International Journal of Project Organisation and Management (10 papers in press)
Significance of Time and Cost dimensions in Pharmaceutical Projects and prioritization of project phases
by JIGEESH NASINA, Sai Nandeswara Rao Nallam
Abstract: The success of any project depends upon different dimensions like time, cost, quality, and customer satisfaction. Of all these, time and cost have been treated as the most common and major tangible measures for project success from the perspective of both developer and user. Each project phase has a unique set of activities and its successful completion will be influenced by such factors to different extents. This paper aims to examine the emphasis attributed to time and cost in handling different phases of pharmaceutical projects. A survey was taken up around four big pharmaceutical companies in India and useful feedback was collected. The importance of both time and cost dimensions in projects was first studied. Next, the technique of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to prioritize the different phases of pharmaceutical projects with respect to time and cost criteria. From the results, it was found that Execution phase stands at the number one position followed by Monitoring & Control phase. The findings can be helpful to pharmaceutical project people in successfully completing different phases of projects on the basis of time and cost dimensions. The prioritization results derived were supported and accepted well by majority of pharmaceutical project managers consulted.
Keywords: project management; AHP; project phases; project success factors; pharmaceutical industry.
Capturing the Stakeholders Managerial Competency Risks of Mega Infrastructure Projects: A Fuzzy Logic Modeling Approach
by Moza T. Al Nahyan, Yaser E. Hawas, Hamad Aljassmi, Munjed Maraqa
Abstract: This paper develops a fuzzy-logic model to aggregate the numerous managerial risks driven by the various project stakeholders at different project stages. The model accounts for the various perceptions of assessors involved in the risk evaluation process. The proposed model provides means for performing scenario analysis at an early project procurement stage to manage macro risks. Four managerial processes or competencies were considered as critical success factors for infrastructure projects. These are communication, coordination, knowledge sharing and decision-making. A Sugeno fuzzy logic model was calibrated using three input variables representing the importance of the various project's stakeholder groups, the criticalness level of the management process as perceived by the various groups at the various project stages, and the effectiveness level of the management competency. The model was validated using surveys of various stakeholder groups of a mega project.
Keywords: Megaprojects; management; fuzzy logic model; stakeholders; qualitative interviews; risk modeling; communication; coordination; decision-making; knowledge sharing.
An investigation of Implementation Issues, Process Phases and Knowledge Areas of Project Management in the Performance of Construction Supply Chains
by PANCHANAN BEHERA, RAJENDRA PRASAD MOHANTY, ANAND PRAKASH
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to empirically investigate linkages among implementation issues, process phases, and knowledge areas of project management in Construction Supply Chain Management (CSCM). This research has extended Behera et al. (2015) on implementation issues and process phases and applied key knowledge areas of project management to study performance of construction supply chain on finance, quality, logistics and innovation only. The findings from this innovative conceptualisation can contribute to develop strategies for construction supply chains. Decision makers involved in CSCM can find this study useful for developing a broader decision support for performance measurement involving both knowledge areas and process phases. The study is restricted by methodological limitations associated with snowball sampling and anonymous survey-based research within the limits of a single industry sector. The present study however may facilitate decision makers of CSCM with an empirically verified framework to draw pragmatic decision rules for better management of construction projects.
Keywords: Construction; Implementation Issues; Project Management; Supply Chain Management; Operations Management.
A comparative study of Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) and Project Alliancing
by Farshid Rehmani, Malik Khalfan, Tayyab Maqsood
Abstract: The advantages of integrating construction knowledge into design development have long been recognised by the construction industry. Early Contractor Involvement and Project Alliancing are two recent relational contracting labels that have been largely utilised in the Australian construction industry for the public and private infrastructure projects over the last few years. Both models introduce the project delivery contractors expertise and advice much earlier in the project lifecycle than has traditionally been the case. Although both models are classified as collaborative form of procurement, there are some substantial different requirements in project management behaviours and working relationships between these models. This paper contributes to this area by comparing these two models through in depth semi-structured interviews with experts at the senior management level who have been involved in ECI and Alliances projects and played significant roles in the project process. The findings suggest that the change in relationship resulted by transitioning from collaborative approach at the early stage into a traditional type of working environment; gaining greater control through trust, price certainty and contract formality together in different stages of the project; lesser extent and length of senior level managers involvement in the project; and reluctance of contractor to contribute in innovation before the construction stage, are the key project management behaviours and working relationship differences when ECI is adopted for a project in comparison with Project Alliancing.
