International Journal of Management Practice (13 papers in press)
Supply Chain Process of Olive Oil Industry
by Rupesh Kumar, Surendra Kansara
Abstract: The supply chain in olive oil industry consists of many phases that include olive fruits extraction, processing, packaging, and distribution to consumers. The purpose of this research is to throw the light on olive oil industry supply chain process and its phases prevalent for different countries on the basis of literature. The study identifies important stages with respect to olive oil supply chain process; these are the quality of olive fruits and oil, organizing the olive farming systems and throw light on the necessity of consumers awareness regarding understanding differences in the variety of olive oils. The study likely to help practitioners, researchers, academicians, and managers to get an overview of using multi-criteria decision methods for improving supply chain process of the olive industry.
Keywords: Olive Fruits; Olive Oil; Supply Chain Management; Quality; Multi-Criteria Decision Making.
The relationship between management team (TMT) metacognition, entrepreneurial orientations and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) firm performance
by Jo Rhodes, Peter Lok, Zahra Sadeghinejad, Vincent Cheng
Abstract: This study examines the impact of top management team (TMT) metacognition on entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance. The result revealed that the mediation effect of managing risk in TMT entrepreneurial orientation has a negative impact on SMEs performance. Hence, TMT in SMEs should focus their strategic decisions on innovativeness and proactiveness rather than high risk projects to remain competitive. Furthermore, the findings further supported that effective behavioural integration of TMT could significantly influence the outcome of TMT metacognition and entrepreneurial orientation. 1500 SMEs were surveyed in this study.
Keywords: Top management team (TMT); metacognition; entrepreneurial orientation; behavioural integration; SME performance.
A Strategic Perspective on the Implementation of Inclusive Businesses:
The Experience of Ecuadorian Firms
by Pilar Arroyo, Virgilio Pesantes, Lorena Carrete
Abstract: This study analyses the viability of inclusive business models as a strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR) action with the potential to balance business and social objectives. A qualitative approach was used to gather information from leading Ecuadorian firms with visible CSR activities. The strategic CSR framework proposed by Burke and Logsdon was used to analyse whether the inclusive business models used by Ecuadorian firms qualify as strategic opportunities with dual benefits. The case analysis confirms that inclusive businesses are social initiatives that are also recognised as viable business opportunities. However, current projects reproduce the models of leading multinationals and provide only temporary strategic advantages and indeterminate social benefits that are subject to organisational outcomes. The strategic recommendations are compared with empirical accounts to outline a conceptual framework for the implementation and management of inclusive business projects. The framework is oriented towards the achievement of the full potential value of these models.
Keywords: Inclusive business; corporate social responsibility; CSR; social value; strategic framework; developing countries; Ecuador; case study.
Impact of Leader Creativity Expectations on Employee Creativity: Assessing the Mediating and Moderating Role of Creative Self-Efficacy
by Muhammad Shahnawaz Adil, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Imran Khan
Abstract: This study analyzes the impact of the leader creativity expectations on employee creativity and also investigates whether creative self-efficacy mediates or moderates the positive relationship between leader creativity expectations and employee creativity. A sample of 300 responses is drawn from the employees of the advertising agencies of Karachi (Pakistan) using cross-sectional survey questionnaire administered to them. The responses about employees creativity are rated by their immediate supervisors. We used variance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) technique with bootstrapping method to test hypotheses. The findings suggest that leader creativity expectations significantly increase employee creativity. In addition, creative self-efficacy does not moderate rather it partially mediates the relationship between leader creativity expectations and employee creativity. Managerial implications are also discussed in the context of the advertising agencies of Pakistan.
Keywords: Leader creativity expectations; creativity; self-efficacy; advertising agencies; PLS-SEM; Pakistan.
CSR Activities of a Japanese company operating in India Strong or Weak Sustainability: A theory testing of a Cybernetic Model
by Santosh Basavaraj, Ravi A, Katinka C. Van Cranenburgh, Vikkraman P
Abstract: The first objective of the study is to shed light on the reasons why Toyota in India achieves a high ranking in CSR ratings and the second objective is to determine whether it adopts a strong or weak approach to sustainability.
