Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Nanomanufacturing


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International Journal of Nanomanufacturing (39 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Performance of PVDF/ TiO2 Nano-composite Film in the Application of Energy Harvester   Order a copy of this article
    by NingLi An 
    Abstract: The compression mode and shear mode for energy harvesting experimental platform was estabished. The energy collection efficiency of PVDF/ TiO2 nano-composite film in the two mode and nonlinear piezoelectric effect were analyzed. Experimental results show that the energy collection efficiency of the shear mode was higher than the compressed mode. The Piezoelectric constant and piezoelectric coupling coefficient have nonlinear changes under large stress. In this paper, the experimental data establish a relationship electromechanical coupling coefficients and parameters of composite thin film piezoelectric stress.
    Keywords: Energy Harvester; Nano-composite Film; PVDF; TiO2.

  • Ultra-precision cutting of linear micro-groove array for distributed feedback laser devices   Order a copy of this article
    by Bing Guo, Xin Yu, Qingliang Zhao, Lei Xu 
    Abstract: The tunable range and beam linewidth of distributed feedback laser were determined by fabrication quality of the periodic linear micro-groove array on substrate, which grooves are high sloped and ranged sub-micron to few microns. Compared with the common micro-groove arrays (size from tens of microns to sub-millimeter), the ultra-precision cutting of these tiny and high-sloped linear micro-groove arrays is more difficult to realize. In this paper, a series of investigations was proposed for ultra-precision cutting of linear micro-groove array on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Firstly, the different cutting processes included planing and fly-cutting were conducted. The workpiece morphology, surface quality and machining efficiency of these processes were investigated. Then, the fly cutting process were optimized by the calculation of non-free chip zone and the analysis of chip interference by cutting experiments. Finally, a novel tool positioning method based on acoustic emission was presented in order to realize high accuracy control of micro-groove arrays dimensions.
    Keywords: Linear micro-groove array; Fly-cutting; Planing; Polymer; Chip flow; Tool positioning;.

  • Water Dissolution Ultra-precision Polishing of KDP Crystal and Its Precision Cleaning   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuchuan Chen, Hang Gao, Xu Wang, Xiaoji Teng 
    Abstract: KDP crystal is a kind of excellent electro-optic material used in many laser facilities, which is also widely acknowledged to be extremely hard to machine. In this work, we developed a process to finish KDP crystal to a precision and clean engineering specimen. A micro-nano water dissolution principle and its planarization mechanism in the machining process are illustrated, which turns the disadvantaged deliquescence property of KDP crystal into the driving force for ultra-precision polishing of the crystal. Micro emulsion fluid with nano water nuclei can precisely control the material removal and realize the selective polishing, thus forming a super smooth and precise surface. Then a subsequent cleaning process developed specially for this ultra-precision polishing method helps to get rid of the polishing fluid, and finally reduces the residue off the crystal to a clean and tidy surface with 1.964 nm rms roughness for engineering application.
    Keywords: KDP crystal; water dissolution mechanism; ultra-precision polishing; precision cleaning; FTIR spectrum.

  • Modeling and Optimization of cutting parameters on surface roughness in micro-milling Inconel 718 using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohong Lu, Furui Wang, Xinxin Wang, Likun Si 
    Abstract: In recent years, micro-milling techniques have attracted great attention and interest from academia and industry. Inconel 718 is a nickel-based superalloy with good tensile, fatigue, creep and rupture strength and can find great application in nuclear and aerospace industry. In this paper, the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop the model for predicting surface roughness in micro-milling Inconel 718. The magnitudes of cutting parameters affecting the surface roughness, which were depth of cut, spindle speed, and feed rate, were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA).The validity of the surface roughness prediction model was proved due to the tiny error between the measured values and the prediction results. Then, genetic algorithm (GA) was used to determine the optimal cutting parameters achieving minimum surface roughness in micro-milling Inconel 718 process. All experiments show that the optimized results agree well with the test ones.
    Keywords: micro-milling; Inconel 718; surface roughness; response surface methodology; genetic algorithm.

  • Study on a non-contact polishing method using motion coupling confined etchant layer technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Yongzhi Cao, Yuchao Jia, Yongda Yan, Lianhuan Han, Xuesen Zhao, Zhenjiang Hu, Dongping Zhan 
    Abstract: The confined etchant layer technique (CELT) has been proved not only an effective electrochemical microstructures fabrication method, but also a potential polishing method due to its distance sensitiveness. To verify its polishing capability in motion mode and examine the influence of motion parameters on polishing efficiency and material removal rate, motion coupling confined etchant layer technique (MCCELT) polishing experiments were carried out on n-GaAs wafers by adopting central composite inscribe (CCI) design of response surface methodology. Furthermore, the interactions between motion, electrochemical reaction and substrate deformation were analyzed using multi-physics coupling finite element simulations. Statistical model shows that sample surface roughness decreases with the decreases of working distance (between the electrode and the substrate) and feeding velocity, and indicates it still has potential to reach more smooth results.
    Keywords: Polishing; Multi-physics coupling; Electrochemical; GaAs; Response surface methodology.

