International Journal of Manufacturing Research (24 papers in press)
Reliability Assessment of the Centrifugal Compressor Impeller Based on Monte Carlo Method
by Yifan Wang
Abstract: Abstract: Reliability assessment of centrifugal compressor impellers has been a critical issue in industrial practice and application. In this paper, cycling life of the impeller obtained by the fatigue test is substituted into the S-N formula to calculate a group of parameter b in the formula. Then b is fitted by a three-parameter Weibull distribution. After that, Monte Carlo method is used for random sampling from the three-parameter Weibull distribution. Every b acquired by the sampling is substituted back into the S-N formula, by which a large group of values of the cycling life are calculated to fit its distribution. The reliability of the impeller under operating condition is then obtained to provide a critical reference for the health monitoring of the centrifugal compressor impeller online.
Keywords: Key words: Impeller failures; Fatigue life; Life prediction; Reliability analysis.
Dynamic Mathematical Model and Stability Limits Computation in the Chatter system of Hard Turning.
by Guang Jun Chen, Xianli Liu, Zhenzhong Mi, Renping Guo
Abstract: The chatter in cutting process has a significant influence on production efficiency, processing quality, machining environment, costing and the lifetime of machine and cutting tools. The mathematical models of dynamic cutting force and cutting system dynamics in the cutting process were established by analytical method; The prediction of system stability limit in the multi-parameter hard turning process were made in the way of numerical simulation. The parameters taken into consideration include the spindle speed, the cutting width, the feed rate, the corner radius and the hardness of work-pieces; The critical condition of the stable cutting in experimental high speed precision hard cutting system were computed; The results of predictions about stability limits were verified, which conform to actual measurement. The cutting chatter appears more easily, when the hardness of the workpieces is higher, the corner radius is bigger or the feed rate is smaller.
Keywords: Hard turning; Dynamic mathematical model; Stability limits computation; Numerical simulation; Chatter system.
Comprehensive Investigation on the Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Composite Joint from Polyethylene - Polypropylene
by Mohammadreza Farahani
Abstract: The widespread application of polymers has motivated researchers to improve their forming and joining processes. In this category, friction stir welding (FSW) proposed as an alternative for the traditional joining processes. In this paper, FSW with a threaded cylindrical tool was employed for dissimilar joining of sheets of polyethylene and polypropylene. In order to control the material flow, the used tool was equipped with a hot shoe. In the following, the influences of important process parameters such as tool rotation speed, tool traverse speed and tool tilt angle on the joint mechanical properties were investigated. In the optimum joining condition, composite welded joint with defect-free uniform microstructure, with strength equal to 99% of polyethylene and with higher elongation and hardness than the polyethylene was obtained. The optimum rotational speed equal to 1,860 rpm with the highest travel speed equal to 12.5 mm/min provide the welded joints with best mechanical properties.
Keywords: Friction Stir Welding; Thermoplastic; Polyethylene; Polypropylene.
Identification and Prioritization of Managerial Tools and Techniques in Impact on Quality Improvement
by Amir Amini
Abstract: Knowing the mechanisms that allow organisations to detect environmental changes and being able to adapt and offer the proper response to them becomes especially relevant, because this knowledge might lead firms to attain a greater success by exploiting emerging opportunities and new sources of competitive advantages. Given the importance of organisational excellence and superior performance, this study aimed at the identification and prioritisation of managerial tools and techniques in impact on quality improvement. The statistical population consisted of management and industrial engineering professors of the Iranian universities and managers and experts of Urmia Tractor Manufacturing Company in the national context. First, by using the Delphi method and wrapping up experts' views 25 managerial tools and techniques were identified. Then by responding to the secondary questionnaire, experts prioritised the tools and techniques. Finally, to promote the quality of company's products and services, some strategies and guidelines are presented.
Keywords: Quality; Quality Management and Improvement; Organizational Excellence; Quality improvement plans and Methods; Urmia Tractor Manufacturing Company.
Research on measurement of cutting area temperature and its prediction model
by Cui Yunxian
Abstract: In this paper, the temperature measuring tool based on NiCr/NiSi thin film thermocouple is developed. 6,061 aluminium alloys is selected as the experiment object. Based on the cutting area temperature result during field test, the central composite design is utilised, which contains the parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth. Regarding each parameter, three levels are selected and then the second-order regression equation between cutting area temperature and three cutting parameters is established. The data of experimental measurement corresponds well with the mathematical prediction, which confirms that the experimental and mathematical methods are valid in the research on cutting area temperature. [Received: 14 August 2017; Accepted: 7 October 2017]
Keywords: temperature measuring tool; cutting area temperature; thin film thermocouple; response surface methodology.
