Forthcoming articles

 


International Journal of Mechanisms and Robotic Systems

 

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International Journal of Mechanisms and Robotic Systems (17 papers in press)

 

Regular Issues

 

  • Characterization and Control of IPMC for Use in Bio-inspired Actuators   Order a copy of this article
    by Sabreen Abdallah Abdelwahab, Farid A. Tolbah, Magdy M. Abdelhameed, Mohamed B. Trabia, Mohammed I. Awad 
    Abstract: this paper presents the development and design of a bio-inspired artificial muscle actuator. The proposed design uses Ionic Polymeric Metallic Composites (IPMC), which functions as the force generating source in the actuator. The relation between input voltage and position of the end point IPMC actuator was characterized experimentally. A mathematical model is developed and used in controlling the IPMC motion using a PID controller. The controller shows a good tracking of the reference signals sent to test the system. A real time control system is developed. Experimental results show that it exhibited good tracking with respect to the reference signals.
    Keywords: IPMC Control; PID; Linear Actuator; Modeling; IPMC Characterization; bio-inspired actuator; Soft Robotics; Real Time Control.

  • Control of a snake robot with 3R joint mechanism   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajashekhar V S, Pravin T, Thiruppathi K 
    Abstract: The control of a snake robot on the flat andrninclined surfaces is difficult due to different sequences ofrnactuation of actuators. This paper explains the control of twornsets of three revolute joint mechanism in the snake robot withrnthe help of servo motors. It is possible for the snake robot tornexhibit concertina motion and side winding motion. There arernseven servo motors which play an important role inrnperforming concertina motion. Side winding motion isrnperformed with the help of two DC motors. In this paper,rncontrolling the seven servo motors and two DC motors arerndiscussed which enables the snake robot to exhibit the twornmotions. The simulation results validate the working of thernsnake robot and the implemented snake robot is shown.
    Keywords: 2[3R] joint mechanism; concertina motion; side winding motion; linear control; snake robot; pulse width modulation wave.

  • Experimental investigation on attachment properties of dry adhesives used in climbing robots   Order a copy of this article
    by Matthew Powelson, Stephen Canfield 
    Abstract: Mobile climbing robots commonly use magnets or active suction as their adhesive elements, but dry elastomer adhesives and particularly bio-inspired patterned elastomer adhesives are an area of increasing interest in robotics research. However, these patterned elastomer adhesives are not widely available. As a result, the authors propose the use of a commercially-available micro suction tape known as Regabond-S as the adhesion mechanism for climbing robots. In order to be useful in design, the performance of the adhesive must be understood. The authors propose a model for micro suction tapes that relates preloading with the maximum sustainable adhesion. The model suggests that the adhesion comes from a combination of van der Waals and suction forces, and its performance falls between unpatterned and patterned elastomers. The model is then experimentally verified and compared with other elastomer adhesives on acrylic, brushed aluminum, and steel surfaces. These results are then demonstrated on a track-based climbing mobile robot.
    Keywords: Regabond-S; Suction Cup Tape; Dry Adhesive; Climbing Robots; Vytaflex; micro suction; elastomeric adhesion; van der Waals.

  • Dynamic Analysis of Six-Axis Stewart Platform Using Flexible Joints   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohd Furqan, Mohd Suhaib, Nazeer Ahmad 
    Abstract: This paper presents the dynamic modeling and finite element analysis for a six-axis Stewart platform. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, the dynamic modeling of the Stewart platform including inverse dynamic is presented to evaluate the various parameters for the Stewart platform using MATLAB. The second part includes the fabrication and finite element analysis of the model. The modal analysis is used to determine the mode shape or natural frequencies of the six-axis Stewart platform using ANSYS. In the third part, the experimental set-up is presented and the model is validated with the help of ANSYS and MSC ADAMS. There is a close agreement between the modal analysis results obtained by ANSYS and ADAMS. The vertical transmissibility is also obtained for each natural frequency. The corner frequency obtained by the experimental result is the same as the frequency predicted by the harmonic analysis using ANSYS.
    Keywords: Parallel manipulators; Stewart platform; Flexible joints; Dynamics; Finite element analysis; Mode shape.

