International Journal of Materials and Product Technology (51 papers in press)
A novel structured catalyst Ti-ZSM-5/SSWM and its photo-catalytic in degradation of methyl orange
by Hongmei Guo, Yuanyuan Gao, Min Chen, Xiaoming Zheng
Abstract: A novel titanium-containing MFI zeolite membrane (Ti-ZSM-5) supported on the surface of stainless steel wire mesh has been successfully prepared as a structured catalyst. The porous oxide membrane was appeared on the surface of the stainless steel wire mesh via anodic oxidation treatment. This typical porous structure provided very favorable conditions for the anchoring of Ti-ZSM-5 membrane. The SEM result showed that the ordered Ti-ZSM-5 thin membrane was highly dispersed on the support surface. The ultrasonic vibration test indicated that the membrane showed good interaction with the support. In addition, the degradation of methyl orange was chosen as the model reaction to study the photocatalytic activity of the structured catalyst Ti-ZSM-5/SSWM.
Keywords: Ti-ZSM-5 membrane; Structured catalyst; Photo-catalyst; Stainless steel wire mesh.
Influence of TEOS Concentration and Triton Additive on the Nanostructure Silica Sol-Gel Antireflective Coatings
by Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi
Abstract: Nanostructure silica antireflective surfaces were fabricated on glasses by Sol-Gel technique. Various silica sols (varying in composition: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) concentration and Triton additive) were synthesized by the polymeric process and then subsequently coated on substrates. Silica thin films were investigated by using UV-Visible Spectroscopy; Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer and Filed Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy were used. Results indicated that dense silica layers, obtained from the polymeric method, permit a considerable reduction of these light reflections compared with uncoated glasses in all the cases studied, but the degree of reduction is different depending on the composition of the precursor solution. It was found that the transmittance increased from 0.915 for the bare slide up to 0.96 for the best made sample corresponding to the Triton-doped silica. The addition of Triton x-100 to the silica sols improved the optical property of thin film because of it helps to create nanoporous in coating. Also the results showed SiO2 content is effective parameter to prepare the antireflective films. Loss of SiO2 cause to rapid the reactions and Si-O-Si bonding form better under this condition.
Keywords: Sol–Gel; Silica thin films; Antireflective coatings; Optical properties; Triton.
Volume Combustion and Mechanochemical Syntheses of LaB6
by Barış Akgün, Naci Sevinç, H. Erdem Camurlu, Yavuz Topkaya
Abstract: LaB6 powder was produced by volume combustion synthesis (VCS) and mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) methods, through magnesiothermic reduction of La2O3 and B2O3 powders. VCS was achieved by rapid heating of the reactant mixture in argon, whereas MCS was performed via high energy ball milling. All the products were subjected to XRD, SEM, gravimetric and particle size distribution analyses. MCS resulted in the expected products LaB6 and MgO. In addition to these, VCS products contained LaBO3 and Mg3B2O6. In order to obtain pure LaB6, 30 min leach in 1 M HCl was found to be enough for MCS products, whereas Mg3B2O6 could not be removed from the VCS products even after 15 h leach. Wet milling of VCS products before leach facilitated obtaining of pure LaB6. Average particle sizes of the LaB6 powder produced by VCS and MCS were 290 and 180 nm, respectively.
Keywords: Lanthanum hexaboride; LaB6; mechanochemical synthesis; volume combustion synthesis; magnesiothermic reduction.
Study the effect of wear rate on impingement failure of an acetabular liner surface based on finite element analysis
by Eko Saputra, Iwan Budiwan Anwar, Rifky Ismail, J. Jamari, Emile Van Der Heide
Abstract: In this study, correlation of wear inside of an acetabular liner surface (ALS) and damage on an acetabular liner rim (ALR) due to impingement effect are investigated. The analysis included evaluation of the macrostructure of the damage based on visual investigation and computer simulation analysis. A commercial finite element method ABAQUS software package is used to simulate local impingement on the ALR due to wear depth variations (wear rates) inside the ALS. Here, the wear depth is based on the data of wear experiment from literature. The von Mises stress and contact deformation on the ALR at impingement is presented. In addition, the initial impingement angle is also presented to show the correlation between the wear inside of the ALS and the angle of impingement occurrence. The results show that the existence of wear inside of the ALS can increase the damage of the ALR due to impingement effect.
Keywords: acetabular liner; finite element analysis; impingement; wear rate.
Effect of applied electric field on the chemical structure and thermal diffusion of DLC film irradiated by laser
by Shenjiang WU, Junhong Su, Junqi Xu, Jinman Ge
Abstract: Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have attracted much attention because of their excellent performance; however, the low anti-laser damage ability of such films seriously restricts their applicability to high-power infrared optical windows or laser system, etc. To overcome this problem, in this study, Titanium (Ti) electrodes were deposited on DLC films directly, forming a transverse bias field on films surfaces. The damage morphology under laser irradiation was observed both before and after the bias field was applied, and Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze chemical structure of DLC films. It was shown that as the I(D)/I(G) ratio increased, the sp3 content decreased in laser-irradiated regions of DLC films when a bias electric field was not applied. When the bias electric field was applied to DLC films, it could effectively stop the content changing from sp3-bonding carbon to sp2-bonding carbon, prevent the formation of sp2 clusters, and slow down the films graphitization process. The fast thermal diffusion improves the DLC films anti-laser damage ability ultimately.
Keywords: Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film; laser-induced damage threshold (LID); graphitization; bias electric field; Ti electrode.
Shear crack in 1-D hexagonal quasicrystalline half-space
by Geoff Tupholme
Abstract: An arbitrarily loaded antiplane strip shear crack situated parallel to the free surface of a semi-infinite one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystalline material is considered. By combining an extended dislocation layer technique with a method of images, closed-form readily-calculable expressions are found for the phonon and phason stress fields' components thereby created. Some representative numerical data are discussed and presented graphically for illustration.
Keywords: Quasicrystalline half-space; Loaded shear crack; Dislocation layers.
Multi-response optimization for MRR and Ra in WEDM process of Nimonic-263 super alloy
by Nasina Venkaiah, Maddina Sreenivasa Rao
Abstract: Nimonic-263 is a nickel based super alloy with exciting applications. Due to its high hardness and low thermal conductivity, wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been selected to machine the material. To get the optimal performance level, the process parameters have to be set carefully. Furthermore, multi-objective optimization of WEDM process is too difficult as it involves several process parameters. Although there are several multi-response optimization techniques, industry is faced with a problem of choosing the best technique. The objective of the present work is, therefore, to apply different multi-response optimization techniques, which are easy to implement and involve less computational effort with a view to recommend best technique. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used for experimental design. A comparative analysis among the optimization techniques is carried out. It has been observed that TOPSIS is found to be the best among different multi-response optimizations techniques chosen.
