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International Journal of Nanomanufacturing

 

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International Journal of Nanomanufacturing (64 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • Performance of PVDF/ TiO2 Nano-composite Film in the Application of Energy Harvester   Order a copy of this article
    by NingLi An 
    Abstract: The compression mode and shear mode for energy harvesting experimental platform was estabished. The energy collection efficiency of PVDF/ TiO2 nano-composite film in the two mode and nonlinear piezoelectric effect were analyzed. Experimental results show that the energy collection efficiency of the shear mode was higher than the compressed mode. The Piezoelectric constant and piezoelectric coupling coefficient have nonlinear changes under large stress. In this paper, the experimental data establish a relationship electromechanical coupling coefficients and parameters of composite thin film piezoelectric stress.
    Keywords: Energy Harvester; Nano-composite Film; PVDF; TiO2.

  • Ultra-precision cutting of linear micro-groove array for distributed feedback laser devices   Order a copy of this article
    by Bing Guo, Xin Yu, Qingliang Zhao, Lei Xu 
    Abstract: The tunable range and beam linewidth of distributed feedback laser were determined by fabrication quality of the periodic linear micro-groove array on substrate, which grooves are high sloped and ranged sub-micron to few microns. Compared with the common micro-groove arrays (size from tens of microns to sub-millimeter), the ultra-precision cutting of these tiny and high-sloped linear micro-groove arrays is more difficult to realize. In this paper, a series of investigations was proposed for ultra-precision cutting of linear micro-groove array on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Firstly, the different cutting processes included planing and fly-cutting were conducted. The workpiece morphology, surface quality and machining efficiency of these processes were investigated. Then, the fly cutting process were optimized by the calculation of non-free chip zone and the analysis of chip interference by cutting experiments. Finally, a novel tool positioning method based on acoustic emission was presented in order to realize high accuracy control of micro-groove arrays dimensions.
    Keywords: Linear micro-groove array; Fly-cutting; Planing; Polymer; Chip flow; Tool positioning;.

  • Water Dissolution Ultra-precision Polishing of KDP Crystal and Its Precision Cleaning   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuchuan Chen, Hang Gao, Xu Wang, Xiaoji Teng 
    Abstract: KDP crystal is a kind of excellent electro-optic material used in many laser facilities, which is also widely acknowledged to be extremely hard to machine. In this work, we developed a process to finish KDP crystal to a precision and clean engineering specimen. A micro-nano water dissolution principle and its planarization mechanism in the machining process are illustrated, which turns the disadvantaged deliquescence property of KDP crystal into the driving force for ultra-precision polishing of the crystal. Micro emulsion fluid with nano water nuclei can precisely control the material removal and realize the selective polishing, thus forming a super smooth and precise surface. Then a subsequent cleaning process developed specially for this ultra-precision polishing method helps to get rid of the polishing fluid, and finally reduces the residue off the crystal to a clean and tidy surface with 1.964 nm rms roughness for engineering application.
    Keywords: KDP crystal; water dissolution mechanism; ultra-precision polishing; precision cleaning; FTIR spectrum.

  • Modeling and Optimization of cutting parameters on surface roughness in micro-milling Inconel 718 using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohong Lu, Furui Wang, Xinxin Wang, Likun Si 
    Abstract: In recent years, micro-milling techniques have attracted great attention and interest from academia and industry. Inconel 718 is a nickel-based superalloy with good tensile, fatigue, creep and rupture strength and can find great application in nuclear and aerospace industry. In this paper, the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop the model for predicting surface roughness in micro-milling Inconel 718. The magnitudes of cutting parameters affecting the surface roughness, which were depth of cut, spindle speed, and feed rate, were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA).The validity of the surface roughness prediction model was proved due to the tiny error between the measured values and the prediction results. Then, genetic algorithm (GA) was used to determine the optimal cutting parameters achieving minimum surface roughness in micro-milling Inconel 718 process. All experiments show that the optimized results agree well with the test ones.
    Keywords: micro-milling; Inconel 718; surface roughness; response surface methodology; genetic algorithm.

  • Study on a non-contact polishing method using motion coupling confined etchant layer technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Yongzhi Cao, Yuchao Jia, Yongda Yan, Lianhuan Han, Xuesen Zhao, Zhenjiang Hu, Dongping Zhan 
    Abstract: The confined etchant layer technique (CELT) has been proved not only an effective electrochemical microstructures fabrication method, but also a potential polishing method due to its distance sensitiveness. To verify its polishing capability in motion mode and examine the influence of motion parameters on polishing efficiency and material removal rate, motion coupling confined etchant layer technique (MCCELT) polishing experiments were carried out on n-GaAs wafers by adopting central composite inscribe (CCI) design of response surface methodology. Furthermore, the interactions between motion, electrochemical reaction and substrate deformation were analyzed using multi-physics coupling finite element simulations. Statistical model shows that sample surface roughness decreases with the decreases of working distance (between the electrode and the substrate) and feeding velocity, and indicates it still has potential to reach more smooth results.
    Keywords: Polishing; Multi-physics coupling; Electrochemical; GaAs; Response surface methodology.

  • Experimental investigation on the abrasive wear of AISI 52100 steel   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhixiang Chen, Weifeng Yao, Julong Yuan, Zhongdian Cheng, Wei Hang, Tianchen Zhao 
    Abstract: AISI 52100 steel has been widely used in various types of bearings in machinery equipment due to its excellent mechanical properties and high availability. In final manufacturing process of bearing parts, usually involve lapping and polishing methods on the ultra-precision machining in order to achieve high accuracy of profile and fine surface quality. The essence of this process is abrasive wear of AISI 52100 steel material. Therefore, in order to improve the super finishing process of bearings super finishing, the experiment of abrasive wear of AISI 52100 steel materials was carried out in this paper. The effects of different abrasive diameter and pressure on the material removal amount of AISI 52100 steel were investigated, the abrasive correction coefficient K in Preston formula was computed and obtained. The result shows that, reducing the abrasive diameter can increase the material removal rate and improve surface quality when other factors are maintained constant.
    Keywords: AISI 52100 Steel; Abrasive Wear; Material Removal; Correction Coefficient.

  • A Study of Materials Effects on the Single Cutting in Ultra-precision Raster Milling   Order a copy of this article
    by Sujuan Wang, Sandy To, Chen Xin 
    Abstract: Ultra-precision raster milling (UPRM) rotates a single crystal diamond tool to discontinuously remove materials from the workpiece and can directly produce freeform surfaces with sub-micrometric form accuracy and nanometric surface finishing. This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations on the workpiece material effect on single cutting profile in UPRM. Experiments are conducted to study the material effect on cutting profile by single cutting four materials including copper, aluminum alloy 6061, brass and aluminum bronze under the same cutting conditions in UPRM. A characterization method is presented in the paper to study the effect of different workpiece material on the cutting profiles in UPRM. The experimental results show that copper alloy makes the smallest effect on the single cutting profile because of the lowest elastic recovery ratio while the material effect of aluminum bronze is the highest due to the highest elastic recovery ratio and the highest hardness .
    Keywords: Material elastic recovery. Single Cutting. Ultra-precision raster milling.

  • Experimental study and prediction on impact scratching of single abrasive for K9 glass   Order a copy of this article
    by Chen Li, Feihu Zhang, Xiaoshuang Rao, Bing Leng 
    Abstract: The orthogonal test L16(43) was designed, and the impact scratching experiment for K9 glass was carried out by using Vickers diamond indenter on the DMG ULTRASONIC 70-5 linear. The three dimensional morphology of the surface for glass was observed by scanning electron microscope(SEM), which was compared with that in the quasi static state. The strain rate of the grinding process was obtained by choosing the contact zone length as the impact contact length, which was the evaluation Index of impact. The relationships between strain rate and the depth of radial crack, strain rate and the depth of transverse crack, strain rate and normal scratching force were first analyzed. The results showed that the depth of radial of crack, the depth of transversal crack and the normal scratching force decreased with the increase of strain rate. The two layer BP neural network was established, which took the strain rate as input variables. The depth of radial crack, the depth of transversal crack and normal scratching force were predicted and the errors were within 10%, which indicated that the prediction results of BP neural network were reliable.
    Keywords: impact scratching; K9 glass; strain rate; depth of crack; BP neural network.

