International Journal of Materials and Product Technology (13 papers in press)
DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIP TO PREDICT THE JOINT TENSILE STRENGTH AND JOINT SHEAR STRENGTH OF DIFFUSION BONDED AA6082 ALUMINIUM ALLOY
by Venugopal Sivasankaran, Mahendran G
Abstract: In this work, empirical relationships were developed to predict the joint tensile strength and joint shear strength of the rolled plates made of 5 mm thick aluminum alloy AA6082, joined by diffusion bonding. Three diffusion bonding parameters such as bonding temperature, bonding pressure and holding time were used to formulate the relationship. A central composite design was also put to use to minimize the number of experimental conditions. In addition, the Response Surface Methodology was employed to develop the relationship. The relationship thus developed can effectively predict, to the 95% confidence level, the strength of diffusion bonded AA6082 aluminium alloys. It was observed that the joint tensile strength and joint shear strength went up with the increase in either bonding temperature or bonding pressure. The maximum joint tensile strength and joint shear strength were observed as 36 MPa and 115 MPa at 520
Keywords: AA6082 aluminium alloy; Diffusion bonding; Response surface methodology; Optical microscopy; SEM-EDS.
Machining Characteristics in Cutting Inconel718 with Carbide Tool
by Zhaopeng Hao, Shucai Yang, Yihang Fan, Mingming Lu
Abstract: Nickel-based alloy Inconel718 is widely used in the field of aerospace, owing to its unique properties such as high oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance even at elevated temperature. However, Inconel718 has poor machinability, which mainly includes complex cutting deformation, large and fluctuant cutting force, high cutting temperature and serious tool wear. In this paper, the cutting deformation characteristics of material in cutting zone and tool wear features under different cutting speeds were studied. The physical and chemical phenomena in cutting process and their effects on tool wear were further analyzed. At low cutting speed, the continual generation and falling off of BUE made the cutting process unstable and led to tool chipping. At medium cutting speed, tribo-chemical reaction occurred at tool-chip interface. These new generated and soft metallic oxides attaching to tool surface played a role of boundary lubrication layer. It can reduce the adhesion between tool and chip, thereby protecting the cutting tool. At high cutting speed, inhomogeneous deformation of materials in cutting zone resulted in alternating stress, which led to crack in tool subsurface and made tool material fall off in the form of lamella.
Keywords: Inconel718; cutting deformation; tool wear feature; physical and chemical phenomenon in cutting process.
Novel quantification for silver ion generated by the submerged arc discharge method
by Kuo-Hsiung Tseng, Chih-Ju Chou, Sheng-hao Shih, Der-Chi Tien, Hsueh-Chien Ku, Leszek Stobinski
Abstract: This study used the submerged arc discharge method (SADM) to produce metal fluid containing nanoparticles and submicron particles, whereby the energy focused by an electric arc was used to dissolve silver metal in deionised water. No additional chemical substances were required throughout the process, which enabled production to be fast and straightforward. Conventional concentration measurement of silver ions (Ag+) uses 200 ml of sample solution for every test wherein the Ag+ revert to atoms, resulting in the incapacity of the solution to be reused. This study devised a new quantification method that requires only a trace amount (6 ml) of Ag+ solution and used equations and data from electrical conductivity, concentration and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption values to determine their respective relationships with Ag+ concentration, after which the solution can still be reused.
Keywords: submerged arc discharge method; SADM; electrical conductivity meter; ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer; zeta potential; nanosilver; silver ions; micro-discharge machine system; absorbance.
Special Issue on: 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
Investigation of professional design practice: a framework for designing plastic consumer products for additive manufacturing
by Wei Liu, Zicheng Zhu, Songhe Ye, Xiaoneng Jin, Guanghe Yan
Abstract: Revolutionary advances in plastic additive manufacturing (AM) have enabled it to evolve to be an economic viable production method for manufacturing consumer products in our daily lives. The capability of creating complex structures opens up vast design freedoms, which consequently requires new design mind-sets and methods to be developed to take advantage of this emerging technology whilst minimising inherent process drawbacks. This study investigates professional design practice in design for plastic AM. A framework that shows an effective way to design products is developed, enabling efficient low to medium volume production using plastic AM processes. The major factors and design considerations including AM process characteristics, materials, product appearance, functionality and production economic viability that affect the design of a consumer product are described. A case study of a night lamp manufactured by selective laser sintering is conducted, demonstrating that plastic AM is a feasible and reliable production route for consumer goods.
Keywords: design for additive manufacturing; 3D printing; plastic consumer goods; design method; design process.