Keywords: WEDM; RSM; multi-response; Nimonic-263; optimization.
Theoretical procedure for the stress state assessment of hyper-static crankshafts
by Sergio Baragetti
Abstract: Crankshafts with many rods and crankpins for mechanical and industrial applications can be designed with first-order-approximation theoretical procedures in the literature. Numerical Boundary Element Method (BEM) or Finite Element Method (FEM) procedures can be used, with the latter models having a 3D tetrahedral wire beam of hexahedral finite elements. To the best of the authors knowledge, the literature does not contain accurate evaluations of hyper-static reactions at the restraints of a crankshaft with four crankpins and five supports. The principle of virtual work is implemented to allow calculation of the reactions at the bearings of the shaft and to determine the internal actions (bending, torsion, shear and axial force) for each section of the shaft. The developed procedure does not give better results than a numerical BEM or 3D FEM code, but it is less expensive and less time consuming when implemented in a mathematical commercial code. Furthermore, the procedure gives results that have a better approximation with respect to the theoretical literature models. The theoretical model was validated through comparison with the results of a finite-element linear beam model developed using a commercial FEM code.
Keywords: Four-rod crankshaft; Theoretical model; Machine design; Performance enhancement; Fatigue design.
Self-healing of self-compacting concretes made with blast furnace slag cements activated by crystalline admixture
by Emilio Takagi, Maryangela Lima, Paulo Helene, Ronaldo Medeiros-Junior
Abstract: Test samples were examined using a specific crystalline admixture, AR glass fiber and three types of cements with percentages of Blast Furnace Slag of 55%, 35% and 0%. Test specimens were loaded under compression until 90% of their failure load, in order to generate a network of micro-cracks. These samples were subsequently immersed in lime water to trigger the self-healing mechanism, followed by various tests at 28, 56 and 84 days. As BFS content ratio was increased to 55%, there was a noticeable increase in mechanical recovery and permeation reduction properties, indicating good self-healing.
Keywords: concrete structures; self-healing; materials technology; blast furnace slag; mechanical properties; permeation properties; cement; crystalline admixture; construction material; cracks.
Powder-materials impact on nanoparticle-reinforced Ti6Al4V matrix composites produced via Inductive Hot Pressing
by Isabel Montealegre Melendez, Erich Neubauer, Cristina Arévalo, Eva Perez-Soriano, Michael Kitzmantel
Abstract: This paper addresses the optimal manufacture of titanium alloy composites via inductive hot pressing, and studies the influence of nanosized reinforcement and matrix powders on the final properties of the titanium-based composites.
Before hot consolidation, two types of Ti-6Al-4V powders were mixed with various percentages of nano-diamonds. After inductive hot pressing at 900
Keywords: Titanium alloys; Nano-diamonds; Metal matrix composites; Inductive hot pressing.
On Rapid Prototyping of Assembly Systems A Modular Approach
by Zhiqin Qian, Tan Zhang, Wenjun Lin, W.J. Zhang
Abstract: This paper proposes a new product and manufacturing technology for rapid prototyping of product systems (RPPS). It is noted that a system in this paper is defined as a physical assembly that can be decomposed into components. The rapid prototyping is achieved by a novel modular concept, that is, the base materials to build a component as well as an assembly is highly modularized (the interface between any two modules are identical) and building a system is simply by assembling the modules. The rapid prototyping in this paper differs significantly from the rapid prototyping in literature in that the latter builds a system layer by layer and further primarily builds a component instead of assembly (building of an assembly is actually very limited with the latter, though possible). This paper explains the RPPS approach and presents a feasibility study on the RPPS technology. It has been shown that the RPPS technology is promising.
Keywords: Rapid prototyping of assembly; Evolutionary algorithm; Modular plastic module.
Application of genetic algorithm in optimization of cutting force of Al/SiCp metal matrix composite in end milling process
by Aezhisai Vallavi M S, Mohan Das Gandhi N, Velmurugan C
Abstract: This paper investigates the cutting force of LM6/SiCp using end milling process. Mathematical models have been developed to predict the cutting force in terms of spindle speed, axial depth of cut and weight percentage of SiCp. Response surface methodology has been employed to create the mathematical model. The experiments have been conducted on LM6/SiCp by carbide insert and cutting forces have been measured using a milling tool dynamometer. The direct and interaction effects are studied with the influence of machining parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used to check the adequacy of the model. Optimum combination can be attained for the best result.
Keywords: Cutting force; End milling; Metal Matrix Composite (MMC); Response surface methodology; Optimization.
Design and Optimization of Micro Forging System to Reduce Parasitic Motion
by Changho Jung, Byung-Joo Choi, Hyunho Yeom, Moon G. Lee, Yongho Jeon
Abstract: As the demand for high reliability in mechanical parts increases, micro forging technology is drawing attention. In forging by a vibration tip, the straightness of the processing direction is important, and as the parasitic motion in the other direction is lower, the stress that is applied to the specimen is concentrated so that a stronger effect can be achieved. In this study, box-like, closed structure forging system to minimize parasitic displacement is designed and optimized by Taguchi method. A resonant frequency and a mode shape were analyzed by means of a modal analysis. The processing direction displacement and parasitic displacement generated in the excitation horn was assessed by means of a harmonic analysis that actually added an excitation force. The displacement was measured to verify the design model and tested by very-high-cycle fatigue life testing. The results confirmed that the fatigue life was improved by micro forging.
Keywords: Micro Forging System; Parasitic Motion; Fatigue Life; S-N Curve.
A method to determine the forming limit for cross-section distortion of rectangular tube in rotary draw bending process
by Ning Guo, Kuanxin Liu, Shunqi Zheng, KeMin Xue, WenTao Huang
Abstract: In the manuscript, the forming limit for cross-section distortion is defined according to the employing area and aviation standard. First, the definition and determination method of forming limits is proposed. And then, the effects of process parameters on forming limit are investigated- based the 3D FE simulation model. It is found that with the increase of height, clearance between mandrel and tube, clearance between core and tube and the strengthen coefficient, the minimum bend radius increases and the bending limit decreases; with the increase of width and strain-hardening exponent, the minimum bending radius decreases and the bending limit increases. Finally, the 3D forming limit diagrams for cross-section distortion are obtained under different process parameters.
Keywords: Forming limit; minimum bending radius; cross-section distortion.