This study follows qualitative research methodology with the case study approach for the first objective to test the theory of cybernetics model to Toyota case to develop new insights. For the second objective in-depth interviews of CSR stakeholders were carried out by using a structured questionnaire. The results indicates that Toyota would appear to take a holistic, as opposed to a stakeholder approach to its CSR policies, and one that, therefore, adopts strong sustainable business practices. Based on a study of its CSR activities, Toyota is found to follow most of the components of the cybernetic model proposed by Roome (2012). Rather than placing the company at the centre of the stakeholder model, the management of Toyota responds to the requirements of the environment by placing societal development at the top of its list of objectives. The conclusion of this study indicates that Toyota adopts a strong approach to sustainability, while it cannot be claimed unequivocally that the cybernetic approach furnishes a better management model than that of the stakeholder approach in part because this study examines the case of a single company, the paper provides a framework for illustrating the way in which a company might grow in terms of sustainability.
Keywords: Holistic view; Stakeholder approach; Decision making; Cybernetics model; Sustainability; System thinking view.
Explaining User Acceptance and Usage of Social Networking Sites: The role of Trust, Social Connectedness and Visibility in Extending UTAUT2
by Praveena K, Sam Thomas
Abstract: Social Networking Sites (SNS) have become ubiquitous and the numerous sites popping up poses challenges to each site in retaining the user base. Different sites are accepted by different strata of people. Technology acceptance models like TAM, UTAUT,UTAUT2 etc have explained the acceptance of different systems and technologies and these models are extended using contextual variables with new technologies coming into force. This study aims to explain the acceptance and usage of Social Networking Sites with the help of UTAUT2 by adding three variables- Trust, Social Connectedness and Visibility. The result shows that the proposed model explained 66% variation in the usage and 53% variation in explaining the behavioural intention to use social networking sites. Visibility was found to be the main predictor of usage while habit is found to be the main predictor of behavioural intention, followed by Social Connectedness. Further, the model was found to be a better model than the base model UTAUT2 in explaining the usage of SNS. The study adds to the existing literature of theoretical models by providing a comprehensive model in acceptance and usage of SNS.
Keywords: Social Networking Sites; UTAUT2; nested model; Trust; Social Connectedness; Visibility.
Monitoring audit quality and firm resources of audit firm practices in Malaysia: The implementation of ISQC 1
by Takiah Mohd Iskandar, Aida Hazlin Ismail, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Zaleha Abdul Shukor
Abstract: Audit quality is the core of business strategy and key driver of success for audit firms. With the adoption of International Standard Quality Control (ISQC 1), the Malaysian Institute of Accountant (MIA) is enforcing quality control for all audit firms in Malaysia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for four discussion groups comprised of audit seniors, managers and partners of Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit firms. This research paper reports an exploratory study on the implementation and acceptance of ISQC 1. Results indicate that small audit firms in Malaysia are prepared with the implementation of ISQC 1. However, acceptances vary between the Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit firms. Results also indicate that working experience of the auditors, professional qualifications; education background and on-the-job trainings, and job performance appraisals, do have an effect on audit quality. Hence, the audit firm resources such as human resource characteristics are important in ensuring quality audit work.
Keywords: audit quality; firm resources; ISQC 1; qualitative; auditors; human resource characteristics; Resource-based view theory.
The Profitability of Islamic banking in Sudan
by Entissar Elgadi, Peiyi Yu
Abstract: We investigate the determinants of Sudanese banking performance between 2005 and 2013. Sudan is one of only three countries in the world fully committed to Islamic banking system. The period of investigation is an important period in Sudan involving political changes and financial reform. After following a dual banking system consisting of conventional and Islamic banking between 2005 and 2011, a wholly Islamic banking system was adopted in 2011. We use the return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) as the performance indicators, while explanatory variables include banks age, size, type, capitalisation, liquidity, credit risk, leverage, operational efficiency, staff expenses, and assets utilisation. We also examine factors which are specific to Islamic banking performance: profit and loss sharing, non-profit and loss sharing and Salam mode of finance. These are all established types of modes of finance upon which Islamic Banking operations are based. We find that ownership, capitalisation and asset utilisation have a positive impact on ROA while operation efficiency, bank age, leverage and specialisation bring an adverse impact. We also find that the Profit and Loss Sharing mode of finance, one of the financial products provided by Islamic banking only, can have a positive impact on both financial performance indicators.
Keywords: Islaamic banking; Profitability determinanats.
Perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness in Argentina and Mexico: a comparative study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour
by Carlos Enrique Ruiz, Robert Gordon Hamlin
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore similarities and dissimilarities between perceptions of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour observed in private and public sector organisations in Argentina and Mexico respectively. The results of a qualitative cross-case/cross-nation comparative analysis of findings obtained from two emic replication studies of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness previously carried out by the authors suggest that in both countries effective managers are perceived as those who are: 'fair', 'flexible', 'caring about employees' and 'understanding of their personal needs', and who 'make sure they have good working conditions', 'provide reward and recognition', 'monitor performance', 'encourage professional development', and 'take into account the suggestions of employees'. These findings support those who theorise about the existence of a universal set of managerial behavioural practices that are effective and ineffective across countries.
Keywords: managerial and leadership effectiveness; perceptions; managerial behaviour; behavioural indicators; comparative study; cross-case; cross-nation; indigenous research; replication research; Argentina; Mexico.
Intention to implement green hotel practices: evidence from Indian hotel industry
by Vivek Kumar Verma, Bibhas Chandra
Abstract: The present investigation adds to the sustainability dimension through examining the managerial intention to implement green hotel practices. Data were collected conveniently from the sample of 285 hotel managers using structured questionnaire. The model was developed and analysed by means of measurement and structural model applying statistical analysis software SPSS V.20 & AMOS V.21. The Results predicted that customers' attitude and environmental concern significantly and positively influence the managerial intention to implement green hotel practices. This study suggested that apart from economic factors, behavioural factors such as customers' attitude and employees' environmental concern are also critical in greening the business process. Additionally, as compared to developed nations, this study provides some useful managerial insights on the implementation of green hotel practices, which is at the emerging state in India.
Keywords: green hotel; environmental concern; intention to implement; sustainability; management attitude; customer's attitude.
The comparative analysis of employee engagement measures: a theoretical perspective
by Neha Gupta, Vandna Sharma
Abstract: Employee engagement has been a popular and prevalent idea among business professionals, where as in the scholastic writing; it remains a topic of debate. This study lay out to understand the contending measures of employee engagement keeping in mind the end goal to give a more profound comprehension of its theoretical framework, measures and their dimensions. The current paper tries to analyse the academic path of engagement and investigates the overlapping of different dimensions of the engagement scales and identification of uniqueness of each scale to come across the 'one definition and one measurement approach' for engagement construct. An integrative review and relational analysis was performed throughout the wide spread database in scholarly field. The findings of the study state that despite of the overlapping between the measurements of employee engagement, there are some vital contrasts between these scales. The research contributes to existing body of knowledge in the area of engagement by investigating the multiple conceptualisations and estimations of employee engagement which provide better comprehension of the construct. Implications are taken into the consideration for further enquiry into the engagement procedure. Overall the study opens a new door in the engagement research by considering all models of measurement under one roof.
Keywords: employee engagement; engagement; engagement scale; engagement measurement; conceptualisation.
Business strategies for managing legislative requirements: a case study of legislative sustainability requirements for biofuels in the EU
by Heli Kasurinen, Sanni Väisänen, Ville Uusitalo, Risto Soukka
Abstract: Businesses employ different strategies to manage legislative requirements; however, there is little science-based understanding of the strategies that are in use. This study introduces a general legislation maturity model for businesses that includes company profiles, strategies and activity levels in relation to legislative requirements. Four strategies, namely defensive, adaptive, proactive and lead, are described through a case study of legislative sustainability requirements for biofuels in the EU that are organised according to their urgency and validity to biofuel producers, and the associated activity levels. This model will help managers to identify the strategies they employ, more systematically select strategies, understand the spatial and temporal scales and more efficiently allocate legislation management resources. The legislation maturity profiles, strategies, activities and urgency-validity framework are applicable in other industries.
Keywords: biofuels; business; sustainability; EU; legislation; Renewable Energy Directive; defensive strategy; adaptive strategy; proactive strategy; lead strategy.
Cooperation process: what motivates individuals to participate in a cooperative?
by Rozelia Laurett, Mário Franco
Abstract: Setting out from the relevance of cooperatives worldwide and their important economic and social role, this research aims to understand what motivates cooperators in different segments to be part of a cooperation process with a cooperative. To do so, an exploratory and qualitative study was carried out following the multiple case study method. For data-collection, ten semi-structured interviews were held based on a previously defined script. These interviews were recorded and transcribed, followed by content analysis through codification and categorisation. From analysis of the interviews, 37 variables motivating members to participate in a cooperative were identified, with these being grouped according to their similarity in five categories: (1) external influences; (2) characteristics of the cooperative; (3) socio-psychological; (4) relationships; and (5) benefits. Some implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are also presented.
Keywords: cooperative; cooperator; motivators; cooperation; Brazil.