  • Experimental investigation on the abrasive wear of AISI 52100 steel   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhixiang Chen, Weifeng Yao, Julong Yuan, Zhongdian Cheng, Wei Hang, Tianchen Zhao 
    Abstract: AISI 52100 steel has been widely used in various types of bearings in machinery equipment due to its excellent mechanical properties and high availability. In final manufacturing process of bearing parts, usually involve lapping and polishing methods on the ultra-precision machining in order to achieve high accuracy of profile and fine surface quality. The essence of this process is abrasive wear of AISI 52100 steel material. Therefore, in order to improve the super finishing process of bearings super finishing, the experiment of abrasive wear of AISI 52100 steel materials was carried out in this paper. The effects of different abrasive diameter and pressure on the material removal amount of AISI 52100 steel were investigated, the abrasive correction coefficient K in Preston formula was computed and obtained. The result shows that, reducing the abrasive diameter can increase the material removal rate and improve surface quality when other factors are maintained constant.
    Keywords: AISI 52100 Steel; Abrasive Wear; Material Removal; Correction Coefficient.

  • A Study of Materials Effects on the Single Cutting in Ultra-precision Raster Milling   Order a copy of this article
    by Sujuan Wang, Sandy To, Chen Xin 
    Abstract: Ultra-precision raster milling (UPRM) rotates a single crystal diamond tool to discontinuously remove materials from the workpiece and can directly produce freeform surfaces with sub-micrometric form accuracy and nanometric surface finishing. This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations on the workpiece material effect on single cutting profile in UPRM. Experiments are conducted to study the material effect on cutting profile by single cutting four materials including copper, aluminum alloy 6061, brass and aluminum bronze under the same cutting conditions in UPRM. A characterization method is presented in the paper to study the effect of different workpiece material on the cutting profiles in UPRM. The experimental results show that copper alloy makes the smallest effect on the single cutting profile because of the lowest elastic recovery ratio while the material effect of aluminum bronze is the highest due to the highest elastic recovery ratio and the highest hardness .
    Keywords: Material elastic recovery. Single Cutting. Ultra-precision raster milling.

  • Experimental study and prediction on impact scratching of single abrasive for K9 glass   Order a copy of this article
    by Chen Li, Feihu Zhang, Xiaoshuang Rao, Bing Leng 
    Abstract: The orthogonal test L16(43) was designed, and the impact scratching experiment for K9 glass was carried out by using Vickers diamond indenter on the DMG ULTRASONIC 70-5 linear. The three dimensional morphology of the surface for glass was observed by scanning electron microscope(SEM), which was compared with that in the quasi static state. The strain rate of the grinding process was obtained by choosing the contact zone length as the impact contact length, which was the evaluation Index of impact. The relationships between strain rate and the depth of radial crack, strain rate and the depth of transverse crack, strain rate and normal scratching force were first analyzed. The results showed that the depth of radial of crack, the depth of transversal crack and the normal scratching force decreased with the increase of strain rate. The two layer BP neural network was established, which took the strain rate as input variables. The depth of radial crack, the depth of transversal crack and normal scratching force were predicted and the errors were within 10%, which indicated that the prediction results of BP neural network were reliable.
    Keywords: impact scratching; K9 glass; strain rate; depth of crack; BP neural network.

  • Performance evaluation of coated cemented carbide inserts milling 508III steel   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Liu, Yaonan Cheng, Rui Guan, Ming Xu, Tong Wang 
    Abstract: A large amount of material is removed during the milling of a water chamber head manufactured of high-strength 508Ⅲ steel. The performance and service life of coated cemented carbide inserts have significant influences on processing efficiency and the quality of nuclear power components. This study will conduct single-factor milling experiments of water chamber heads relevant to practical working conditions. Influences of different milling parameters on the insert failure behavior are analyzed based on experimental results and simulation data. The failure mechanism of insert wear and fracture was also discussed. Finally, the influences of coating types and thickness values on the wear behavior of cemented carbide insert while cutting 508Ⅲ steel were investigated. The results of this research can be implemented in the improvement of coated cemented carbide inserts in regards to failure resistance and service life.
    Keywords: water chamber head; 508Ⅲ steel; coating; cemented carbide; crater wear.

  • Non-linear phase error compensation for fringe deflectometry measuring system   Order a copy of this article
    by Lili Jiang, Xiaodong Zhang, Fengzhou Fang 
    Abstract: Fringe deflectometry technique (FDT) plays a more and more important role in specular surface measurement due to its large measurement range in surface slope. However its accuracy is heavily dependent on the quality of the extracted phase data. The gamma effect of Liquid crystal display (LCD) and CCD camera in FDT system introduces significant phase distortion, resulting in a periodical phase error and therefore measurement error. A mathematical model is established to illustrate phase error introduced by Gamma effect, and then an optimal algorithm based on four-time four-step phase-shifting (FFPS) method is proposed to retrieve phase from distorted fringes. Simulation results prove that FFPS phase retrieval method can compensate for the phase error caused by the nonlinearity of the LED and CCD point-by-point, thus it is immune not only to calibration error, but also to the non-unitary of the Gamma effect spatially and temporally. Experimental results are also presented to verify the performance of the proposed method.
    Keywords: Fringe deflectometry; phase error compensation; freeform surface.