Absorption of methylbenzene in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids
by Zidan Chen
Abstract: The liquid-liquid phase equilibrium of the binary systems, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Bmim][PF6]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]) + methylbenzene, were investigated at temperatures ranging from 294 K to 355 K. The solubility of methylbenzene was greater in [Bmim][PF6] than in [Bmim][BF4]. The effects of multiple parameters, such as temperature, gas flow rate and concentration of methylbenzene, were systematically investigated. The removal of methylbenzene in [Bmim][PF6] is up to 83 % at 293.15 K, a gas flow rate of 50 mL/min and a gas concentration of 395 mg/m3. The absorption and desorption of methylbenzene in [Bmim][PF6] were reversible.
Keywords: methylbenzene; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium; ionic liquids.
Experimental Modeling and Genetic Algorithm based Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters for Joining of Dissimilar AA5083-O and AA6063-T6 Aluminum Alloys
by SAURABH KUMAR GUPTA, K.N. Pandey, Rajneesh Kumar
Abstract: The demand of joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys is increasing dayby-day in various industries. The defect free joining of aluminum alloys using conventional welding process is a difficult task for a manufacturer. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process and one of the most promising technique for defect free joining of aluminum alloys. In this paper, second order regression modeling and genetic algorithm based optimization of FSW process parameters is presented for joining of dissimilar AA5083-O and AA6063-T6 aluminum alloys. For developing the regression model, experiments were performed as per L27 orthogonal array of Taguchi methodology and models were developed with the help of MINITAB software. For genetic algorithm based process parameter optimization, developed regression models were considered as objective functions. The developed regression models have been found satisfactory for predicting the responses at 99% confidence level. The derived set of optimal process parameters were found as tool rotational speed of 900 rpm, welding speed of 60 mm/min, shoulder diameter of 18 mm and pin diameter of 5 mm for maximum tensile strength and minimum grain size. The significant process parameters and their effect on responses have also been determined and discussed.
Keywords: FSW; aluminum alloys; genetic algorithm; optimization; tensile strength; grain size;.
METHODOLOGY FOR DATABASE DEVELOPMENT FOR ELECTRO DISCHARGE BORING OF AEROSPACE MATERIAL
by Sudhanshu Kumar, Harshit K. Dave, Keyur P. Desai
Abstract: In the present investigation, boring of an aerospace material (Inconel 718) is performed on electro discharge machine. Boring operation of predrilled circular cavity is achieved using tool movement on radial path during EDM process. The actuation of tool electrode is guided and controlled in such a way that it moves on a radial path with an angular increment of 5 degree from previous path. Using Taguchi design of experiment and application of multiple regression equations, a database is generated for the selection of suitable combination of process parameters for boring operation in EDM process. The criterion of creating the database for proper selection of parameters is to minimize the overcut while maintaining the surface roughness within the specified range during boring operation. In this methodology, the parameters that have lesser influence on surface roughness are identified and then their levels are suitably chosen for minimum overcut generation. Remaining factors levels are varied in such a way that the surface roughness will remain within the specified range. This type of technological database will be very useful for application in future, as it will provide direct selection of appropriate combination of parameters for boring of Inconel 718 using EDM process.
Keywords: Boring; overcut; surface roughness; Inconel; radial tool movement; electro discharge machining.
Effect of TiO2 enriched fluxes on the bead geometry, grain size and hardness in Submerged Arc welds
by Joydeep Roy, Ram Naresh Rai, Subhashchandra Saha
Abstract: This work is mainly concerned about the influence of titanium dioxide powder addition into flux on the bead geometry, grain size, and hardness in submerged arc weld of low alloy steel plates. Titanium dioxide powders were mixed with the commercial fluxes in a different proportion of 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5%. The welding process parameters were kept constant for different welding conditions. Bead geometry parameters show a significant improvement due to the titanium dioxide addition. 5% of titanium dioxide enrichment was showing the best result for the bead geometry parameters. Nucleation of the acicular ferrite and grain refinement of weld metal (WM) microstructure has been observed with the enrichment of titanium. Average grain size of ferrite and pearlite decreases with the increase of titanium content. Phase analysis of weld metals shows that the ferrite% increased and pearlite% decreased with respect to titanium content. But the increase of titanium content was not showing any clear trend on the hardness profile of weldments.
Keywords: SAW; bead geometry; phase analysis; grain size; hardness.
An Experimental Study of Investigating the Relationships between Structures and Properties of Al Alloys Included with high Mg and high Ti
by Halil Ibrahim Kurt, Ibrahim H. Guzelbey, Serdar Salman
Abstract: In this study, the influences of high magnesium (Mg) and high titanium (Ti) additions on aluminum (Al) alloys were investigated to peruse the relationship between the structure and properties of the new alloys. Microstructural analyses were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the polarized optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). In the microstructure of the alloys, the β-phase (Al3M2) α-solid solution, Ti2Mg3Al18 and TiAl3 particles were revealed. Results showed that the average grain size of Al-Mg-Ti alloys was found to be different in each composition, and the smallest grain size was obtained at Al-12Mg-3Ti alloy as 88 μm. The highest tensile strength (170 MPa) was attained with additions of 8 wt.% Mg and 1 wt.% Ti, but the highest hardness value (125 HBN) was obtained with additions of 14 wt.% Mg and 3 wt.% Ti. It was noted that the smallest average grain size did not behave in accordance with the highest mechanical properties. For the work, the optimal ratios of magnesium and titanium entrained into Al alloys were 8 wt.%, and 1 wt.%, respectively.
Keywords: Ti and Mg additions; Al-Mg-Ti alloys; Microstructure; Mechanical and Physical Properties; Casting.
Analysis on Surface Characteristics of Electro-Discharge Machined Inconel 718
by Siba Sankar Mahapatra, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal, Manoj Masanta, Rahul Kumar, Saurav Datta
Abstract: An experimental investigation has been conducted on Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) of Inconel 718 using Copper electrode tool. Based on L25 Orthogonal Array, experiments have been conducted by utilizing five controllable process parameters (viz. gap voltage, peak current, pulse-on time, duty factor and flushing pressure), each varied at five discrete levels, within selected parametric domain. The following responses in relation to surface characteristics of EDMed Inconel 718 i.e. Roughness average (Ra), Surface Crack Density (SCD) and White Layer Thickness (WLT) have been investigated. SEM micro-graphs revealing irregularities in surface morphology of the EDMed Inconel 718 have been analysed in detail and correlated with the information obtained through EDAX, XRD and micro-hardness tests of the machined surface. Occurrence of different types of cracks within EDMed end product has been identified. Effects of significant process parameters on surface topography in terms of roughness average, surface crack density, extent of white layer etc. have been graphically represented. Finally, Utility theory in conjugation with Taguchis optimization philosophy has been attempted to select the most favourable process environment (parameters setting) to satisfy optimal Ra, SCD and WLT; thereby, ensuring high product quality along with its specified functional requirements in appropriate application domain.