  • Performance evaluation of coated cemented carbide inserts milling 508III steel   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Liu, Yaonan Cheng, Rui Guan, Ming Xu, Tong Wang 
    Abstract: A large amount of material is removed during the milling of a water chamber head manufactured of high-strength 508Ⅲ steel. The performance and service life of coated cemented carbide inserts have significant influences on processing efficiency and the quality of nuclear power components. This study will conduct single-factor milling experiments of water chamber heads relevant to practical working conditions. Influences of different milling parameters on the insert failure behavior are analyzed based on experimental results and simulation data. The failure mechanism of insert wear and fracture was also discussed. Finally, the influences of coating types and thickness values on the wear behavior of cemented carbide insert while cutting 508Ⅲ steel were investigated. The results of this research can be implemented in the improvement of coated cemented carbide inserts in regards to failure resistance and service life.
    Keywords: water chamber head; 508Ⅲ steel; coating; cemented carbide; crater wear.

  • Non-linear phase error compensation for fringe deflectometry measuring system   Order a copy of this article
    by Lili Jiang, Xiaodong Zhang, Fengzhou Fang 
    Abstract: Fringe deflectometry technique (FDT) plays a more and more important role in specular surface measurement due to its large measurement range in surface slope. However its accuracy is heavily dependent on the quality of the extracted phase data. The gamma effect of Liquid crystal display (LCD) and CCD camera in FDT system introduces significant phase distortion, resulting in a periodical phase error and therefore measurement error. A mathematical model is established to illustrate phase error introduced by Gamma effect, and then an optimal algorithm based on four-time four-step phase-shifting (FFPS) method is proposed to retrieve phase from distorted fringes. Simulation results prove that FFPS phase retrieval method can compensate for the phase error caused by the nonlinearity of the LED and CCD point-by-point, thus it is immune not only to calibration error, but also to the non-unitary of the Gamma effect spatially and temporally. Experimental results are also presented to verify the performance of the proposed method.
    Keywords: Fringe deflectometry; phase error compensation; freeform surface.

  • The Effects of Chemical Components in the Bath Solution on Mechanical Properties of the Electroplated Coating on Diamond Tools   Order a copy of this article
    by Qingqiu Chen, Zhongming Cui, Qingshan He, Jingjing Wang, Chuangju Feng 
    Abstract: The bath compositions are critical to mechanical performance of the coating layer for electroplated diamond tools. In this paper, the effects of different chemical components in bath solution on mechanical properties including tensile strength and hardness of the electroplated coating were investigated by orthogonal experiments. The influences of different chemical components including nickel sulfate, cobalt sulfate and sodium chloride on mechanical properties of the electroplated coating were analyzed. The results showed that the component of nickel sulfate was crucial for mechanical performance of the electroplated coating. Increasing the component of nickel sulfate caused an unstable situation on tensile strength and hardness of the electroplated coating. The maximum value was up to 651 MPa in tensile strength and 39 HRC in hardness when nickel sulfate was at 270 g/L and other components were unchanged. In contrast, it had no effect on tensile strength of the electroplated coating with the increase of the component of cobalt sulfate. However, hardness of the electroplated coating could be improved by increasing the component of cobalt sulfate. The concentration of sodium chloride had no obvious effect on mechanical properties of the electroplated coating layer. The experimental results revealed that the optimized bath compositions were at 270 g/L nickel sulfate, 20 g/L cobalt sulfate, and 10 g/L sodium chloride.
    Keywords: bath compositions; electroplated diamond tools; electroplated coating; mechanical properties.

  • Research on Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency of Machine Tools: A Comprehensive Survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Lorena Moreira, Weidong Li, Michael Fitzpatrick, Xin Lu 
    Abstract: The increasing demand for energy, coupled with concerns over pollution and climate change, has led governments to establish policy frameworks to reduce CO2 emissions. Moreover, rises in energy price and increasingly greener customer behaviour are pushing the manufacturing industries to develop more sustainable processes. As a major source of energy consumption in manufacturing systems, machine tools have been the focus of sustainability research communities worldwide. This paper provides a survey of manufacturing industrys sustainability trends and presents a technology-foresight-based methodology for gathering key information on the research development in this topic. Furthermore, a correlation between real world aspects, such as legal, economic and environmental, and the development of research on energy consumption and efficiency of machine tools is provided. The results highlight the leading countries, institutions, authors and subject areas in this field. Research & development shows a high correlation with governmental action, and appears to be of core importance to meet CO2 reduction targets.
    Keywords: CNC machining; machine tools; energy; sustainable manufacturing; research foresight.

  • Axicon profile metrology using contact stylus method   Order a copy of this article
    by Huimin Gao, Xiaodong Zhang, Fengzhou Fang 
    Abstract: Axicon lenses, characterized by their cone shape, have rotational symmetry. The generatrix of axicons is the surface profile going across the apex of the axicon and the cone angle of the axicon can be calculated from the generatrix. Axicons, widely used in optical alignment and Bessel-Gauss beam generation, require high accuracy in surface and cone angle metrology. However, current methods focus on measuring the cone angle with a stylus profiler, a process in which misalignment and displacement are common when measuring the generatrix. A method is proposed that multiple parallel measurement paths near the apex of the axicon will obtain the generatrix with the specific algorithm. In experiments, the axicon with a cone angle of about 90
    Keywords: Axicon; Alignment error; Displacement error; Profile metrology; Stylus measurement; Generatrix error.

  • Experimental research on pulse laser assisted micro turning of ZrO2 ceramic   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiuqing Hao, Hao Yan, Jinjin Han, Chenjiao Yao, Ning He 
    Abstract: ZrO2 ceramic materials have outstanding propertied, like high wear resistance, good corrosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, etc., and has been widely applied in modern industry. However, ZrO2 ceramic is one of the difficult-to-machine materials, which would lead to rapid tool wear and poor surface quality. Micro turning combined with pulse laser, as a new kind of process in machining ZrO2 ceramic, is studied in this paper. And a comparative research between micro turning with and without pulse laser assisted of ZrO2 ceramic has been conducted. The results revealed that under the same machining parameters, both the cutting force and machined surface roughness obtained in pulse laser assisted micro turning was smaller than that in micro turning without pulse laser, and the pulse laser could effectively reduce the tool wear. The work carried out in this paper would be helpful to the further research on the pulse laser assisted micro machining of ZrO2 ceramic.
    Keywords: ZrO2 ceramic; pulse laser assisted machining; micro turning.

  • Simulation of microstructure evolution coupled with fabrication parameters for two-phase ceramic tool materials   Order a copy of this article
    by Bin Fang, Chonghai Xu, Guangchun Xiao 
    Abstract: A computer simulation coupled with fabrication parameters for the sintering process of two-phase ceramic tool materials has been developed using a two-dimensional hexagon lattice model mapped from the realistic microstructure. The relationship between fabrication temperature and microstructure evolution, fabrication pressure and microstructure evolution is proposed, respectively. The mean grain size of simulated microstructures by Monte Carlo Potts model integrated with fabrication temperature and pressure increases with an increase in fabrication temperature and pressure, which is consistent with the experiment results. The microstructure evolution of ceramic tool materials during fabrication is simulated by the new Monte Carlo Potts model with considering technology parameters.
    Keywords: Simulation; Hot-pressing sintering; Ceramic matrix composites (CMC); Microstructure; Monte Carlo model.

  • Research on Ice Fixed-abrasive Polishing Mechanism and Technology for High-Definition Display Panel Glass   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuli Sun, Suyang Tang, Wenzhuang Lu, Jun Li, Dunwen Zuo 
    Abstract: This study introduces an ice fixed-abrasive polishing (IFAP) technology. Using silica solution IFAP pad and Al2O3 IFAP pad, orthogonal tests were performed on polishing high-definition display panel glass, respectively. The results show that the polishing efficiency and effect polished with silica solution IFAP pad are better than those polished with Al2O3 IFAP pad. The optimized silica solution IFAP parameters are: polishing pressure 0.1MPa, polishing time 40min, table velocity 80r/min, and the ratio of accelerator and slurry 1:10. Finally, the IFAP mechanism was studied and it is suggested that IFAP is a comprehensive effect of mechanical removal and microchemical reaction, combined with fixed abrasive polishing and free abrasive polishing.
    Keywords: Ice fixed-abrasive polishing; High-definition display panel glass; Material removal rate; Surface roughness.

  • Machining position-attitude optimization in ion beam figuring of high-precision off-axis aspheric surfaces   Order a copy of this article
    by Xu Mingjin 
    Abstract: High-precision off-axis aspheric components are widely applied in various high-performance optical systems. However, the complicated manufacturing features of off-axis aspheric make it difficult to achieve high-precision surface for traditional optical manufacturing methods. Ion beam figuring (IBF) is a non-contact and highly deterministic method for the final precision optical figuring. In this paper, two different machining position-attitude models are discussed, which have great influence on the machining difficulty and figuring accuracy of IBF. The Child mirror Coordinate Position-Attitude Model (CCPAM), which is based on the robustness of IBF removal function to small disturbance of target distance and incidence angle, can effectively decrease the sag height and incidence angle, thereby reduce the beam errors and machining difficulty. A linear three-axis IBF system is successfully applied for the figuring of a large-aperture parabolic off-axis aspheric mirror based on the CCPAM and its best-fit sphere. With two iterations of 113min, surface error is down to 7.658nm RMS (effective aperture 310mm
    Keywords: Ion beam figuring; off-axis aspheric; machining position-attitude optimization; high-precision.

