Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation


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International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation (36 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • A PCGL-Based Data Loading Algorithm for Electrical Vehicle Time-Triggered CAN   Order a copy of this article
    by Yingji Liu, Shuju Wang, Chen Ding, Yao Yu, Hongwen Xia, Jie Xia 
    Abstract: In this paper, a period correlative group loading (PCGL)-based algorithm is proposed specifically for the real-time communication of random messages in electrical vehicle TTCAN networks. By compressing the bandwidth radio of the synchronous phase, the real-time response of event-triggered messages is accelerated. The PCGL-based scheduling approach will be detailed and described. The proposed method is tested on the scheduling for SAE electrical vehicle message standard and the results show that, on the premise of guaranteeing the real-time efficiency of time-triggered messages, the real-time efficiency of event-triggered messages is significantly improved.
    Keywords: data loading; electrical vehicle; Time-triggered CAN; period correlative group.

  • An Efficient Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm for Optimizing the Design of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna   Order a copy of this article
    by R. Anita 
    Abstract: Antenna is a very important component of communication systems. An antenna is a device used to transform an RF signal, traveling on conductor, into an electromagnetic wave in free space. The transmitter signal is sent into space by a transmitting antenna; the RF signal is picked up from space by a receiving Antenna. Microstrip antenna is also referred as a patch antenna. In designing rectangular Microstrip patch antennas, a number of substrate can be used. Rectangular Microstrip patch antennas are attractive due to their light weight, conformability and low cost. These antennas can be integrated with printed strip-line feed networks and active devices. The design is determined by optimal selection of dimensions, which represent the length and width, of the antenna structure. To optimize the dimensions, ABC-PSO algorithm is proposed in our work. The experimental results demonstrated that the designed antenna gives ideal radiation characteristics over the operating bands. Subsequently, the performance is compared in detail with the existing designs. The cheering outcomes achieved have unequivocally ratified effectiveness of our proposed technique and is able to improve the design parameter.
    Keywords: Artificial Bee Colony; Antenna; wireless LAN (WLAN); RF signal; Wireless communications.

  • Resource Allocation and Rate Adaptation for Multicast of Real-Time Traffic in MANET   Order a copy of this article
    by Kavitha Subramaniam, Latha Tamilselvan 
    Abstract: Multicasting is influenced with increasing importance of real-time and multimedia with different Quality of Service (QoS) requirement. But Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) has limited bandwidth and also the physical channel results in unpredictable resource fluctuation and interference. In order to overcome these issues, resource allocation and rate adaption technique for multicast of real-time traffic in MANET is proposed. In this technique, reservation protocol is used while transmitting real time data packets in order to reserve future slots and hence it can be deployed in particular time slot. A three hop slot assignment mechanism is adopted to provide an interference free model. Also, normalized transmission rate is used to characterize transmission rate adoption. The benefit of using this technique is that even if a single copy of data is transmitted by sender, multicast receiver can hear the transmitted signal for each multimedia layer.
    Keywords: Multicasting; Mobile Ad hoc Network; QoS; real time data.

  • Reliable and Energy Efficient Cluster Based Architecture for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN)   Order a copy of this article
    by D. Anuradha 
    Abstract: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) provides a promising solution for discovering the aqueous environment efficiently which operates under many important constraints. At one side, these environments are not sufficient in case of energy efficiency and reliability. So in our paper we propose to develop a reliable and energy efficient cluster based architecture for UWSN. Here the nodes cluster themselves and forms a cluster head. Next by deploying the courier nodes in the network data is aggregated from the CH. They also enable an intercluster communication to forward the sensed data. This increases the lifetime and the delay is less with the reduced buffer overflow problem.
    Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network; cluster-head; data; delay.

  • Optimized Watchdog System for Detection of DDOS and Wormhole Attacks in IEEE802.15.4 based Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jegan Govindasamy, Samundiswary Punniakodi 
    Abstract: Owing to wireless broadcast nature of communication, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are vulnerable to denial-of-service (DOS) attacks and hole attacks. Preserving security and confidentiality in WSN are crucial, so it is required to design an energy efficient Intruder Detection System (IDS) to detect and mitigate the attacks. In this paper, an Energy Efficient Intruder Detection System based on Energy Prediction (EE-IDSEP) has been proposed for IEEE 802.15.4 based WSN to detect and mitigate the Distributed Denial-of-Service attack (DDoS) (i.e., resource depletion attack, power exhaustion attack and flooding) and wormhole attacks. The design of (EE-IDSEP) consists of optimized watchdog system and Hidden Morkov Model (HMM). The wormhole attack is detected using the optimized watchdog system. The optimized watchdog mechanism is a trust based method which is used to evaluate the validity of all the nodes of the network. The DDoS attack is detected based on energy consumed using the Hidden Markov Model. The model of EE-IDS is simulated using NS2 simulator and then it is compared with existing Energy Efficient Trust System (EE-TS) in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), packet drop, energy consumption.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; Distributed Denial-of-Service attack; Hidden Morkov Model; Packet Delivery Ratio.

