International Journal of Project Organisation and Management (17 papers in press)
by Steven Muegge
Abstract: The product development processes of many firms include a project charter a document that formally authorizes a product development project, establishes expectations and success criteria, and provides a project manager with authority and resources. Neither the project sponsors nor the project manager have complete and perfect knowledge; thus the project charter is the outcome of negotiation, estimation, and forecasting, by stakeholders with partially aligned and partially differing incentives a situation that game theorists characterize as a mixed-motive game. This article develops a conceptual game theory model of the project manager project sponsor relationship, then draws on past research on analytic game theory, evolutionary game theory, and behavioural game theory to develop propositions about cooperation on project charters and implications for theory and practice. The model and propositions developed from the model contribute to our conceptual understanding of cooperation within product development organizations and the theoretical underpinnings of project management.
Keywords: project management, theory, game theory, project charter, cooperation.
Project Managers' Motivation in the Jordanian Construction Industries
by Razan Al-Khaza’aleh, Ali Alahmer, Ghaleb Abbasi
Abstract: Today's organizations are concerned with motivation factors that influence the project managers' project achievement and success. In this study a questionnaire was designed and conducted within the Jordanian Construction Industry based on five Likert-scales to identify the importance of the motivational dimensions on the project managers in Jordanian Construction Industry. Six motivational dimensions were defined and analyzed, which were; interpersonal interaction, task, general working conditions, empowerment, personal development, and compensation. Results showed that project managers were more motivated with compensation and personal development rather than other dimensions. Also, the level of education for project manager was positively related with the motivation by tasks. A more experienced project manager was highly motivated by empowerment.
Keywords: Project manager, Motivation, Construction Industry, Jordan.
Risk Management Maturity in Large Complex Rail Projects: a Case Study
by Yingtao Ren, Khim Teck Yeo, Yingju Ren
Abstract: In this paper we study the risk management practices in a large complex mass rapid transit construction project undertaken by the relevant government authority in Singapore. A project risk management capability maturity model has been developed and applied in the study. The model consists of ten capability areas namely, organization culture, stakeholder coalition, leadership, organization structure and support, risk planning and identification, risk analysis, risk mitigation, process integration and improvement, project management process, and technology. The client organization has a comprehensive safety and risk management system, which includes life cycle risk management, risk register and documentation, site risk meetings, and so on. Overall, the case organization shows a high level of risk management capability maturity derived purposeful learning and practices. Specific strengths as well as areas of weaknesses are identified and ranked, and opportunities for further improvement are suggested.
Keywords: Complex Products and Systems, capability maturity model, project risk management, mass rapid transit system
Strategies to improve job outcomes of construction site supervisors
by Florence Yean Yng Ling, Lionel Jun Jie Low
Abstract: This study examined ways to boost site supervisors job outcomes through the characteristics of their jobs and how their jobs are designed. Using a structured questionnaire, data were collected from site supervisors working on construction projects in Singapore. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews. It was found that site supervisors have significantly good job outcomes, operationalized as high internal work motivation, high job satisfaction and good quality work performance. The results show some of the significant job characteristics affecting job outcomes are: given discretion to decide what to be done; allowed to offer suggestions for job improvement; regular working hours; and adequate pay. This study found that job outcomes of site supervisors would not significantly improve if their jobs are designed with characteristics which use skill variety, and provide task identity and task significance.
Keywords: site supervisors; performance management; job satisfaction; job design; job characteristics
Modeling of Trust and Working Relationship in Construction Project Management: A Case Study of Vietnam
by Nguyen Thanh Tam
Abstract: In construction industry, trust is regarded as glue that fosters cooperation among organization and different team members. It is an essential lubricant that helps to complete the project smoothly. However, few attempts to study how trust helps to improve working relationship in construction projects. The objective of this study is to explore the inter-correlations between antecedences and consequences of trust in construction project management. To quantitatively test the hypotheses, a total of 814 sets of the designed questionnaires were delivered to senior field experts working on various types of construction projects in Vietnam. Consequently, the set of 523 valid responses were collected from the survey. SPSS and SEM program were employed to perform the analysis. The result of analysis revealed that most of trust factors have considerably positive influence on working relationship. Among the three trust constructs, Relational trust arisen by continual interactions between individuals and Calculus-based trust regarding to beneﬁcial issues based on economic exchange were found to have most contribution to generating a harmony working environment in construction projects in Vietnam through facilitating Communication, Cooperation, Negotiation and problem solving as well as Relationship satisfaction. However, Institution-based trust, which is built up on legal system and professional practice, has least impact on improving working relationship. The research findings are expected to be useful for both local construction parties and others that wish to engage in construction market in Vietnam. The practitioners can simultaneously exploit different types of trust to build harmonious working environment which was found to be vital for project success.