Force and energy considerations on the face grinding of flat surfaces
by Eleonora Atzeni
Abstract: Face grinding is a process that is capable of meeting both the productivity and flexibility demands of industry, with acceptable manufacturing costs. Efficient grinding is the result of an optimisation process that considers detailed knowledge of the interaction between a grinding wheel and the material of the workpiece, but which should also consider energy aspects. The face grinding process of flat surfaces has been analysed in this work through an experimental campaign, in an attempt to relate the grinding parameters to the forces and energy. Thus, a grinding apparatus was instrumented with a force measuring device in order to monitor the grinding forces applied during the removal of the material. The applied power and energy were also evaluated. The experimental results are discussed in this paper, and are related to the analytical relationships that were found to develop for the specific face grinding operation.
Keywords: face grinding; energy; grinding forces; modeling; Design of Experiment.
The determination of instantaneous uncut chip thickness for non-uniform helix angle tools with complex tool path in ultrasonic milling process
by Mingyang Zhang
Abstract: Ultrasonic milling is used more and more common in fields such as aerospace, mould and so on. Whereas, there are few literatures studying the ultrasonic milling. In consequence, focus on one of important skills for the ultrasonic milling process, instantaneous uncut chip thickness (IUCT) model for the cutter with non-uniform helix angle and complex toolpaths, is built and then a calculation theory is introduced to compute the IUCT using a numerical method. Subsequently, two examples of the toolpath are taken to show the validity of the presented method, the first one is the line toolpath and the second one is circle. The results is shown that the method in this paper can compute the IUCT values for the complex tool path, also, the method in this paper can be used by the cutter with non-uniform helix angles.
Keywords: cutter with non-uniform helix angle; ultrasonic milling; complex toolpaths; instantaneous uncut chip thickness; cutting forces.
An investigation on measurement and evaluation of tool wear based on 3D topography
by J.F. Sun
Abstract: Tool wear and its service life have great influence on machining quality, production efficiency and cost. Tool wear is a three-dimensional phenomenon accompanied by physical and chemical factors. However, the tool wear model and evaluation standard characterised by two dimension are still widely used today. In order to explore the use of three-dimensional topography to track the tool wear trend and measure the tool wear condition, relatively high speed cutting experiments were done for cutting three kinds of materials. Laser scanning confocal microscope was used to measure the worn tool topography at different cutting times. After that, the deficiency of two-dimensional indicators and validity of three-dimensional topography in evaluating tool wear were analysed. Besides, some improved tool wear evaluation methods were proposed.
Keywords: tool wear; three-dimensional topography; wear measurement; wear evaluation.
Effects of the comprehensive stiffness performance of the impeller processing system on the machining error
by Shi Wu
Abstract: During the machining of the complex surface of impeller-type parts, the processing system together with the quality of the machined surface could be affected by the overall stiffness of the machine-cutting tool and the stiffness distribution of the workpiece. In this paper, the system stiffness field model and three-dimensional force ellipsoid are proposed and constructed. In particular for the five-axis NC machining centre, the corresponding sampling points are set on the workpiece surface by applying the matrix operations to the multibody deformation theory. Moreover, an integrated stiffness field of the processing system is developed via different tool spatial gestures. It is concluded from the experiment that the stiffness of the blade top is weak with strong vibrations and low machining precisions, which means deformations could easily arise in this region and influence the machining precision significantly. Ultimately, the blade processing techniques could be developed to minimise the machining error.
Keywords: impeller; complex surfaces; force ellipsoid; stiffness field; machining system.
State space model for online monitoring selective laser melting process using data mining techniques
by Xiaohua Zhang
Abstract: Selective laser melting (SLM) is one the most popular additive manufacturing technologies due to its ability to produce the complex parts. Online monitoring of the SLM process has been considered to be an effective approach to ensuring the safety of operations during the build and improve the part quality. Current researches largely focus on investigating the relationship between a single factor (such as temperature) and the process quality. In this paper, a systematic methodology for online monitoring the SLM process is a proposed, taking into consideration the relationships between multiple factors during melting, and their impact on the status of the devices and the parts being created. A framework of SLM process monitoring based on state space model is demonstrated, providing an integrated data structure for introducing data mining methods into SLM process online monitoring. The development of the state space model together with the parameters selection is described.
Keywords: State space model; Online monitoring; Selective laser melting; Additive manufacturing; Data mining.