  • The Effects of Chemical Components in the Bath Solution on Mechanical Properties of the Electroplated Coating on Diamond Tools   Order a copy of this article
    by Qingqiu Chen, Zhongming Cui, Qingshan He, Jingjing Wang, Chuangju Feng 
    Abstract: The bath compositions are critical to mechanical performance of the coating layer for electroplated diamond tools. In this paper, the effects of different chemical components in bath solution on mechanical properties including tensile strength and hardness of the electroplated coating were investigated by orthogonal experiments. The influences of different chemical components including nickel sulfate, cobalt sulfate and sodium chloride on mechanical properties of the electroplated coating were analyzed. The results showed that the component of nickel sulfate was crucial for mechanical performance of the electroplated coating. Increasing the component of nickel sulfate caused an unstable situation on tensile strength and hardness of the electroplated coating. The maximum value was up to 651 MPa in tensile strength and 39 HRC in hardness when nickel sulfate was at 270 g/L and other components were unchanged. In contrast, it had no effect on tensile strength of the electroplated coating with the increase of the component of cobalt sulfate. However, hardness of the electroplated coating could be improved by increasing the component of cobalt sulfate. The concentration of sodium chloride had no obvious effect on mechanical properties of the electroplated coating layer. The experimental results revealed that the optimized bath compositions were at 270 g/L nickel sulfate, 20 g/L cobalt sulfate, and 10 g/L sodium chloride.
    Keywords: bath compositions; electroplated diamond tools; electroplated coating; mechanical properties.

  • Research on Energy Consumption and Energy Efficiency of Machine Tools: A Comprehensive Survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Lorena Moreira, Weidong Li, Michael Fitzpatrick, Xin Lu 
    Abstract: The increasing demand for energy, coupled with concerns over pollution and climate change, has led governments to establish policy frameworks to reduce CO2 emissions. Moreover, rises in energy price and increasingly greener customer behaviour are pushing the manufacturing industries to develop more sustainable processes. As a major source of energy consumption in manufacturing systems, machine tools have been the focus of sustainability research communities worldwide. This paper provides a survey of manufacturing industrys sustainability trends and presents a technology-foresight-based methodology for gathering key information on the research development in this topic. Furthermore, a correlation between real world aspects, such as legal, economic and environmental, and the development of research on energy consumption and efficiency of machine tools is provided. The results highlight the leading countries, institutions, authors and subject areas in this field. Research & development shows a high correlation with governmental action, and appears to be of core importance to meet CO2 reduction targets.
    Keywords: CNC machining; machine tools; energy; sustainable manufacturing; research foresight.

  • Axicon profile metrology using contact stylus method   Order a copy of this article
    by Huimin Gao, Xiaodong Zhang, Fengzhou Fang 
    Abstract: Axicon lenses, characterized by their cone shape, have rotational symmetry. The generatrix of axicons is the surface profile going across the apex of the axicon and the cone angle of the axicon can be calculated from the generatrix. Axicons, widely used in optical alignment and Bessel-Gauss beam generation, require high accuracy in surface and cone angle metrology. However, current methods focus on measuring the cone angle with a stylus profiler, a process in which misalignment and displacement are common when measuring the generatrix. A method is proposed that multiple parallel measurement paths near the apex of the axicon will obtain the generatrix with the specific algorithm. In experiments, the axicon with a cone angle of about 90
    Keywords: Axicon; Alignment error; Displacement error; Profile metrology; Stylus measurement; Generatrix error.

  • Experimental research on pulse laser assisted micro turning of ZrO2 ceramic   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiuqing Hao, Hao Yan, Jinjin Han, Chenjiao Yao, Ning He 
    Abstract: ZrO2 ceramic materials have outstanding propertied, like high wear resistance, good corrosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, etc., and has been widely applied in modern industry. However, ZrO2 ceramic is one of the difficult-to-machine materials, which would lead to rapid tool wear and poor surface quality. Micro turning combined with pulse laser, as a new kind of process in machining ZrO2 ceramic, is studied in this paper. And a comparative research between micro turning with and without pulse laser assisted of ZrO2 ceramic has been conducted. The results revealed that under the same machining parameters, both the cutting force and machined surface roughness obtained in pulse laser assisted micro turning was smaller than that in micro turning without pulse laser, and the pulse laser could effectively reduce the tool wear. The work carried out in this paper would be helpful to the further research on the pulse laser assisted micro machining of ZrO2 ceramic.
    Keywords: ZrO2 ceramic; pulse laser assisted machining; micro turning.

  • Simulation of microstructure evolution coupled with fabrication parameters for two-phase ceramic tool materials   Order a copy of this article
    by Bin Fang, Chonghai Xu, Guangchun Xiao 
    Abstract: A computer simulation coupled with fabrication parameters for the sintering process of two-phase ceramic tool materials has been developed using a two-dimensional hexagon lattice model mapped from the realistic microstructure. The relationship between fabrication temperature and microstructure evolution, fabrication pressure and microstructure evolution is proposed, respectively. The mean grain size of simulated microstructures by Monte Carlo Potts model integrated with fabrication temperature and pressure increases with an increase in fabrication temperature and pressure, which is consistent with the experiment results. The microstructure evolution of ceramic tool materials during fabrication is simulated by the new Monte Carlo Potts model with considering technology parameters.
    Keywords: Simulation; Hot-pressing sintering; Ceramic matrix composites (CMC); Microstructure; Monte Carlo model.