  • Minimizing Network Cost by employing Sliding Window Method at Mobile Switching centres in GSM Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Mallikharjuna Rao Nuka, M. M. Naidu  
    Abstract: The Cost effort of a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) network is to be minimized for meeting effectively and efficiently the service requirements of ever increasing mobile subscribers base. The period of temporary storage of subscribers' profiles in Visitor Location Register (VLR) at a Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) affects the cost of GSM network. This research study proposes a Sliding Window Method for determining the storage period of profiles in VLR that minimizes the Network Cost of GSM network. Further, this study examined and evaluated the Computational efforts on proposed method. The proposed method proves to be better than the reported set intersection method.
    Keywords: Global System for Mobile Communications; Visitor Location Register; Mobile Switching Centre; Sliding Window method; Computation Effort.

  • Privacy Preserving Protocol for Secure Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by G. Akilarasu, S. Mercy Shalinie 
    Abstract: In wireless mesh networks (WMN), there are possibilities of lossy links, security attacks and privacy attacks. In order to overcome these issues, in this paper, we propose a privacy preserving protocol for secure routing in WMN. In this technique, when a source node wants to transmit privacy information, it performs a secure routing based on the security level of the nodes. Also it takes direct and delegation tickets into consideration for secure data transmission. Then in order to authenticate the access of the mobile users, a tri-lateral pseudonym generation method is used. The mesh client registers its real identity to the operating managers and selects a secret key to generate the pseudonym. By simulation results, we show that the proposed technique enhances the network security.
    Keywords: wireless mesh networks; secure routing; authentication.

  • Collaborative Trust based Security and Power Control Techniques for VANET   Order a copy of this article
    by P.S. Abi, M. Devi, V. Rhymend Uthariaraj 
    Abstract: In VANET, security and power control are the two main challenging issues. In existing works on security, yield additional delay and overhead due to complex cryptographic operations. Hence, the objective is to develop a technique which provides higher security and power control in VANET with less complexity, reduced message dropping, delay, and overhead. Hence in this work, a trust based security and power control technique for VANET is proposed. In trust base security, trust degree of each node is estimated in terms of collaboration trust, behavioral Trust and reference trust values. Malicious vehicles are monitored by a set of verifiers. For reducing the power consumption, the channel is cooperatively reserved considering the time as well as channel reservation information. Simulation results show that the proposed technique reduces the delay, power consumption and overhead while improving the packet delivery ratio.
    Keywords: VANET; Power Control; Collaboration Trust (COLT); Behavioral Trust (BET).

  • Dynamic Key Management System using Channel Hopping in IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by G. Manikandan, U. Sakthi 
    Abstract: In wireless sensor network, the sensor nodes are connected to each other wirelessly and the nodes are able to able to enter and exit the network randomly without any prior intimation. This makes the entry of the malicious nodes into the network easy, thus making the network susceptible to various attacks. One of such attacks is jamming the transmission lines and hence corrupting the data being transmitted. In this paper, we propose to develop a dynamic key management system based on which the data message hops from one channel to another during data transmission. Since the data transmission occurs through a channel only for small duration, as channels used keeps changing. This minimizes the probability for the attackers to determine the active channel and attack it; in order to corrupt the data.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; Dynamic Key Management; Channel Hopping; jamming.

  • Energy aware hybrid multicast routing in mobile ad hoc networks: Zone based approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajashekhar Biradar, Gyanappa Walikar 
    Abstract: MANETs (Mobile ad hoc networks) are formed dynamically by an autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless radio links. Hybrid routing strategy is widely used in hierarchical routing protocols to reduce the control overheads and packet delivery delay in mobile ad hoc networks. These protocols have built on the principle that the mobile node is able to behave either proactively or reactively under different network characteristics and conditions. As hybrid routing techniques inherit the benefits of both reactive and proactive behaviors, hence this can expand its suitability for large coverage area. In such protocols, the area of the concerned MANET is usually divided into several zones having variable radius size. In this paper, we propose hybrid multicast routing scheme which is based on zone based approach. Our scheme operates in the following phases. (1) Computation of remaining energy of an node by designing precise node energy model. (2) Prune the nodes having remaining energy less than predefined threshold value. (3) Discovery of multiple routes to the destination using request and reply packets. (4) Selection of stable route among multiple routes by considering remaining energy of the nodes and node density. (5) Route maintenance for route breaks and node failures due to energy drain. (6) Simulation evaluation for various parameters. We observe from result and discussion section that ZEHMRP (Zone based Energy Aware Hybrid Multicast Routing) outperforms the ZRP (Zone Routing Protocol) for various performance parameters such as Packet Delivery Ratio, End-to-end delay, Jitter, and Control overheads.
    Keywords: MANETs; Hybrid Routing; Energy Model; Remaining Energy; Node Density; Zone Radius.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMNDI.2018.10007281
  • A Generalized Modelling Discussion for Portable Wireless Base Stations During Emergencies   Order a copy of this article
    by Larry J. LeBlanc 
    Abstract: The occurrence of natural disasters and emergencies creates the need for communication between and among emergency responders, the regions population, and other governmental and non-governmental agencies and organizations. Key information that is to be disseminated among these groups must rely on communication networks that may have been rendered partially or fully inoperable. In these scenarios, temporary wireless telecommunications infrastructure can be utilized to provide the links necessary for critical communications. While the deployment of temporary mobile networks and other wireless equipment during the aftermath of disasters has been successfully accomplished by governmental agencies and network providers following previous disasters, there appears to be little optimization effort involved with respect to maximizing key performance measures of the deployment or minimizing overall cost to deploy. This work does not focus on the question of what entity will operate the portable base stations or wireless equipment utilized during a disaster, only the question of optimizing placement for planning and real time management. We examine the modeling and optimization of the deployment of a wireless infrastructure prior to, during, and after an emergency or crisis.
    Keywords: Disaster Wireless Communications; Portable Base Stations; Optimization.

