International Journal of Management Practice (12 papers in press)
CSR Activities of a Japanese company operating in India Strong or Weak Sustainability: A theory testing of a Cybernetic Model
by Santosh Basavaraj, Ravi A, Katinka C. Van Cranenburgh, Vikkraman P
Abstract: The first objective of the study is to shed light on the reasons why Toyota in India achieves a high ranking in CSR ratings and the second objective is to determine whether it adopts a strong or weak approach to sustainability.
This study follows qualitative research methodology with the case study approach for the first objective to test the theory of cybernetics model to Toyota case to develop new insights. For the second objective in-depth interviews of CSR stakeholders were carried out by using a structured questionnaire. The results indicates that Toyota would appear to take a holistic, as opposed to a stakeholder approach to its CSR policies, and one that, therefore, adopts strong sustainable business practices. Based on a study of its CSR activities, Toyota is found to follow most of the components of the cybernetic model proposed by Roome (2012). Rather than placing the company at the centre of the stakeholder model, the management of Toyota responds to the requirements of the environment by placing societal development at the top of its list of objectives. The conclusion of this study indicates that Toyota adopts a strong approach to sustainability, while it cannot be claimed unequivocally that the cybernetic approach furnishes a better management model than that of the stakeholder approach in part because this study examines the case of a single company, the paper provides a framework for illustrating the way in which a company might grow in terms of sustainability.
Keywords: Holistic view; Stakeholder approach; Decision making; Cybernetics model; Sustainability; System thinking view.
Explaining User Acceptance and Usage of Social Networking Sites: The role of Trust, Social Connectedness and Visibility in Extending UTAUT2
by Praveena K, Sam Thomas
Abstract: Social Networking Sites (SNS) have become ubiquitous and the numerous sites popping up poses challenges to each site in retaining the user base. Different sites are accepted by different strata of people. Technology acceptance models like TAM, UTAUT,UTAUT2 etc have explained the acceptance of different systems and technologies and these models are extended using contextual variables with new technologies coming into force. This study aims to explain the acceptance and usage of Social Networking Sites with the help of UTAUT2 by adding three variables- Trust, Social Connectedness and Visibility. The result shows that the proposed model explained 66% variation in the usage and 53% variation in explaining the behavioural intention to use social networking sites. Visibility was found to be the main predictor of usage while habit is found to be the main predictor of behavioural intention, followed by Social Connectedness. Further, the model was found to be a better model than the base model UTAUT2 in explaining the usage of SNS. The study adds to the existing literature of theoretical models by providing a comprehensive model in acceptance and usage of SNS.
Keywords: Social Networking Sites; UTAUT2; nested model; Trust; Social Connectedness; Visibility.
Monitoring audit quality and firm resources of audit firm practices in Malaysia: The implementation of ISQC 1
by Takiah Mohd Iskandar, Aida Hazlin Ismail, Zuraidah Mohd Sanusi, Zaleha Abdul Shukor
Abstract: Audit quality is the core of business strategy and key driver of success for audit firms. With the adoption of International Standard Quality Control (ISQC 1), the Malaysian Institute of Accountant (MIA) is enforcing quality control for all audit firms in Malaysia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for four discussion groups comprised of audit seniors, managers and partners of Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit firms. This research paper reports an exploratory study on the implementation and acceptance of ISQC 1. Results indicate that small audit firms in Malaysia are prepared with the implementation of ISQC 1. However, acceptances vary between the Big 4 and non-Big 4 audit firms. Results also indicate that working experience of the auditors, professional qualifications; education background and on-the-job trainings, and job performance appraisals, do have an effect on audit quality. Hence, the audit firm resources such as human resource characteristics are important in ensuring quality audit work.
Keywords: audit quality; firm resources; ISQC 1; qualitative; auditors; human resource characteristics; Resource-based view theory.
The Profitability of Islamic banking in Sudan
by Entissar Elgadi, Peiyi Yu
Abstract: We investigate the determinants of Sudanese banking performance between 2005 and 2013. Sudan is one of only three countries in the world fully committed to Islamic banking system. The period of investigation is an important period in Sudan involving political changes and financial reform. After following a dual banking system consisting of conventional and Islamic banking between 2005 and 2011, a wholly Islamic banking system was adopted in 2011. We use the return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) as the performance indicators, while explanatory variables include banks age, size, type, capitalisation, liquidity, credit risk, leverage, operational efficiency, staff expenses, and assets utilisation. We also examine factors which are specific to Islamic banking performance: profit and loss sharing, non-profit and loss sharing and Salam mode of finance. These are all established types of modes of finance upon which Islamic Banking operations are based. We find that ownership, capitalisation and asset utilisation have a positive impact on ROA while operation efficiency, bank age, leverage and specialisation bring an adverse impact. We also find that the Profit and Loss Sharing mode of finance, one of the financial products provided by Islamic banking only, can have a positive impact on both financial performance indicators.