Keywords: Trust; Construction project; Contractor-owner relationships; Project life; Trust; Vietnam.
Routine Project Scope Management in Small Construction Enterprises
by Vincenzo Corvello, Amy Javernick-Will, Anna La Ratta
Abstract: The papers purpose is to study whether Small and Medium Construction Enterprises (SMCEs), which routinely plan, monitor and control Project Scope, perform significantly better than SMCEs which have not developed Project Scope Management (PSM) routines. A questionnaire-based survey was developed and distributed to SMCEs. Responses were analyzed using regression analysis. The relation between routine PSM processes and project performance is statistically significant, that is, systematic use of PSM processes has been found to significantly and positively impact SMCEs performance. This study suggests that managers of SMCEs should implement systematic PSM systems in their organizations to improve performance. This is one of the few papers focusing on PSM in SMCEs. Given the critical role of SMCEs in this industry, results are particularly relevant.
Keywords: SMCEs; construction Industry; project scope management; project performance; project management; organizational routines.
EXPLORING COST PLANNING PRACTICES BY GHANAIAN CONSTRUCTION PROFESSIONALS
by Ernest Kissi, Theophilus Adjei-Kumi, Edward Badu
Abstract: Cost planning remains an integral part in the construction process that is from the inception to completion. Awareness of the importance of effective cost planning practices date back to the early days of modern construction activities in both developed and developing countries. However, in developing countries such as Ghana, the adoption of effective cost planning practices is lacking to the extent that construction projects are often abandoned because of poor cost planning practices leading to cost overruns that are not sustainable, or if at all, difficult to sustain. In an attempt to address this problem, this study seeks to explore cost planning practices of Ghanaian construction professionals and their extent of application. The study adopted a mixed method approach where data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews and close-ended questionnaires. Data generated from this survey were further subjected to mean score analysis. The findings of the study revealed that knowledge of cost planning practices among Ghanaian construction professionals is appreciable but its application leaves so much to be desired. However, a few professionals were found to be applying concepts such as unit, elemental and comparative cost analysis in planning their cost activities. In addition, the study established that due to the failure of Ghanaian construction practitioners to apply effective cost planning practices in the development and execution of construction projects, stakeholder cost expectations are often not met as a result. This study explored effective techniques that will enhance the utility of cost planning practices by construction practitioners and policymakers who are seeking innovative ways to manage cost in the whole process of the planning and execution of construction projects.
Keywords: Cost, Planning, Practices, Ghanaian, Professionals
Attitudes towards Face-To-Face Meetings in Virtual Engineering Teams: Perceptions from a Survey of Defense Projects
by Lawrence Blenke, Abhijit Gosavi, William Daughton
Abstract: Modes of communication used in virtual defense projects have changed dramatically over the years with tools such as email and video-conferencing dominating face-to-face (FTF) meetings. We conducted a survey at a defense firm with an aim to test current attitudes towards FTF meetings with respect to significant problems faced, project success, transfer of technical requirements, preference for FTF vis-
Keywords: Managing projects; Project Success; Virtual Teams
Virtuality of Hybrid Design Teams within the Construction Context: A Conceptual Model
by M. Reza Hosseini, Nicholas Chileshe, Bassam Baroudi, Jian Zuo
Abstract: Construction managers are required to harness the benefits of hybrid design teams in which interactions are increasingly both virtual and face-to-face. In this context, virtuality plays a crucial role in hybrid teams. This has made a comprehensive appreciation of the nature of virtuality very relevant within the construction context. That is because, virtuality is a key determinant within the design and best practices for adopting hybrid design teams within construction organisations. Yet, a review of literature reveals a conspicuous absence of studies on virtuality within construction. To address this, as a first enquiry targeting virtuality in the construction context, the study synthesises the existing literature and encapsulates available knowledge in a conceptual model describing virtuality for hybrid design teams within construction. It is put forth that such a conceptual model will further establish the field, and can provide fertile ground for future empirical studies on hybrid design teams in the construction context.