  • Mobile Data Gathering Using PSO and Minimum Covering Spanning Tree Clustered WSN   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijaya Lakshmi K, J.Martin Leo Manickam 
    Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), generally sensors closest to the sink or base station tend to deplete their battery energy faster than other sensors and create an energy hole around the sink. In order to overcome this problem, a Mobile Data Gathering Using PSO and Minimum Covering Spanning Tree (MDG-PSO-MCST) is proposed. In this technique, multiple sensors are arranged to form clusters. Two SenCars with multiple antennas are deployed in the cluster location and Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) technique is applied for data gathering with energy efficiency. The anchor points are selected for intermediate data collection based on the connectivity and node degree, node compatibility and the distance between the sensors of two adjacent clusters parameters using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique. The visiting tour of each Sencars among the selected anchors is performed using the MCST algorithm. By simulation results, we show that the proposed technique minimizes the energy consumption and delay, and enhances the network efficiency.
    Keywords: WSN; Data gathering; Spanning tree; Cluster; MCST.

  • A Location and Mobility Independent Scheme to Quantify the Neighborhood Stability of a Node in Mobile Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Natarajan Meghanathan 
    Abstract: We propose to quantify the neighborhood stability of a node without using the location and mobility information of the nodes in a mobile sensor network (MSN). We make use of the notion of Jaccard Similarity to quantify the similarity in the sets of neighbors of a node between any two successive sampling time instants and compute the weighted average of the Jaccard neighborhood similarity (WJNS) over a period of time. Our hypothesis is that nodes with larger WJNS scores have a stable neighborhood and could be preferred for inclusion as intermediate nodes for stable paths. We validate our hypothesis through extensive simulations: The lifetime of the WJNS-based paths is significantly larger than that of the minimum hop paths and the predicted LET (link expiration time)-based paths; the tradeoff being a marginal increase in the hop count compared to that of the minimum hop paths.
    Keywords: Neighborhood Stability; Jaccard Similarity; Mobile Sensor Networks; Stable Paths; Simulations.

  • A novel formation scheme for IEEE 802.15.4 WSN   Order a copy of this article
    by Dong Wang, Xiaonan Wang, Qi Sun 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a novel formation scheme for an IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor network which is organized into a tree topology. This scheme consists of the network formation initialization algorithm and the network formation maintenance algorithm. In the initialization algorithm, each node first calculate the lengths of routing paths reaching all other nodes in the network, and then the node with the minimum path length is elected as a root. In this way, the average length of the routing paths is reduced and accordingly the routing delay is also shortened. After the initialization algorithm is executed, the maintenance algorithm is performed to maintain the tree topology. When the tree topology changes, the maintenance algorithm can dynamically adjust the root in order to reduce the average length of the routing paths and shorten the routing delay. This scheme employs beacons to achieve the initialization algorithm and the maintenance algorithm, so the extra costs and delays are avoided. This scheme is analyzed and evaluated, and the data results show that this scheme effectively reduces the average length of the routing paths and shortens the routing delay.
    Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4; wireless sensor network; root; cluster tree; routing.

  • A Comparative Analysis of Quality Parameters in Wireless Sensor Network with Different Techniques: A Survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Tibin Mathew Thekkil, N. Prabakaran 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used for many research works, in particular the framework of processing observation and examination work. Though, it contains many divergence optimization conditions, such as the networks energy indulgence, packet-loss rate, reporting and duration. Manipulating an innovative wireless sensor node is tremendously demanding mission and entail reviewing a quantity of dissimilar limitation necessary through the objective function. This study examined completely 70 thesis are gathered from standard publications such as IEEE and Science direct. Each thesis encompasses a variety of process among a variety of procedure, set of rules and optimizations methods. The classification derived from remote sensing scheme, dissimilar protocols, optimization, and expenditure study progression. The entire distributed works are verified by the WSN among different atmosphere. Presentation study of this review reflects on the eminence limitation like PDR, NLT, AEED, service expenditure, and recognition exactness of dissimilar study documents. Therefore our thesis facilitates to extend new technologies over the WSN among optimization system.
    Keywords: WSN sensor; optimization; service cost; network lifetime and protocols.