  • Cost Analysis of Systems with Mixed Standby Units   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibrahim Yusuf, Ya'u Balarabe Musa 
    Abstract: This paper deals with evaluation of cost of four dissimilar configurations with mixed standby units. The standby units exist as warm and cold standby. It is assumed that failure and repair time of all units are assumed to be exponentially distributed. Explicit expressions for busy period of repairmen, steady-state availability and profit function are derived using linear first order differential equations. Several cases are analyzed graphically to investigate the effects of various system parameters on profit. The paper also presents graphical comparison for specific values of system parameters and finds that the optimal system configuration is configuration I.
    Keywords: Profit; mixed standby; availability.

  • Optimum Design of 3R Manipulator using Hybrid PSOGSA Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Sumanta Panda, Debadutta Mishra, Bibhuti Bhushan Biswal 
    Abstract: Larger workspace volume is one of the most important objectives in the optimum design of robot manipulator. In the present study the workspace volume of a 3R manipulator has been maximized. The nonlinear constrained optimization problem has been solved using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and a hybrid PSO and Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA). The proposed algorithm combines the search method of PSO and GSA with enhanced exploration ability to achieve higher workspace volume as compared to the established available results. Further the total void cross section area has been estimated and a quantitative analysis of the results has been made to identify the key influencing kinematic parameters and prioritize the constraints. Applications of the hybrid algorithm on two industrial manipulators are presented as case studies. An important implication of this article is that the proposed hybrid algorithm provides encouraging result in terms of objective function values and CPU time.
    Keywords: Manipulator; workspace; Particle swarm optimization; Gravitational search algorithm; CPU time.

  • Simulation of Repetitive Mechanisms using Modular Kinematics   Order a copy of this article
    by P.A. Simionescu 
    Abstract: Simulations of several repetitive mechanisms, some of them considered difficult to perform, have been done relatively easily using for loops and the MeKin2D modular-kinematics subroutines. These simulations include generation of multiple couple-curves, wicked-vane and aperture mechanisms, feathering paddlewheels, radial engines and a folding pop riveter. For the former two mechanisms, in addition to motion simulation, shaking-force and mechanical-advantage analyses have also been performed, respectively. For a better understanding of the computer implementations of these simulations, their source code is also provided an appendix to the paper.
    Keywords: Assur groups; modular kinematics; repetitive mechanisms; motion simulation.

Special Issue on: MUSME 2017 IFToMM-FeIbIM Symposium Advances on Multibody Systems and Mechatronics

  • Synthesis of Epicyclic Gear Trains with One and Two Degrees of Freedom from Kinematic Chains Belonging to Minimal Sets   Order a copy of this article
    by Marina Baldissera De Souza, Rodrigo De Souza Vieira, Daniel Martins 
    Abstract: The enumeration of kinematic chains for epicyclic gear trains allows to obtain all the possible configurations from specified structural characteristics. However, the more complex becomes the desired structure, the greater the number of options to analyse in order to select the most suitable one, therefore, it is necessary a criterion to reduce this range of choices. The variety of kinematic chains and the concept of minimal sets can be used for this purpose. This paper enumerates the kinematic chains with zero variety for epicyclic gear trains with one and two degrees of freedom, and with up to four independent loops. Some epicyclic gear trains generated from the chains belonging to minimal sets are presented afterward, and the advantages of using zero variety chains are discussed.
    Keywords: synthesis of epicyclic gear trains; minimal sets; variety; enumeration of kinematic chains; number synthesis; Buchsbaum-Freudenstein method; functional schematic.

  • A simplified model for friction compensation in precise feed drives   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernando Villegas, Rogelio Hecker, Gustavo Flores 
    Abstract: Friction is a complex phenomenon with negative effects on the precision of positioning systems. In this work, a single-state friction model for control purposes, aimed to simplify the implementation of control algorithms while keeping a good performance in friction compensation, is analyzed. In particular, the model is capable or representing the Stribeck curve, rate independent presliding hysteresis with non-local memory and non-drifting behavior. This model has been tested on an experimental setup based on a linear motor, and its performance is compared to that of the Generalized Maxwell-slip model, showing better performance on the tracking error.
    Keywords: Friction model; Precise positioning; Linear motor.

