International Journal of Public Policy (8 papers in press)
Workplace Diversity and Inclusion: Policies and Best Practices for Organizations Employing Transgender People in India
by JOBY PHILIP, DEVI SOUMYAJA
Abstract: Policies and best practices are suggested based on the viewpoints of transgender employees, human resources managers in charge of diversity and inclusion, and activists who work for the welfare of transgender people. Fifteen people were interviewed in depth and their responses were analyzed to obtain insights into transgender employees perception of well-being in the workplace, which will help organizations to develop appropriate human resource policies to protect the rights of their transgender employees in the workplace.
Keywords: Transgender employees; Non-discriminatory workplace; Workplace diversity; Diversity and inclusion; Policies for transgender employees in Indian workplace.
Special Issue on: Rethinking Public Ownership for the 21st Century State
A Tale of Two Nationalisations: Experiences of Post 1945 Public Ownership in the UK and France Compared
by Andrew Cumbers
Abstract: As public ownership comes back into fashion following the failings and growing contradictions of neoliberal processes of marketization and privatisation, it is important to learn the lessons for public policy from earlier processes of nationalisation. In this article, I compare the post 1945 experiences of nationalisation in the UK and France. Both countries underwent sweeping processes of nationalisation in the aftermath of the Second World War amidst a broader international shift towards a more state driven model of economic development under capitalism. However, the two experiences of nationalisation diverged considerably, reflecting underlying differences in past forms of economic development, the different balance of class forces and the integration of each country into the broader global economy. The article argues suggests that these experiences remind us of the importance of a variegated perspective on the evolution of capitalism, distinctive political-economic trajectories and situating major policy shifts in time and space.
The potential of state commercial property: mapping and managing non-financial public assets
by Dag Detter, Stefan Folster
Abstract: Most countries' public assets exceed their public debt. While managing public debt has become a matter of great concern during the financial crisis, public assets remain opaque and largely ignored. This article provides some explorative calculations on the size of public wealth at the national level and for some example cities. We describe how some countries and cities are experimenting with institutional setups, such as National and Urban Wealth Funds, aiming to achieve sounder management, better economic outcomes and more transparency for voters.
Keywords: public ownership; public assets; public debt; National Wealth Fund; Urban Wealth Fund.
Socialising capital: Looking back on the Meidner Plan
by Joe Guinan
Abstract: The radical Meidner Plan for wage-earner funds in Sweden in the mid-seventies was one of the most promising roads not taken by the European left in the second half of the twentieth century. Had it been implemented in full, it could have marked a major shift within social democracy from income redistribution to asset redistribution, thereby setting course for an inexorable transition to economic democracy through the gradual socialisation of all major industry. Today, the genesis and fate of the wage-earner funds can provide a valuable historical perspective on the challenges of democratising wealth, while the core components of Meidners innovative proposalthe share levy and collective ownership of capitalare once again up for reconsideration and recovery in the programme of the Jeremy Corbyn-led British Labour Party, given yawning inequality and a widespread and growing sense of the need for a very different pattern of political economy.
Keywords: Meidner plan; wage-earner funds; social democracy; public ownership.
The ownership and funding of natural capital: the case for trusts and a public natural capital fund
by Dieter Helm
Abstract: Unbridled depletion of renewable and non-renewable resources is a direct threat to both the natural capital inherited by future generations and to economic growth. If depreciation of renewable natural capital has breached critical thresholds, and if there is a strong intergenerational equity argument in favour of spreading the benefits from depletion of non-renewables over current and future generations, how do we ensure that intergenerational transfers are made? This paper looks to existing structures such as sovereign wealth funds and trusts as a framework for protecting assets, and proposes the establishment of an economically efficient natural capital fund, which would receive the economic rents from the depletion of non-renewable resources, plus compensation for damage caused to existing renewables. The paper also considers how such a fund can be protected in terms of its legal structure, governance and, crucially, its ownership of the natural capital assets it seeks to conserve.
Keywords: biodiversity; fund; intergenerational equity; natural capital; nature; non-renewables; ownership; renewables; sustainability; trust.
The case for citizens wealth funds
by Stewart Lansley, Duncan McCann, Steve Schifferes
Abstract: Citizens wealth funds (CWFs) can be a key tool in tackling the growing disparity of wealth between the public and private sector and helping improve inter-generational fairness. Such funds would be commercially managed and independently run, but held in trust for the public, with the dividends but not the capital used for social purposes. Some governments (including Singapore, Alaska, Australia and Norway) have successfully built up large funds, using the proceeds of natural resource extraction or privatisation. Getting public buy-in is the key to the success of such funds and some of the most successful hypothecate the revenues to specific aims, for example a citizens annual dividend (a kind of basic income) or to pay government pensions.
Keywords: citizens’ wealth fund; sovereign wealth fund; basic income; public wealth; public sector assets; public sector debt; North Sea oil; inequality; inter-generational equality; privatisation; Australia’s Future Fund; Temasek.
James Meade, Public Ownership, and the Idea of a Citizens Trust
by Martin O’Neill, Stuart White
The Greek experience of privatization through the Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund (HRADF)
by Apostolos Vlachogiannis
Abstract: The goal of this article is to shed light on the ambiguous role of the Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund (HRADF) and show that the privatization program devised is inextricably linked to the bailout agreements signed between Greece and its lenders. The HRADF was established in order to carry out a vast program of privatization in order to generate revenue and create the conditions for economic development. However, because of the pressure exercised both by the lenders and financial necessities, it has lacked to a certain extent democratic accountability and transparency. For the same reason, although constitutional limits on privatization have indeed been recognized in theory, courts have been reluctant to block any specific privatization. It is important to note that the creation of the new super-Fund seems to exacerbate these deficiencies by placing almost all important assets of the State under the supervision of the lenders.
Keywords: Greece; privatization; Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund; HRADF; Hellenic Corporation of Assets and Participations; HCAP; super-Fund; Greek Constitution; constitutional limits of privatization; Greek Council of State; law 3986/2011; public property; State assets; bailout agreements.