  • Research on Ice Fixed-abrasive Polishing Mechanism and Technology for High-Definition Display Panel Glass   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuli Sun, Suyang Tang, Wenzhuang Lu, Jun Li, Dunwen Zuo 
    Abstract: This study introduces an ice fixed-abrasive polishing (IFAP) technology. Using silica solution IFAP pad and Al2O3 IFAP pad, orthogonal tests were performed on polishing high-definition display panel glass, respectively. The results show that the polishing efficiency and effect polished with silica solution IFAP pad are better than those polished with Al2O3 IFAP pad. The optimized silica solution IFAP parameters are: polishing pressure 0.1MPa, polishing time 40min, table velocity 80r/min, and the ratio of accelerator and slurry 1:10. Finally, the IFAP mechanism was studied and it is suggested that IFAP is a comprehensive effect of mechanical removal and microchemical reaction, combined with fixed abrasive polishing and free abrasive polishing.
    Keywords: Ice fixed-abrasive polishing; High-definition display panel glass; Material removal rate; Surface roughness.

  • Machining position-attitude optimization in ion beam figuring of high-precision off-axis aspheric surfaces   Order a copy of this article
    by Xu Mingjin 
    Abstract: High-precision off-axis aspheric components are widely applied in various high-performance optical systems. However, the complicated manufacturing features of off-axis aspheric make it difficult to achieve high-precision surface for traditional optical manufacturing methods. Ion beam figuring (IBF) is a non-contact and highly deterministic method for the final precision optical figuring. In this paper, two different machining position-attitude models are discussed, which have great influence on the machining difficulty and figuring accuracy of IBF. The Child mirror Coordinate Position-Attitude Model (CCPAM), which is based on the robustness of IBF removal function to small disturbance of target distance and incidence angle, can effectively decrease the sag height and incidence angle, thereby reduce the beam errors and machining difficulty. A linear three-axis IBF system is successfully applied for the figuring of a large-aperture parabolic off-axis aspheric mirror based on the CCPAM and its best-fit sphere. With two iterations of 113min, surface error is down to 7.658nm RMS (effective aperture 310mm
    Keywords: Ion beam figuring; off-axis aspheric; machining position-attitude optimization; high-precision.

  • Surface Microstructure Parameter Optimization for Enhancing Light Extraction Efficiency of LED   Order a copy of this article
    by Dong Yuan, Xianyu Lin, Yanguo Liu, Guofu Zhou 
    Abstract: Surface structure modification is an effective way to enhance light extraction of LED, which is limited by total internal reflection on the interfacial surface. The periodic surface structures manufactured by micromachining was proved to be a feasible way to enhance the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of LEDs. In order to obtain the highest LEE, need to optimize the structural parameters. In this paper, a simplified ray tracing optical model was built to find out a high performance microstructure parameters by simulation. Then, a mathematical model was built to further optimize the optical simulation results, obtained the optimal microstructure parameters for LEE. The performance of optimal microstructure was also studied by optical simulation.
    Keywords: LED; Microstructure; Light Extraction Efficiency(LEE); Structural Parameter Optimization; Micromachining.

  • Development of CNC Software for Single Point Diamond Precision Lathe Based on UMAC   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuehua Sun, Jianqun Liu, Weiqiang Gao, Guoqiang Huang, Huijing Huang 
    Abstract: ABSTRACT:rnA precise SPDT (Single Point Diamond Turning) CNC software is developed on the Windows platform using QT4.8.1 graphical interface development tools, with the calling of the UMAC library function. This paper introduces the hardware design of precise SPDT CNC system, the communication method between QT and UMAC, the design and implement of the main interface of the software, the implement of the basic motion control, the process of each module, the software three-dimensional (3D) simulation of this system. The result of the 3D simulation shows that the design of the system is reasonable, and the system is able to achieve good processing results. Such a numerical control system has a certain economic value and prospects for industrial applications. rn
    Keywords: Keywords: SPDT; CNC Software; Qt; UMAC; Modularization.

  • Effect of single grit impacts on initiation and propagation of cracks in ultrasonic assisted grinding of ceramics by using SPH method   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhiqiang Liang, Meng Tian, Qiuyan Wang, Xibin Wang, Tianfeng Zhou, Jiao Li, Yongbo Wu 
    Abstract: In order to investigate the material removal mechanism in vertical ultrasonic assisted grinding (VUAG) of ceramics, single-grit impact simulation is performed by using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The initiation and propagation of cracks in grinding of Al2O3 ceramics are analyzed. In this simulation, the grit is modeled as a rectangular pyramid diamond indenter, and the process of grit impacting on workpiece under different impact speeds is simulated. The critical depth of initiation and propagation of lateral crack is observed. The results show that within a certain range of impact speed, the critical depth of lateral crack decreases with the increasing of impact speed. This means that the brittle fractures are more prone to occur in VUAG. Considering that the material micro-fracture is the main mode in ceramics material grinding under ordinary processing conditions, the material removal rate in VUAG can be improved. Moreover, by observing the surface topography, it can be found that the surface roughness becomes smaller when the impact speed increases.
    Keywords: Ultrasonic assisted grinding (UAG);Smoothed particle hydrodynamic method (SPH); Crack; Al2O3 ceramics.

