajectory tracking problems are accurately treated via block pole placement based on the design of MIMO adaptive neuro-fuzzy compensation.
Keywords: Quadrotor robot; MIMO compensator; Block pole placement; Feedback linearisation; Latent-structure.
Scheduling concurrent garbage collector using adaptive scheduling technique for multi-core systems
by Charan K.V, Manjunath A.S
Abstract: Concurrent garbage collectors (CGC) are contributing significantly to reinforce the performance of recently dominated multi-core systems by exploiting full potential of the processing resources. The software designers have turned into managed languages for developing time sensitive real-time applications due to security and execution parallelism. However, as the complexity of applications, heap size and number of cores in a system is scaled up, it rises many issues in the designing of CGC. In this paper, we examine two factors, reducing the number of Garbage collection (GC) pauses and mitigating probability of stop the world (STW) pauses that can affect performance of CGC. We propose an adoptive garbage collection scheduling strategy which is based on the amount of remaining heap memory. The implementation results shows that adaptive garbage collection can have better real-time performance than periodic, slack-based and static allocation-trigger based garbage collections.
Keywords: runtime system; garbage collection (GC); stop the world (STW);
real-time applications; Schedulability.
Self-Diagnosis of Cognitive Relay on the Joint Impact of Hardware Impairment and Channel Estimation Error
by Vijayakumar Ponnusamy, Malarvizhi Subramani
Abstract: Self-diagnosis and repair are the essential requirements of cognitive radio for the next generation of wireless communication. This work presents the self-diagnosis of the joint impact of the hardware impairment and channel estimation error on the cognitive relay system and derives the closed form solution for the outage probability in the presence of hardware impairment and channel estimation error. The presence of hardware impairment in the transceiver of the cognitive relay will degrade the performance which results in the system outage. The presence of such impairment will also inject an additional error in channel estimation process which will lead to imperfect channel state availability on the transmitter side. The analysis of the impact of the impairment in channel estimation on Least Square Channel Estimation algorithm and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) algorithm is analyzed using Mean Square Error (MSE) values as a measure of the impact level. Simulated results show that the presence of hardware impairment and channel estimation error will make the system almost 40% of the time in outage even for the SNR of 40 dB for hardware impairment level and channel estimation error of 0.015. The Mean Square Error (MMSE) algorithm results prove that channel estimation error value is 0.2 even in high SNR regime of 40 dB as compared to ideal hardware which is 0.1 because the impact of the impairment also increased with increased power in case of the MMSE estimator. In the case of LS estimator, five times increased MSE value of 0.5 is observed comparing to that of ideal hardware value of 0.1. After self-diagnosis, a correction factor is given as a repair component which is used to mitigate the impact of impairment in channel estimation process.
Keywords: cognitive relay; channel estimation error; hardware impairment; outage probability; Self-diagnosis and repair.
Recurrent Neuro-Fuzzy Control of Grid-Interfaced Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) System
by Muhammad Qureshi, Shahid Qamar, Syed Wajahat Ali, Usman Khalid
Abstract: The paper presents controller design, modeling, and simulations of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. The SOFC model is used for the development of the fuzzy control scheme to improve the system performance. The SOFC is widely acknowledged for the clean distributed power generation. However, dire process problems occur frequently when the stand-alone fuel cell is directly interfaced with the electricity grid. Moreover, sustaining the optimal power quality and load following is the huge challenge, during the peak power demand schedule from the utility grid and large load perturbations. Consequently, a suitable and highly efficient control system is required for controlling and following the power load demands for the complex grid interfaced SOFC power systems. Therefore, a novel non-linear hybrid Adaptive Recurrent Fuzzy Neural Network (ARFNN) is developed for the control of the grid interfaced SOFC. The rapid power load following and safe SOFC operation requirement is also considered in the design of the closed loop control system. Simulation results proved that the proposed hybrid ARFNN enhances the optimal power quality and load-following than the conventional PI control scheme.
Keywords: Neural Network; Recurrent Fuzzy Logic; Distributed Generation (DG); Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC).
