International Journal of Product Development (11 papers in press)
Role of Product, Market, and Organizational Characteristics on NPD Benefits
by Jorge Luis Garcia-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías, Cuauhtemoc Sánchez-Ramírez, Juan Ignacio Latorre-Biel
Abstract: This paper reports a structural equation model for associate three critical success factors (CSF) for new product development (NPD) as market, product and organizational characteristics (as independent variables) with benefits gained by customers and companies (as dependent variables). Eight premises were used for relationships among variables. The model is validated using partial least squares techniques with information obtained from 197 product development managers in Mexican industry. Variables are validated using Cronbachs alpha, average variance extracted, R-squared and variance inflation factor. Results indicate that six premises are accepted and two are rejected. According to findings, companies must define the market and product characteristics based on their technological and human resources skill available, aimed to take benefits to customer. The only way to gain benefits for the company is to guarantee the customer benefits, because relationship between these variables is statistically significant and not significant wet others.
Keywords: innovation; NPD; structural equation model; critical success factors; product characteristics.
Risk Management in Product Platform Development Projects
by Zakir Uddin, Peter E. Harland, Haluk Yoeruer
Abstract: Companies introduce product platforms to achieve synergies in development and production, and to ensure diversity in products at the same time. In the literature, some positive effects of product platforms are described, but failures and (especially the reasons for them) are rarely considered. In this paper, using literature research and five case studies, we identify risks in product platform development projects, categorize them into five fields of uncertainty, and use a standardized framework of project risk management to adapt it to the purposes of platform projects. Due to the long planning horizon and the length of platform usage time, product platform projects are prone to some specific risks (e.g., platform obsolescence risks, long-range-planning risks, and risks of a lack of distinctiveness in the products or of overdesign). The risk management framework developed here is designed to help companies control platform-specific risks, thereby boosting the opportunities for success with product platforms.
Keywords: risk; risk management; risk anticipation; uncertainty; product platform; project management.
Contextual factors influencing the success of global product development
by Federico Sbernini, Nicola Granini, Zaza Herbert-Hansen, Waqas Khalid
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the contextual factors that determine the success of global product development (GPD) process. By adopting an exploratory inductive research, founded on core literature in the area and using empirical data from four companies in different industries, the paper contributes to GPD theory by examining the factors that drive different GPD configurations, extends GPD success factors in a global context, and proposes a novel framework useful for practitioners in the process of planning for global activities. The shift towards a global GPD strategy results in a series of interrelated changes which are strictly connected with the company's source of competitive advantage, their globalization drivers, the globalization practices adopted which create a global network, and the series of organizational capabilities needed to support the globalization and the externalization of knowledge sources.
Keywords: Contextual factors; R&D; Externalization; Outsourcing; Offshoring; Globalization; Global product development; Mergers and acquisitions; Alliances; GPD landscape framework.
Multi-site integrated production and distribution planning: a multi-objective approach
by Gaurav Kumar Badhotiya, Gunjan Soni, Murari Lal Mittal
Abstract: To compete in this globalised market, enterprises should focus on optimizing and integrating production and distribution functions simultaneously. This study deals with the problem of integrated production and distribution planning in multi-site manufacturing environment. A multi-objective mixed integer programming model is formulated considering three important aspects of production and distribution planning; capacity of heterogeneous transportation, setup and backordering. Three conflicting objectives that need to be minimised are total cost, delivery time and backorder level. To solve the proposed multi-objective mathematical model, preemptive goal programming approach is implemented. A real world case example of an automobile industry is considered to demonstrate analytical results of the proposed approach. Further analysis is conducted to visualise effect of changing priority level on objective functions and deviation variables. The results demonstrate flexibility of decision maker by adjusting priorities of objective functions according to importance and aspiration level with respect to desired target values.
Keywords: multi-site manufacturing; production planning; distribution planning; inventory; transportation; goal programming.
Four Decades of New Product Development Research: An Integrative Review
by Neeraj Pandey, Avadhut Arun Patwardhan, Swarnima Rao
Abstract: Changes in global market conditions and regulatory policies have led to a greater focus on new product development (NPD). To survive and compete in the market, organizations need to develop a comprehensive understanding of NPD, including the past and present trends in NPD research. This study attempts to address this need by analyzing scholarly literature on NPD published in last four decades, i.e. 1976-2017. Unlike previous literature reviews that focused on specific NPD aspects such as performance measurement or model selection/evaluation, this study adopts a holistic perspective. By analyzing 381 articles on NPD, we shed light on the underlying research trends, common research characteristics as well the gaps in research and potential directions for future NPD research.
Keywords: Literature Review; New Product Development; Innovation; Product design.