Keywords: Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM); Inconel 718; Surface Crack Density (SCD); White Layer Thickness (WLT); Utility theory; Taguchi’s optimization philosophy.
Biomimetic application of non-smooth surface characteristic in anti-sticking drill stem
by Xiaofeng Yang, Re Xia, Hongwei Zhou, Lu Guo
Abstract: It is one of common phenomenon that the drill stem could be easily stuck in soft stratum, which consequently affects the drilling efficiency seriously. In this paper, a biomimetic method to relieve the sticking problem of the drill stem is presented and studied. The anti-sticky mechanism of the earthworm for its amazing burrowing in the soft soil is investigated and probed further, figuring out the fact that the corrugated surface structure of earthworm could reduce the friction assistance and soil adhesion. Inspired by earthworm, biomimetic drill stem with corrugated surface is designed and applied in the soft stratum drilling. The results show that compared with the conventional one, the novel biomimetic drill stem could effectively avoid being stuck in the soft stratum, and the torque and thrust of the biomimetic drill stem show a considerable decrease in the soft stratum drilling. The mechanism of its good anti-sticking ability in soft stratum drilling is addressed, and the effects of wavelength on both torque and thrust are investigated for experimental and industrial optimization.
Keywords: Non-smooth surface; earthworm; anti-sticking; friction; biomimetic drill stem.
Analysis of Dimensional Inaccuracies in square cavities generated on Ti-6Al-4V using Planetary EDM
by Vishal John Mathai, Harshit Dave, Keyur Desai
Abstract: Dimensional accuracy of features generated by Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) is influenced by process parameter combination as well as process instability. In present study an attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters viz. pulse ON time, tool path offset, scanning speed, pulse OFF time and gap voltage on overcut, internal edge radius and achieved cavity depth during Planetary EDM of Ti-6Al-4V. Experimentations designed using Taguchis L′16 standard orthogonal array has been carried out using copper as well as graphite electrodes. Results suggest that for both electrode materials, pulse ON time have relatively high statistical significance on overcut (51.7 % and 34.9 %) and internal edge radius (76.7 % and 28.7%). However, cavity depth achieved is significantly affected by pulse ON time (15.7 % for copper and 40.9 % for graphite) as well as tool path offset (79.8% for copper and 33.2 % for graphite.
Keywords: Titanium; EDM; Overcut; Quality; Planetary; ANOVA.
Application and Anti-bacterial Performance Evaluation of Liquid Glass Coating
by Bingjie Xiao, Ayman Ibrahim, Xiao Huang, Rong Liu
Abstract: Liquid glass (LG) coating, supplied by Liquid Glass Shield Company, is capable of enhancing the wear resistance of surfaces without altering the surface features. Additionally, the coating contains ethanol that acts as an anti-microbial agent. In this study, LG is deposited on nickel substrate to investigate its ability to impede bacterial growth. The coating is applied using a spin coater and followed by a furnace curing process. The coating is then tested for bacterial growth through the deposition of a known type of bacteria onto the cured coating surface. The liquid glass coating has shown enhanced anti-bacterial ability when compared to bare nickel surface. However, the anti-bacterial ability of LG is slightly lower than that of brass alloys.
Keywords: liquid glass coating; anti-bacterial performance; E.coli; colony-forming unit; nickel; brass; benzalkonium chloride; sodium pyrithion.
Experimental and mathematical evaluation of thermal and tensile properties of friction stir welded joint
by Ratnesh Kumar, Bhabani Bora, Somnath Chattopadhyaya, Grzegorz Krolczyk, Sergej Hloch
Abstract: The aim of this experimental work is to develop a mathematical model of friction stir welded joint of aluminum alloy 6061-T6 for correlating the process parameters (rotational speed, welding speed) with output responses (Maximum Process Temperature, Yield Strength, Ultimate Tensile Strength and % Elongation).This developed model provides an empirical relationship between the modeled values and experimental values. Experiments of AA 6061-T6 FSW butt joint were carried out using the Full Factorial design of experiment. Analysis of variance and scatter diagram has been employed to assess the significant effect of the factors and the adequacy of the models developed for the response variables. The optimum values of output responses i.e. TMax, YS, UTS and % E are found as 417.98
Keywords: Friction Stir Welding; Full Factorial Design; ANOVA; Genetic Algorithm.
Experimental Design of a Folded-Structure Energy-Absorption System
by Haim Baruh, Elsayed Elsayed
Abstract: This paper describes the design and analysis of an energy-absorption-system container made of chevron-pattern folded paper for the purpose of encasing supplies to be dropped from moving aircraft without using a parachute. A mathematical model of the energy absorption system is developed. The constitutive properties of the system are ascertained experimentally, and the system is tested by dropping containers with different types of cargo and from different altitudes and aircraft speeds without a parachute.
Test results in a laboratory and actual drop tests from moving aircraft demonstrate that this energy-absorption system manufactured using the paper-folding machine, built at Rutgers University, absorbs the impact energy of the drop and protects the cargo from the collision forces that are encountered when the dropped container impacts the ground and tumbles. It is shown that the design can successfully protect items with different fragilities inside containers dropped from different altitudes up to 30 m with aircraft speeds up to 70 KIAS.
Keywords: folded structures; energy absorption; drop tests; constitutive properties; impact testing.
Multi-objectives optimization of PU foams on acoustic performance by using design of experiment
by Chen Shuming, Jiang Yang
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to obtain an optimal formulation of PU foams with improved acoustic properties by using design of experiment (DOE). With the aim to obtain an efficient acoustic material, the PU foams formulation can be optimized successfully by adjusting the content of various additive components in this experiment. The experiments were conducted with four controllable 3-level factors and two target objectives, and Taguchis orthogonal array L9(34) had been chosen. The various additive components were: water (3.8-4.8 part by weight), tri-ethanolamine (TEA, 2-3 part by weight), HCFC-141b (4-6 part by weight) and A33 (0.9-1.1 part by weight). Sound absorption coefficient and transmission loss were both chosen as target objectives. The best formulation that optimized the acoustic properties of PU foams were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). From the results, the most significant factor affecting the experimental design objectives was identified.
Keywords: Optimizaiton; orthogonal array; sound absorption coefficient; transmission loss;.