Keywords: Islaamic banking; Profitability determinanats.
Behavioral Biases among SME Owners
by H. Kent Baker, Satish Kumar, Harsh Pratap Singh
Abstract: People are not fully rational and their decisions suffer from errors and biases. Because behavioural finance research focuses on investor irrationality, additional attention should examine managerial decision-making. This study helps to fill this gap by addressing three objectives: (1) to identify whether owners of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in India are prone toward behavioural bias; (2) to assess the impact of these biases on their decision-making; and (3) to determine whether age, experience, education, and gender affect their propensity to exhibit behavioural biases. Using responses from 154 Indian SME owners, the study uses logistic regression to assess how demographic variables affect behavioural biases. The evidence shows that SME owners are prone to self-attribution, overconfidence, and loss aversion, but not anchoring. Differences exist in the working capital management decisions of owners prone to behavioural biases. Gender, age, and experience significantly affect the propensity to exhibit behavioural biases.
Keywords: Behavioral biases; overconfidence bias; self-attribution bias; loss aversion bias; anchoring bias; working capital management.
Project Management Standards: Strategic Success Factor for Projects
by Felix Hübner, Rebekka Volk, Frank Schultmann
Abstract: Several project management standards (PM standards) support project management (PM) to achieve project objectives. The selection of an appropriate PM standard is a strategic decision that should be made very carefully because of its great impact on project success. The aim of this study is to analyse and compare different PM standards and to recommend how the most appropriate PM standard for specific projects can be identified. This study provides a descrip-tion and a comparison of the most widely-accepted PM standards. Advantages and shortcom-ings of these PM standards are described and Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method is presented to identify the most appropriate PM standard. Furthermore, MCDM method is used for the case study dismantling of nuclear power plants to illustrate the ap-plicability and usefulness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Project Management; Project Management Standard; Strategic Success Factor; Strategic Decision; Strategic Management; Multiple Criteria Decision Making; ISO 21500; DIN 69901; PMBOK-Guide; Individual Competence Baseline; ICB; PRINCE2.
Entrepreneurial marketing in creative art based businesses
by Mohamad Taghi Toghraee, Mohammad Hassan Mobaraki, Mehran Rezvani, Jahangir Yadollahi Farsi
Abstract: Abstract: rnA greater understanding of the relationship between cultural issues and entrepreneurial activity is important because of its implication for national and regional development and growth. This paper is a multi-case study explores the marketing perception of Iranian creative on the most crucial challenges artists. In-depth interviews were locally conducted with artists and directors from various art fields to unravel their marketing perception on the current art sector and their relation the entrepreneurship. Data collection and analysis included participant observation, multiple interviews, and interpretation of textual and voice data. This paper identiﬁes and examine a divergence of philosophies and practice between corporate/traditional marketing (CTM) and creative entrepreneurial marketing (CEM). The paper examines the case of an art entrepreneur who hasnt a deep understanding of CTM practices. The purpose of this paper is to learn which set of marketing practices creative art entrepreneurs are likely to privilege. The concept of the cultural entrepreneur is perceived as a collective person who contributes to the good of the art sector. Findings show that art entrepreneurs privilege elements of creative entrepreneurial marketing rather than relying on the traditional four Ps (product, price, place, and promotion), their marketing strategy and practice is reminiscent of the entrepreneurial five Cs (contact network and communicating competency, content, creativity, cultural values, and creator of art work). The paper validates a framework for analysis of marketing practices specific to art & cultural enterprisesrn
Keywords: Cultural- Art Entrepreneur; Marketing Mix; Artists; Creative Industries.
Sustainable strategies in a declining housing market:
A comparative study
by Zahra Ahmadi, Hans Lind
Abstract: The purpose of this study is first to examine and compare sustainable strategies within public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden. Then, the study evaluates the impact of new legislation that requires public housing companies to act in a businesslike way, in the same way as a long-term private company. A quantitative study was conducted based on a survey sent to 72 housing companies. The results show that public housing companies are more strategy oriented than private housing companies. The results can be viewed as an ongoing interaction process, where a companys strategies affect its profit. The study aims to increase the understanding of activities within housing companies in a declining market that engage the companies in sustainable strategies to improve their market knowledge and profit.