  • Effects of cutting parameters on temperature and temperature prediction in micro-milling of Inconel718   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaohong Lu, Hua Wang, Zhenyuan , Yixuan Feng, Steven Y. Liang 
    Abstract: Inconel 718 is a kind of difficult-to-machine material, and micro-milling is an effective method for fabricating micro structure/parts of Inconel 718. The change rules of micro-milling temperature differ from that of the traditional processing, which will affect the surface integrity of the workpiece and the tool life of the micro-milling cutter in different ways. To ascertain the effects of cutting parameters on cutting temperature during micro-milling and achieve the cutting temperature prediction, some micro-milling experiments were conducted based on the response surface method. The independent and interaction effects of spindle speed, feed per tooth and axial cutting depth on cutting temperature were investigated. A micro-milling temperature prediction model was established based on the experiment results. The maximum prediction error was 5.3%, and the average prediction error was 2.6%. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed model is validated through experiments of micro-milling Inconel718.
    Keywords: Micro-milling; Cutting temperature; Inconel718; Response surface method.

  • Design and Simulation of Ultrasonic Horns in Ultrasonic Vibration Machining
    by meipeng zhong, Julong Yuan , Weifeng Yao , Zhixiang Chen, Zhongdian Chen  
    Abstract: Ultrasonic horns are also called ultrasonic shift levers. They magnify ultrasonic vibration amplitude to meet the requirements of ultrasonic machining. To improve the efficiency of ultrasonic grinding, reduce the connecting parts of the lever, and reduce internal stress, the amplitude of the ultrasonic vibration process is defined in this study. The amplitude of the stress and modal simulation was determined using ANSYS was used as the simulation system for ultrasonic horn deformation. The stress and displacement at the end of the ultrasonic horns are the highest; however, the displacement at the node position of the flange is almost zero. The maximum displacement is 14.893 µm, and the minimum displacement is close to zero. Ultrasonic horns in ultrasonic vibration machining meet the requirements of use. It is proved in theory that the performance of the ultrasonic system is reliable and the design is reasonable.
    Keywords: amplitude, transformer, ultrasonic vibration, stress, modal

  • Directivity Process Modelling for the Figure Error Correction of Dual-Rotation Magnetorheological Finishing
    by Yuyue Wang, Yun Zhang, Zhijing Feng 
    Abstract: To study Dual-Rotation Magnetorheological Finishing (DRMRF) technology and obtain a smoother surface, the model for the polishing process of the figure error correction (directivity process model) in DRMRF was established in this paper. Existing researches ignored the influence of feed rate and revolution upon removal function. In this paper, a method of modifying the removal function is presented, which takes the relative velocity of the Magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) and the part into consideration. The directivity of removal amount during modelling adds a new dimension for analysis. The numerical simulation results of removal amount and its directivity show that the removal amount distributed more evenly along every direction because of the revolution of the wheel in DRMRF. The removal amount distribution is one of the fundamental differences between common MRF and DRMRF. Finally, a Fused Silica planar blank was polished by DRMRF, and the initial figure error was 10 nm RMS and 67 nm PV. The surface figure error is corrected to 2.4 nm RMS and 20 nm PV (full aperture = 95% diameter), and the stripe-like scratches are suppressed. The numerical simulation results and the experimental result indicates the effectiveness of DRMRF and the correctness of directivity process model.
    Keywords: Magnetorheological Finishing; Dual-Rotation Magnetorheological Finishing; Figure error correction; Directivity modelling; Optical fabrication

  • Effect of FAP characteristics on fixed abrasive polishing of CaF2 crystal
    by Jun Li, Yongkai Tang, Longlong Song, Yongwei Zhu, Dunwen Zuo 
    Abstract: Pad is an important factor, which bears pressure to mechanically remove material in chemical mechanical polishing process. Owing to the abrasives fixed in pad, fixed abrasive pad (FAP) becomes more important and influences material removal and surface quality of wafer. The characteristics of FAP, abrasive type, particle size and matrix hardness, were analyzed and the effect on material removal rate (MRR) and surface quality was investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of CaF2 crystal. The results indicated that FAP with 3-5 µm diamond abrasive and soft matrix is suited to polish CaF2 crystal. And the better surface quality with surface roughness Sa 7.27 nm and material removal rate 192 nm/min, can be achieved in fixed abrasive polishing of CaF2 crystal.
    Keywords: Fixed abrasive polishing; Fixed abrasive pad (FAP); CaF2 crystal; Matrix hardness; FAP characteristics