  • Surface Microstructure Parameter Optimization for Enhancing Light Extraction Efficiency of LED   Order a copy of this article
    by Dong Yuan, Xianyu Lin, Yanguo Liu, Guofu Zhou 
    Abstract: Surface structure modification is an effective way to enhance light extraction of LED, which is limited by total internal reflection on the interfacial surface. The periodic surface structures manufactured by micromachining was proved to be a feasible way to enhance the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of LEDs. In order to obtain the highest LEE, need to optimize the structural parameters. In this paper, a simplified ray tracing optical model was built to find out a high performance microstructure parameters by simulation. Then, a mathematical model was built to further optimize the optical simulation results, obtained the optimal microstructure parameters for LEE. The performance of optimal microstructure was also studied by optical simulation.
    Keywords: LED; Microstructure; Light Extraction Efficiency(LEE); Structural Parameter Optimization; Micromachining.

  • Development of CNC Software for Single Point Diamond Precision Lathe Based on UMAC   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuehua Sun, Jianqun Liu, Weiqiang Gao, Guoqiang Huang, Huijing Huang 
    Abstract: ABSTRACT:rnA precise SPDT (Single Point Diamond Turning) CNC software is developed on the Windows platform using QT4.8.1 graphical interface development tools, with the calling of the UMAC library function. This paper introduces the hardware design of precise SPDT CNC system, the communication method between QT and UMAC, the design and implement of the main interface of the software, the implement of the basic motion control, the process of each module, the software three-dimensional (3D) simulation of this system. The result of the 3D simulation shows that the design of the system is reasonable, and the system is able to achieve good processing results. Such a numerical control system has a certain economic value and prospects for industrial applications. rn
    Keywords: Keywords: SPDT; CNC Software; Qt; UMAC; Modularization.

  • Effect of single grit impacts on initiation and propagation of cracks in ultrasonic assisted grinding of ceramics by using SPH method   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhiqiang Liang, Meng Tian, Qiuyan Wang, Xibin Wang, Tianfeng Zhou, Jiao Li, Yongbo Wu 
    Abstract: In order to investigate the material removal mechanism in vertical ultrasonic assisted grinding (VUAG) of ceramics, single-grit impact simulation is performed by using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The initiation and propagation of cracks in grinding of Al2O3 ceramics are analyzed. In this simulation, the grit is modeled as a rectangular pyramid diamond indenter, and the process of grit impacting on workpiece under different impact speeds is simulated. The critical depth of initiation and propagation of lateral crack is observed. The results show that within a certain range of impact speed, the critical depth of lateral crack decreases with the increasing of impact speed. This means that the brittle fractures are more prone to occur in VUAG. Considering that the material micro-fracture is the main mode in ceramics material grinding under ordinary processing conditions, the material removal rate in VUAG can be improved. Moreover, by observing the surface topography, it can be found that the surface roughness becomes smaller when the impact speed increases.
    Keywords: Ultrasonic assisted grinding (UAG);Smoothed particle hydrodynamic method (SPH); Crack; Al2O3 ceramics.

  • Effects of cutting parameters on temperature and temperature prediction in micro-milling of Inconel718   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohong Lu, Hua Wang, Zhenyuan , Yixuan Feng, Steven Y. Liang 
    Abstract: Inconel 718 is a kind of difficult-to-machine material, and micro-milling is an effective method for fabricating micro structure/parts of Inconel 718. The change rules of micro-milling temperature differ from that of the traditional processing, which will affect the surface integrity of the workpiece and the tool life of the micro-milling cutter in different ways. To ascertain the effects of cutting parameters on cutting temperature during micro-milling and achieve the cutting temperature prediction, some micro-milling experiments were conducted based on the response surface method. The independent and interaction effects of spindle speed, feed per tooth and axial cutting depth on cutting temperature were investigated. A micro-milling temperature prediction model was established based on the experiment results. The maximum prediction error was 5.3%, and the average prediction error was 2.6%. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed model is validated through experiments of micro-milling Inconel718.
    Keywords: Micro-milling; Cutting temperature; Inconel718; Response surface method.

  • Design and Simulation of Ultrasonic Horns in Ultrasonic Vibration Machining   Order a copy of this article
    by Meipeng Zhong, Julong Yuan, Weifeng Yao, Zhixiang Chen, Zhongdian Chen 
    Abstract: Ultrasonic horns are also called ultrasonic shift levers. They magnify ultrasonic vibration amplitude to meet the requirements of ultrasonic machining. To improve the efficiency of ultrasonic grinding, reduce the connecting parts of the lever, and reduce internal stress, the amplitude of the ultrasonic vibration process is defined in this study. The amplitude of the stress and modal simulation was determined using ANSYS was used as the simulation system for ultrasonic horn deformation. The stress and displacement at the end of the ultrasonic horns are the highest; however, the displacement at the node position of the flange is almost zero. The maximum displacement is 14.893
    Keywords: amplitude; transformer; ultrasonic vibration; stress; modal.

  • Directivity Process Modelling for the Figure Error Correction of Dual-Rotation Magnetorheological Finishing   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuyue Wang, Yun Zhang, Zhijing Feng 
    Abstract: To study Dual-Rotation Magnetorheological Finishing (DRMRF) technology and obtain a smoother surface, the model for the polishing process of the figure error correction (directivity process model) in DRMRF was established in this paper. Existing researches ignored the influence of feed rate and revolution upon removal function. In this paper, a method of modifying the removal function is presented, which takes the relative velocity of the Magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) and the part into consideration. The directivity of removal amount during modelling adds a new dimension for analysis. The numerical simulation results of removal amount and its directivity show that the removal amount distributed more evenly along every direction because of the revolution of the wheel in DRMRF. The removal amount distribution is one of the fundamental differences between common MRF and DRMRF. Finally, a Fused Silica planar blank was polished by DRMRF, and the initial figure error was 10 nm RMS and 67 nm PV. The surface figure error is corrected to 2.4 nm RMS and 20 nm PV (full aperture = 95% diameter), and the stripe-like scratches are suppressed. The numerical simulation results and the experimental result indicates the effectiveness of DRMRF and the correctness of directivity process model.
    Keywords: Magnetorheological Finishing; Dual-Rotation Magnetorheological Finishing; Figure error correction; Directivity modelling; Optical fabrication.

  • Effect of FAP characteristics on fixed abrasive polishing of CaF2 crystal   Order a copy of this article
    by Jun Li, Yongkai Tang, Longlong Song, Yongwei Zhu, Dunwen Zuo 
    Abstract: Pad is an important factor, which bears pressure to mechanically remove material in chemical mechanical polishing process. Owing to the abrasives fixed in pad, fixed abrasive pad (FAP) becomes more important and influences material removal and surface quality of wafer. The characteristics of FAP, abrasive type, particle size and matrix hardness, were analyzed and the effect on material removal rate (MRR) and surface quality was investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of CaF2 crystal. The results indicated that FAP with 3-5
    Keywords: Fixed abrasive polishing; Fixed abrasive pad (FAP); CaF2 crystal; Matrix hardness; FAP characteristics.

  • Developed greener method based on MW implementation in manufacturing CNFs   Order a copy of this article
    by Loai Aljerf, Rim Nadra 
    Abstract: Many researchers have worked to develop certain applications of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) materials. However, they faced primer obstacles related to the improper optimised conditions that mostly give heterogeneous surfaces with low product quality. Therefore, this study comes as the first trial that uses Microwave (MW) technique in combination with assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) to provide higher heating rates which will generate homogeneous surfaces at short period thermal reaction. The MW absorption properties were stimulated based on a model for a single-layer plane wave absorber. The model used for manufacturing process was validated to give better selectivity which then was verified by ANOVA statistical analysis. After that, the morphology, characterisation, and purity of the product were tested. The outcomes of this study had confirmed that these materials are of highly-ordered pyrolitic graphite nature and successfully proved the significance of the optimised model at elevated temperatures. CNFs were obtained having uniform diameters (80-150nm) and long fibres (0.82-1.75
    Keywords: Greener nanoproducts; cosmetics; industry; homogeneous dispersion; electron diffraction pattern; pyrolysis; multi-walled structures; turbostratic stacking; azimuthal broadening; polymeric bonding.