Evaluation of additive manufacturing technologies for dimensional and geometric accuracy
by Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari, Mohammed Ashfaq, Syed Hammad Mian, Wadea Ameen
Abstract: In spite of numerous benefits offered by additive manufacturing, their primary applications are limited to prototyping. A number of unresolved issues can be cited, which have curtailed their implementation. Among serious problems faced by AM are poor dimensional and geometric accuracy as well as low surface finish. Henceforth, further expansion and better performance entail an increased understanding of AM systems. A wide range of AM technologies, with variations in accuracy and surface finish is available in the market. Most often, the accuracy of AM machines do not persistently conform to the assertions of manufacturer, and thereby desired accuracy is difficult to attain. The goal of this work is to evaluate different AM processes. The most popular processes: fused deposition modelling (solid-based), stereolithography (liquid-based) and electron beam melting (powder-based) are evaluated. This study has been undertaken to provide engineers and designers with useful information about the expected accuracy from different AM systems.
Keywords: additive manufacturing; AM; 3D printing; fused deposition modelling; FDM; stereolithography; SLA; electron beam melting; EBM; benchmarking; accuracy.
Selection of 3D printer based on FAHP integrated with GRA-TOPSIS
by Sundararaj Raghavendra Prabhu, Mani Ilangkumaran
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and select the suitable three-dimensional (3D) printers for centre of excellence of academic institution. The selection involves various conflicting criteria such as build volume, speed, layer thickness, extruder, machine cost and support material cost. In order to overcome this conflicting nature of the evaluation criteria, hybrid multi criteria decision making (MCDM) model is proposed. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) is integrated with grey relational analysis (GRA) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is proposed as a model to evaluate the suitable 3D printer. FAHP is used to define the weights of criteria and GRA-TOPSIS is used to attain the final ranking of 3D printers. In this study, ten 3D printer models and six evaluation criteria are considered for the evaluation process.
Keywords: multi criteria decision making; MCDM; fuzzy analytical hierarchy process; FAHP; TOPSIS; GRA-TOPSIS; 3D printer.
Investigation of parameters influencing mechanical properties in SIS by using RSM
by Sagar M. Baligidad, U. Chandrasekhar, K. Elangovan, S. Shankar
Abstract: The key challenge of selective inhibition sintering process is to select optimal process parameters to fabricate parts with desired dimensions. Heater power, layer thickness, heater feed rate, roller feed rate, and bed temperature are considered as candidate factors to optimise by using RSM. Face centred composite was employed to plan the experimental design with five factors-three levels. The experiments are performed on polyamide (PA12) material through by a novel SIS process. ANOVA was used to verify the adequacy of the developed models. Experimental results revealed that mechanical properties of fabricated parts increased with the decrease in heater power, layer thickness and with the increase in heater feed rate, roller feed rate. The microstructure evaluation was also performed to justify the surface morphology. Comparative study like sensitivity analysis is carried out to measure the impact of process parameters on mechanical properties and the obtained results are validated to select optimal parameters.
Keywords: selective inhibition sintering; SIS; optimisation; analysis of variance; ANOVA; response surface methodology; RSM; sensitivity.
Estimating percentage contribution of process parameters towards build time of FDM process for components displaying spatial symmetry: a case study
by Manu Srivastava, Sandeep Rathee, Sachin Maheshwari, T.K. Kundra
Abstract: Generative manufacturing is an innovative technology which is almost 30 years old. It has the ability of quickly transforming concept into physical models. The design cycle is contracted manifolds by utilising these techniques. One of a versatile generative manufacturing technique is fused deposition modelling (FDM) which is used for production of robust and economical prototypes. In the present research, effect of percentage contribution of critical process parameters on the build time requirements of the FDM process is examined for the given build volume in Fortus 250MC modeller. ABS P430 cubical and spherical primitives of constructive solid geometry, which display spatial symmetry in a given build volume, are chosen as work piece. Response surface methodology is utilised as the statistical tool for experimental design and modelling. This work is an attempt towards explicitly defining the process parameters which affect the build time and their percentage contribution. It has been established by this research that the percentage contribution of slice height outweighs the effect of air gap and orientation towards the estimation of build time. Other FDM build parameters like width and inclination of rasters as also width of contours contributes relatively less towards the build time and material volume quantities.
Keywords: additive manufacturing; fused deposition modelling; FDM; response surface methodology; RSM; symmetric CSG primitives; build time.
Using additive manufacturing applications for design and development of food and agricultural equipments
by Mohd Javaid, Abid Haleem
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) plays a vital role in the globalised world as it provides innovative technologies to manufacture customised parts with different materials in different volumes. Food and agriculture sector needs extensive customisation towards designing and development of types of equipment. Through this paper, we are proposing an extensive usage of AM in these sectors. AM is capable for designing/production of customised/innovative food items such as coffee, pizza, burger, biscuits, cakes, chocolates and other everyday food items as per the required volume of ingredients, shape and colour. AM brings innovation in the agricultural sector, with its capability to produce customised physical models and making them directly for use onto the farms. It enables testing of obtained design towards flaws/productivity before the actual production of agricultural equipment in the factory. A farmer can be provided ergonomically useful and customised agricultural equipment as per the need of shape, size and design.