  • Extended optimization mechanism for radio resource allocation in multicast mobile networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jacques Bou Abdo, Rabih Jreish, Jacques Demerjian 
    Abstract: Mobile communication paradigm has shifted from a closed network of transmitters and receivers to an access network transporting what the content providers have to offer. Many existing and future applications offer the same content to most, if not all, clients. These applications include crowdsensing, news, and traffic monitoring portals. Mobile operators would largely benefit if such applications use multicast messages instead of unicast. Multicast communication suits such applications, but in some scenarios its efficiency can drop to reach that of unicast. In this work, we will propose a mechanism to optimize the allocation of radio resources when used for multicast, thus offering the mobile operator an opportunity to increase profit without affecting user satisfaction. The performance of the proposed mechanism is measured for various simulation scenarios.
    Keywords: mobile cloud computing; mobile networks.

  • OLSR Protocol for Vehicular Sensor Network in Cognitive Radio   Order a copy of this article
    by A. Priyadharshini, M. Sundarambal 
    Abstract: In our proposed system, the Vehicular Sensor Network (VSN) is formulated based on the cognitive radio with the aid of optimal link state routing (OLSR) protocol. Here the Cognitive Radio related Vehicular Sensor Networks is anticipated for the data communication. The optimal link state routing protocol is modified by utilizing the optimization technique for selection of nodes. The optimization algorithm used here is hybrid group search and genetic algorithm (HGSO-GA) algorithm. The OLSR protocol is used to pick the adjacent nodes which disseminate the power package to diminish the quantity of control transparency in the network. The data packages are conveyed from source to destination with the help of Multi point relay (MPR) vehicles, which is the subset of the chosen neighbor vehicles by each source to access all the two-hop neighbors act as forwarders. Cognitive Radio (CR) is a possible solution for guiding OLSR to discover unused frequency bands and utilize them opportunistically. OLSR routing protocol to efficiently manage spectrum allocation that helps reduce the routing delay. Suitable channel allocation techniques must be deployed in OLSR routing to find next best hop with improved link transmission time. The proposed technique is implemented in the working platform of NS2. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by packet delivery ratio, delay, and drop, throughput and channel utilization. From the result, the suggested technique attains minimum delay and drop and maximum delivery ratio, throughput and channel utilization when compared to the existing technique.
    Keywords: Cognitive Radio; vehicular sensor network; optimal link state routing protocol; group search optimization; genetic algorithm and Multi point relay.

  • Energy efficient wireless sensor network with efficient data handling for real time landslide monitoring system using fuzzy data mining technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Sumathi M S, Anitha G.S. 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) is one of the emerging areas which are extensively being used for development of real time monitoring systems. Landslides are the major cause of loss of life, human settlements, agriculture, forestland, and lead to damage of communication routes. It occurs as gravitational forces exceed the strength of material in a slope. Some landslides move slowly and cause damage gradually, whereas others move so rapidly that those can demolish property and lives suddenly and unexpectedly. The causes of landslides in India are mainly due to extreme rainfall and earthquake. In this paper, we propose new landslide monitoring system with maximizing the life time of sensor nodes by avoiding link failure in the routing protocol. The three different sensors, rain gauge, moisture sensor and pore pressure sensor used for sensing rainfall, soil moisture and pore pressure respectively. The cluster based routing protocol with the sensor nodes is capable of data acquisition, data storage, data processing, and wireless data transmission. Then collected sensed data are aggregated using fuzzy data mining technique which maximize lifetime of all sensor nodes in the network area. The proposed approach is implemented and results are obtained through NS-2 simulation shows that the proposed algorithm performs better than other landslide monitoring systems in terms of network life time, sensor node life time, data transmission and energy consumption.
    Keywords: rain gauge; moisture sensor; pore pressure sensor; clustering; fuzzy data mining; network simulator (NS-2).

  • Optimal Reliable Routing Path Selection in MANET through Hybrid PSO-GA Optimization Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by Krishna S.R.M., Seeta Ramanath M.N., Kamakshi Prasad V. 
    Abstract: In MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Network) judgment in optimal reliable routing path between source and destination is a challenging task because of the mobility nature of nodes and is deficient in the infrastructure of the network which is so dynamic. So the objective of this paper is to identify optimal reliable ordered routing paths between source and destination nodes in MANET. To meet the above challenging task the paper focus on a hybrid algorithm, this combines particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) also defied PSO-GA. Motivation of hybrid approach is combining the advantage of these both algorithms. As shown, the performance obtained by the proposed approach is best compare to existing methods.
    Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET); Particle swarm optimization (PSO); Genetic algorithm (GA); hybrid PSO-GA.