  • 3D surface roughness evaluation of surface topography in ultrasonic vibration assisted end grinding of SiCp/Al composites   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhou Li, ZHOU Ming, H.A.N. Xiong, ZHOU Jin 
    Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of ultrasonic vibration and cutting conditions on surface quality accurately, the grinding experiments of SiCp/Al composites were carried out. And a comprehensive analysis to characterize the machined surface topography with 3D roughness such as amplitude parameters and spatial parameters was presented. The experimental results indicate that the machined surface of ultrasonic vibration assisted end grinding is filled with peaks and dales and the surface texture is almost isotropic. Ultrasonic vibration can tremendously improve the machined surface performance, comparing with conditional grinding. And low surface roughness value can be obtained in the conditions of high spindle speed, large vibration amplitude, low feed rate and small cutting depth.
    Keywords: ultrasonic vibration assisted end grinding; SiCp/Al composites; surface quality; 3D surface roughness; grinding conditions.

  • Analytical modelling of a tri-axial flexible capacitive tactile sensing array   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian-Ping Yu, Xin Li, Yu-Liang Zhang 
    Abstract: In this paper, the analytical modelling of a tri-axial flexible capacitive tactile sensing array is proposed. A unit sensing element consists of a sensing electrode layer, an insulation layer, a common electrode layer and a surface layer. The sensing electrode layer is of flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) based structure, on which, four sensing electrodes and fragile interconnects for signal sampling are implemented. While the common electrode layer is patterned on polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) based structures, on which only a common electrode is implemented. This design is on purpose of enhancing the device flexible rigidity. Four sensing electrodes and a common electrode constitute four capacitors in a unit sensing element, when the four capacitors are arranged in a square form, the measured contact force will be easily decomposed into its normal and shear components. The estimated sensitivities of a unit sensor are 0.43 and 0.17%/mN for the x-y and z-axes, respectively.
    Keywords: capacitive microsensor; three-dimensional tactile sensing; common electrode; PDMS.

  • Study on eddy current loss characteristics of precision giant magnetostrictive actuator considering magnetic field distribution   Order a copy of this article
    by HuiFang Liu, Shuang Gao 
    Abstract: In order to accurately calculate eddy current loss of the rod-shaped giant magnetostrictivematerial ,improve the giant magnetostrictive actuator control accuracy of displacement , a eddy current loss model of rod GMM that considering the skin effect was established.Firstly, the traditional eddy current loss of rod-shaped GMM was deduced ,then discussed the influence of the skin effect for the inside magnetic field distribution of GMM rod ,finally analyzed the temperature characteristics of GMA throught the comsolmultiphysics finite element numerical analysis method .Compared with traditional eddy current loss ,under low frequency the two methods has same result, but under high frequency the new model can be more accurately calculate the eddy current loss of rod-shaped GMM .The research result has a great significance for improving the control precision and advancing the study of eddy current loss of GMA.
    Keywords: giant magnetostrictive actuator ,eddy current loss; temperature characteristics.

  • Forces, form deviations and surface roughness in micro-milling of CoCr alloys for dental prostheses   Order a copy of this article
    by Frederik Elsner-Dörge, Oltmann Riemer, Melanie Willert, Axel Meier 
    Abstract: Micro-milling is commonly used for the manufacture of dental prostheses. Demands to the application of these prostheses require hard and tough materials like cobalt-chrome alloys. The cutting process is governed by static as well as dynamic interactions between the process and the structure of the workpiece. These interactions deteriorate the work result, especially the shape accuracy. The deflection of the milling tool is one effect, which has a significant influence. The work presented in this paper aims to establish a connection between forces, respectively tool deflection and resulting form deviations during micro-milling of defined geometries in CoCr alloys by measuring the active forces and evaluating the resulting form. In order to quantify the surface quality, white light interferometry is applied to measure the surface roughness Sa and Sq and the influence of feed rate vf and radial infeed ae on the surface roughness is derived.
    Keywords: force measurement; form deviation; micro-milling; dental prostheses; cobalt chrome; shape accuracy; surface roughness.

  • Review on Extrusion of Magnesium Matrix Nano Composites   Order a copy of this article
    by D. Anburose, N. Manikanda Prabu, V.S. Thangarasu, G. Sureshkannan 
    Abstract: Increase in industrial requirements focusing on various research activities on composite material in a narrow region. This is being observed through replacement of material components over an existing one due to its betterment in structure behaviour and properties. In recent days, Nano technology comes to play an essential part in composites and coating of material to upgradation of parameters. This work constitute the outlines and importance of extrusion process in magnesium matrix Nano composites, meanwhile the effect of various factors like temperature, grain size, extrusion speed, extrusion ratio etc., on enhancing the microstructure and mechanical properties of the magnesium matrix composites. The extruded components have more excellent properties such as tensile strength, proof stress and elongation than the cast components. Addition of Nano particles may lead to significant inhibition in grain boundaries resulting in refined grains after extrusion resulting in high strength of the composites. Nano particles can significantly increase the mechanical strength of magnesium matrix by effectively promoting particle hardening mechanism than micro size particles.
    Keywords: Magnesium matrix Nano composites; Nano particles; Extrusion process; dynamically re-crystallized grains.

  • An error separation method based on surface matching in large aspheric measurement   Order a copy of this article
    by Lin Sun, Shuming Yang, Pengfei Wu, Changsheng Li, Qijing Lin, Zhuangde Jiang 
    Abstract: Surface matching technique is the base of three-dimension surface error separation, which plays an important role in error compensation of ultra-precision manufacturing and automatic feedback control system. Surface error and surface roughness are key indicators for the evaluation of the quality of optical elements ultra-precision manufacturing. There are variations between the measured data and the actual surface data due to clamped positioning errors. Therefore, it is difficult to improve the manufacturing precision by error compensation based on evaluating the deviation between the measured data and the theoretical surface data directly. So we proposed an error separation technique based on surface matching, which can match the surface generated by fitting the measured data with the theoretical surface. And then we can obtain the spatial transformation parameters between measured surface and the actual surface using GA(Genetic Algorithm) for optimizing. Finally we can separate the spatial errors resulting from the clamped positioning errors of the measurement, and the actual measured surface errors are got.
    Keywords: Surface matching; Error separation; Genetic Algorithm; Clamped positioning errors.

  • Influence of oxygen vacancies on the spontaneous polarization and piezoelectricity of ZnO: A first-principles study   Order a copy of this article
    by Haibo Niu 
    Abstract: By using the Berry phase methods, influence of oxygen vacancyrn(Vo) on the polarization property of ZnO has been investigated. Calculateed results indicate that the spontaneous polarization, the piezoelectric constants e31 and e33 are very sensitive to the concentration and distribution of Vo. The absolute values of them decrease nonlinearly as the Vo concentration increases. At the same concentration, non-uniform distribution of Vo is favored in energy, and can enhance the impact on spontaneous polarization and e31. 1.56% Vo-Vo complex can even reverse the orientation of spontaneous polarization, while the case for e33 is opposite, the influence is weakened. These findings suggest that the polarization property of ZnO might be adjusted by controlling the point defects.
    Keywords: Oxygen Vacancy; Spontaneous Polarization; Piezoelectric Constants; Berry Phase; Maximally Localized Wannier functions; First Principles.

  • Research on temperature distribution mathematical model of cutting tool during heavy cutting difficult-to-machine materials
    by Yaonan Cheng 
    Abstract: Heavy cutting is the main machining way for high-end equipment and the high temperature generated from the cutting process largely influences on the machining and tool life. Firstly, the main cutting area where energy was converted into cutting heat and the approximate rectangular distribution of cutting temperature were received through Finite Element Simulation of heavy cutting difficult-to-machine materials and the Finite Element Simulation provided fundamental basis for temperature distribution mathematical model. Then, heavy cutting characteristics and Jaeger moving heat source theory were combined to calculate the average temperature of shearing surface and rake face of the cutting tool. Finally, temperature distribution mathematical model in tool-chip contact area for heavy cutting difficult-to-machine materials was established using Kelren theory. The results show that the established mathematical model are consistent with experiment results and the model provides theoretical basis for quantitative analysis of heavy cutting temperature, the optimization of cutting parameters and heavy cutting tool design.
    Keywords: cutting temperature; mathematical model; heavy cutting; difficult-to-machine materials