  • Method and clinical validation of a kinetostatic model of the human knee   Order a copy of this article
    by Daniel Ponce, Julio Feller, Leonardo Mejia, Ernesto Ponce, Daniel Martins, Rodrigo Roesler 
    Abstract: The main objective of this work is to develop and validate a staticrnand spatial model of the human knee, based on mechanism theory, to providernorthopedic surgeons information that relates forces at the anterior cruciaternligament graft (ACL) with its fixing position. This fixing position must be definedrnat the preoperative planning phase of the ligament replacement surgery.rnThe best position for the graft insertion is taken as the one where the forcerndeveloped at the graft is similar to the forces seen in an intact ligament duringrnthe knee flexion movement. The methodology for the static model is basedrnon reimplementing a pure kinematic knee model available in the literature. Inrnparticular, this kinematic model is redefined using Davies method to obtainrna static model that yields the forces at ligaments and condyles. The currentrnkinematic model is able to satisfactorily reproduce the passive movement ofrnthe knee and the proposed static model is validated by simulation of a clinicalrnapplication where numerical results are compared with physiological ones.rnThe validation uses the forces of the ACL at selected insertion points asrncriteria. This aims to determine the graft insertion points, at femur, that bestrnleads to the natural response of an intact knee. Results show the applicabilityrnof the method as a support tool for medical decision making in the preoperativernplanning period.rn
    Keywords: Knee modelling; preoperative planning; kinetostatics; screw theory; Davies method.rn.

  • Synthesis of precision flexible mechanisms using Screw Theory and beam constraints   Order a copy of this article
    by Alejandro Gallardo, Martin Pucheta 
    Abstract: The design of flexible parallel stages has recently been systematised for the three-dimensional space using Screw Theory. The relationships between the twists (motions), the wrench actuations, and constraint wrenches spaces can be manipulated by linear algebra. The use of flexible beams to constraint small motions leads to simple precision mechanisms. In a previous work by the authors, an analytical enumeration of twists and their reciprocal wrenches for any degree of freedom with zero and infinite pitches was presented and validated using finite element analysis. This work extends the methodology to account for screws with finite non-null pitches. Two synthesis problems are analytically calculated and validated using finite element analysis.
    Keywords: Precision mechanisms; Parallel Stages; Screw Theory; Linear Algebra; Finite Element Analysis.

  • Global Optimization Analysis for a Planar Redundant Serial Manipulator   Order a copy of this article
    by Zijia Li, Mathias Brandstötter, Michael Hofbaur 
    Abstract: A planar serial manipulator with three rotational joints (planar 3R) can be seen to be a kinematically redundant system if only the position of the end-effector is taken into account. A symbolic computation analysis reveal that kinematic singularities for such manipulators appear at the position of the end-effector where the number of real connected components change. In addition, apart from the singularities at the boundaries of the workspace, all inner singularities have a symmetric characteristics such that one rotational angle equals to 180 degrees, which often corresponds to an excess of a joint limit with real industrial robots systems. A global optimization with a cost function regarding the joint limits depended on configurations of planar serial 3R manipulators will be considered in this work in detail. We analyze and show the variation behavior of the global minimization among its workspace with a fixed end-effector or when the end-effector follows algebraic motions (for instance, algebraic curves in the special Euclidean group). This gives us new insights. First, the global minimum is not unique. Second, the global minimum could have a jump in the configuration set due to ambiguous minima.
    Keywords: Planar 3R; Joint limit; Gr\"obner Basis; non-unique minima.

  • Maximum Isotropic Force Capability Maps in Redundant Planar Cooperative Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Leonardo Mejia, Roberto Simoni, Juan Camilo Herrera, Henrique Simas, Daniel Martins 
    Abstract: In robotics, the force capability is defined as the maximum wrench that can be applied (or sustained) by a manipulator. The concept of isotropic force capability appeared as a subset of the classic force capability and it was formally defined as the maximum magnitude of force that a robot can apply or support textit{in all directions} according to a given posture. A relevant condition which must be studied is when there is load distribution processes between cooperative robotic systems, e.g. when two or more arms are carrying the same load, if the load distribution fails, one of the arms may overload causing structural or material damage during the process. The main objective of this paper is to develop a method to determine the area in the workspace of a cooperative robotic system composed by two redundant planar serial manipulators (4R), which presents the maximum isotropic force capability. The isotropic force capability maps are generated for three different loads orientations and working modes.
    Keywords: Isotropic force capability; Cooperative robotic system; Davies’ method; Differential Evolution Algorithm; Screw theory.