Special Issue on: HAPTEN2016 Advances in Science and Engineering Research
Performance analysis of nine level SL quasi multi level inverter for different loads
by S. Priyadharsini, T.S. Sivakumaran
Abstract: This paper presents a design of dual cascaded SL quasi multilevel inverter that can be used with either a two isolated PV sources. This research work gives an outline of medium voltage multilevel inverter with a focus on achieving low harmonic distortion and high efficiency at low switching frequency operation. If another trusty feature of said H-bridge fails, it can be bypassed and the configuration can still operate as a five level inverter at its full power rating. This feature improves the trustworthiness of the path of the circuit and hence the switching device can be prevented from thermal runway and current hogging is prevented. The said modulations can be easily extended to three phase and higher multi level inverters, with same physical structure of the power module. The proposed controller is ultimately compared with other reported vector-based methods and its advantages are illustrated. The system is integrated and simulated on MATLAB. To verify the performance of the inverter, a prototype was constructed. The simulation and experimental results reveal that the inverter has high step-up inversion ability.
Keywords: dual PV source; SL quasi MLI; low THD; SPWM modulation; motor drives.
Investigation of structural integrity and corrosion behaviour of thermal barrier coating
by J. Thanikachalam, P. Nagaraj, T. Gopala Krishnan, M. Adam Khan
Abstract: When aluminium alloys are exposed to different chemical environment at high temperature, corrosion is a life-limiting factor. In this investigation, nano composites of double layer CSZ and SiAlON thermal barrier coating were deposited on the aluminium alloy substrate using atmospheric plasma spraying technique. The anti-corrosion behaviour of the CSZ and SiAlON double layer coating as well as substrate were investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution and H2SO4 solution by potentiodynamic polarisation method. The results reveal that the coated sample shows highest corrosion resistant than the bare metal. To understand the degree of corrosion behaviour in coating, SEM analysis is carried out. On the other hand, the structural integrity and hardness of the surface of coatings were investigated by using scratch test. The scratched surfaces were inspected by SEM and phase analysis was carried by EDX and the results were characterised. The scratch test shows a better hardness resistance even at high load.
Keywords: thermal coating; plasma spray; corrosion behaviour; double layer; structural integrity; EDX.
Numerical simulation and CFD analysis of a magnetorheological brake by magnetic induction equation method
by J. Thanikachalam, P. Nagaraj
Abstract: In this work, our aim is to enhance the braking torque of a magnetorheological brake (MRB) system. The proposed brake system consists of rotor with wave form boundary immersed in a MR fluid and enclosed in an electromagnet. The yield stress of the fluid varies as a function of magnetic field created by electric current passing through the electromagnet. The instantaneous increase in yield stress of fluid significantly increases the friction on the surfaces of rotating disks; thus generating a retarding braking torque. Due to the waveform boundary, a wedge shape is formed between the outer fixed casing and the rotor. This wedge shape provides the extra resisting force to stop the rotation of the disc due to change in the shear stress of the MR fluid changed with the influence of the magnetic field. Parabolic profile MR brake shows the large braking torque compared to circular profile of disc.
Keywords: conventional hydraulic brake; CHB; MR fluid; MR brake; design.
Optimisation of wear behaviour of heat treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy by response surface methodology
by S. Thirumalvalavan, P. Malliga
Abstract: Titanium alloys are extensively used in various fields of engineering, medicine, aerospace and marine due to their excellent mechanical properties. The response of the Ti alloys for its wear resistance is very poor. In this research the wear behaviour of the Ti alloys is improved by the heat treatment process. In this research, the implant material is subjected to heat treatment above its transformation temperature (950°C) followed by cooling in furnace. These specimens were further aged at 550°C for three hours and then water quenched. The property of poor wear resistance can be improved by changing the microstructure of the alloy where the formation martensitic structure (acicular α or retained β) is resulted. The wear test was conducted using the pin-on-disk, with varying parameters of the applied load (10-50 N), speed (100-500 rpm) and time (5-25 min). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) exhibit the wear scars and worn surfaces of the tested specimens. The optimum parameters were optimised by the response surface methodology and some useful conclusions were made.
Keywords: Ti-6Al-4V; heat treatment; hardness; wear test; optimisation by RSM.
Development of iron (Fe) additions approach for cost reduction in Ti-alloy - a review
by Ayad Omran Abdalla, Astuty Amrin, Sallehuddin Muhamad, M.A. Azmah Hanim
Abstract: Reduction of materials cost without sacrificing their functional properties is one of the main goals for materials engineers. This article focuses on Fe and its effect as an obvious example of introducing inexpensive alloying elements into Ti-alloys. It could also be a guide for future researches that would be aimed at replacing expensive β-stabiliser elements with inexpensive elements. Recently, more attention has been paid to low-cost Ti-alloys that contain Fe. This has resulted in the designing of many alloys such as Ti metal 62S and Ti-Fe-O-N Ti-alloys. This technical trend has been used to design new Ti-alloys with good mechanical features, such as Ti8LC and Ti-5.5Al-1Fe Ti-alloys in China and Japan respectively. Nowadays, major composition modifications of Ti-6Al-4V alloy have been proposed through the complete replacement of V by Fe. Three new alloys (Ti-6Al-xFe) are developed to investigate the effect of Fe additions on the microstructure and the mechanical properties.
Keywords: Fe addition; Ti-alloy; cost reduction; β-stabilising alloying elements.
Product technology, materials overview and economic aspects for development of forced draft TEG cookstove
by Risha Mal, Rajendra Prasad, Virendra K. Vijay
Abstract: The recent work demonstrates the utilisation of thermoelectric generator (TEG) in design and development of a forced draft thermoelectric generator cookstove (TEG cookstove). The heat energy due to burning of biomass in cookstove is utilised for generation of electrical energy with the help of TEG. A TEG is a device made of semiconductor material converting heat energy into electrical energy. This technology is used to develop a clean combustion cookstove usually for off-grid rural areas. A novel product design has been adopted to develop the TEG cookstove. In the developed design of TEG cookstove, the various topics like design parameters, product technology, materials required including their selection criteria, economic aspects, etc. are discussed in detail along with the power produced from the thermoelectric generator and its functionalities.
Keywords: biomass TEG cookstove; emissions; waste heat; thermoelectric generator; TEG.
Cyclic voltametric study of some alkyl substituted N-hydroxy-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-one semicarbazone and the antibacterial studies of the products
by J.B. Veeramalini, G. Baskar, N. Sheeja
Abstract: A series of 3-ethyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-one semicarbazone and 3,5-dimethyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-one semicarbazone were synthesised. The semicarbazones were subjected to cyclic voltammetric analysis using glassy carbon electrode with variable scan rate. The method involves electron transfer without the use of oxidising or reducing agents. The study of cyclic voltammogram showed that all the compounds have undergone irreversible reduction. The peak potential values, the number of peaks formed during the anodic and cathodic scan and the different scan rate used have established irreversible reduction reaction. The reduction products were isolated and purified by column chromatography. The structure is proved by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Further five products were analysed for anti bacterial activity and the nitro substituted compound showed a high inhibition towards Salmonella typii among the eight bacterial cultures.