  • Fractional-order composite control for the transient creep of a piezoelectric actuator
    by Xueliang Zhao, Chengjin Zhang, Hongbo Liu 
    Abstract: In this study, a fractional-order composite controller is proposed to decrease the settling time and narrow the range of the transient creep of a piezoelectric actuator. The controller is composed of backlash modules and a fractional-order PI_λ controller. The backlash modules reduce the effect of the transient creep and the hysteresis, while the fractional-order controller decreases the settling time. Experiments show that the settling time is decreased from 11 ms to 6 ms. The controller exhibits good performance on step creep and hysteresis when the input signal is discretized into steps, whether 10, 20, 40 or 80 steps. All standard deviations are suppressed to levels 39.3% lower than that of a standard PI controller, and the range of the transient creep is reduced to 19.46%.
    Keywords: piezoelectric actuator, dynamic creep, transient stage, fractional order, hysteresis

  • The Material Design and Property Research of a Novel Machine Tool Material
    by Bin Lin, Zehua Hu 
    Abstract: In this paper, a new machine tool material is put forward where PTFE resin is chosen as the matrix material for its properties of good acid and alkali corrosion resistance. High purity quartz and alumina ceramic microspherernare selected as the aggregates; nano-alumina and hollow glass microsphere are selected as the fillers. First, the aggregate gradation is analysed. Then, Young's modulus and sound attenuation coefficient are predicted in theory. Nonlinear regression analysis is conducted by Support Vector Machine (SVM). A 2D and 3D irregular polygon aggregate particles packing model is set up by MATLAB and the properties of the packing model are simulated by finite element analysis. Finally, several vibration experiments are conducted. The analysis results show that the chosen filler and aggregate can improve the stiffness and vibration characteristics of the material, which has a guiding significance to the machinery manufacturing industry.
    Keywords: machine tool material; PTFE; high purity quartz; alumina ceramic microsphere; nano-alumina; hollow glass microsphere; Young's modulus; sound attenuation coefficient; nonlinear regression analysis; particle packing model; damping ratio

Special Issue on: ICEM 3-2017 New Energy Materials and Nanotechnology Modelling and Experiment

  • The effect of nano-Zirconia on the morphology and mechanical properties of PVDF/PAN membrane as separators in super-capacitors   Order a copy of this article
    by Wang Lina, Shi Suyu, Liu Wentao, Zong Dingding 
    Abstract: The PVDF/PAN/ZrO2 composite fibrous membranes were fabricated by electrospinning. The effects of ZrO2 content on solution properties, mechanical properties and crystallization properties as well as related morphology were systematically evaluated. The SEM images show that the diameter of the fibers is only 0.8 um when the ZrO2 content is 0.4% which is the result of the ZrO2 improving the conductivity of the PVDF/PAN solution. The BET results show that the specific surface area of PVDF/PAN/ZrO2 with 0.4% ZrO2 is 1.8 times of PVDF/PAN membrane. The tensile strength of fibrous membranes increased from 2.74 of pure PVDF/PAN to 5.11 MPa of PVDF/PAN/ZrO2 when the ZrO2 is o.4%. The DSC results show that the crystallinity and orientation enhanced with ZrO2 increases, which is beneficial to improve the tensile strength. The Tg and Tc shift to high temperature with ZrO2 increases, which demonstrating that ZrO2 promote the heterogeneous nucleation and form perfect crystal structure.
    Keywords: Poly (vinylidene fluoride);Polyacrylonitrile;nano-zirconia;supercapacitor separators;morphology;mechanical properties.

Special Issue on: IJNM ICEM 3-2017 New Energy Materials and Nanotechnology Modelling and Experiment

  • Synthesis and Characterization of Rutin-calcium   Order a copy of this article
    by Ya Ling Jiang 
    Abstract: Rutin and calcium acetate at 86 ℃, pH = 8.5, reflux 6h , A rutin-ca complex was synthesised in methanol. UV-Vis spectroscopy: band I shifted from 355 nm to 359 nm, red shifted to 4 nm. Band II moved from 257 nm to 266 nm and shifted red by 9 nm. IR: the absorption peak of ruthenium is broadened, υC = O 1632.45cm-1, red shift of 23 cm-1, the characteristic absorption peak of benzene ring has not changed, and the absorption peak of 618.43cm-1 , Metal coordination bond υCa-O stretching vibration peak. 1H-NMR: 3-OH and 4-OH hydroxyl groups disappear, showing coordination with calcium ions. Thermal analysis showed rutin with ane calcium ion complex.
    Keywords: flavonoid; rutin-calcium complex; synthesis; characterization.

  • Study on the Preparation and Property of Puffing Glutinous Rice Starch   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhang Jing-liang, Zhai Guang-yu 
    Abstract: Abstract: The puffing glutinous rice starch (PGRS) could be obtained by adding glutinous rice starch (GRS) with the moisture content of 21% into the bulking machine and expanding at 225 ℃ and under 0.75 MPa. The adhesive strength of GRS increased after gelatinization. Compared with gelatinization by heating and adding alkali, gelatinization by puffing could be more easily controlled and had a higher degree of starch gelation. Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) showed that the thermal stability of PGRS was improved. The starch granule disintegrated after puffing, therefore more hydrophilic hydroxyls were exposed. The increased water-solubility of PGRS was shown in IR spectrometry with a broad and strengthened peak of O-H stretching vibration. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) found that the PGRS granules were in the shape of rough surface, which would have strong affinity to water. Therefore, it might be widely applied in the adhesive industry and pharmaceutical industry.
    Keywords: Puffing; Glutinous rice starch; Adhesive; SEM; IR; TG differential thermogravimetry.

  • NiO/Ag-nanowire composites with three-dimensional structure for high performance supercapacitor electrodes   Order a copy of this article
    by Feng Liu, Guangbin Duan, Xiaopeng Yang 
    Abstract: NiO/AgNWs/FTO electrode material with three-dimensional structure is prepared by method of electrochemical deposition. The SEM images of NiO/AgNWs/FTO electrode nanocomposite revealed that the NiO is wrapped onto the surface of AgNWs. Furthermore, the effect of annealing time on the electrochemical properties of the electrode was studied, it shows excellent electrochemical performance and good linear relationship during the charge-discharge process. The NiO/AgNWs/FTO electrode with specific capacitance of 408F g-1 has been achieved at a current density of 0.85 A g-1and it has excellent cycling stability with 80 % retention over 7000 cycles at a high current density of 5.5 A g-1 when the annealing time is 60 minutes. It can be widely used in the micro-electronic devices, such as micro supercapacitors and chips of computer.
    Keywords: Silver nanowires; NiO; Supercapacitor electrodes; 3D.

  • Investigation on the preparation and thermal properties of Ag-H2O nanofluids with different morphology   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinkai Li, Wenzhi Wang, Zongming Liu 
    Abstract: In this work, the triangular flake and wire shaped silver-water (Ag-H2O) nanofluids with good suspension have been achieved without any surfactants or additives via one-step and two-step method, respectively. The structural properties of the Ag nanoparticles were characterized via UV-vis, XRD, SEM and TEM analysis, indicating that the good dispersion of Ag nanoparticles. The heat transfer properties for the Ag-H2O nanofluids including the thermal conductivity and viscosity were experimentally measured in detail. The thermal conductivity and viscosity of triangular flake and wire shaped Ag-H2O nanofluids were both higher than the based fluids (H2O) even at a small amount of Ag nanoparticles. The effects of solid content, temperature and morphology on the thermal conductivity and viscosity of Ag-H2O nanofluids have been studied. The results showed that the thermal conductivity of the two kinds of Ag-H2O nanofluids increased with the content of Ag nanoparticles and temperature increasing. The rheological behaviors analysis showed that two kinds of Ag-H2O nanofluids observed the Newtonian behaviors whose viscosity were close to the water and increased with Ag incorporation. The thermal conductivity of the triangular flake shaped nanofluids was higher than that of the wire shaped nanofluids in the same mass fraction and temperature while the viscosity was in reverse. The effect mechanism of solid content, temperature and morphology on the thermal property of Ag-H2O nanofluids has been discussed in detail. The Ag-H2O nanofluids as a new kind of working medium with good thermal performance are expected to be widely used in heat transfer area.
    Keywords: Ag-H2O nanofluids; Shaped effect; Thermal conductivity; Viscosity.

  • Research on the preparation of urchin-like CuO-H2O nanofluids and its application in heat pipe   Order a copy of this article
    by Guangbin Duan, Zhentao Cao, Qi Chen 
    Abstract: In this paper, the urchin-like cupric oxide-water (CuO-H2O) nanofluids has been prepared using two-step method via ultrasonic concussion which the CuO nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in deionized water (DI water), and the urchin-like CuO nanoparticles has been obtained via hydrothermal method. The structural properties of CuO nanoparticles are characterized via XRD and SEM analysis, indicating that the nanoparticles have uniform size and good dispersibility. The thermal conductivity and the surface tension of the urchin-like CuO-H2O nanofluids have been studied in detail. The thermal conductivity and surface tension of the urchin-like CuO-H2O nanofluids are both higher than the based fluids, and they increased with the mass fraction increasing. The heat transfer performance of heat pipe using urchin-like CuO nanofluids are experimentally measured on the condition of air cooling. The results show that the start-up time of the heat pipes using nanofluids are greatly lower than that of DI water, and reduce with the mass fraction increasing. The start-up temperature rise of heat pipe becomes larger than that of the heat pipe filled with DI water, and increased with the mass fraction increasing. The utilization of nanofluids as working medium can enhance the heat transfer performance of the heat pipe.
    Keywords: Urchin-like cupric oxide-water nanofluids;Thermal conductivity; Surface tension; Heat pipe.