Keywords: Early Contractor Involvement; ECI; Project Alliancing; Relationship Based Procurement; Australia.
A MAHALONOBIS DISTANCE BASED APPROACH TO CONSTRAINED PROJECT ASSIGNMENT AMONG MULTIPLE ALLOCATION OPTIONS
by Abdulaziz Alkabaa, Alberto Garcia-Diaz
Abstract: This paper develops an analytical approach for selecting projects that are most attractive for development from an economic point of view and assigning them to one of several implementation options available. These options represent the alternative ways to develop projects, such as private contractors and an in-house group. It is assumed that the in-house group is responsible for the supervision of all the projects selected for development by private contractors in addition to the development of projects assigned to this option. A relevant limiting resource in addition to the availability of funds is the in-house manpower availability. The concept of Mahalanobis distance (MD) is used as the criterion to select the most appropriate option for any project. This concept is a generalization of the Euclidean distance that accounts for the correlation of the characteristics (coordinates) defining the scope of a project. Ideally, each project should be allocated to its closest option. This, however, may not be possible due to the available amounts of each relevant resource. The allocation process is formulated mathematically using two binary integer programming models. The first formulation maximizes the dollar value of benefits derived from those projects being implemented subject to budget, total-sum of projects MDs, and in-house manpower constraints. The second formulation minimizes the total sum of project MDs subject to budget and in-house manpower constraints. For illustration purposes, the proposed analytical approach and the corresponding mathematical models are used in an application involving seal coat projects typical of projects funded by State DOTs in the U.S.
Keywords: Project resources allocation; Mahalanobis Distance; constrained project selection; multiple-option project selection and allocation.
Towards a conceptual framework for sustainable project portfolio management
by Ron Schipper, Gilbert Silvius
Abstract: Currently, more and more organizations are embedding sustainability into their business strategy, but implementation remains a challenging task. Projects and project portfolios have proven to be powerful strategic weapons in strategy implementation, although the current methods and practices for project portfolio management (PPM) fail to integrate sustainability. Therefore, we have aimed to develop a theoretically founded framework that integrates sustainability considerations into PPM. From a high level literature analysis we have derived four key concepts of sustainability and five concepts of project portfolio management. By mapping these concepts we propose a new objective for sustainable PPM and a conceptual framework. The framework is characterized as an open intra organizational model, linking stakeholders representing economic, environmental and social interests to the strategy planning and PPM-process through a sense making process. The framework embraces the possibility to incorporate emerging sustainability strategies derived from project execution.
Keywords: sustainability; corporate social responsibility; strategy implementation; project portfolio management; sensemaking; emergent strategy.
A review of CCPM literature- Exploring underpinning assumptions of CCPM
by Maryam Mirzaei, Victoria Mabin
Abstract: Since Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) was introduced, there have been many reports of its successful application, along with some claims of its shortcomings. However, there has been no attempt to reconcile the often contradictory claims. To this end, we compiled and analysed a comprehensive database of CCPM scholarly publications. The literature analysis was complemented by text mining using NVivo and Leximancer software. We identify five assumptions CCPM makes about projects, leading to five characteristics that projects need to have for CCPM to apply fully and thus provide the expected benefits. These characteristics are unity of purpose, fixed throughput, urgency, sequential workflow, and a non-dedicated team. If projects have these or can be adapted then they will suit CCPM. Through the process of assumption-challenging, this research extends and enhances our understanding of CCPM and its core mechanisms.
Keywords: Critical chain; Theory of constraints; literature review; assumptions; CCPM; TOC.