  • Developed greener method based on MW implementation in manufacturing CNFs
    by Loai Aljerf, Rim Nadra 
    Abstract: Many researchers have worked to develop certain applications of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) materials. However, they faced primer obstacles related to the improper optimised conditions that mostly give heterogeneous surfaces with low product quality. Therefore, this study comes as the first trial that uses Microwave (MW) technique in combination with assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) to provide higher heating rates which will generate homogeneous surfaces at short period thermal reaction. The MW absorption properties were stimulated based on a model for a single-layer plane wave absorber. The model used for manufacturing process was validated to give better selectivity which then was verified by ANOVA statistical analysis. After that, the morphology, characterisation, and purity of the product were tested. The outcomes of this study had confirmed that these materials are of highly-ordered pyrolitic graphite nature and successfully proved the significance of the optimised model at elevated temperatures. CNFs were obtained having uniform diameters (80-150nm) and long fibres (0.82-1.75µm). SEM and TEM evaluations revealed relatively less damage in fractured surfaces and the TGA exhibited insignificant change of CNFs materials during the thermal decomposition. Hereby, the increase of temperature has little influence on the carbon fibre graphitisation. The “solid” CNFs showed clear properties as disorder, crystalline, and bent graphitic sheets. Consequently, the as-prepared CNTs are demonstrated to show good MW-absorption properties with superior performance which could be due to the combination of the dielectric-type absorption and the interference of multi-reflected MW. This enhancement gave 97% purity of the novel manufactured CNFs. Therefore, we recommend our greener nanoproducts for such industries as energy, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, textile, sensors, electronics, vehicles, and both of quantum dots (QD) and fluorescent C-dots.
    Keywords: Greener nanoproducts; cosmetics; industry; homogeneous dispersion; electron diffraction pattern; pyrolysis; multi-walled structures; turbostratic stacking; azimuthal broadening; polymeric bonding.

  • 3D surface roughness evaluation of surface topography in ultrasonic vibration assisted end grinding of SiCp/Al composites
    by Zhou Li, ZHOU Ming, HAN Xiong, ZHOU Jin 
    Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of ultrasonic vibration and cutting conditions on surface quality accurately, the grinding experiments of SiCp/Al composites were carried out. And a comprehensive analysis to characterize the machined surface topography with 3D roughness such as amplitude parameters and spatial parameters was presented. The experimental results indicate that the machined surface of ultrasonic vibration assisted end grinding is filled with peaks and dales and the surface texture is almost isotropic. Ultrasonic vibration can tremendously improve the machined surface performance, comparing with conditional grinding. And low surface roughness value can be obtained in the conditions of high spindle speed, large vibration amplitude, low feed rate and small cutting depth.
    Keywords: ultrasonic vibration assisted end grinding; SiCp/Al composites; surface quality; 3D surface roughness; grinding conditions

  • Analytical modelling of a tri-axial flexible capacitive tactile sensing array
    by Jian-Ping Yu, Xin Li, Yu-Liang Zhang 
    Abstract: In this paper, the analytical modelling of a tri-axial flexible capacitive tactile sensing array is proposed. A unit sensing element consists of a sensing electrode layer, an insulation layer, a common electrode layer and a surface layer. The sensing electrode layer is of flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) based structure, on which, four sensing electrodes and fragile interconnects for signal sampling are implemented. While the common electrode layer is patterned on polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) based structures, on which only a common electrode is implemented. This design is on purpose of enhancing the device flexible rigidity. Four sensing electrodes and a common electrode constitute four capacitors in a unit sensing element, when the four capacitors are arranged in a square form, the measured contact force will be easily decomposed into its normal and shear components. The estimated sensitivities of a unit sensor are 0.43 and 0.17%/mN for the x-y and z-axes, respectively.
    Keywords: capacitive microsensor; three-dimensional tactile sensing; common electrode; PDMS.

  • Study on eddy current loss characteristics of precision giant magnetostrictive actuator considering magnetic field distribution
    by HuiFang Liu, Shuang Gao 
    Abstract: In order to accurately calculate eddy current loss of the rod-shaped giant magnetostrictivematerial ,improve the giant magnetostrictive actuator control accuracy of displacement , a eddy current loss model of rod GMM that considering the skin effect was established.Firstly, the traditional eddy current loss of rod-shaped GMM was deduced ,then discussed the influence of the skin effect for the inside magnetic field distribution of GMM rod ,finally analyzed the temperature characteristics of GMA throught the comsolmultiphysics finite element numerical analysis method .Compared with traditional eddy current loss ,under low frequency the two methods has same result, but under high frequency the new model can be more accurately calculate the eddy current loss of rod-shaped GMM .The research result has a great significance for improving the control precision and advancing the study of eddy current loss of GMA.
    Keywords: giant magnetostrictive actuator ,eddy current loss, temperature characteristics

  • Forces, form deviations and surface roughness in micro-milling of CoCr alloys for dental prostheses
    by Frederik Elsner-Dörge, Oltmann Riemer, Melanie Willert, Axel Meier 
    Abstract: Micro-milling is commonly used for the manufacture of dental prostheses. Demands to the application of these prostheses require hard and tough materials like cobalt-chrome alloys. The cutting process is governed by static as well as dynamic interactions between the process and the structure of the workpiece. These interactions deteriorate the work result, especially the shape accuracy. The deflection of the milling tool is one effect, which has a significant influence. The work presented in this paper aims to establish a connection between forces, respectively tool deflection and resulting form deviations during micro-milling of defined geometries in CoCr alloys by measuring the active forces and evaluating the resulting form. In order to quantify the surface quality, white light interferometry is applied to measure the surface roughness Sa and Sq and the influence of feed rate vf and radial infeed ae on the surface roughness is derived.
    Keywords: force measurement, form deviation, micro-milling, dental prostheses, cobalt chrome, shape accuracy, surface roughness