  • Preparation of Tungsten Trioxide film with Mesoporosity by Anodization   Order a copy of this article
    by Shizhao Wu, Yuru Li, Jing Gao, Guohua Li, Xiaojuan Wang 
    Abstract: The mesostructured WO3 film on tungsten was investigated by anodic oxidation in ethylene glycol electrolytes containing low concentrations of ionic liquids (EMim.BF4, 0.6-1.6 vol. %). The surface structure of the WO3 film as prepared can be adjusted by changing the time, potential and temperature of anodization, and the concentration of ILs and water in the electrolyte. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) respectively. A self-organized mesostructured WO3 can be obtained under optimized parameters. The mesostructured WO3 film is arranged in sections of arrays with an average granular diameter of 30 nm.
    Keywords: tungsten trioxide; anodizing; nanostructure; mesoporous; ILs.

  • Synthesis and characterization of amines-grafted graphene oxide-TiO2 crystal/plate composite and its crystal growth   Order a copy of this article
    by Cun Chen, Jiajia Chen, Jing Gao, Guohua Li 
    Abstract: Owning to their extensive practical application, the controllable synthesis of well-faceted TiO2 crystal with high percentage of reactive facets has attracted increasing attention. When adjusting the concentration of HF at 120 mM and 240 mM, anatase TiO2 crystal and plate with exposed {001} facets had been fabricated on the amines-grafted graphene oxide (AGO) via a facile hydrothermal method. The influence of experiment conditions on the morphology of the final products was investigated in detail. The results showed that the morphology of TiO2 crystal on AGO transforms cube-like structure into truncated tetragonal bipyramid structure when extending the reaction time, and the size of TiO2 crystal were affected by the molar ratio of F/Ti. In addition, the dispersion of TiO2 plate were improved by amino or oxygen-containing group on AGO sheet.
    Keywords: TiO2 crystal; TiO2 plate; amines-grafted graphene oxide; crystal growth.

  • Progressive Failure Analysis of Z-pinned Composite Laminates Under Tension Loading   Order a copy of this article
    by Xie ShunLi, Zhang Caili, Zhang Chun Li, Cai Xin 
    Abstract: Based on micromechanical characters of Z-pinned composite laminate, a finite element model is established to predict progressive failure properties of Z-pinned composite laminate under tension loading. For Z-pinned composite laminates, four failure modes: matrix cracking, matrix compressive failure, fiber breakage or fiber kinking are included in the present model. The calculated failure strength is compared with those obtained from experiments and other model. Failure mode pictures and stress-strain curve under tension load are obtained. The results indicate fiber breakage due to the matrix cracking is the main failure mode in z-pinned carbon/epoxy composites under tension.
    Keywords: Z-pinned composite; finite element analysis; progressive failure; tensile strength.

  • In situ nanofibrillar reinforced biodegradable composites based on thermoplastic poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(lactic acid)   Order a copy of this article
    by Zheng Guo, Yuerong Ba, Dong Liu, Wei Pan 
    Abstract: In situ nanofibrillar reinforced blends with thermoplastic poly(vinyl alcohol) (TPVA) as matrix and Poly(lactic acid)(PLA) as dispersed fibrils were successfully prepared by a simple extrusion-stretching process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the melt-processed TPVA/PLA composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and tensile tests. The results indicated that there are hydrogen bonding between TPVA and PLA which enhance PLA dispersion as well as the interfacial adhesion with TPVA matrix. PLA content was varied from 10 to 30 wt% resulting in reinforced TPVA matrices with fibrils of 78~150 nm. Compared with TPVA, TPVA/PLA composites exhibit remarkable improvement in mechanical properties and thermal stability.
    Keywords: Thermoplastic poly(vinyl alcohol); Poly(lactic acid); Nanofibrillar blend; Hydrogen bonding.

  • Multiferroic properties of Mn-doped Bi4NdTi3FeO15 ceramics   Order a copy of this article
    by Qingqing Ma, Yahui Shu, Lin Cao, Zhenzhong Ding, Feng Huang 
    Abstract: Ceramics of Mn-doped Bi4NdTi3Fe1-xMnxO15 (Mnx, x=0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7) were synthesized by a multicalcination procedure. The substitution of Mn for Fe does not change the layered perovskite structure of Bi4NdTi3FeO15 (BNTF) except that small amounts of Mn3O4 appear in the samples. Plate-like morphology of the grains which is characteristic for layer-structure Aurivillius compounds was clearly observed for all the Mnx samples. The dielectric, ferroelectric and magentic properties of the samples were studied and it is found that the doping of Mn weakened the electric properties but improved the magnetic property. Especially, in Mn0.3 sample, the 2Mr value is about 10 times of those in other samples. The present work is meaningful for compositional design of room temperature (RT) multiferroic materials based on four-layer structured Aurivillius compounds.
    Keywords: Aurivillius phase; multiferroic; Bi4NdTi3FeO15; Mn-doping.

  • Molecular dynamics simulation of shear deformation of multi-layer graphene sheets with Tersoff potential   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaoxi Zhao, Yizhe Zhang, Yongchi Li, Wei Liu 
    Abstract: The failure process of multi-layer graphene sheets with AB stacking order under shear deformation is simulated using molecular dynamics method with Tersoff potential. Shear stress-strain relationships and shear failure modes of zigzag and armchair graphene sheets are obtained, while the effect of the number of graphene layers on the shear properties of zigzag and armchair graphene sheets is investigated. The results indicate that the shear modulus of graphene sheets is inclined to diverge with the increase of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, the ultimate stress and shear failure strain of zigzag and armchair graphene sheets are reduced gradually with the increase of the number of graphene layers.
    Keywords: multi-layer graphene; shear modulus; molecular dynamics; failure mode; Tersoff potential.

  • The luminescent properties of GdAlO3:Tb3+ phosphors based on molten salts addition   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinkai Li, Wenzhi Wang, Zongming Liu 
    Abstract: The (Gd1-xTbx)AlO3 (x=0-0.12) solid solutions were obtained through precursor synthesis via ammonium bicarbonate co-precipitation technology, and then calcined at high temperature. The performance characterizations of GdAlO3:Tb3+ phosphors were performed by XRD, FE-SEM, PLE/PL and fluorescence decay analysis. The analyzed results indicated that the pure-phase (Gd1-xTbx)AlO3 solid solutions with good dispersion could be obtained at relatively lower temperature of 1000 oC. Under the optimum UV excitation into 275 nm (4f8-4f75d1 transition of Tb3+), the photoluminescence (PL) spectra display a series of 5D4-7FJ transitions of Tb3+ in (Gd1-xTbx)AlO3 system with the strongest green emission at ~546 nm (5D4-7F5 transition of Tb3+). The overlapping between the 8S7/2-6IJ intra f-f transition of Gd3+ and 4f8-4f75d1 transition of Tb3+ at 275 nm, suggesting the Gd3+→Tb3+ energy transfer, and the quenching contents of Tb3+ was found to be ~10 at%. The luminescent property of GdAlO3:Tb3+ phosphor could be further improved with molten salt incorporation due to the crystalline perfection. According to the comprehensive analysis, the optimal composition of molten salts for GdAlO3 based phosphors was obtained in this work, the optimal molten salt was determined to be the mixture of NaCl/Na2SO4 (5 wt% NaCl), and the mass ratio of mixture molten salts to precursor was 2:1. The relationship between the luminescent property (emission intensity and lifetime) and molten salts composition were studied in detail. The (Gd1-xTbx)AlO3 phosphors with good luminescent property could be widely used in the lighting and display areas.
    Keywords: GdAlO3:Tb3+ phosphor; energy transfer; molten salts; luminescent property.