  • Cognitive based Routing Model with Identity based cryptography in MANET   Order a copy of this article
    by G. Shanthi, M. Ganaga Durga 
    Abstract: In MANET, trust based routing algorithm is the major protocol for selecting optimal route path. The optimal path is selected based on the available maximum path trust value in the network and the transmission is occurred through this selected trust path. This kind of transmission should be securable and energy efficient. So, in this paper we have exhibited a trust model for routing with Identity based cryptography in MANET. For effective course way choice we have proposed cognitive agent based trust model. Cognitive Agents are the self-sufficient projects which sense the environment, follow up on nature, and utilize its information to accomplish their goal(s). This cognitive agent is developed with the Behaviors-Observations-Beliefs (BOB) model to assess the convictions or trust esteem for every node in MANET. For securable transmission, likewise we have proposed Identity based cryptography. In Identity based cryptosystem, confirmation of client's legitimacy is accomplished by its one of a unique identifier (ID). Private Key produces from a private key generator (PKG) while the Public Key is acquired from client's ID. From the simulation results, we show that better packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, throughput compared to the previous work.
    Keywords: Cognitive Agents; Behaviors-Observations-Beliefs (BOB) model; Identity based cryptography; MANET.

  • QoS Aware Multicasting using the enhanced differential evolution cuckoo search routing protocol in MANET   Order a copy of this article
    by M. Vijayalakshmi, Duggirala Srinivasa Rao 
    Abstract: Mobile ad hoc network contains small infrastructure and easy communication by the aid of self configuring network. The multicasting is one of the significant elements which are used to convey the similar data from one basis to numerous targets. So, it encompasses a variety of troubles whereas conveying data such as node failure, delay, high energy utilization, and so on. Therefore, we proposed an enhanced differential evolution cuckoo search routing protocol (EDE- CS) to construct the consistent communication in multicasting. This multicasting network is the mixture of two optimization algorithms such as differential evolution and cuckoo search optimization algorithm. The clustering is involved in our method for reliable transmission of packet using differential evolution algorithm and the cuckoo search found the best route path on transmitting the messages efficiently. The NS2 is a simulation tool which gives the consequence of our proposed method by comparing with the existing protocol. Therefore, it obviously illustrates that the proposed protocol of EDE-CS gives more effectiveness when compared with other existing protocols.
    Keywords: MANET; EDE- CS; Multicasting.

  • A Survey Paper on Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Protocols for Wireless Mannets - A Layered Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by K.S. Shivakumar, V.C. Patil 
    Abstract: An Ad Hoc wireless system is an accumulation of self-ruling nodes or terminals that interacts with each other by framing a multi-hop radio system and keeps connectivity in a decentralized way [1]. This implies that it can maintain the system promptly without the need of framework organization. In spite there has been a developing enthusiasm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks as the method for giving sudden links to a group of nodes. The energy requirement of a portable node is typically a battery and the battery depletion is one of the real constraints behind the node failure. Entire mobile nodes may not be inside the transmission range of each other thus they need to interact with multi-hop approach. The loss of a unique node can incredibly influence the entire execution of the system.Thus, to utilize the constrained energy source viably and to maximize the life time of the system numerous Energy Effective Routing protocols have been proposed for MANETS that in turn utilize diverse applications to preserve energy. Here it aims to improve the accuracy of performance evaluation therefore it is required to consider the evaluation of protocols at different layers which leads to better energy solutions. Present research will focus on evaluating performance of energy efficient protocols at different layers.
    Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks; Energy Efficient Protocols; multi-hop.

  • Efficient Fuzzy Ant Colony Based Multipath QoS Aware Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Gurpreet Singh Chhabra, Garima Ghai, Pushpinder Singh Patheja 
    Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes with the versatile environment. Since the node varies at each time it is difficult to design the routing protocol in terms of qualities such as energy efficient, routing overhead, bandwidth capabilities and so on. Various researches has been undertaken to make a reliable routing protocol for proper communication. On considering this, we designed a routing protocol based on the fuzzy and ant colony algorithm for a multipath network. In this, fuzzy is used to determine the node qualities with the node valuebased on energy, nodes signal strength and mobility. Then the ant colony optimization helps to reach the destination shortly from the multiple paths with the distance from source to destination and the node value from fuzzy. On combining these two methods the routing protocol was proposed and it compared with the existing MMQARP routing protocol. The simulation result shows that the proposed method gives high performance efficiency in transferring the data from source to destination with the high packet delivery ratio, less delay and high jitter.
    Keywords: Routing protocol; Fuzzy; Ant colony optimization; MANET.