A Practical Framework to Facilitate the Presence of Operation and Maintenance Contractors in the Pre-Occupancy Phases: A Case Study
by Nazanin Kordestani Ghalenoee, Ehsan Saghatforoush, Hamidreza Athari Nikooravan, Christopher Preece
Abstract: Infrastructure projects -as the vital lifeline of countries for their economic development and public welfare- are increasing rapidly. With population growth, the demand for constructing these projects has also increased. In addition, volumes of investment, early destruction, and duplications in these projects have increased their significance. Previous surveys show that costs of Operation and Maintenance (O&M) stages in projects are more than other stages, so this phase needs more attention. There are a lot of reasons for such increases in costs, most of which is due to weakness of O&M in projects. One of the effective measures in this regard, is the presence of contractors in the initial stages of the project, in order to benefit from their experience to reduce problems. The aim of this project is presenting a framework to facilitate the presence of O&M experience and knowledge in the early stages of design and implementation of road infrastructure projects.
In this qualitative study, data has been collected through a case study method. In the existing literature, the researcher has identified barriers and solutions to the presence of O&M contractors, through using meta-synthesis approach. In this study, semi-structured interviews have been used for matching the data obtained from literature with the conditions governing projects in Iran. In order conduct interviews, because of the domain of subject, on one hand, the need to gain a comprehensive view about the subject, on the other hand, its diversity encouraged the researchers to conduct interviews with people involved in the project from the beginning stages to the end. According to the above explanations, a population composed of ten people participated in the interviews of this study. These participants were selected from employers, consultants, contractors and O&M contractors of inter-urban road infrastructure projects in Iran. This study elaborates some processes that O&M contractors can apply to share their experiences and knowledge with other participants in the project. Through that, by taking advantage from the knowledge of people involved in the beginning to the end stages of the project and their integration, many duplications due to lack of knowledge are reduced, and chance of success in projects will be increased. The results provide a better foundation to reduce extra O&M costs through earlier decision making.
Keywords: Operation and Maintenance; O&M; Contractors; Road infrastructure Projects.
Formation of Optimal Private Involvement in Urban Rail Public-Private Partnership Projects in China
by Yongjian Ke
Abstract: Subnational governments in China are suffering from urgent urban development demands and severe fiscal pressure, Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) are hence strongly promoted to attract private investors to participate in the development and operation of urban rail projects. However, there is no formal assessment to determine the degree of private involvement in a PPP project. This question is more critical in the sector of urban rail, in which the huge investment cannot rely on the private sector alone. This study hence aimed to develop a five-stage systematic procedural framework to determine the optimal private involvement in an urban rail PPP project in China. The findings add to the current knowledge base by summarising an appropriate and systematic procedural framework for the allocation of involvement in a PPP project. They are also beneficial for the industry practitioners as a management framework to determine the appropriateness of private involvement.
Keywords: Private Involvement; Procedural Framework; Procurement; Public-Private Partnership; Urban Rail.
An Investigation of Advantages and Disadvantages of Off Site Manufacturing (OSM): A Meta-Synthesis
by Mahnaz Ezy, Ehsan Saghatfroush, Hamidreza Abbasianjahromi
Abstract: Purpose In many countries, construction is among important economic sections. The construction industry in most developing countries suffers from severe problems due to lack of quality in final products. In recent years, Off Site Manufacturing (OSM), as a modern concept, plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of projects. OSM, through transferring major part of the production or construction processes out of the construction site, is a useful solution in most industrial countries all over the world. However, the attitude of developing countries toward the construction industry is still traditional. Its focus is on profit instead of final value, in which the customers expectations are ignored. The aim of this study is identifying the advantages and disadvantages of applying the OSM concept in the construction industry, which are extracted based in depth literature review of such newly introduced concept.
Design/methodology/approach In this study, in order to identify and classify the advantages and disadvantages of applying the OSM technology, the meta-synthesis approach is applied.
Findings The results obtained from applying the meta-synthesis approach are presented in separate tables. They are presented in one pattern due to the impact of advantages and disadvantages and macro indices. The same pattern is used in identifying the advantages and disadvantages of the OSM technology implementation.
Practical implications Introducing the advantages and disadvantages of applying OSM technology motivates activists of the construction industry to provide an opportunity for implementing it.
Originality/value OSM simply facilitates a safer construction site, as well as faster construction processes. Such an in-depth review of literature on obtained advantages and disadvantages of OSM from existing real cases has never been implemented before, while it can clarify the need for implementation of such a newly presented technology.
Keywords: Off Site Manufacturing; OSM; advantages and disadvantages; project key stakeholders; meta-synthesis.