  • Hollow microellipsoid lithium silicate with mesoporosity and its formation mechanism   Order a copy of this article
    by Jing Gao, Mingxing Tong, Wei Lei, Xuan Zhang, Guohua Li 
    Abstract: Lithium silicate is an important sorbent to capture CO2. Herein hollow microellipsoids of lithium silicate with mesoporosity were prepared by a hydrothermal method using Na-montmorillonite and lithium hydrate as raw materials. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope analysis show that the crystal phase of the products is composed of lithium silicate and the particle morphology of the sample is hollow microellipsoid at around 600 nm. Furthermore, the wall of the microellipsoid is constituted of mesopores and nanoparticles with a size range within 20 to 40 nm. The specific area and aperture of the samples measured by BrunauerEmmettTeller method is 32.3 m2g-1 and 17.1 nm, respectively. Finally, a formation mechanism of the hollow microellipsoid was proposed to guide further exploration.
    Keywords: hollow microellipsoid; lithium silicate; mesoporosity; formation mechanism.

  • Preparation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) supported cobalt phthalocyanine thin membranes and its catalytic degradation of methylene blue   Order a copy of this article
    by Minhong Xu, Haifeng Chen, Guoxiang Pan, Yuhua Guo, Tao Wu 
    Abstract: The supported catalyst membranes (CoPc/PHBV) were prepared by solution casting method with tetracarboxyphthalocynine cobalt (CoPc) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV). The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X ray diffractometer and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that CoPc and PHBV may be combined by physical, and the crystal structure of PHBV which loaded CoPc is not changed. In addition, the catalytic performances of CoPc/PHBV were evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results reveal that CoPc/PHBV and H2O2 have significant synergistic effect on catalytic degradation of MB, and degradation efficiency is 73 % after 7 h. Hydroxyl radicals play a key role in catalytic degradation of MB based on the study of reaction mechanism. The dynamics about catalytic oxidation of MB were also explored. The results show that catalytic degradation process fits well with first-order kinetic equation.
    Keywords: cobalt phthalocyanine; PHBV; catalytic degradation; methylene blue; synergistic effect.

  • Preparation and characterization of cMWCNTs-mSA/mCS bipolar membrane for electrochemical synthesis   Order a copy of this article
    by Suyu Shi, Lina Wang, Kang Zhao, Chuntai Liu, Guoqiang Zheng 
    Abstract: In this study, a bipolar membrane (BPM) of sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan (CS) was prepared based on carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs). To improve the compatibility of anion-exchange layer and cation-exchange layer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was blended with both the SA and CS, respectively. A casting method was employed to prepare the modified BPM named as cMWCNTs-mSA/mCS BPM for simplicity. The morphology, thermal and structure stability, electrochemical properties and ion penetrability of the BPM were characterized. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images illustrate a structure consisting of two distinct layers that are closely combined with each other. Thermal gravimetric (TG) results indicate that the thermal stability of cMWCNTs-mSA/mCS BPM is significantly improved. Swelling behavior implies a proper hydrophilic performance and excellent structure stability in alkali solution. Compared with SA/CS BPM, the working voltage of cMWCNTs-mSA/mCS BPM is decreased sharply. Furthermore, the cMWCNTs-mSA/mCS BPM exhibited higher ion penetrability which is beneficial for electrochemical synthesis.
    Keywords: bipolar membrane; sodium alginate; chitosan; carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  • Photocatalytic properties of magnesium aluminate spinel nanoparticles prepared by chemical precipitation method   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Li, Yuqin Liu, Ji Chen, Da Chen, Junkai Tang, Yanxi Deng 
    Abstract: Magnesium aluminate spinel nanoparticles were synthesized via chemical precipitation method using ammonia as precipitating agent. The effects of calcination temperature on the phase constitution, morphologies, specific surface area and photocatalytic properties were investigated. Single phase cubic MgAl2O4 formed by calcining the precursors at the temperature ranges from 700 oC to 1000 oC for 90 min. The mean crystallite size of the MgAl2O4 powder increases slightly with the increase in calcination temperature. Increasing the calcination temperature leads to decrease in the specific surface area and the decline of the photocatalytic properties. The methylene blue removal ratio reaches 96.3 % within 240 min using MgAl2O4 spinel powder calcined at 700 oC.
    Keywords: magnesium aluminate spinel; chemical precipitation synthesis; photocatalytic properties; calcination.

  • Experimental investigation on the surface tension and contact angle of Al2O3-oil and SiO2-oil nanofluids   Order a copy of this article
    by Yue Li, Weilin Zhao, Yuying Gong 
    Abstract: The experimental results regarding the surface tension and contact angle of Al2O3-oil and SiO2-oil nanofluids with 0.1%-1.0% volume fraction at the temperature of 25
    Keywords: Al2O3-oil nanofluids; SiO2-oil nanofluids; surface tension; contact angle.

  • Growth of NiCo2O4 Nanotubes @MnO2 Sheet Core-Shell Arrays on 3D Hierarchical Porous Carbon Aerogels as Superior Electrodes for Supercapacitors   Order a copy of this article
    by Huili Fan, Jing Zhang, Wei Ju, Benxue Liu, Xibin Yi 
    Abstract: The hierarchical of NiCo2O4@MnO2 core-shell nanotubes arrays anchored on 3D hierarchical porous carbon aerogels scaffold (NiCo2O4@MnO2-CAS) are prepared through a facile hydrothermal method combined with a simple thermal treatment. Such unique array nanoarchitectures and the synergistic effects of component nanomaterials exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance. The results show high specific capacitance of 786.0 F/g at current densities of 0.5 A/g, excellent rate performance and good cycling stability with capacitance retention of 84.9 % after 2000 cycles. An asymmetric supercapacitor with operating potential at 1.4 V is configured with NiCo2O4@MnO2 composites against active carbon, and exhibits a specific capacitance of 145 F/g at current density of 1 A/g and a high energy density of 39.0 Wh /kg at a power density of 350.0 W/kg.
    Keywords: carbon aerogels; NiCo2O4@MnO2 composites; synergistic effect supercapacitors.

  • Scalable synthesis of Sn nanoparticles encapsulated in hierarchical porous carbon networks for high-rate reversible lithium storage   Order a copy of this article
    by Qingbin Zhu, Jinghao Liu, Yang Zhong, Guicun Li 
    Abstract: Sn nanoparticles encapsulated in hierarchical porous carbon networks (Sn@HPCNs) have been synthesized by the carbothermal reduction reaction of sodium stannate-crosslinked sodium polyacrylate xerogel. The synthetic strategy is simple and effective for the scalable production of Sn@HPCNs. The Sn@HPCNs show homogeneous distribution of Sn nanoparticles within hierarchical porous conductive carbon matrix. The obtained Sn@HPCNs exhibit high reversible discharge capacity (1652.1 mAh g1 at 0.1 A g1), superior rate performance (499.7 mAh g1 at 2 A g1), and excellent cycling stability (553.0 mA h g1 at 1.5 A g1 after 150 cycles). The superior lithium storage performances of the Sn@HPCNs are due to uniform distribution of Sn nanoparticles within hierarchical porous conductive carbon network, which could not only provide a conductive matrix, but also buffer huge volume change caused by lithiation and thus guarantee integrity of the Sn@HPCNs structure.
    Keywords: Sn; Hierarchical porous conductive carbon network; Anode; Lithium ion batteries.

  • Silicon based anode materials with three-dimensional conductive network for high-performance lithium ion batteries   Order a copy of this article
    by Liekai Liu, Biaohui Huang, Pingjian Niu, Jingming Zheng, Ling Chai, Li Song, Hao Tang 
    Abstract: Silicon(Si) is expected to replace graphite as the next generation anode material for lithium-ion batteries(LIBs). However, Si has a low electron conductivity and large volume changing during the Lithiation/Delithiation process, which limits the commercialization of the Si anode. In this paper, micron whisker carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) and graphene oxides(GO) were used to construct a three-dimensional conductive network to improve the electrochemical performance of the Si anode. Study found that GO and MWCNTs can greatly improve the performance of Si based anode. Among them, 5%GO/Si composite exhibited the highest charge capacity retention of 92.3%, maintains a capacity of 520.9mAh/g(contribution of micron Si is about 3388mAh/g) after 10 cycles.
    Keywords: Keywords: lithium-ion battery; anode materials; three-dimensional conductive network; Si based anode.

  • Khaki-colored niobium oxide nanochains with enhanced lithium storage performances   Order a copy of this article
    by Yanxin Bian, Zhonghua Zhang, Jinfang Su, Changming Mao, Guicun Li 
    Abstract: Khaki-colored niobium oxides (H-Nb2O5) nanochains were synthesized via a facile low temperature solution-based method combined with hydrogenation treatment process. The nanosized chain-like architectures facilitate the fast lithium ion diffusions. Meanwhile, the hydrogen reduction process can effectively endow Nb2O5 with partial Nb4+ species and/or oxygen vacancies, resulting in a large enhancement of its intrinsic electronic conductivity. When evaluated for lithium storage capacity, the H-Nb2O5 showed twice the rate capability at 20 C compared to that of the pristine Nb2O5 nanochains due to the combination of the reduced path and Nb4+ doping induced high electronic conductivity. This facile hydrogenation method is promising for designing high performance carbon-free electrode materials for lithium ion batteries.
    Keywords: Niobium oxide; Nanochains; Hydrogenation treatment; Anode; Lithium ion battery.