Special Issue on: New Technologies and Applications in Mobile Networks

  • Comparative Performance Analysis Of Different Resource Scheduler And Characterizing The Impact Of Proportional Fair Under Different TTI Feedback Delay in EUTRA Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Ankit Saxena, Ravi Sindal 
    Abstract: Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (EUTRAN) offer high uplink and downlink throughput. Using different scheduling algorithms, it provides radio resource for the user. In this paper, we investigate the performance of different strategies of media access control(MAC) resource allocation, driven through different scheduler such as round robin, proportional fair (PF), best channel quality indicator (CQI), max transmission point (TP) and resource fair (RF). We compare performance of resource allocation schedulers under indistinguishable arrangement, measure the throughput, fairness and spectral efficiency. We found the proportional fair offers balance in terms of individual metrics; as at each cycle of resource allocation, a feedback mechanism ensures that operational resource requirements are met while maintaining a degree of fairness among the UE. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of feedback Transmission Time Interval (TTI) delay on two typical EUTRAN networks, in terms of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). One network is referred to as EUTRAN LTE and the other one as EUTRAN LTE-A; which fulfills high throughput requirement. We evaluate the performance of the PF scheduler for both networks under varying feedback delay in TTI. Simulated results show that the delay in TTI affects the performance of resource allocation in terms of throughput, fairness and spectral efficiency. Feedback delay improves network performance by compensating effect of imperfect channel condition.
    Keywords: LTE; LTE-A; EUTRAN; Scheduler; Key Performance Indicator(KPI); Proportional Fair Scheduler.

  • Topology-Aware Overlay Network in Mobile IP Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Lifeng Le 
    Abstract: An overlay network is a computer network, which is built on the top of an underlying physical network. With the mobile Internet access is becoming the leading tool, overlay must be changing with different IP addresses, which may incur a large number of unnecessary update messages to overlay network. In recent years, Mobile IP is being spread widely as one of fundamental protocols of mobile Internet, which can guarantee overlay network unchangeable. However, the overlay efficiency may be affected negatively due to the mismatch between overlay and mobile IP network. In this paper, we present a topology-aware overlay network model. In the model, we proposed Near-Home Principle applied in the joining procedure in Mobile IPv4 environment and Near-ROSP Principle in Mobile IPv6 environment. In our simulation, our proposed Near-Home Principle and Near-ROSP Principle could do better to alleviate the mismatch between overlay and Mobile IP network.
    Keywords: Mobile IP; Overlay Network.

  • A novel optimal path selection strategy in MANET using energy awareness   Order a copy of this article
    by Kokilamani Mounagurusamy, Karthikeyan Eswarasamy 
    Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are wireless mobile nodes and interconnected with wireless links. Most ad hoc mobile devices today operate on batteries. Hence, power consumption becomes an important issue. To maximize the lifetime of mobile networks, the power consumption rate of each node must be evenly distributed, and the overall transmission power for each connection request must be minimized. But many proposed routing protocols dont consider energy as an important factor for selecting routes. This causes earliest exhaustion of nodes and network in trouble. Also it leads to additional route discovery for new routes and overheads to maintain new routes. Here a new approach for path selection strategy is introduced by using energy factor is known as Energy Aware Ad-hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (EA-AOMDV) routing protocol. The proposed scheme attempts to solve the above mentioned problems in the way of selecting energy aware nodes on the path. The main objective of our proposed scheme is to maximize the life time of the node and as well as lifetime of the network. During the route selection process the node is considered only when the node is having above the minimum energy threshold value. By this way the node with less battery power will be excluded from the selection process and network lifetime is prolonged. The proposed model is tested with the NS2 simulator and the result we obtained is significant. It reduces the energy consumption, average end-to-end delay and packet loss ratio than normal AOMDV Protocol. It also increases the packet delivery ratio and throughput.
    Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks; Multipath routing; AOMDV; EA-AOMDV; Energy factor.

  • Optimal Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (FMMNN) For Medical Data Classification Using Group Search Optimizer Algorithm   Order a copy of this article
    by L. Jerlin Rubini, P. Eswaran 
    Abstract: The main target of this research is to develop a framework to classify the medical data. Several techniques were applied to healthcare data sets for the prediction of future healthcare utilization such as predicting individual expenditures and disease risks for patients. In order to achieve promising results in medical data classification, we have planned to utilize orthogonal local preserving projection and optimal classifier. Initially, the pre-processing will be applied to extract useful data and to convert suitable samples from raw medical datasets. Here, input dataset will be high dimensional or high features; so the high number of feature is a great obstruction for prediction. Therefore, feature dimension reduction method will be applied to reduce the features space without losing the accuracy of prediction. Here, orthogonal local preserving projection (OLPP) will be used to reduce the feature dimension. Once the feature reduction is formed, the prediction will be carried out based on the optimal classifier. In the optimal classifier, group search optimizer algorithm will be used for Fuzzy Min-Max neural network. The implementation will be done in MATLAB. Here, the experiment datasets given to the UCI machine learning repository such as, Cleveland, Hungarian and Switzerland, kidney chronic dataset, etc., will be subjected to analyze the performance of the proposed technique in class imbalance problem utilizing accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.
    Keywords: orthogonal local preserving projection; classifier; Fuzzy Min-Max neural network; group search optimizer algorithm.