Keywords: Hybrid teams, virtuality, construction industry, conceptual model
Managing for Stakeholders: introducing stakeholder metrics-integrated model to lead project ethics and success
by Mahmoud Rajablu, Shabnam Hamdi, Govindan Marthandan, Wan Fadzilah
Abstract: The purpose of this research paper is to offer a comprehensive stakeholder metrics-integrated management approach that enables greater ethics and success through facilitating managing for stakeholders in project environment. The paper employs stakeholder theory and investigates the role of the key stakeholder management concepts when metrics and tools are mediated. The mediation test is performed through structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques to produce research results. The research concludes that managing for stakeholders through effective stakeholder integration can add to projects success. On the practical side, the paper provides a tool that enables greater stakeholder satisfaction, ethics and success.
Keywords: Stakeholder management, Project management, Metrics and tools, Project success, Ethics
Practitioners Preference: Which Project Planning Components Offer the Most Promise?
by Todd Creasy, Yang Fan, Nathan Johnson
Abstract: This research was designed to uncover top planning components as determined by current project management practitioners. A qualitative analysis was conducted involving 58 project managers representing diverse professional years of experience, project sizes, and industries. Various planning components were deemed to be value-adding including the top four which were (in descending order): WBS, scope planning, risk management and stakeholder management. Key findings from the content analysis produced themes which seem to support this ranking. These planning components and associated themes were: a) WBS - structure and accountability; b) scope planning - clarity and reflectiveness; c) risk management - uncertainties and insurance and d) stakeholder management - identification and influence.
Keywords: planning, stakeholders, WBS, risk management, scope
Detrimental Changes and Construction Projects: Need for Comprehensive Controls
by Rashid Maqbool, Yahya Rashid
Abstract: Changes are inevitable and put harmful effects on construction projects in the form of delay, cost overrun and productivity degradation. This study aims to explore what are the major causes of the project changes in construction Projects of Pakistan. Moreover, a set of change controls are also identified for minimizing the intensity of negative effects of project changes. Data are collected through structured questionnaires from construction industry located in Pakistan. Various statistical data analysis techniques such as reliability analysis, validity analysis, correlation, multi co-linearity, and regressions analysis are performed for data analysis and results inference. The findings show that client associated project changes are most critical hindrance in the construction projects, and their intensity is more than other change factors. Moreover the Freezing design and Clarify change order procedures are found to be the most important change control methods to minimize the severity of the project variations. The study is expected to provide significant insights to the project managers so that they can formulate the strategies to address the change and its effects in construction projects.
Keywords: Project changes; Construction projects; Change controls; Client changes; Contractor changes; Design changes
Its All Up Here: Adaptation and Improvisation within the Modern Project
by Stephen Leybourne
Abstract: This paper considers organizational improvisation, and in particular, adaptation as a specific component of improvisational work (Miner et al., 2001), and how it may assist in resolving or assisting with some of the challenges surrounding recent shifts in our understanding of project-based management. Examples focus on the use of adaptation to cope with ambiguity and uncertainty, caused by execution in problematic and turbulent organizational environments.
The literature on improvisation suggests that adapting previously successful interventions reduces and manages the risk of improvising by engaging with the adaptation component of organizational improvisation. This practice assists in ensuring that the additional risk of completely novel activity is avoided.
This paper explores adaptation within the project domain, and also unpicks the rhetoric from the reality of adaptation within projects, confirming its benefits, setting out the circumstances where experience informs the practice, and offering readily usable and applicable insights.
