International Journal of Project Organisation and Management (10 papers in press)
Value Co-Creation in the Management of Projects Delivering Integrated Solutions: The Case of BT Global Services in the UK
by Carlos Sato
Abstract: This paper investigates the role of value co-creation in the management of projects delivering integrated solutions, implementing a new business model for incumbent telecommunications operators. The case study of BT Global Services (BTGS) shows that BTs business unit responsible for the business of projects delivering integrated solutions requires collaboration at a strategic level between BTGS and customers. An empirical framework is proposed for value co-creation in projects delivering integrated solutions. It highlights the strategic alignment between the integrated solutions provider (BTGS) and the customer as the main feature that differentiates this framework from those in the existing literature. It also highlights the importance of considering post-project (i.e. longer-term benefits after the handover) factors when evaluating project success.
Keywords: Integrated Solutions Projects; Value Co-Creation; Service Innovation; Next Generation Networks.
A Path Relinking-based Scatter Search for the Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem
by François Berthaut, Robert Pellerin, Adnène Hajji, Nathalie Perrier
Abstract: Project scheduling has received growing attention from researchers in recent decades in order to recommend models and methods to tackle problems for real-size projects. In this paper, we consider the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP), which consists of scheduling activities in order to minimize the project duration in presence of precedence and resource constraints. We propose a hybrid metaheuristic based on scatter search that involves forward-backward improvement and reversing the project network at each iteration of the search. A bidirectional path relinking method with a new move is used as a solution combination method and a new improvement procedure is proposed in the reference set update method. The proposed method is applied to the standard benchmark projects from the PSPLIB library. The computational results show that the proposed scatter search produces high-quality solutions in a reasonable computational time and is among the best performing metaheuristics.
Keywords: resource-constrained project scheduling problems; RCPSP; project scheduling; precedence constraints; resource constraints; metaheuristics; makespan minimization; scatter search; path relinking.
Role of Technological Uncertainty, Technical Complexity, Intuition and Reflexivity in Project Planning- A Study on Software Development Projects
by Divya P Velayudhan, Sam Thomas
Abstract: Intuition and reflexivity are psychological variables which have recently found way into management theories. In the context of increased acceptance of Project management, it is necessary to understand influence of technological uncertainty and technical complexity on intuition and reflexivity and their influence on project planning. An empirical model is proposed linking these variables. The study is descriptive and explanatory in nature. The data was collected from project managers of software development projects in South India. The study used questionnaire survey method. Study results showed that intuition and reflexivity can improve planning when there is technological uncertainty and complexity.
Keywords: Intuition; Reflexivity; Uncertainty; Complexity; Project management; Software development projects; Project planning.
Dimensions of Social Barriers to Effective Collaborative Working in Construction Supply Chain
by Titus Ebenezer KWOFIE, Clinton Aigbavboa, Zanele Matsane
Abstract: Collaborative working (CW) has emerged as a key innovative procurement concept the construction industry has adopted to construction projects in an effort to improving performance, ameliorating the fragmentation and adversarial nature associated with traditional models in project delivery. Even though, collaborative concept is gaining increasing acceptance in both developed and developing countries, it can be said that, the concept is continually evolving in response to global and contextual market features in many developing countries. Several studies have highlighted social barriers that hinder effective CW in construction supply chain. However, growing interest in improving effective collaborative working in construction has not been matched by scientific empirical knowledge that captures the understanding of the social behaviours behind the social barriers. Through the use of the social cognitive theory, an exploratory research design using three case studies and content analysis, this study sought to identify the social dimensions of the social barriers to effective CW in construction businesses. The findings reveal personal cognitive domain, behavioural and environmental factors as the dimensions of social barriers to CW in construction supply chain. With the understanding of these dimensions, stakeholders and practitioners can better evolve approaches and methods tailored at improving the social environment of collaborative working in construction projects. This is crucial towards improvement in collaborative working in non-traditional construction supply chains.
Keywords: construction supply chain; collaborative working; social barriers.
Significance of Time and Cost dimensions in Pharmaceutical Projects and prioritization of project phases
by JIGEESH NASINA, Sai Nandeswara Rao Nallam
Abstract: The success of any project depends upon different dimensions like time, cost, quality, and customer satisfaction. Of all these, time and cost have been treated as the most common and major tangible measures for project success from the perspective of both developer and user. Each project phase has a unique set of activities and its successful completion will be influenced by such factors to different extents. This paper aims to examine the emphasis attributed to time and cost in handling different phases of pharmaceutical projects. A survey was taken up around four big pharmaceutical companies in India and useful feedback was collected. The importance of both time and cost dimensions in projects was first studied. Next, the technique of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to prioritize the different phases of pharmaceutical projects with respect to time and cost criteria. From the results, it was found that Execution phase stands at the number one position followed by Monitoring & Control phase. The findings can be helpful to pharmaceutical project people in successfully completing different phases of projects on the basis of time and cost dimensions. The prioritization results derived were supported and accepted well by majority of pharmaceutical project managers consulted.
Keywords: project management; AHP; project phases; project success factors; pharmaceutical industry.
