International Journal of Public Policy (13 papers in press)
Workplace Diversity and Inclusion: Policies and Best Practices for Organizations Employing Transgender People in India
by JOBY PHILIP, DEVI SOUMYAJA
Abstract: Policies and best practices are suggested based on the viewpoints of transgender employees, human resources managers in charge of diversity and inclusion, and activists who work for the welfare of transgender people. Fifteen people were interviewed in depth and their responses were analyzed to obtain insights into transgender employees perception of well-being in the workplace, which will help organizations to develop appropriate human resource policies to protect the rights of their transgender employees in the workplace.
Keywords: Transgender employees; Non-discriminatory workplace; Workplace diversity; Diversity and inclusion; Policies for transgender employees in Indian workplace.
Ensuring the Quality of Basic Service Delivery in Decentralized Local Governments through the Minimum Service Standard (MSS) Policy: How does it work?
by Erwan Agus Purwanto, Agus Pramusinto, Subando Agus Margono
Abstract: This paper discusses the impact of the implementation of Minimum Service Standard (MSS) policy on the quality of basic services district/city governments deliver to their citizenry. One of the expectations of the decentralization policy, which got underway in 1999, was to contribute to the improvement of the quality of public services. The issuing of Government Regulation (GR) No. 65/2005 which outlined guidelines on setting and implementing MSS for all sectoral ministries was very much in line with that process. Study results obtained from a survey of local government officials attest to the reality that most local government have yet to implement the 15 MSS set by 15 sectoral ministries. Some of the factors that have hampered the implementation of MSS include lack of clarity on substance of MSS policy (unclear concept of basic services and of MSS; variety of approaches used in various sectoral ministries such as input, process, output and outcome); and constraints that implementing organizations face (insufficient budget allocation and human resource capacity, unclear functional assignments, and lack of integration of MSS in local government development plans)\r\n
Keywords: Minimum Service Standard; Public Service; Local Government.
On the Relationship of Money Supply, Consumer Demand, Demographics, and Debt
by Stephan Unger, Goekhan Cebiroglu
Abstract: We show that consumer based economies tend to suffer from demand saturation
after an initial and prolonged period of growth. Saturation triggers a Minsky supercycle,
characterized by high debt, high income inequality and financial instability.
We argue that monetary policies such as negative interest rates and yield curve
targeting can be effective in combating recessionary conditions in an unsaturated
economy, but yield to problems in a saturated economy as mis-allocations may
generate bubbles. We find that maintaining a growth rate which corresponds to the
demand growth rate at which consumers replenish their stock of goods, smooths
out the business cycle in an unsaturated economy, while technological development
and demographic modification is the only possible way to prevent or combat the
saturation of an economy.
Keywords: monetary policy; fiscal policy; inflation; money supply; debt deflation; GDP; T-bills.
Special Issue on: Rethinking Public Ownership for the 21st Century State
Public State Ownership within Varieties of Capitalism: Regulatory Foundations for Welfare and Freedom
by Louise Haagh
Abstract: In this paper I argue public state ownership - the extent the public owns the state through mechanisms of inclusivity and exclusivity in governing - can help explain divergent public policy and human development outcomes across varieties of capitalist state. An upshot is to question the neutralist premise of the varieties of capitalism (VOC) literature that different systems are equally effective. I argue more attention ought to be paid to background factors that explain how public sector traditions that are more responsive to collective interests in human development-protective institutions generate conditions for policy coherence. Specifically, I argue modalities of human development or human economy generate constraints on governing which entail that human development-sensitive institutions and policies are more effective. The VOC literature implicitly recognizes this by showing how skills organisation is central to systems divergent function. However, the VOC has not explored the full implications for policy coherence, governance quality, and state capacity. I illustrate this case with reference to Denmark and Britain, two countries that have both adopted broadly punitive welfare-to-work regimes since the late 1990s. I argue variation in public state ownership explain a more directly punitive orientation in Britain, and a more contained and humanist, educative design and implementation, in Denmark. To identify drivers of variation, I examine how, respectively, unravelling and resilience in public state ownership manifest in human development implications of welfare-to-work regimes.
Keywords: public ownership; public state ownership; varieties of capitalism; welfare state typology; welfare conditionality; human development governance.
Democratic Ownership in the United States: A Quiet Revolution
by Marjorie Kelly
Abstract: A quiet ownership revolution is underway in the United States, one that holds tremendous promise for a new age of economic, social, and environmental justice. The old trio of conventional public, private, and nonprofit ownership forms is no longer adequate to encompass the evolution and hybridization of institutional forms currently underway. This paper offers a taxonomy of democratic ownership models, an exploration of new innovations emerging, and observations on how these models might be scaled up to create an economy of enduring, broadly enjoyed prosperity.
Keywords: Democratic ownership; models; design; cooperatives; worker ownership; public ownership; United States; social enterprise.
Models of fair public ownership: lessons from Singapore and Hong Kong
by Andrew Purves
Abstract: The question of public as opposed to private ownership is often cast as ideological or one of economic efficiency. Here, the question will be asked as to whether there are particular assets which should remain in public ownership due to the nature in which their value is created. Viewed in this way, the same public assets can in turn be used to deliver public revenue in a way that does not deter their use as the revenue arises from economic rent. Examples from Hong Kong and Singapore are used to illustrate their effectiveness in delivering social as well as economic benefits.