New Dispatching Rules and Due Date Assignment Models for Dynamic Job Shop Scheduling Problems
by Aydin TEYMOURIFAR
Abstract: In this paper, new due date assignment models and dispatching rules have been designed for the dynamic job shop scheduling problem. All of them have competitive results compared to the models from previous studies. The proposed dispatching rules have been evolved based on the modified and composite features of jobs. They have been compared with successful methods from the literature in a simulated environment. The simulation model has been validated by comparing the results with an analytical method. One of the rules has the best results in comparison with the other dispatching rules from the literature cited in this study. Another important matter which is considered in this paper is that the due date assignment model must be compatible with the used dispatching rule. Based on this approach, new due date assignment models are developed, which have the best results when combined with some dispatching rules.
Keywords: Dynamic job shop scheduling; Dispatching rules; Due date assignment models; Regression; Neural networks; Simulation.
Strain Hardening Properties and the Relationship Between Strain and Hardness of Inconel 718
by XIAOHONG LU
Abstract: In micro-milling of Inconel 718, work hardening occurs and the strain hardening properties as well as the relationship between strain and hardness of Inconel 718 remain unclear. The quasi-static tensile tests are conducted in this paper. Through the experiments, the strength coefficient K and the strain-hardening exponent n in Hollomon formula, which describes the relationship between strain and stress of a material, are calculated. After the measurements of the micro-hardness of Inconel 718 under different plastic deformations, the relationship between micro-hardness and strain of Inconel 718 is established. This relationship is valuable in computation of the hardness based on the stress state of Inconel 718 and it also extends the application of the commercial finite element analysis software such as ABAQUS, since it tracks stress state but cannot acquire the hardness of the machined surface. The proposed equation then calculates the hardness value based on the simulation output of stress in the software.
Keywords: Strain; Hardness; Inconel 718; Work hardening.
Investigation on surface roughness and sub-surface damage in ISF
by Yicun Meng
Abstract: Incremental sheet forming is a potential technology in future manufacturing. However, the surface roughness increases during the process can limit the geometric accuracy and alter the mechanical properties of the product. The paper presents an extensive experimental investigation on the relevance between the surface roughness and sheet thickness using the two points incremental forming and an optical microscopy analysis the microstructure change in the sheet material during forming. Firstly, aluminium alloy sheets with different thickness were formed into a benchmark shape. Then the measurements of sheet thickness and wall angles were carried out to reveal the effects on the surface roughness that is further related to the mechanical properties. Finally, the microstructure of the sheets prior and after forming was investigated under microscope, considering the influence of grain size and clad layer. It is shown that a large wall angle leads to a worse surface finish. However, there was no direct relationship found between sheet thickness and surface roughness. Through the microstructure observation of processing sheets, it is found that the bounding of the clad layer remained intact and the deformation is constrained within the clad layer.
Keywords: Incremental sheet forming; sub-surface damage; orange peel effect; surface roughness.
Prediction of the cutting forces in gear hobbing and the wear behavior of the individual hob cutting teeth
by Carin Andersson
Abstract: In this paper, a mathematical model is presented, by which the cutting forces in a gear hobbing process and the wear behaviour of the hob's all cutting teeth are predicted. The load on each individual hob cutting tooth varies heavily in the gear hobbing process. To predict the cutting force, and subsequently the tool wear, a detailed determination of the chip geometry is needed. The undeformed chip geometry is continuously determined by analytical differential description presented in previous research. In the model all cut chips are determined for the full production cycle of a gear blank, where the gear blank boundaries are considered. Considering the full production cycle is needed to get an understanding of the load the tool will experience and the wear behaviour of the hob teeth.
Keywords: Gear Hobbing; Cutting Force Prediction; ToolWear; Chip Geometry; Chip Thickness Variation.
Experimental study on cutting force and cutting temperature in high speed milling of hardened steel based on response surface method
by Wei Zhang
Abstract: The hardness and wear resistance of hardened steel are high. It is widely applied in the field of automobile and die manufacturing field. In order to get a reasonable cutting plan, the influence of cutting parameters on milling force and temperature is explored in the process of high speed milling of hardened steel. High speed milling experiment with different machining parameters is carried out and centre composite response surface method is applied. The regression model of cutting force and cutting temperature are established in the process of high speed milling of hardened steel. The significance of the milling parameters on the force and temperature under the interaction and its reasons are analysed. Analysis of variance is performed to evaluate the significance of regression. It can effectively predict the milling force and milling temperature in the process of high speed milling of hardened steel. It provides the basis for the reasonable choice of cutting parameters. From the processed surface quality to verify, that cutting parameter is selected based on prediction model and the significant analysis of milling force and temperature is more reasonable.