Keywords: improvisation; adaptation; project management; ambiguity; uncertainty
Sources of Conflict and Conflict Management Styles in Temporary Work Environment: A Case of Plant Turnaround Maintenance Workers.
by Adiza Alhassan Musah, Zulkipli Ghazali, Shahrul Nizam Isha Ahmad
Abstract: This study explored common sources of conflict during plant turnaround maintenance project and the intensity of these conflicts. Also examined are the conflict management styles used by turnaround maintenance workers and how these choices are influenced by individual and organizational factors. Data was gathered from 21 petrochemical companies in East and West Malaysia. Results revealed that the commonest sources of conflict are conflict over schedule and sequencing of work, communication breakdown and personality issues. Integrating was the most utilized conflict management style and the least used was compromising. The results also highlighted a predictive relationship between organizational and individual factors and conflict management style, reiterating the fact that organizational and individual characteristics contributes to the management of conflict. TAM experience played a role in the use of integrating and obliging styles indicating that the more experienced workers were likely to use cooperative mode in handling conflict. Employee status (permanent and temporary) also contributed to the preference of dominating and avoiding styles indicating that those in permanent positions in the organization were more likely to be confrontational during TA conflict as compared to those in temporary positions. Participants educational level also played a significant role in management of conflict. It was revealed that the more educated the employees are the more likely they are to use cooperative conflict management. The findings were discussed in relation to conflict management in stable organization. The novelty of this study lies in finding the major sources of conflict and conflict management styles in turnaround maintenance in Malaysia. The study is predicted to be of value to plant turnaround maintenance workers and managers/supervisors in helping to minimize dysfunctional conflict. Theoretically, this paper adds to empirical support for sources of conflict, intensity of conflict, and conflict management styles in temporary work environment.
Keywords: Sources of conflict; Conflict management styles; project management; turnaround maintenance.
A Model of Risk Response Development for Managing Delays in Construction Projects
by Omayma Hashim Motaleb
Abstract: Due to the increasingly complex nature of construction projects completion, delay risks in that context are becoming more widespread. Identification and assessment processes are worthless in risk management unless the risk response process is developed. However, it is difficult to find mature mitigation measures for risk response in construction projects organisations because of traditional risk management practice. This study has considered the results from 102 questionnaire responses out of 200 and three case studies in Construction Organisations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to identify the relationships between four key success factors (KSFs) for risk mitigation measures and maturity levels of the Project Management Maturity Model (PMMM) for risk response development, and then to outline a suitable model for application in the construction context for delays control.
Keywords: Construction project management; delays risks; maturity model; mitigation measures; risk response; UAE.
Managing for Innovation Developments in Construction Organizations
by Sai On Cheung, Xiuwen Qi
Abstract: Abstract: This study posits to contribute to construction project management studies in general and to assist construction organizations to formulate management strategies to improve their performance in innovation developments. To achieve this aim, this study proposes a relationship framework between innovation determinants and innovation capacity in construction organizations. Views on innovation developments were collected from award winning innovators and construction professionals to verify the framework. After analysis, endogenous determinants are categorized into leadership and strategy, knowledge management, and staff creativity development. Exogenous determinants are categorized into technology flow, market demand, competition or cooperation, regulation and standards. The influencing power of those factors on different types of innovation is relatively different. The findings are further illustrated by reference to a study of an organization that has harvested about a hundred innovations as from 2010.\r\n
Keywords: innovation determinants; innovation capacity; construction organizations.
Project Manager and Systems Engineer: a literature rich reflection on roles and responsibilities
by Giorgio Locatelli, Mauro Mancini, Erika Romano
Abstract: There are several definitions of Systems Engineering (SE) in the literature, each with different definitions of its relationship with Project Management (PM), causing a great deal of misunderstanding. The paper offers a broad and critical discussion of the relevant literature with a deep reflection concerning the historical evolution and state-of-the-art of both the definition of SE and its relationship with PM. This endeavor provides two main results: (i) a conceptual framework to define SE in a project based environment and (ii) a model to identify the best formal interaction between the Project Manager and System Engineer based on the project characteristics.
Keywords: Systems engineering; Project Manager; Megaproject; Complex projects; leadership; project organization; stakeholders.