Keywords: Public revenue; rent; fair public ownership; assets; value capture; public housing; public transport; taxation; privatisation; land value; sovereign wealth; leasehold; land lease; economic development; infrastructure; public corporation; MTR; HDB; JTC.
A Tale of Two Nationalisations: Experiences of Post 1945 Public Ownership in the UK and France Compared
by Andrew Cumbers
Abstract: As public ownership comes back into fashion following the failings and growing contradictions of neoliberal processes of marketization and privatisation, it is important to learn the lessons for public policy from earlier processes of nationalisation. In this article, I compare the post 1945 experiences of nationalisation in the UK and France. Both countries underwent sweeping processes of nationalisation in the aftermath of the Second World War amidst a broader international shift towards a more state driven model of economic development under capitalism. However, the two experiences of nationalisation diverged considerably, reflecting underlying differences in past forms of economic development, the different balance of class forces and the integration of each country into the broader global economy. The article argues suggests that these experiences remind us of the importance of a variegated perspective on the evolution of capitalism, distinctive political-economic trajectories and situating major policy shifts in time and space.
The potential of state commercial property: mapping and managing non-financial public assets
by Dag Detter, Stefan Folster
Abstract: Most countries' public assets exceed their public debt. While managing public debt has become a matter of great concern during the financial crisis, public assets remain opaque and largely ignored. This article provides some explorative calculations on the size of public wealth at the national level and for some example cities. We describe how some countries and cities are experimenting with institutional setups, such as National and Urban Wealth Funds, aiming to achieve sounder management, better economic outcomes and more transparency for voters.
Keywords: public ownership; public assets; public debt; National Wealth Fund; Urban Wealth Fund.
Socialising capital: Looking back on the Meidner Plan
by Joe Guinan
Abstract: The radical Meidner Plan for wage-earner funds in Sweden in the mid-seventies was one of the most promising roads not taken by the European left in the second half of the twentieth century. Had it been implemented in full, it could have marked a major shift within social democracy from income redistribution to asset redistribution, thereby setting course for an inexorable transition to economic democracy through the gradual socialisation of all major industry. Today, the genesis and fate of the wage-earner funds can provide a valuable historical perspective on the challenges of democratising wealth, while the core components of Meidners innovative proposalthe share levy and collective ownership of capitalare once again up for reconsideration and recovery in the programme of the Jeremy Corbyn-led British Labour Party, given yawning inequality and a widespread and growing sense of the need for a very different pattern of political economy.
Keywords: Meidner plan; wage-earner funds; social democracy; public ownership.
The ownership and funding of natural capital: the case for trusts and a public natural capital fund
by Dieter Helm
Abstract: Unbridled depletion of renewable and non-renewable resources is a direct threat to both the natural capital inherited by future generations and to economic growth. If depreciation of renewable natural capital has breached critical thresholds, and if there is a strong intergenerational equity argument in favour of spreading the benefits from depletion of non-renewables over current and future generations, how do we ensure that intergenerational transfers are made? This paper looks to existing structures such as sovereign wealth funds and trusts as a framework for protecting assets, and proposes the establishment of an economically efficient natural capital fund, which would receive the economic rents from the depletion of non-renewable resources, plus compensation for damage caused to existing renewables. The paper also considers how such a fund can be protected in terms of its legal structure, governance and, crucially, its ownership of the natural capital assets it seeks to conserve.
Keywords: biodiversity; fund; intergenerational equity; natural capital; nature; non-renewables; ownership; renewables; sustainability; trust.
The case for citizens wealth funds
by Stewart Lansley, Duncan McCann, Steve Schifferes
Abstract: Citizens wealth funds (CWFs) can be a key tool in tackling the growing disparity of wealth between the public and private sector and helping improve inter-generational fairness. Such funds would be commercially managed and independently run, but held in trust for the public, with the dividends but not the capital used for social purposes. Some governments (including Singapore, Alaska, Australia and Norway) have successfully built up large funds, using the proceeds of natural resource extraction or privatisation. Getting public buy-in is the key to the success of such funds and some of the most successful hypothecate the revenues to specific aims, for example a citizens annual dividend (a kind of basic income) or to pay government pensions.
Keywords: citizens’ wealth fund; sovereign wealth fund; basic income; public wealth; public sector assets; public sector debt; North Sea oil; inequality; inter-generational equality; privatisation; Australia’s Future Fund; Temasek.
James Meade, Public Ownership, and the Idea of a Citizens Trust
by Martin O’Neill, Stuart White
The Greek experience of privatization through the Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund (HRADF)
by Apostolos Vlachogiannis
Abstract: The goal of this article is to shed light on the ambiguous role of the Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund (HRADF) and show that the privatization program devised is inextricably linked to the bailout agreements signed between Greece and its lenders. The HRADF was established in order to carry out a vast program of privatization in order to generate revenue and create the conditions for economic development. However, because of the pressure exercised both by the lenders and financial necessities, it has lacked to a certain extent democratic accountability and transparency. For the same reason, although constitutional limits on privatization have indeed been recognized in theory, courts have been reluctant to block any specific privatization. It is important to note that the creation of the new super-Fund seems to exacerbate these deficiencies by placing almost all important assets of the State under the supervision of the lenders.
Keywords: Greece; privatization; Hellenic Republic Asset Development Fund; HRADF; Hellenic Corporation of Assets and Participations; HCAP; super-Fund; Greek Constitution; constitutional limits of privatization; Greek Council of State; law 3986/2011; public property; State assets; bailout agreements.