Capturing the Stakeholders Managerial Competency Risks of Mega Infrastructure Projects: A Fuzzy Logic Modeling Approach
by Moza T. Al Nahyan, Yaser E. Hawas, Hamad Aljassmi, Munjed Maraqa
Abstract: This paper develops a fuzzy-logic model to aggregate the numerous managerial risks driven by the various project stakeholders at different project stages. The model accounts for the various perceptions of assessors involved in the risk evaluation process. The proposed model provides means for performing scenario analysis at an early project procurement stage to manage macro risks. Four managerial processes or competencies were considered as critical success factors for infrastructure projects. These are communication, coordination, knowledge sharing and decision-making. A Sugeno fuzzy logic model was calibrated using three input variables representing the importance of the various project's stakeholder groups, the criticalness level of the management process as perceived by the various groups at the various project stages, and the effectiveness level of the management competency. The model was validated using surveys of various stakeholder groups of a mega project.
Keywords: Megaprojects; management; fuzzy logic model; stakeholders; qualitative interviews; risk modeling; communication; coordination; decision-making; knowledge sharing.
An investigation of Implementation Issues, Process Phases and Knowledge Areas of Project Management in the Performance of Construction Supply Chains
by PANCHANAN BEHERA, RAJENDRA PRASAD MOHANTY, ANAND PRAKASH
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to empirically investigate linkages among implementation issues, process phases, and knowledge areas of project management in Construction Supply Chain Management (CSCM). This research has extended Behera et al. (2015) on implementation issues and process phases and applied key knowledge areas of project management to study performance of construction supply chain on finance, quality, logistics and innovation only. The findings from this innovative conceptualisation can contribute to develop strategies for construction supply chains. Decision makers involved in CSCM can find this study useful for developing a broader decision support for performance measurement involving both knowledge areas and process phases. The study is restricted by methodological limitations associated with snowball sampling and anonymous survey-based research within the limits of a single industry sector. The present study however may facilitate decision makers of CSCM with an empirically verified framework to draw pragmatic decision rules for better management of construction projects.
Keywords: Construction; Implementation Issues; Project Management; Supply Chain Management; Operations Management.
A comparative study of Early Contractor Involvement (ECI) and Project Alliancing
by Farshid Rehmani, Malik Khalfan, Tayyab Maqsood
Abstract: The advantages of integrating construction knowledge into design development have long been recognised by the construction industry. Early Contractor Involvement and Project Alliancing are two recent relational contracting labels that have been largely utilised in the Australian construction industry for the public and private infrastructure projects over the last few years. Both models introduce the project delivery contractors expertise and advice much earlier in the project lifecycle than has traditionally been the case. Although both models are classified as collaborative form of procurement, there are some substantial different requirements in project management behaviours and working relationships between these models. This paper contributes to this area by comparing these two models through in depth semi-structured interviews with experts at the senior management level who have been involved in ECI and Alliances projects and played significant roles in the project process. The findings suggest that the change in relationship resulted by transitioning from collaborative approach at the early stage into a traditional type of working environment; gaining greater control through trust, price certainty and contract formality together in different stages of the project; lesser extent and length of senior level managers involvement in the project; and reluctance of contractor to contribute in innovation before the construction stage, are the key project management behaviours and working relationship differences when ECI is adopted for a project in comparison with Project Alliancing.
Keywords: Early Contractor Involvement; ECI; Project Alliancing; Relationship Based Procurement; Australia.
A MAHALONOBIS DISTANCE BASED APPROACH TO CONSTRAINED PROJECT ASSIGNMENT AMONG MULTIPLE ALLOCATION OPTIONS
by Abdulaziz Alkabaa, Alberto Garcia-Diaz
Abstract: This paper develops an analytical approach for selecting projects that are most attractive for development from an economic point of view and assigning them to one of several implementation options available. These options represent the alternative ways to develop projects, such as private contractors and an in-house group. It is assumed that the in-house group is responsible for the supervision of all the projects selected for development by private contractors in addition to the development of projects assigned to this option. A relevant limiting resource in addition to the availability of funds is the in-house manpower availability. The concept of Mahalanobis distance (MD) is used as the criterion to select the most appropriate option for any project. This concept is a generalization of the Euclidean distance that accounts for the correlation of the characteristics (coordinates) defining the scope of a project. Ideally, each project should be allocated to its closest option. This, however, may not be possible due to the available amounts of each relevant resource. The allocation process is formulated mathematically using two binary integer programming models. The first formulation maximizes the dollar value of benefits derived from those projects being implemented subject to budget, total-sum of projects MDs, and in-house manpower constraints. The second formulation minimizes the total sum of project MDs subject to budget and in-house manpower constraints. For illustration purposes, the proposed analytical approach and the corresponding mathematical models are used in an application involving seal coat projects typical of projects funded by State DOTs in the U.S.
Keywords: Project resources allocation; Mahalanobis Distance; constrained project selection; multiple-option project selection and allocation.
Towards a conceptual framework for sustainable project portfolio management
by Ron Schipper, Gilbert Silvius
Abstract: Currently, more and more organizations are embedding sustainability into their business strategy, but implementation remains a challenging task. Projects and project portfolios have proven to be powerful strategic weapons in strategy implementation, although the current methods and practices for project portfolio management (PPM) fail to integrate sustainability. Therefore, we have aimed to develop a theoretically founded framework that integrates sustainability considerations into PPM. From a high level literature analysis we have derived four key concepts of sustainability and five concepts of project portfolio management. By mapping these concepts we propose a new objective for sustainable PPM and a conceptual framework. The framework is characterized as an open intra organizational model, linking stakeholders representing economic, environmental and social interests to the strategy planning and PPM-process through a sense making process. The framework embraces the possibility to incorporate emerging sustainability strategies derived from project execution.
Keywords: sustainability; corporate social responsibility; strategy implementation; project portfolio management; sensemaking; emergent strategy.