  • Provider Mobility in Content Centric Networks - Issues and Challenges   Order a copy of this article
    by Shanti Chilukuri, Kalyana Chakravarthy Chilukuri, Swaroopa Korla 
    Abstract: As the amount of data stored and retrieved in the Internet increases, newer architectures that support high volumes of data become necessary. Content Centric Network (CCN) architecture by PARC is an Information Centric architecture that focuses on the content to be retrieved, rather than the address from which it has to be retrieved. Data objects in CCN are assigned hierarchical names and requests for data are routed based on longest prefix matching. While CCN offers freedom from host addresses and improves data retrieval speeds by using in-network caching, mobility of content providers is a big challenge. In view of the rapidly growing number of mobile nodes and volume of data, we analyze the problems associated with provider mobility in CCNs. We then explore the existing solutions to address these problems and compare their performance. Lastly, we discuss open issues in supporting provider mobility in CCNs.
    Keywords: Content Centric Networks; Provider Mobility; Content Retrieval.

  • Power Saving Technique for Controlled Broadcast of Query Packet in MANETs.   Order a copy of this article
    by Naeem Ahmad, S. Zeeshan Hussain 
    Abstract: In computer communication networks, the major role of routing protocols is to explore the optimal path by using least number of resources. It becomes very challenging in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, which are highly dynamic as their topology keeps on changing due to mobility of nodes. To find the optimal path, every routing protocol makes a route exploring process which involves broadcasting of the query packet over the network. It becomes too expensive when query packets circulate unnecessarily in the network. These query packets become problem of congestion in the network. Time-efficient BERS (tBERS) is one of the controlled flooding techniques that lessened these expenses. From our results, we analyzed that its performance in terms of query retransmission, and link breaks degrade as route reconstruction problem increases. In such situations, we need to lessen the retransmission of query packets due to link breaks. In this paper, we have proposed energy-efficient BERS (eBERS) technique that reduces the retransmission of the query packets. It reduced the retransmission between the magnitude of 15-20% and energy exhaustion ratio between 29-56% in tBERS. Furthermore, eBERS also reduced the number of link breaks and average latency between 9-25% and 36-46% respectively.
    Keywords: Unnecessary propagation; Expending Ring Search; Weighted Rough Set; Broadcasting; Weight Metric.

  • An Effective Mobile Malware Detection Framework for Android Security   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Zhang, Huan Ren, Qingshan Jiang 
    Abstract: Mobile malware is considered as one of the crucial security challenges due to its high volume and quick variety, especially on the Android platform. Many researches have been proposed to detect malware, but some of them suffer low detection accuracy or high time consumption. This research implements an effective mobile malware detection framework by proposing a new feature selection method, which is term frequency-sample frequency differentiation (TF-SFD), to reduce the features with little importance. In addition, a false positive rate (FPR) filter is proposed based on sample frequency differentiation (SFD) for reducing FPR. We investigate four machine learning methods and the experimental results show that the TF-SFD combining with Random Forest (RF) classifier performs best in terms of accuracy in detecting malware on Android, which obtains 92.54% testing accuracy.
    Keywords: Mobile Malware Detection; Android Security; Machine Learning; Feature Selection; TF-SFD; FPR filter.

  • A Survey on Procedures Dealing with Mobile Offloading Schemes   Order a copy of this article
    by Natarajan Palaniappan, Sasikala Ramasamy 
    Abstract: Utilizing Mobile facilities with less energy and memory power is a major spotted research area. One of the technique which resolves the problem is Mobile offloading scheme. Various mobile offloading mechanisms are developed and analyzed with the parameters energy, throughput, latency, security and deployment of application on Virtual Machines(VM). Thus, the offloading mechanisms proved that mobile applications on Cloud can save energy for mobile users through partition and migration of mobile applications. This paper has done detailed survey on various schemes of Mobile offloading techniques include POMAC, Cloudlet, Software Defined Networks(SDN). The survey has been done on various procedures involved in mobile offloading schemes with the common similarities such as energy and cost optimization, dynamic offloading and VM migration. This survey and analysis show that the cloud part in mobile offloading techniques need more attention for balancing the VMs and migration of applications dynamically towards energy and cost optimization.
    Keywords: Mobile cloud; Mobile offloading; Cloudlet; POMAC; VM migration; energy optimization.