  • Influence of Shear-Induced Crystallization on the Rheological Behavior of Polyethylene   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinyan Wang, Xingyu Chen 
    Abstract: This paper presents a numerical simulation for the influence of shear-induced crystallization on the rheological behavior. The effect of flow on crystallization is considered through the mathematical relationship between the additional number of nuclei induced by shear treatment and the first normal stress difference. Avrami model is used to describe the crystallization kinetics. Normalized viscosity, orientation factor and extra stress are simulated with the development of crystallinity. It is found that the short-term shear treatment has a large effect on the crystallization dynamics of polyethylene , and a small amount of crystallinity causes a strong increase of shear viscosity. Beyond a specific shear strain the stress increases dramatically, which indicate the solidification of the material and the locking-in of stresses.
    Keywords: Shear-induced crystallization; Crystallization kinetics; Rheological Behavior; Numerical simulation.

  • Low temperature dependence of mechanical process of ultrathin aluminium films: molecular dynamics simulations   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiaoneng Guo, Jie-Fang Wang, Shi-E Yang, Mingxing Wang, Xue-Jie Han, Qiang Liu, Dong-Hui Zhu, Liang-Kui Hu 
    Abstract: The mechanical process of aluminium thin films under uniaxial tensile strain was simulated with molecular dynamics method in a low temperature range from 40 to 250 K. The stressstrain curve and potential energystrain curve of aluminium thin film under uniaxial tensile deformation were obtained by molecular dynamics simulations. The variation characteristics of stress-strain curves, with the changes of sample temperatures in uniaxial extension, are alike at the elastic stage in a temperature (T) range from 40 to 250 K. However, at the plastic stage the stress-strain curves are grouped into 3 categories (40K≤T<100K, 100K≤T<200K, 200K≤T≤250K) according to their variation characteristics. From the stressstrain curves, we gained the local maximum stress-temperature curve and its corresponding strain-temperature curve, and maximal potential energy-temperature curve and its corresponding strain-temperature curve. We found the strange temperature dependence of the local maximum stress, maximal potential energy and their corresponding strain: when the temperature is below 100 K, they go down quickly with temperature, and when above 100 K and below 200 K, they descend slowly and do very slowly above 200 K. By these dependences, we have identified two critical temperatures (100K and 200 K) for the transition of plastic flow mechanism.
    Keywords: Thin film; Tensile properties; Temperature effect; Molecular dynamics.

  • Creating Binder-Free Supercapacitor Electrodes from Biomass Resources: A Nitrogen-Doped Pomelo Peel Derived Carbon Foam   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Chen, Long Chen, Peirong Qi, Gang Wang, Lei Shi, Xiantao Feng, Feng Yu 
    Abstract: We conducted experiments in producing nitrogen-doped carbon foam using pomelo peels as a porous carbon material. Pomelos are a citrus fruit similar in appearance to grapefruit, and native to South and Southeast Asia. Specifically, we fabricated a nitrogen-doped pomelo peel derived carbon foam (N-PPCF) by using an ammonia gas treatment. The as-prepared N-PPCF had a high specific surface area of 1218.5 m2 g-1, an average pore size of 1.36 nm, and a pore volume value of 0.50 cm3 g-1. Additionally, the N-PPCF had a nitrogen content of 8.1 at%, allowing for a high specific capacitance of 150.1 F g-1 at a density of 1.0 A g-1. Even at 4 A g-1, the N-PPCF still maintained an ideal capacitance of 115.6 F g-1. Ultimately, we believe that N-PPCF is a potential method for treating pomelo peels, and that N-PPCF can function as a potential binder-free supercapacitor electrode.
    Keywords: pomelo peel; carbon foam; biomass resources; agricultural waste; binder free; supercapacitor.

  • Sulfur-doped Banana Peel-Derived Activated Carbon as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors   Order a copy of this article
    by Hui Chen, Zhuangzhi Zhao, Peirong Qi, Gang Wang, Lei Shi, Feng Yu 
    Abstract: Agricultural waste banana peel (BP) as a sustainable biomass resource is used to produce porous carbon (PC) and activated carbon (AC) materials. Sulfur-doped banana peel-derived AC (S-BP-AC) was successfully prepared for supercapacitors. The results show that the S-BP-AC presents a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 2224.9 m2/g, a large pore volume of 0.77 cm3/g, and a suitable pore-size distribution of approximately 0.8 nm. It is easy to bring S-BP-AC into contact with an electrolyte. The S-BP-AC electrode had great specific capacitance of 162.5 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g in a 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. The results indicate that the S-BP-AC can be applied to use in high performance supercapacitors.
    Keywords: activated carbon; sulfur-doping; agricultural waste; banana peel; supercapacitors.

  • Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of AgVO3/TiO2 Nanorod Array Composite Film under Visible Light Irradiation   Order a copy of this article
    by Tiantian Zhou, Shining Ni, Yundong Wu, Huaikai Li, Yongqiang Cao, Shengwen Fu 
    Abstract: The novel AgVO3/TiO2 nanorod array composite film (NACF) has been prepared by the hydrothermal and subsequent successive ionic layer adsorption methods. The photocatalytic films were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS). The SEM result showed that AgVO3/TiO2 NACF exhibited a well nanorod array structure, and some AgVO3 nanocrystals were deposited on the TiO2 nanorods. The novel AgVO3/TiO2 NACF showed the enhanced visible photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange (MO) compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod array film. The deposition of AgVO3 nanocrystals on the TiO2 nanorod array led to the improved visible light absorption of the composite film due to the narrow bandgap of AgVO3 (less than 2.5 eV). The contact of AgVO3 and TiO2 resulted in the formation of semiconductor heterostructure, which led to the enhanced separation of photogenerated carriers. The improved visible absorption and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs should result in the higher visible activity of composite film compared with pure TiO2 nanorod array film.
    Keywords: TiO2 nanorod array; AgVO3; composite film; photocatalyst.

  • The Study on Flexible AgVO3 Nano Paper and its Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity   Order a copy of this article
    by Shining Ni, Yingzi Wang, Tiantian Zhou, Huaikai Li, Yundong Wu, Yongqiang Cao, Xuesen Qin 
    Abstract: By means of the facile hydrothermal method, the ultralong -AgVO3 nanobelts have been synthesized successfully. The properties of the as-prepared -AgVO3 nanobelts were investigated by the characterizations, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS). As shown by the SEM results, the obtained nanobelts showed a ultralong length of hundreds of micrometers and the width in the range of about 60 - 350 nm. The surface of nanobelt was also very smooth. XRD result exhibited that the AgVO3 nanobelts had a crystal phase. By the virtue of pumping filtration of AgVO3 nanobelts solution and corresponding post processing, the flexible AgVO3 nano paper was prepared successfully. The AgVO3 nano paper exhibited a well flexibility and photocatalytic activity determined by the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under the visible light (nm) irradiation. The possible mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of RhB by AgVO3 was also proposed correspondingly. It is hoped that the synthesized flexible AgVO3 nano paper would also have the other applications in the fields, such as Li-ion battery, gas sensing, super capacitor, and so on.
    Keywords: AgVO3 nanobelts; flexible; nano paper; photocatalyst.

  • Surface modification of TiO2 Nanorod Arrays with Ag3PO4 @ PANI Nanoparticles for Enhancing Photoelectrochemical Performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiuquan Gu 
    Abstract: In this work, Ag3PO4@PANI particles with a core/shell structure were deposited onto the oriented TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) by a facile dipping route, in order to enhance the visible-light response as well as photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of TiO2 samples. Furthermore, the crystal structure, morphology, and optical properties of the composites (TiO2 photoanodes) were evaluated by a number of techniques, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Meanwhile, on/off photocurrent response, and impedance spectroscopy measurements as well as Mott-Schottky analysis were employed to make a characterization over TiO2 photoanodes before and after surface modification. A photocurrent density of 4.0 mA cm-2 is achieved at 0.0 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) under an illumination of 100 mW/cm2, which is ~ 2 times higher than that of pristine TiO2 photoanode measured under the same conditions. The performance improvement was mainly attributed to the enhanced visible-light response of TiO2.
    Keywords: Ag3PO4; photoelectrochemical; TiO2; nanorod array; Mott-Schottky.