Special Issue on: Applications of Information Management and System Engineering
An Empirical study on the Cellular Subscribers Churn, Selection Factors and Satisfaction with the Services
by Richa Misra, Sonali Singh, Renuka Mahajan
Abstract: Abstract: With mobile phones becoming smarter, almost all smart operating systems are downloading and using data. Due to increased competitiveness, mobile operators are struggling with falling voice and text revenue and higher churn rates. It is important for mobile operators to identify the determinants of customer satisfaction, the attributes that are important while selecting a service provider, to understand the factors for customer churn and identify the relationships between these three constructs with respect to higher mobile data usage. In order to validate the proposed relationship, Confirmatory Factor Analysis using Structure Equation Modeling is used. Findings indicate that one of the important construct of selecting a service provider is customer satisfying experience with the service provider. Also, it has been found that significance of data services is constantly increasing for the subscribers. These findings will be useful to both service providers and researchers to comprehend service quality parameters considering mobile subscribers view point. This can help to re-look the existing benchmarks and increase customer satisfaction.
Keywords: Customer satisfaction; churn; service quality; Data Services; cellular; mobile; customer preference; customer expectation.
A Smart System of 3D Liver Tumor Segmentation
by Ankur Biswas, Paritosh Bhattacharya, Santi Prasad Maity
Abstract: An efficient segmentation of liver tumor and volumetry facilitates medical experts to resolve the rate of tumor growth and follow up treatment. In this paper a smart system for semi-automatic segmentation of liver tumor from medical images based on Geodesic active contours using level set method is proposed. The system passes through following stages. After the image is loaded, the region of interest (ROI) is selected and the Geodesic Active Contours with level set methods are initialised. Then segmentation result is updated to extract the tumor in three dimensions. The liver tumors detected by the system were compared with those delineated manually by experts, used as the ground truth results. The system was evaluated on Computed Tomography images of different datasets of tumors and compared with other methods. The result of proposed system obtained the Dice SC 0.948 and Jaccard SC 0.902 exhibits the steadfastness and effectiveness of the system.
Keywords: Semi automatic segmentation; medical images; Geodesic Active Contour; Level set; ROI; Computed Tomography; Dice SC and Jaccard SC.
Layered Approach of Analysing OSS and Risk Management
by Shiva Tyagi, Devendra Kumar, Sachin Kumar
Abstract: In a simple language a software product where in the availability of the source code of the software is available in the public domain is referred to as an Open Source Software (OSS). Few models proposed in the papers published in the different international journals will also be discussed in this paper. Some statistical data concerning open source software and the related shortcomings will also be analysed briefly in this paper. A detailed and a thorough comparison of the OSS with the closed source software, their advantages vis-
Keywords: Open Source Software; Quality Assurance; Risk Management; OSS developers.
Manufacturing Simulation of Alternate Additive Manufacturing Method Using Cubes with CATIA Macro Programming.
by Sam Chelladurai, B. Sanjay Gandhi, Rajesh Ranganathan
Abstract: The present additive manufacturing methods limit to size and the time taken to manufacture the components is also limited because of the layering approach. A layer-less approach is proposed which is based on arranging different sizes of cubes to achieve the final product. An algorithm is developed and manufacturing feasibility is simulated using CATIA software and its macros. It was found that the components can be manufactured using this additive manufacturing method without the layer approach. The proposed additive manufacturing method and the algorithm can be applied to additive manufacturing situations demanding very large components to be manufactured with less amount of time.
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Large Scale Prototyping; Information System in additive manufacturing; Computer Application in Mechanical Engineering.
A cloud based architecture for competence management and discovery
by Badrina Gasmi Boumezoued, Nacer Boudjlida
Abstract: This work aims to define a method based on conceptual graphs formalism for competence management, and then apply the method for competence discovery and composition on distributed competence and knowledge bases. The paper contributes towards competence and knowledge management literature in two ways. The first contribution is first to formally represent the competences and second to define detailed algorithms for competence discovery and composition. The second contribution is in defining a conceptual architecture for the system of competence management and discovery based on the cloud in order to face the problems related to scalability, to take profit of the benefits of cloud computing technology and as a basis for the proof of concepts.
Keywords: Competence management; competence discovery; Cloud computing; Conceptual graphs; SaaS; composite answers.
Special Issue on: User Experience and Agile Innovation A Future of Servitisation
Development of marker based augmented reality system for object detection in an optimum latency time
by Suman Bhakar, Devershi Pallavi Bhatt
Abstract: Augmented reality is an emerging technique to monitor real time environment to take a decision based on the collected data. With the advancement in the concept of augmented reality and rapid development of robots, there is a need to develop a system or a method to reduce the latency in the most challenging conditions. Although, now some applications are using marker less augmented reality technique due to complications in object detection and tracking in Boston dynamics (robotics) & real time application we relied on fiducial marker based system. This paper mainly proposes an AR system which explains a guideline to detect the fiducial marker by an object (unidirectional movement) at minimum latency time. In this experiment, fiducial marker detection and position orientation with respect to the camera has been processed by Aforge.NET Framework in combination with C# language and pose estimation. We designed machine marker detection algorithm and mathematics equation which compute the latency time in different challenging conditions lux, distance frame per second of camera in an optimum latency time.
Keywords: fiducial marker; POSIT; object detection; latency time; camera; augmented reality; lux; distance.