Keywords: additive manufacturing; AM; 3D printing; rapid prototyping; food printing; agriculture equipments; design; product customisation.
Special Issue on: A Synergistic Approach in IR4.0 for Product Technology Development
Characterization of microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture mode of the dissimilar joining of AISI 304 stainless steel and DP780 dual phase steel by resistance spot welding
by Masoud Sabzi, Sadegh Moeini Far , Saeid Mersagh Dezfuli
Abstract: Microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture mode were investigated for the dissimilar joining of AISI 304 steel and DP780 steel by resistance spot welding. First resistance spot welding was utilized with a current density of 8kA, holding time after welding of 10 cycles, and 5kN electrode force. Then, to evaluate the microstructure, hardness profile and tensile-shear strength of weld nugget, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vickers micro-hardness and tensile-shear tests were carried out, respectively. Microstructural evaluations showed that in the dissimilar joining of DP780 - AISI 304 stainless steel, fusion zone (FZ) microstructure was martensitic and some grains were also coarsened in heat affected zone (HAZ). Moreover, HAZ in AISI 304 stainless steel side remained completely austenitic, while HAZ in DP780 dual phase steel transformed to martensite. Micro-hardness results showed that in the dissimilar joint of DP780 - AISI 304 stainless steel, FZ hardness was higher than base metals (BM) of both sheets of steel. Additionally, HAZ in DP780 dual phase steel side had higher hardening ability than other joint areas. Results of tensile shear tests of the dissimilar joint of DP780 - AISI 304 stainless steel, indicated that the joint had the tensile shear strength of 15 kN along with the occurrence of severe plastic deformation.
Keywords: Resistance spot welding; DP780 dual phase steel; AISI 304 stainless steel; Microstructure; Hardness profile; Tensile – shear strength.
Effect of Ball Milling Time on the Properties of Nickel Oxide-Samarium-Doped Cerium Composite Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
by N.O.R. FATINA RADUWAN, Muhammed Ali S.A., Mustafa Anwar, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu
Abstract: The powder characteristics of composites under different processing conditions, such as milling time, must be elucidated before fabricating electrodes with porous structures for fuel cell applications. Milling time is an important parameter in producing pure composite powders with fine crystallite size and affects the densification of the sintered pellet and the electrical performance of the cell. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were conducted to characterize nickel-oxidesamarium-doped cerium (NiO-SDC) powders milled for different durations (2, 12, and 24 h). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis was performed to clarify the porosity of the sintered pellets. Density was determined using Archimedes method and was found to decrease after the reduction of the anode pellets. The XRD analysis of the composite anodes showed good chemical compatibility between the NiO and SDC. The TEM analysis of the as-prepared powders indicated that the particle size of the powder was within the nanometer range. This finding was confirmed by the FESEM micrograph of the sintered pellets. The porosity of the sintered pellets (before and after reduction) ranged from 20% to 40% and was considered sufficient for anode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).
Keywords: ball milling time; NiO-SDC; composite anode; particle size; porosity; density; solid oxide fuel cell.
Characterising the strength of solid and honeycomb geometrical plates under quasi-static loading
by Nik Muhammad Azif Arifin, Abdul Hadi Azman
Abstract: This paper presents the strength characteristics of solid and honeycomb plates under quasi-static loading using finite element analysis (FEA). The aim was to investigate and compare the strength characteristics of solid and honeycomb plates. A comparison of these simulations was conducted based on the strength of material characteristics prediction. Geometrical models for the solid and honeycomb plates subjected to uniform stress were developed and assessed. The effects caused by quasi-static load were studied by comparing the two plates to obtain the stress and translational displacement. The simulations were elastic, and the deflection of the solid and honeycomb plates were determined. The results were similar with a deflection of 11.4 mm for the solid plate and 11.3 mm for the honeycomb. However, the stress results were different. Therefore, this comparison method is suitable for evaluating other mechanical structures in the field of strength of materials.
Keywords: honeycomb plate; solid plate; quasi-static; translational displacements; von Mises stress.
A systemic study on hydroforming process of exhaust pipe FE simulation and experiment
by Kuanxin Liu, Ning Guo, Shunqi Zheng, Kemin Xue
Abstract: Hydroforming process of tube parts is widely used in many industries due to the virtues of weight reduction and high strength and stiffness. The exhaust pipe hydroforming process is investigated systemically combined FE simulation with experiments. The FE simulation model for hydroforming process is established after solving several key technologies based on the ABAQUS software, and the validation is carried out compared with experiments. And then, the effects of process parameters on forming quality are studied by using the FE simulation model. The optional process parameters are obtained based on the simulation model and orthogonal experimental analysis. Finally, three typical loading paths are proposed and tested, and the guidance for loading path is given. Based on these developments, the exhaust pipes are manufactured by hydroforming in a short period and low cost.
Keywords: hydroforming process; exhaust pipe; optional process parameter; orthogonal experimental analysis.