  • Review on Extrusion of Magnesium Matrix Nano Composites
    by D. Anburose, N. Manikanda Prabu, V.S. Thangarasu, G. Sureshkannan 
    Abstract: Increase in industrial requirements focusing on various research activities on composite material in a narrow region. This is being observed through replacement of material components over an existing one due to its betterment in structure behaviour and properties. In recent days, Nano technology comes to play an essential part in composites and coating of material to upgradation of parameters. This work constitute the outlines and importance of extrusion process in magnesium matrix Nano composites, meanwhile the effect of various factors like temperature, grain size, extrusion speed, extrusion ratio etc., on enhancing the microstructure and mechanical properties of the magnesium matrix composites. The extruded components have more excellent properties such as tensile strength, proof stress and elongation than the cast components. Addition of Nano particles may lead to significant inhibition in grain boundaries resulting in refined grains after extrusion resulting in high strength of the composites. Nano particles can significantly increase the mechanical strength of magnesium matrix by effectively promoting particle hardening mechanism than micro size particles.
    Keywords: Magnesium matrix Nano composites; Nano particles; Extrusion process; dynamically re-crystallized grains.

  • Optical and electrical properties of Nd-doped ZnO films prepared by sol-gel method   Order a copy of this article
    by H-Y. He, Z. He, Q. Shen 
    Abstract: ZnO films doped with Nd contents of 0%-0.81% were deposited by a chemical solution deposition and characterised by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis and luminescent spectrophotometry and electrical measurement. The experiments revealed that the films have nano-scale particle size that increased with increasing Nd content. The Nd doping resulted in the obvious variations of transmittance in the UV-visible light range, the band gap and resistivity. Thin film showed an optimal optical and electrical properties at Nd content of 0.42%. The films also showed a strong band gap emission and a very weak emission related to intrinsic defect.
    Keywords: ZnO; Nd-doping; sol-gel deposition; transmittance; band gap; luminescence; electrical resistivity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNM.2017.10008406
  • Study on the analysis of the mechanism of EDM based on Su-Field   Order a copy of this article
    by Suchang Ma, Zhanhui Wang, Lingyu Lin 
    Abstract: EDM is an important means of processing in mould processing industry. In this paper, the Su-Field analysis method is applied to study the mechanism of EDM, the application process of Su-Field analysis method to solve the problem of EDM discharge system was established, the microscopic process of EDM dielectric breakdown was described, the Su-Field model of the single pulse discharge four phases, discharge channel formation, breakdown discharge, galvanic corrosion throwing and the deionisation between the medium, was established, and finally the complete Su-Field model of single pulse discharge process of EDM was achieved. In the single-pulse discharge established Su-Field model basis, the factors affecting the processing speed, surface roughness and electrode wear were analysed, further integration of 76 standard solutions, the plan to solve the problem of instability in the discharge process was achieved, at the same time, a new way for the research of EDM process was provided.
    Keywords: TRIZ; Su-Field analysis; 76 standard solutions; EDM mechanism; discharge system.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNM.2017.10008407
  • A study on the prediction of tool wear in drilling the carbon fibre reinforced plastic   Order a copy of this article
    by S.B. Kim, H.G. Shin, J.H. Oh, S.H. Yoo 
    Abstract: Carbon fibre reinforced plastics has a lot of merit such as mechanical characteristic, lightweight, and thermal resistance. For using carbon fibre reinforced plastics, the cutting and drilling process is necessary, and the study of optimal cutting conditions is very necessary, too. Generally, CFRP needs the processes of lathe turning, drilling, milling and cutting after moulding. However, these processes cause such problems as sudden abrasion of the tools, heavy surface roughness and defective layer by crack and delamination. Therefore, the study to examine the conditions for the high precision products by minimising these problems is very important. In this study, a sample was made with a CFRP plate to take a drilling test under a set condition with a high speed steel drill. This dissertation is a study on the optimal drilling conditions of CFRP with various drilling condition. The drilling of these various specimens with different machining condition is performed.
    Keywords: carbon fibre reinforced plastics; CFRP; cutting force; tool wear; prepreg.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNM.2017.10008409
  • A study on the displacement analysis in the injection moulding for the camera-phone   Order a copy of this article
    by Joosang Lee 
    Abstract: Smartphones are currently the most popular electronic devices with high volume production activities driven by high demand and requirements for rapid turnaround time. The changes of displacement were analysed according to a variable of the gate size and runner system. The radial type and gate with large size were shown that better results in displacement. While the design and production of lenses, the key component of a camera, still need to be improved, the current technology has run into its limit with regard to trends in size and weight reduction. In this study, an injection moulding analysis was performed on plastic lenses that are widely employed for smartphone cameras. Specifically, the displacement of lenses at the time of injection moulding was studied by varying the gate size and runner system.
    Keywords: plastic aspheric lens; runner system; gate size; displacement analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNM.2017.10008410
  • AFM-based imaging conditions optimisation of cell topography   Order a copy of this article
    by Ya Li, Alamusi, Shen Dong, Jinghe Wang, Haidong Liu 