  • Matroid application to self-aligning mechanisms: enumeration and analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrea Piga Carboni, Henrique Simas, Daniel Martins 
    Abstract: The study of mechanisms is one of the most important areas on which machine design relies. Research in mechanism can be roughly divided into two main problems: mechanism analysis and mechanism synthesis. This paper focuses on topology analysis of mechanism, by means of screw theory representation of mechanisms. Freedoms and constraints in mechanisms are thus described applying the Kirchhoffs laws adaptation to multibody systems proposed by Davies. Based on this modelling, overconstraint in mechanisms is analysed in terms of free motions and constraints. The self-aligning mechanisms kinematically equivalent to an overconstraint mechanism are investigated. Two new algorithms for enumerating all self-aligning kinematically equivalent mechanisms to an overconstrained one and for selecting an optimal self-aligning topology, based on a set of criteria, are proposed. All algorithms have been implemented in Sage software and run in polynomial time. Examples of applications are presented, and the results obtained are validated with literature cases.
    Keywords: Mechanism; Self-Aligning; Matroid Theory.

  • Robotic Bat Mechanism Design   Order a copy of this article
    by Li-Biao Zhang, De-Ming Kong, Jing-Shan Zhao, Sudeep Kumar Singh 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a bat robot mechanism and investigates the kinematics of flying process. After observing the flight of bat for a long period of time and analyzing its flying kinematics, a bionic robot was synthesized based on the bat structure to realize the deploying and flapping movements of the double membranous wings. With screw theory, the primary motion of the membranous wings was checked, and six steering engines were selected for controlling the flapping flight of the bat robot collaboratively. The structure is optimized for a bench test. A method is presented to measure the force output of the bat robot.
    Keywords: bat robot; mechanism synthesis; flapping wing; folding and unfolding; kinematics.

  • Innovative Development of a Spherical Parallel Robot for Upper Limb Rehabilitation   Order a copy of this article
    by Calin Vaida, Nicolae Plitea, Giuseppe Carbone, Iosif Birlescu, Ionut Ulinici, Adrian Pisla, Doina Pisla 
    Abstract: Post-stroke robotic rehabilitation is an ever increasing field of research that aims to offer custom care with maximized effectiveness. This paper presents the necessity of pursuing further improvements in said field as well as the factors that contributed towards the development of an innovative yet simple spherical-parallel robotic device targeting the rehabilitation of the upper human limb. A conceptual device entitled ASPIRE is proposed. The robotic system kinematics and singularities are derived to assert the robot functionality for the rehabilitation exercises. Moreover, two design structures are presented for the ASPIRE system, and motion simulations are performed.
    Keywords: Spherical parallel robot; upper limb rehabilitation; kinematics; singularities; simulation.

  • Dynamic Synthesis of Energy-Efficient Mechanisms   Order a copy of this article
    by Ferdinand Schwarzfischer, Mathias Hüsing, Burkhard Corves 
    Abstract: Motion systems (MS) form part of many different production machines, for example weaving machines, printing machines or packaging machines. This contribution focuses on MS that consist of mechanisms that are driven by a servo-motor. In many cases, the energy-efficiency of the MS is crucial for the profitability of production machines. Often, the servo-motor has to apply a considerable part of the driving power to change the level of kinetic and potential energy in the system. When a mechanism is driven in its so-called Eigenmotion, no energy-input for changing the energy-level has to be applied. The energy-level of the system stays constant during the complete motion. In this contribution, the basic principles of energy-efficient mechanisms with a constant level of energy during its operation are discussed. A new method for the synthesis of such mechanisms is presented. The application of this method is shown by means of an example.
    Keywords: Eigenmotion; Dynamic Balancing; Dynamic Synthesis; Power Smoothing; Energy-Efficient Mechanisms; Scotch Yoke Mechanism.