Keywords: Sustainable strategy; declining market; construction; renovation; demolition; social corporate responsibility.
Managing radical innovations in established companies
by Tuomas Heikkinen, Pekka Belt, Matti Mottonen, Janne Harkonen, Harri Haapasalo
Abstract: Established companies need to take several aspects into account when considering the management of radical innovations and must simultaneously ensure the profitability and functioning of the existing business. The main contribution of this study lies in exploring how radical and incremental innovations are separated and managed. The article intends to clarify how companies can evaluate ideas, organise decision-making, utilise external parties optimally, and organise innovation activities while ensuring adequate linkages to existing business processes. This study analyses the practical implementation of innovation activities in a leading telecom company with advanced practices for managing innovations. The case company has established a separate innovation unit and defined a process for radical innovations. Linkages to other existing development processes are strengthened by including key personnel from these processes in the companys innovation process. These arrangements aid in acknowledging numerous aspects presented in the literature in conjunction with radical innovations.
Keywords: radical innovation; incremental innovation; innovation management; corporate venturing; management practice; comprehensive innovation management.
Special Issue on: The Infusion of Business Management Practices in the Public Sector Trends, Innovations and Challenges in the Sub-Saharan African region
Progress Made Towards Achieving Rwandas Vision 2020 Key Indicators Targets
by Dominique E. Uwizeyimana
Abstract: Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is recognised as an essential management tool that helps to ensure that policies, programmes, and projects (commonly known as interventions) are implemented as planned and to assess the extent to which these government interventions have achieved or failed to achieve their desired results. Since 2000, most of the Government of Rwandas (GoR) development programmes have been implemented to achieve the objectives of Vision 2020. The GoRs Vision 2020 has been implemented for over 17 years (2000 to 2017) and the 2020 deadline is looming. However, a critical but often forgotten question is to what extent the GoR has progressed towards achieving the targets of Vision 2020 or whether the GoR will be able to achieve all the objectives of Vision 2020 before 2020.
The objective of this article is to provide an interim evaluation report on the GoRs progress towards achieving the objectives of Vision 2020 and to determine the targets for the Vision 2020 key indicators that have been achieved at the time of this research, those that are likely to be achieved, those that may be achieved, and those that cannot reasonably be achieved in the remaining years given the current rate of progress.
As an interim evaluation, this article makes an early contribution to what will doubtless become substantial literature on the evaluation of the GoRs Vision 2020 in the future. The broader contribution of this article is towards the development of theoretically informed but empirically grounded (Byrne, Randall & Theakston, 2017:203) M&E research, which is explicitly attentive to the social, economic, political, and structural conditions particular to Rwanda.
Keywords: Uwizeyimana; Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E); Vision 2020; Government of Rwanda; low-middle-income countries (LMICs); Theory of Change (ToC); LogFrame; Evidence-Based M&E; Rwanda.
Challenges and dilemmas in implementing the Child Support Grant policy in South Africa
by Richard Mthethwa
Abstract: Global social security systems have been under pressure. On one hand some argue that the systems are too expensive, and they hinder economic growth and development. While on the other hand others point to deficiencies in the level of protection and the scope of coverage, and argue that in times of increased unemployment and other forms of labour insecurity, social security is more needed than ever. Before 1994, South Africa had a racially skewed social security system. Its main purpose was to cover the minority of White people against unforeseen contingencies. This paper raises the question whether South Africa has effectively extended social security coverage to the majority of the people. The paper conclude by arguing that South Africa has made tremendous strides to improve social security.
Keywords: social security; child support grant; social assistance; social insurance; social protection.
Managerial strategies to promote interorganisational and multisectoral collaboration in the South African public sector: a case study approach
by Mapula Nkwana
Abstract: This study argues that to effectively address the problem of food insecurity, there is a need for interorganisational and multisectoral coordination in programme implementation in the South African public sector. This article identifies key challenges faced by government departments in the coordination of social assistance programmes aimed at achieving food security. The article presents the results of a qualitative research approach, through the use of a multiple case study design to provide a detailed description of the challenges and limitations that government departments face in coordinating social assistance programmes. The results of the investigation revealed the gaps that inhibit effective multisectoral and interorganisational collaboration. The article concludes by suggesting various managerial strategies that can be infused in the South African public sector to promote organisational effectiveness.
Keywords: Food security; social assistance; South Africa; interorganisational; multisectoral collaboration.