  • My Smart BT: A Bluetooth based Android Application for controlling IoT appliances using graphical analysis of sensor data   Order a copy of this article
    by Monika Mor, Jasleen Kaur, S.R.N Reddy 
    Abstract: Increasing use of smartphones with control systems and wireless sensor networks is in mainstream. Among this scenario, Internet of Things emerges to connect real time objects like smartphones, sensors and actuators to the internet, providing communication among them and facilitating mobility. This paper focuses on android operating system based Bluetooth serial port profile (SPP) application My Smart BT. It collects the real time sensor data from connected controller interfaced with application specific sensors, displays the data on the screen and streams the data to the server simultaneously. Wireless internet connections and Bluetooth are used for real time data transmissions between the connected devices. For testing purpose, light sensor, motion sensor and SPP Bluetooth module are interfaced with Intel Galileo Gen 2 based testbed to interpret the real time sensor data. Besides, Php based central MySQL server database is used for real time data storage and graphical analysis. Application is evaluated by different segment of users.
    Keywords: bluetooth spp; graphical analysis; android app; My Smart BT.

  • A Novel Sleep/Wake Protocol for Target Coverage Based on Trust Evaluation for a Clustered Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Pooja Chaturvedi, Ajai Daniel 
    Abstract: The advancement in the field of nanotechnology and its impact on processor technology has made the wireless communication more powerful and popular. Due to this wireless sensor networks have gained numerous applications which range from the daily life activities to the surveillance applications. Coverage and lifetime maximization are two major challenges for the critical applications like battlefield surveillance etc. Coverage and lifetime plays a crucial role in the success of sensor network. Sensing coverage describes the data collection process from the target and plays an important role in determining the network traffic. The objective of coverage preserving solutions is to provide an energy efficient mechanism to monitor the region of interest such that the network lifetime is maximized.The node scheduling approaches address these problems with the following objectives: (1) Achieving the connectivity and desired coverage in the network while keeping the optimal number of nodes in active state. (2) Resolving conflicts while determining the nodes to keep in sleep state to save energy; and (3) Finding optimal wake-up strategies that avoid waking up redundant nodes. We have proposed the node scheduling protocol for target coverage as an extension of energy efficient coverage preserving protocol (EECP), which was used to determine the set covers based on the coverage probability and trust values. To further enhance the performance of the EECP, we have introduced the clustering mechanism based on residual energy, distance and degree of the nodes. The proposed protocol uses fuzzy inference mechanism for the dynamic selection of cluster heads. The simulation results show that the proposed enhancement achieves the improvement in terms of coverage, overhead and network lifetime than the disjoint set cover (DSC) approach.
    Keywords: Target Coverage; Network Lifetime; Clustering; Fuzzy Inference; Trust; Energy Efficiency.

  • A dynamic key authentication protocol for RFID system   Order a copy of this article
    by Haibing Mu, Zhenlong Zheng 
    Abstract: RFID system faces a number of security problems with its pervasive using in all kinds of fields, such as the Internet of Things. According to the computing and storage limitation of the tag, we propose a mutual authentication protocol based on random numbers which can help determine the new keys with their fixed key seeds. The protocol mainly applies hash function and XOR operation which can be affordable for resource-constrained tags. As to the performance of the protocol, we discuss the security as well as its storage and computation overhead. Analysis shows that our protocol can resist common attacks with good effectiveness.
    Keywords: RFID; security; dynamic key; authentication.

  • Research of A Low-Cost Localized Fault Algorithm For Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zhang Jian 
    Abstract: Because of its small , flexibility, low cost and unattended, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are widely used in environmental monitor , health care ,smart home , military fields ,and so on. The faults are common due to the bad environment and unattended. In order to ensure WSNs service is normal, it is necessary to detect the faults and locate the faulty sensors. In this paper, the basic method of fault localization using active probing is studied, the key problems of active probing is analyzed, and some effective solutions to these problems are provided. Firstly, based on adjacent matrix, probe stations are selected, and designed a maximal greedy algorithm to minimize probe sets. Secondly, binary search method is used to locate the faulty sensor quickly. Lastly, a algorithm to identify the faulty sensors is proposed and evaluated. Fault detection precision is very high, and the implementation complexity of the algorithm is very low, easily implemented in hardware.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs); Fault Detection; Fault location; Greedy; Binary search.

  • Performance analysis of Received Signal Power- Based Sybil Detection in MANET Using Spline Curve   Order a copy of this article
    by Aditi Paul, Somnath Sinha 
    Abstract: Detection of Sybil attack in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) has been a serious issue. A legitimate node, in general, varies its transmission power within a threshold limit. A Sybil attacker can create multiple forged identities having transmission power higher than that of the legitimate nodes. This article focuses on the performance analysis of the Sybil detection technique based on received signal power. Here we propose the concept of a Sybil detection method for a specific category of Sybil attack where the attacker changes its transmission power along with IDs time to time. To distinguish between a legitimate node and a Sybil node we calculate received signal power (RSP) of some initially suspected nodes for a number of time instances and draw cubic Bezier curve with these values. By using tangent properties of Bezier curve we finally trace out Sybil nodes from the suspected nodes and represent them both graphically and mathematically. We analyze the result of each step of the proposed method through simulation and the result shows up to 90% detection rate with only 10% false positive.
    Keywords: MANET; Sybil attack; RSP; Bezier curve.