Keywords: piperidone semicarbazone; cyclic voltammetry; CV; 1H and 13C NMR; anti bacterial activity.
Development of thermo-physical properties of aqua ammonia for Kalina cycle system
by N. Shankar Ganesh, T. Srinivas
Abstract: Ammonia-water mixture is a working fluid used in Kalina cycle system (KCS) and vapour absorption refrigeration (VAR) plants. Unlike for pure components, binary mixtures additionally need mixture concentration to assess thermodynamic properties. In a binary vapour power cycle, two working fluids have been used one with good high-temperature characteristics and another with good low-temperature characteristics. Binary vapour cycle is used to increase the overall plant efficiency. In ammonia-water mixture, ammonia boils at low temperature as it has low boiling point. The components considered should not be toxic and dangerous to human life. The binary fluid considered must be non-corrosive to the metals used in power plants. Ammonia-water mixture as zeotropic nature will have the tendency to boil and condense at a range of temperatures possessing a closer match between heat source and working fluid mixture. Thermodynamic properties have been generated from correlations and derivations and formed as MATLAB subroutines. These properties are used in thermodynamic evaluation of KCS plants. The temperature-concentration, specific volume-concentration, enthalpy-concentration, entropy-concentration and exergy-concentration graphs for ammonia-water mixtures are plotted up to 100-bar pressure.
Keywords: bubble point; dew point; zeotropic; Kalina; vapour absorption.
In vitro cytotoxicity and antibacterial studies of ruthenium(II) DMSO complexes with S-allyldithiocarbazate
by Selvakumar Ponnusamy, Narayanasamy Ramasamy
Abstract: The ruthenium(II) DMSO complexes with formula [RuCl(DMSO)3L1](1) and [RuCl(DMSO)3L2](2) had been synthesised. The newly synthesised complexes are characterised by elemental analysis, UV-VIS, FT-IR, NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopy. The spectral and analytical data of the complexes 1 and 2 supports well with the molecular formulae proposed. The in vitro cytotoxicity of these complexes evaluated using MTT assay indicate that the above complexes are more toxic against Hela cervical cancer cell line, but significantly less toxic against the normal Vero cell line. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the complexes 1 and 2 against S.aureus and E.Coli had also been tested and compared with standard streptomycin.
Keywords: ruthenium(II) complexes; S-allyl dithiocarbazate; cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity.
Desalination technique using optimised solar still and solar foam
by J. Thanikachalam, P. Nagaraj, S. Krishnan, M. Manian
Abstract: This paper deals with the development of a material structure called 'solar foam' with double layered structure of exfoliated graphite flakes and reticulated PU foam for solar steam generation at low solar intensity and keeping the bulk liquid at low temperature with no vacuum. Solar desalination is a one such technology which uses direct sunlight for purification of water at low cost and with less space occupied. This approach requires either costly high optical intensity parabolic reflectors leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated surfaces. To decrease these losses new solar receiver concepts such as nano fluids or volumetric receivers have been proposed. But their conversion efficiency is comparatively lower (30%). To harvest solar energy for a broad range of phase-change applications this new structure will be novel approach. Suitable modifications have done to solar still to increase its productivity.
Keywords: exfoliated graphite flakes; reticulated PU foam; solar foam; solar still.
Dehydration kinetics of Musa acuminata in osmotics and microwave drying
by N. Josephine Selvi, G. Baskar, Aruna Singh
Abstract: To develop a product, banana chips of high consumer acceptability, the banana slices of 2 mm thickness were first osmotically pretreated and then convectively dried in oven at constant air temperature of 40°C to safe moisture level followed by microwave drying. Different experimental combinations of osmotic process parameters, i.e., palm sugar concentration, solution temperature and immersion time is to be tried using Box-Behnken design of experiments. Response surface methodology has to be used to investigate the effect of sugar concentration (40-45°Brix), solution temperature (40-60°C), and immersion time (30-150 min) on the water loss and solute gain. The experimental data was fitted to different empirical kinetic models including Peleg, Page and Midilli equations. Determination of coefficient (R2), root mean square error and mean relative deviation modulus were used for determination of the best suitable model. The present work shows that the Peleg empirical model satisfactorily described the dehydration kinetics for osmotic dehydration where as page and Midilli for microwave drying.
Keywords: banana chips; kinetic study; osmotic dehydration; microwave drying; response surface methodology; RSM; solid gain; water loss; WL.
Adsorption equilibrium and kinetic studies on effective removal of heavy metals onto modified cellulose bearing Schiff base with pyridine chelating groups from aqueous solution
by Saravanan Rajayyan, Ravikumar Lingam
Abstract: A novel chemically modified cellulose (Cell-Py) adsorbent bearing chelating groups such as pendent Schiff base with pyridine chelating groups was synthesised. The new modified cellulose was examined for the removal of heavy metal ions (Cu(II) and Pb(II)) from aqueous solution. The experimental conditions and adsorption parameters, such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, temperature and initial metal ion concentration were optimised. The structural characteristics of the adsorbent were determined using FT-IR, solid state 13C-NMR, SEM, EDX and TGA analysis. Adsorption kinetic parameters of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were used to fit the experimental data. Adsorption isotherms such as Langmuir and Freundlich have been investigated. Also, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° have been evaluated. The Cell-Py adsorbent can be effectively regenerated with significant level of adsorption after several uses. The biocidal results of Cell-Py showed that toxic effect to the selective bacterial species.
Keywords: modification of cellulose; selective oxidation; heavy metal removal; kinetics; antibacterial activity.
Comparative analysis of N-hydroxy-2,6-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-3-isopropylpiperidin-4-one semicarbazone and N-hydroxy-2,6-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-3-isopropylpiperidin-4-one thiosemicarbazone by graceful tree graph, non-graceful graph and cliques representation of graph with the data spectrum
by V. Narayanan, J.B. Veeramalini, G. Baskar
Abstract: In this paper, the graph theory has been developed into an extensive and popular branch of mathematics, which in turn has been applied to many problems in semicarbazone and thiosemicarbazone compounds. The compounds such as N-hydroxy-2,6-bis(pchlorophenyl)-3-isopropylpiperidin-4-one semicarbazone and N-hydroxy-2,6-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-3-isopropylpiperidin-4-one thiosemicarbazone have been synthesised and characterised on the basis of elemental analysis such as 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Several open problems that have gained respect with the help of graph theory, which can be recorded through simple, finite, connected and undirected group. The compounds which have been synthesised can be split into four sub groups. Each subset has been defined such as alkyl by graceful tree graph, N-hydroxy ring and phenyl compounds by non-graceful graph and semicarbazone and thiosemicarbazone by cliques representations of graph. The compound has been represented mathematically in terms of −p vertices and −q cliques. A complete picturisation of the compounds by combining all the subgroups together has been schematically icono-graphed.