Keywords: hardened die steel; high speed milling; milling force; milling temperature; response surface method (RSM).
Investigations on material removal rate and surface roughness of meso gear by micro-WEDM
by Chen Xiang
Abstract: In this paper, response surface method (RSM) was used to predict and optimised the material removal rate (MRR) and the surface roughness (SR) of meso gear in micro wire electrical discharge machining (wire-EDM) process. Open voltage, pulse duration and pulse duration were considered as input factors. The numerical models of MRR and SR were established and the ANOVA analysis of MRR and SR were also conducted, showing that the models could be used to predict the experimental results effectively. For obtaining higher MRR and lower SR, the multiple response method was used to optimise the processing parameters. The optimal processing parameters were 85 V, 2329.91 pF, 13.06 ?s respectively for open voltage, discharge capacitance and pulse duration. Ultimately, the meso gear was machined by micro wire-EDM using the optimal parameters, showing better machining quality.
Keywords: response surface method; micro wire-EDM; meso gear; material removal rate; surface roughness.
Predicting the Effect of Tool Configuration during Friction Stir Welding by Cellular Automata Finite Element (CAFE) Analyses
by R.GANESH NARAYANAN
Abstract: The present work aims at selecting the pin geometry for single-sided friction stir welding of steel, and modelling the double-sided FSW process, both through cellular automata finite element analyses. Cellular automata cells are used to hold initial grain size of the base sheets. The stirring action during the process is not modelled physically. Instead the heat flux and strain-rate attained are incorporated by models. In the first objective, by developing heat flux models, strain-rate and strain models for different pin profiles, and the final grain size distribution across the weld zone is predicted. The final pin profile predicted from the present work is not the same used by authors in the existing literature, as observed from grain size prediction. In the second objective, during double-sided friction stir welding, the grain size predictions are agreeing well with the existing data. The efficiency of the approach for tool selection has been demonstrated successfully.
Keywords: Modelling; Cellular automata; Friction stir welding; Tool selection; Grain size; Prediction; Welding; Temperature; Microstructure.
Experimental Study of the Effect of Light Source Spot Size on Measure Error of PSD
by Xiaohong Lu
Abstract: The energy distribution of incident light spot on position-sensitive detector (PSD) screen is uneven and the output coordinate value is the energy centre of light spot. Measurement error caused by the deviation between the geometric and gravity centre of light spot will occur. That deviation will increase with the increase of the diameter of the light spot. There is no quantitative research on the position error caused by the changes of the light spot diameter and the distance from the light spot to the PSD. To evaluate the magnitude of the error, the infrared spotlight is selected as the target light. The changing pattern that the spot diameter varies with the distance between the light source and lens is studied. Additionally, the effect of the spot size on the PSD measure error is also studied. The research provides reference for error evaluation of the distance and position detection of PSD.
Keywords: PSD; light spot; geometric centre; energy centre; measure error.
Iterated Greedy Insertion Approaches for the Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with transportation times constraint
by Azzedine Bekkar
Abstract: This paper proposes two greedy heuristics based on an iterated insertion technique to solve the flexible job shop scheduling problem with transportation times constraint. The approaches deal with the both of the sub-problems of the assignment of machines to operations and the sequencing of the operations on the assigned machines. The idea is to start with a greedy construction method, then, apply an iterative destroy and recreate algorithm to minimize the completion time production (Makespan). The heuristics were tested on a benchmark that considers the transportation times between the machines and based on a real Flexible Job Shop "AIP-PRIMECA cell of Valenciennes University". The heuristics performance is evaluated by comparing its results with a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) and the Potential Fields (PF) approach. The results obtained are very promising
Keywords: Flexible Job Shop; Scheduling; Production; Optimization; Greedy Heuristics.
Cooperative diagnostics for combinations of large-volume metrology systems
by Domenico Maisano
Abstract: Recent studies show that the combined use of Large-Volume Metrology (LVM) systems (e.g., laser trackers, rotary-laser automatic theodolites, photogrammetric systems, etc.) can lead to a systematic reduction in measurement uncertainty and a better exploitation of the available equipment. The objective of this paper is to present some diagnostic tests for combinations of LVM systems that are equipped with distance and/or angular sensors. Two are the tests presented: a global test to detect the presence of potential anomalies during measurement and a local test to isolate any faulty sensor(s). This diagnostics is based on the cooperation of sensors of different nature, which merge their local measurement data, and it can be implemented in real-time, without interrupting or slowing down the measurement process. The description of the tests is supported by several experimental examples.
