International Journal of Migration and Residential Mobility (4 papers in press)
Water, migration and environments in a Mediterranean perspectives
by Bruno Venditto
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to assess if human mobility is influenced by environmental changes in the Mediterranean area, particularly those caused by water scarcity. Emphasis has been given to non European Mediterranean countries belonging to the region known as West Asia and North Africa (WANA). Migration from African and Asian countries that directly affect the WANA region and indirectly the Mediterranean area have also been considered. Human mobility due to the economic, social, political and security characteristics of the WANA countries has always been a prominent feature of this geographic area, this, combined with the impact that climate change (within which water scarcity plays an important role) could have on migration, may pose broader security and geopolitical challenges in the Mediterranean area. The paper starts with a brief description of the migration phenomenon and the drivers of migration and move to the analysis of the link between water scarcity, conflicts and migration. Water scarcity has hence been considered holistically as one of the many environmental/climate changes, which can influence migration and consequently the nexus environment/climate change migration has been examined. The idea that climate changes will result in massive migration has been examined in the conclusion, arguing that the equation climate changes = mass migration outside the region does not consider the migration history of the area, while underestimating the possibility of adaptation of the population groups and countries affected by them, as well as underestimate the action that the institutions can put in place to prevent or respond to the events.
Keywords: Migration; Water Scarcity; Environment; Mediterranean; West Asia and North Africa.
How to move home from a stress-resistance theoretical perspective
by Alan Phipps
Abstract: The stress-resistance model of voluntary residential mobility is reviewed as a unifying framework for predicting residents decisions during three stages of deciding to move from the old home, searching for potential new homes, and choosing a new home. Three criticisms of the models assumptions of utility maximization in such decisions are answered in this studys second section, by means of its overlooked potentials for improving voluntary decisions about housing and distinguishing them from involuntary decisions. Primarily reviewed therefore are the theoretical applications of residential stress including its special form of consumption disequilibrium, and residential resistance in observed voluntary and involuntary relocation decisions. Secondarily reviewed are the practical applications in diagnosing unwise mobility decisions in reality. In preparation for applying the model to a three-stage relocation process, this studys third section begins with a thorough method for evaluating the utilitarian and economic attributes of homes. The fourth section theorizes the voluntary decision to move as the initial decision in the residential relocation process. A residential search for a new home is assumed to follow the decision to move in the relocation process, and observed searches in reality are compared with theoretically-recommended ones if a searchers aspiration is the best choice of a new home. This choice of a new home is the focus of the sixth section, and analogously to the fifth section, observed choices of homes are compared with theoretically-best ones. The final section synthesizes the recommendations from earlier sections into a conclusion about how to move home.
Keywords: Residential mobility; Residential stress; Residential resistance; Consumption disequilibrium; Residential search; Housing choice; Life course perspective.
Community based Rehabilitation Attempt for Solution of Climate Displacement Crisis in the Coastal Area of Bangladesh
by Prabal Barua
Abstract: Climate change induced natural disasters and their effect on human are habitually considered as the customary social fabric. Climate change is known to impact coastal areas in a variety of ways. Substantially resourceful and densely populated coastal zones of Bangladesh experience numerous extreme climatic hazards like cyclones, tidal surges, floods, salinity intrusion, and erosion etc. These hazards are already leading to the loss and destruction of housing, land and property, the loss of livelihoods and widespread displacement across the country. The present study has been conducted for assessing the displacement pattern of the island communities, comparison of life and livelihood of displaced peoples past and present life and also rehabilitation approaches for solving the crisis of havoc of climate displaced people in the South-Eastern Coast of Bangladesh. The study explored that Community Based Rehabilitation Program not only ensures their permanent settlement but also ensures their dignity, local food, culture, society, harmony, and wisdom.
Keywords: Climate change; displacement; Coastal zone of Bangladesh; rehabilitation approach.
REFORMING LABOUR IMMIGRATION POLICIES OF HOST COUNTRIES TO STAMP OUT LABOUR TRAFFICKING IN THE ASEAN REGION
by Ferdinand Joseph
Abstract: Human trafficking, including labour trafficking cripples the ASEAN labour hosting countries specially Malaysia and Thailand. Although labour trafficking within ASEAN nations prevails due to the existence of several root causes, this article accentuates, economic inequality between ASEAN nations, covert nature of trafficking regime, overlapping nature of human smuggling and human trafficking, migration policies of host countries are the primary root causes for labour trafficking. Practically, the efforts of ASEAN, including its own convention against trafficking in persons, bi-lateral agreements between its member states, as well as enactments of anti-trafficking laws by individual ASEAN member states have failed to stamp out human trafficking or labour trafficking completely within the region. This article emphasises the urgency of reforming labour immigration policies of ASEAN labour hosting countries to root out labour trafficking and proposes a model policy reform in labour immigration, employment, labour market research, labour regulation and surveillance of employers and employees.
Keywords: labour trafficking; southeast Asia; human smuggling; immigration policies; economic inequality; covert nature; human trafficking; overlapping; neighbourhood watch; entrepreneurs; memorandum of understanding.