Keywords: semicarbazone; thiosemicarbazone; graceful tree graph; GTG; cliques representation of graph; non-graceful graph; NGG; 1H NMR; 13C NMR.
Bioconversion of Caulerpa racemosa derived galactose rich fraction to D-Tagatose using L-arabinose isomerase from Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1407
by J. Jayamuthunagai, P. Gautam, M. Chakravarthy, G. Srisowmeya
Abstract: A new source of galactose isolated from Caulerpa racemosa is used as raw material for D-tagatose conversion. D-galactose from Caulerpa derived galactose rich fraction (C-GF), which is 99.1% pure is employed in enzymatic bioconversion for D-tagatose using L-arabinose isomerase (l-AI) from Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1407. The enzyme fraction with l-AI activity is purified to an apparent homogeneity evident on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 59 kDa. Maximum l-AI activity of enzyme was observed at 50°C, pH 7.0 with 20 mM Mg2+ as cofactor. The potential of C-GF to act as D-tagatose feedstock was tested with varying concentrations of C-GF in 50 mM phosphate buffer added with obtained l-AI enzyme. This is compared with the results of pure D-galactose conversion using the same l-AI for better understanding of C-GF as tagatose raw material. Maximum equilibrium of 34.5% tagatose to C-GF galactose was obtained after 40 h producing 0.33 g tagatose/g galactose in C-GF.
Keywords: D-tagatose; L-arabinose isomerase; l-AI; Lactobacillus plantarum; D-galactose; Caulerpa racemosa.
Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of woody stem Prosopis juliflora by Zymomonas mobilis for the production of cellulosic ethanol
by S. Sivarathnakumar, G. Baskar, R. Praveenkumar, B. Bharathiraja
Abstract: Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass is found to be a pivotal task in the production of biofuels. In this study, woody stem Prosopis juliflora initially was subjected to auto hydrolysis followed by nitric acid treatment (3%(v/v)) and sonication. Further a combination of auto hydrolysis coupled with nitric acid treatment (3%(v/v)) followed by sonication was carried out. The outcome of these two main processes was to ascertain the maximum production of cellulose and hemicelluloses from lignocellulosic biomass and use it for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with commercially available enzyme and gram negative bacteria Zymomonas mobilis in the production of cellulosic ethanol. The process parameters such as pH, temperature, substrate concentration and inoculum volume in the production of cellulosic ethanol were investigated. The maximum bioethanol concentration produced by fermentation of woody stem Prosopis juliflora using Zymomonas mobilis was found to be 16.40 g/l.
Keywords: Prosopis juliflora; Zymomonas mobilis; Tricoderma reesei; simultaneous saccharification and fermentation; SSF; lignocellulosic biomass.
Isolation and growth optimisation of fresh water microalgae Asterarcys quadricellulare
by S. Karthikeyan, M. Thirumarimurugan
Abstract: The new strain of green microalgae Asterarcys quadricellulare (KT280061) was isolated from the different fresh water bodies in Chennai. The preliminary identification was done based on morphology and molecular identification of the isolate was carried out based on the partial 18S rRNA sequence analysis. The effects of physical parameters temperature, pH and light intensity were examined against the accumulation of Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotenoid, protein, carbohydrate and lipid content were studied. After the determination of physical parameters, the effect of the concentrations of KNO3, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and NaCl in the medium composition against the biochemical composition of A.quadricellulare were studied by varying one parameter at a time. The strain showed the maximum accumulation of chlorophyll-a (38.65 μg/ml), chlorophyll-b (20.76 μg/ml), carotenoid (14 μg/ml), protein (290 μg/ml), carbohydrate (545 μg/ml) and lipid (384 μg/ml) contents under the optimised conditions 40°C, pH 8.5, and light intensity 40 μmol m−2 s−1. The results showed both physical and chemical parameters were greatly influence the biochemical composition of microalgae strain KT280061.
Keywords: microalgae; isolation; 18S rRNA sequence; optimization; Asterarcys quadricellulare; chlorophyll; protein; carbohydrate; lipid; biofuel.
Larvicidal activity of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris against the Aedes aegypti larvae
by Santhosh Arul, Dhakshanya Predheepan, Haripriya Dayalan
Abstract: Aedes aegypti is the vector for dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Control of the vector mosquito is difficult due to development of resistance to insecticides. In the present study, we used the methanolic extract of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris to assess mosquito larvicidal activity against third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti following standard protocols of laboratory testing based on the World Health Organization guidelines. Our results showed that methanol extracts of Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris showed larvicidal activity. The LD50 and LD90 value was found to be 122.45 ppm and 424.53 ppm respectively for Agaricus bisporus. The LD50 and LD90 of Agaricus campestris was found to be 92.45 ppm and 360.29 ppm respectively. The chi-square values were significant at P < 0.05 level. In conclusion, these results suggest that Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus campestris possess bio-active compounds that could be considered as a natural larvicidal agent against Aedes aegypti.
Keywords: Agaricus bisporus; Agaricus campestris; Aedes aegypti; larvicidal activity.
Modified zeolite as a catalyst for Pongamia pinnata oil esterification in biodiesel production
by D. Nilavunesan, K.V. Thiruvengadaravi, M. Yuvarani, S. Sivanesan
Abstract: The solid acid catalyst, Nb/P/ZSM-5 was synthesised and characterised for its nature and morphological features. The catalyst was employed in the esterification of free fatty acids in Karanja (P. pinnata) oil for biodiesel production. Parameters affecting the P. pinnata oil esterification were determined and Nb/P/ZSM-5 catalyst esterified P. pinnata oil was analysed using spectroscopic investigation.
Keywords: zeolite; catalyst; Nb/P/ZSM-5; Karanja; Pongamia pinnata; wet impregnation.
Antimicrobial activity of a polyherbal formulation Ambrex
by Anila Raslin, Johanna Rajkumar
Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Ambrex, a polyherbal formulation, against distinct microorganisms. Ambrex is a mixture of four herbs namely Withania somnifera, Orchis mascula, Pistacia lentiscus, Cycas circinalis with amber (a resin from Pinus succinifera). The aqueous extract of ambrex showed significant antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enterica, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella Flexneri, Pseudomonas putida and Candida albicans. In the antimicrobial well diffusion assay, substantial inhibition was observed with Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. The antibacterial activity of Ambrex was comparable with that of the standards cifran and streptomycin. It also showed potent inhibition of the Candida Albicans and the effect is comparable to fluconazole. In summary, the present study demonstrated the potential antimicrobial activity of Ambrex, a polyherbal formulation.