Keywords: Large-volume metrology; Distributed sensors; Multi-system combination; Cooperative diagnostics; Statistical test; Measurement consistency.
Extraction of dispatching rules for single machine total weighted tardiness using a modified genetic algorithm and data mining
by Mohamed Habib Zahmani, Baghdad Atmani
Abstract: This paper introduces novel heuristics for the resolution of the single machine problem with total weighted tardiness by combining data mining and genetic algorithms. The aim of this approach is to use data mining techniques in order to explore, analyse, and extract knowledge from solutions for single machine scheduling problems. A hybrid genetic algorithm coupled with dispatching rules from literature is proposed to find near-optimal solutions for the single machine problem with total weighted tardiness. Using these solutions, data mining extracts knowledge which is then employed along with three proposed heuristics to solve unprecedented problems. The experiments show the superiority of the proposed approach over other well-known dispatching rules, mimicking the genetic algorithm behaviour while retaining heuristics' advantages, i.e., reduced required processing time, reactivity in dynamic scheduling, and real-time scheduling. [Received 20 December 2016; Revised 23 June 2017; Accepted 26 June 2017]
Keywords: single machine scheduling; total weighted tardiness; TWT genetic algorithm; data mining; DM; decision trees; DTs; heuristics; dispatching rules; DR.
Analysis of the twist of ruled surfaces: application to strip machining
by Johanna Senatore, Frédéric Monies, Walter Rubio, Laurent Tapie, Bernardin Mawussi
Abstract: Flank milling of ruled surfaces is commonly applied to obtain rotating machine parts as defined using ruled surfaces. To this purpose, a wide range of positioning strategies had been studied to reduce interference between the cutting tool and the surface. Indeed, modelled ruled surfaces are non-developable meaning that they cannot be machined without interference. In order to minimise such interference, the positioning strategies studied tend to become increasingly complex, involving software programming using a dedicated language. To simplify matters and apply developed methods using standard software applications, it is proposed here to reduce interference by breaking the machined surface down into a number of sub-surfaces. The aim with this decomposition is to reduce the twist on each portion. A study of the global twist is presented showing nonlinearity with the length of the rule so that cutting methods can be demonstrated. [Received 28 November 2016; Revised 18 April 2017; Accepted 26 June 2017]
Keywords: ruled surface; flank milling; five-axis machine; twist angle; strip machining.
Experimental investigation of cutting parameters influence on surface finish during turning of steel using Taguchi approach
by Balraj Singh, Gurpreet Singh
Abstract: Surface finish of the machined parts is one of the important criteria to judge the success of a machining operation. The value of optimum machining parameters (for better surface finish) can be either decided on the basis of a large number of experimental trails or design of experiments (DoE) can be used to predict the same with significantly lesser number of experimental trails. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the application of Taguchi method to optimise the machining/cutting parameters for surface finish during turning of AISI 1018 steel under different cutting environments. Using MINITAB software, other statistical techniques such as analysis of variance (ANOVA) and test for equal variances were also performed to confirm results of Taguchi analysis and compare surface roughness under different cutting environments respectively. In addition to surface roughness, effect of different cutting parameters was also observed on workpiece-tool interface temperature. [Received 20 October 2016; Revised 10 May 2017; 09 June 2017; Accepted 26 June 2017]
Keywords: machining; turning; steel; surface finish; Taguchi; analysis of variance; ANOVA; MINITAB.
Investigation of machining rate and roughness for rotary ultrasonic drilling of Inconel 718 alloy with slotted diamond metal bonded tool
by Dipesh Popli, Meenu Gupta
Abstract: Super alloy has extensive engineering applications in nuclear industries owing to its outstanding performance characteristics at elevated temperature. More than 30% of consumption in nuclear industries is super alloy. A number of holes are required to be drilled into super alloys for their final stage assembly. During conventional machining process, excessive heat is generated, which is the cause of heat treated zone that further affect the life and performance of the product. To overcome this difficulty, a rotary ultrasonic machining method came into existence to machine super alloys by hybrid cutting action (vibratory and rotary) of diamond impregnated core drill. This study focuses on the machining characteristics of super alloy by RUM process. The empirical modelling of process parameters of RUM is carried out for super alloy (Inconel 718) using an experimental design approach called response surface methodology. Material removal efficiency of RUM and surface topography of the machined material are studied. The results reported that for quality and productivity aspect, the feed rate in RUM is found a most critical factor. [Received 5 April 2017; Revised 10 June 2017; Accepted 26 June 2017]
Keywords: rotary ultrasonic machining; RUM; ultrasonic; machining; roughness; analysis of variance; ANOVA.