Modelling and analysis of information-based target searching using mobile sensors
by TANMOY HAZRA, Manisha Nene, C.R.S. Kumar
Abstract: Target searching is widely accepted as a significant area of study by various research communities. This paper addresses four target searching scenarios in a two-dimensional grid with obstacles, where multiple mobile sensors aim to search a single mobile target in a minimal time. The reachability condition of the target is checked before modelling the problem. The proposed work classifies the scenarios based on information-set available to the mobile sensors and the target. The scenarios are modelled as games that involve two adversary players: mobile sensor and target. The search strategies for the mobile sensors are formulated under different circumstances, and the strategic differences between cooperative and non-cooperative strategies are analysed. Later, the proposed work is extended in a new dimension, where information gain for the mobile sensors is determined by information refreshment interval. The proposed work helps the decision-makers by facilitating the search operation in different scenarios.
Keywords: strategies; grid; reachability objective; mobile sensors; game model; payoffs; connected graph; players; transition graph; Markov chain.
BAMR : A Novel Bandwidth Aware Multipath Reactive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network
by Sanjeev Kumar Prasad
Abstract: Increasing traffic in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) demands high bandwidth. Mobility of communicating nodes is another crucial concern for such type of networks. Providing successful end to end communication in mobile ad hoc networks is a challenging task. In this paper, we aim at providing a bandwidth aware multipath reactive routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol is an extension of Ad hoc On demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. The proposed protocol, named as BAMR, attempts to discover paths with sufficient bandwidth and less link failures. The performance comparison of BAMR routing protocol is done with AOMDV and BAOMDV, an another Bandwidth Aware On demand Multipath Distance Vector routing protocol for MANETs. Simulation results exhibit that proposed protocol BAMR significantly improves the performance of other two routing protocols and can be used more effectively for data transmissions in MANETs.
Keywords: MANET; AOMDV; BAOMDV; ETT; EWMA; Bandwidth; Link Failure.
Complete Amplitude Scaling and Projective Synchronization of a class of Nonlinear Dynamical systems
by Vicky Garg, Bharat Bhushan Sharma
Abstract: The amplitude control of chaotic systems is important keeping in view different applications of such systems. This paper addresses attaining complete amplitude control by introducing a control function into the nonlinearity of a class of chaotic systems which are having only one nonlinearity. The analytical results presented here show that amplitude of all states of addressed class of chaotic systems can be controlled by introducing control function with the nonlinearity without altering the Lyapunov exponents. Further, the control scheme by applying the Lyapunov stability is presented to realize projective synchronization of the addressed class of systems by considering the fact that the control function can provide the scale factors. The proposed synchronization control function is derived using Lyapunov stability theory with typical feature of amplitude scaling without losing chaotic properties. The approach is illustrated using the Genesio system and cubic Chua system as typical examples. The simulation results show the efficacy of proposed approach in achieving amplitude control of all states and the corresponding projective synchronization under the influence of proposed controller.
Keywords: Lyapunov exponent; Amplitude scaling; Genesio system; cubic Chua system; Projective synchronization.
Quid Pro Quo LEACH protocol
by Abed Al Raoof Bsoul, Ahmad Manasrah, Khalid M.O. Nahar, Moyawiah Al-Shennaq
Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a large number of sensors to sense different variations in the surroundings from various locations. These sensors communicate with each other to forward the gathered data to the base station (BS). Hence, the energy consumption is one of the main issues that affects the overall performance of the WSN implementation. In this paper, a Quid Pro Quo LEACH (QPQ-LEACH) protocol is introduced. The working mechanism of the Cluster Head (CH) is maintained. However, the CH will not be replaced by new CH until it expends energy due to its continuous working time that is less than a certain threshold value. Moreover, the QPQ-LEACH trades the re-clustering process to save the energy consumed for establishing new clusters every round. The simulation results show that the proposed QPQ-LEACH protocol effectively reduces the energy consumption and prolongs the network lifetime in comparison with other known protocols.
Keywords: Energy-efficient; Routing in WSN; Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH); Enhanced LEACH; wireless sensor networks; cluster head selection; Base station; Energy efficient Clustering; Ad Hoc Communication; WSN lifetime.