Keywords: Ambrex; Salmonella typhi; Candida albicans; cifran; streptomycin; fluconazole.
Biodegradation of formaldehyde using Bacillus subtilis in batch process
by Panchanathan Ezhilkumar, V.M. Sivakumar, A. Yogasri, M. Thirumarimurugan
Abstract: Formaldehyde plays a vital role in most of the chemical industries and can be present in most industrial waste effluents. HCHO is highly toxic to most living organisms and is known to cause cancer and sick-house syndrome. Therefore effluent containing formaldehyde should be treated before discharging into the environment. Bacillus subtilis is one of the bacterial species which have potential to degrade formaldehyde. A microbial immobilisation method was applied in the treatment of formaldehyde for an effective degradation. The objective of this study is to determine the efficiency of bacteria under different experimental conditions such as pH, inoculum size, and HCHO concentration in the batch reactor. It was observed that the biodegradation of formaldehyde was maximum at pH value 7 and 15% (wt %) inoculum size and reached 73% COD reduction after treatment. Functional groups are present in the effluent and biodegradation of formaldehyde after treatments were identified by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; surface immobilisation; inoculum size; FTIR spectroscopy; formaldehyde degradation.
Impending heavy metal tolerance of fungus isolated from dye industrial sludge
by S. Gowthami, M. Thirumarimurugan, V.M. Sivakumar, K. Sukanya
Abstract: In the present study, the fungal species were isolated from dye industrial sludge collected at common effluent treatment plant (CETP). The isolated strains were screened for metal tolerance index (MTI) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in potato dextrose agar plates amended with various concentrations, ranging from 20-100 ppm of Cu and Fe. The three fungal strains such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus were isolated. The results of MIC revealed that all the three isolates were able to tolerate various concentrations of Cu and Fe. The strain Aspergillus flavus showed the higher tolerance index of Cu, when compared with other isolates. Similarly the strain Rhizopus was the most tolerant species and exhibit strong growth at high concentration of Fe. The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus exhibit the moderate tolerance of both the heavy metals. The isolated fungus was exhibiting strong growth and tolerance to metals, can be a viable species for bioremediation.
Keywords: atomic absorption spectroscopy; AAS; dye industrial sludge; fungus; heavy metal; minimum inhibitory concentration; MIC.
Special Issue on: ModTech2016 Materials Science and Engineering Technologies
Re-Ranking In User-Driven Reputation Systems With Splay Tree
by Jayashree Ramakrishnan
Abstract: In e-learning environments, trust relationship plays a vital role in establishing collaborative activities among co-learners. Reputation is a fundamental source for measuring co-learners' trust. An efficient and effective way to construct trust relationship among faculties and students in e-learning environment is ranking. User-driven reputation systems are based only on the feedback or ratings provided by the users. Users with higher points obtain high rating compared to less scored users. Thus, by Zipf's law, alleged low users are pushed to the bottom of the ranking list. This condition is avoided by encouraging less likely users and preventing them from moving further down in ranking level. Low ranked users are provided with few more chances to participate actively in the e-learning environment. A splay tree is a Binary Search Tree with self-balancing skill. The splay tree brings the recently accessed item to the top of the tree. A splay tree is used to represent user's ranks, and low ranked users are semi-splayed again in the tree thus preventing them from further drowning in the ranking list for the fixed number of times. In this paper, we presented Rank_Improvement algorithm to enhance average scored users and compared with the ranking algorithm in the existing Question-Answering websites.
Keywords: Adaptive and intelligent educational systems; reputation management; user-driven reputation system; ranking using a splay tree; ranking algorithm; Question-Answering websites.
Recent status of overlay by plasma transferred arc welding technique
by Dhiraj Deshmukh, Vivek Kalyankar
Abstract: The aspects of investigation on surface characterization and role of material for various applications of petroleum, gas refineries, marine, aerospace, etc. have spurred in this era. The usefulness of surface protection techniques, materials, their performances and characteristics for particular medium is important to study, as it is vital to employ a specific required material for particular application. Considering these features, this manuscript presents the overview of plasma transferred arc welding technique used for the surfacing of parts. The main aim is to focus the investigations carried out from last decade based on tribo-corrosion performance of overlay surfaces and their key observations. In addition, the material combination, effects of process parameters, cause and effect diagram, microstructural benefits, common advantages and drawbacks associated with the technique are also presented. This will be beneficial to find out the main targeting areas by establishing a theoretical and technical bias for new research and industrial people.
Keywords: Surface modification; Plasma transferred arc welding; Overlay; Erosion-corrosion; Wear; Abrasion.
An Investigation on the Tensile Properties and Micro-structure of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites
by VellingirI Suresh, N. Hariharan, S. Vellingiri
Abstract: In recent years, Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites (AMMCs) have emerged as a promising high class of materials. Metal matrix composites are emerging as very promising materials especially in the fields of aerospace, electrical, electronics and automotive for their various applications and technical demanding properties. In the present work, a brave is consummate to prepare and compare the tensile properties of LM25-Gr & LM25-Graphite /Boron carbide (B4C) hybrid composites. The composites were primed to make use of stir casting process in which quantity of reinforcement is speckled from 4 wt% of Gr and 3 wt% of B4C. The prepared composites are characterized by micro-structural studies and tensile properties were estimated as per the standards. The microphotographs of the composites revealed the reasonably homogeneous supply of the particles in composites with a group at a small number of places. The dispersed Graphite and B4C in LM25 alloy contributed in enhancing the tensile strength of the composites. The SEM of the illustration specifies the homogeneous supply of the reinforcement particles in the matrix without any annulled.
Keywords: Metal matrix composites; Aluminium alloy LM25; Tensile strength;B4C;Gr;SEM;Stir Casting; Micro-structure.
APPLICATION SUPPORTING THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING MODULAR CONSTRUCTION
by Rafał Rząsiński
Abstract: The basic concept described in this paper is the application that enables to generate technological data for machine design series of types. The data is generated in the traditional form (operation and instruction sheets) and codes for numerically controlled machine tools. The model of transformation is based on the developed theory of technological similarity using relational databases. The theory of similarity is based on the theory of physical similarity (Gendarz, P. 2002; Rzasinski, R 2015). The model in the theory of similarity of construction and technology is the construction and technology standard. An elaborated program based on the theory of construction and technological similarities supports the process of creating technological documentation. It is also possible to generate the NC (Numerical Control) code for the numerically controlled machine tools.
Keywords: technology; computer programms; modular series; databases.