    Abstract: Surface topography of cancer cell is particularly vital since cell frequently changes its shape as interacting with neighbouring cells and extracellular matrix. Atomic force microscope (AFM) has an extraordinary superiority in surface scanning of cells but the scanning consequence depends upon experiment conditions or experience primarily. In our study, a quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combination design was operated to acquire optimal parameters for cell profiling via AFM. By iterative calculation, the optimum AFM scanning of cell can be accomplished at setpoint of 0.61 V, scanning rate of 2.23 Hz and proportional gain of 3.85. Satisfactory surface morphology images of human bronchial epithelium BEAS-2B and pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell A549 were acquired at this calculated scanning condition, in which the details of surface coarse particle and cell junction structure are visible. This emerging insight into cell profiling may encourage the understanding of the underlying mechanism for cellular inner reconstruction during cell migration.
    Keywords: atomic force microscopy; quadratic regression orthogonal rotation design; scanning parameter; cell imaging.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNM.2017.10008413
  • Influence of clearance angle on micro/nano structure fabrication in elliptical vibration cutting of hardened steel   Order a copy of this article
    by Jianguo Zhang, Norikazu Suzuki, Yilong Wang, Eiji Shamoto 
    Abstract: Surfaces textured by sophisticated micro/nano structures can provide advanced and useful functions and features as compared with simply smooth surfaces. To promote widespread use of the structured surfaces, manufacturing technology of structured surfaces for ultra-precision dies and moulds made of hardened steel is absolutely essential. Conventional diamond cutting is not applicable to machining of steel due to rapid tool wear and surface deterioration. On the other hand, elliptical vibration cutting (EVC) equipped with the ultra-precision amplitude control sculpturing method is considered as a potential candidate for the functional surface fabrication on steel materials. In this method, tool geometry, especially the clearance angle, imposes a limit on the machinable part geometry due to the flank face contact to the target shape in the downhill machining. In order to clarify the influence of flank face contact on the machining accuracy and the tool wear, a series of theoretical and experimental investigations are conducted in this paper. A surface with micro sine-sweep profile is fabricated on hardened steel by applying the proposed amplitude control sculpturing method. It verified that the interference between flank face and fabricated structure causes not only the serious machining accuracy deterioration but also the serious tool damage due to the enhancing of ploughing process.
    Keywords: elliptical vibration cutting; EVC; hardened steel; amplitude control sculpturing method; clearance angle.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNM.2017.10008414
  • Study on algorithm of automatic alignment compensation of electron gun in a scanning electron microscope   Order a copy of this article
    by Seung-Jae Kim, Dong-Young Jang 
    Abstract: Primary electrons are emitted from the cathode in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electron gun's cathode diameter is ~60 m and the anode's internal diameter is ~3 mm. When the cathode and anode centres do not match, the SEM image is distorted. We developed an automatic alignment method for the electron gun. The primary electrons are scanned under the anode hole for secondary electron image acquisition. However, when the primary electrons are scanned from the upper anode hole, secondary electrons on the specimen as big as the size of the anode hole are generated. The alignment of the cathode and anode centres is determined from the image's brightness and position on the screen; if the image is very bright, the alignment is normal. We employ pattern recognition to analyse images to achieve automatic alignment of the electron gun. We designed a scanning device and performed image scale calibration.
    Keywords: scanning electron microscope; SEM; electron beam; automatic alignment; electron gun alignment; beam imaging; tungsten filament; electron scanning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNM.2017.10008419
  • Comprehensive error modelling and error compensation for complex optical free-form surface polishing platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhang En Zhong, Zhao Ji, Ji Shi Jun, Li Gang 
    Abstract: Four-axis polishing platform plays an important role in machining a complex optical free-form surface and the kinematic error generally determine the accuracy of the optical free-form surface fabricated by this platform. This paper analyses kinematics of the polishing platform based on the homogeneous coordinate transformation theory and the error of kinematics synthesis model is established. Based on minimum error assumption, transition matrix is obtained from machine tool coordinate system to the cutting tool coordinate system and changing rule of comprehensive error in different position and direction is gained in two-axis motion worktable. Laser interferometer is used to measure the geometric error of polishing platform, it is found that different feed rate and measured spacing had no significant effect on the positioning error of moving axis and positioning error rather than the straightness and angle error has more significant influence on the accuracy of machine tool. Compensation experiment was conducted based on integrated error model, the x-axis and z-axis positioning error was reduced by 87.37% and 90.32% after compensation and the compensation result is remarkable.
    Keywords: four-axis polishing platform; comprehensive error; homogeneous coordinate transformation; compensation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNM.2017.10008421
  • A multiscale simulation investigation of dislocation behaviour of PCD failure process   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinxuan Bai, Qingshun Bai 
    Abstract: Although polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is ever viewed as brittle materials, it can present strong dislocation activity in certain condition. In this paper, the two dimensional discrete dislocation plastic (DDP) simulation under fully periodic boundary conditions was employed to study PCD dislocation behaviour. Crystal dissipation and entropy theory were introduced into the computational study to reveal dislocation density evolution and disordered sequence during PCD failure process. Our result showed that the developed model can capture the essential features of PCD dislocation evolution behaviour and realises accurate description of PCD failure process. Investigations of plastic dissipation and dislocation structure evolution reveal that the dislocation structure evolution plays a key role in the fracture process.
    Keywords: polycrystalline diamond; PCD; discrete dislocation plastic; DDP; crystal dissipation; entropy; failure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJNM.2017.10008422