International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation (20 papers in press)
Collaborative Trust based Security and Power Control Techniques for VANET
by P.S. Abi, M. Devi, V. Rhymend Uthariaraj
Abstract: In VANET, security and power control are the two main challenging issues. In existing works on security, yield additional delay and overhead due to complex cryptographic operations. Hence, the objective is to develop a technique which provides higher security and power control in VANET with less complexity, reduced message dropping, delay, and overhead. Hence in this work, a trust based security and power control technique for VANET is proposed. In trust base security, trust degree of each node is estimated in terms of collaboration trust, behavioral Trust and reference trust values. Malicious vehicles are monitored by a set of verifiers. For reducing the power consumption, the channel is cooperatively reserved considering the time as well as channel reservation information. Simulation results show that the proposed technique reduces the delay, power consumption and overhead while improving the packet delivery ratio.
Keywords: VANET; Power Control; Collaboration Trust (COLT); Behavioral Trust (BET).
Dynamic Key Management System using Channel Hopping in IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks
by G. Manikandan, U. Sakthi
Abstract: In wireless sensor network, the sensor nodes are connected to each other wirelessly and the nodes are able to able to enter and exit the network randomly without any prior intimation. This makes the entry of the malicious nodes into the network easy, thus making the network susceptible to various attacks. One of such attacks is jamming the transmission lines and hence corrupting the data being transmitted. In this paper, we propose to develop a dynamic key management system based on which the data message hops from one channel to another during data transmission. Since the data transmission occurs through a channel only for small duration, as channels used keeps changing. This minimizes the probability for the attackers to determine the active channel and attack it; in order to corrupt the data.
Keywords: wireless sensor network; Dynamic Key Management; Channel Hopping; jamming.
Energy aware hybrid multicast routing in mobile ad hoc networks: Zone based approach
by Rajashekhar Biradar, Gyanappa Walikar
Abstract: MANETs (Mobile ad hoc networks) are formed dynamically by an autonomous system of mobile nodes that are connected via wireless radio links. Hybrid routing strategy is widely used in hierarchical routing protocols to reduce the control overheads and packet delivery delay in mobile ad hoc networks. These protocols have built on the principle that the mobile node is able to behave either proactively or reactively under different network characteristics and conditions. As hybrid routing techniques inherit the benefits of both reactive and proactive behaviors, hence this can expand its suitability for large coverage area. In such protocols, the area of the concerned MANET is usually divided into several zones having variable radius size. In this paper, we propose hybrid multicast routing scheme which is based on zone based approach. Our scheme operates in the following phases. (1) Computation of remaining energy of an node by designing precise node energy model. (2) Prune the nodes having remaining energy less than predefined threshold value. (3) Discovery of multiple routes to the destination using request and reply packets. (4) Selection of stable route among multiple routes by considering remaining energy of the nodes and node density. (5) Route maintenance for route breaks and node failures due to energy drain. (6) Simulation evaluation for various parameters. We observe from result and discussion section that ZEHMRP (Zone based Energy Aware Hybrid Multicast Routing) outperforms the ZRP (Zone Routing Protocol) for various performance parameters such as Packet Delivery Ratio, End-to-end delay, Jitter, and Control overheads.
Keywords: MANETs; Hybrid Routing; Energy Model; Remaining Energy; Node Density; Zone Radius.
A Generalized Modelling Discussion for Portable Wireless Base Stations During Emergencies
by Larry J. LeBlanc
Abstract: The occurrence of natural disasters and emergencies creates the need for communication between and among emergency responders, the regions population, and other governmental and non-governmental agencies and organizations. Key information that is to be disseminated among these groups must rely on communication networks that may have been rendered partially or fully inoperable. In these scenarios, temporary wireless telecommunications infrastructure can be utilized to provide the links necessary for critical communications. While the deployment of temporary mobile networks and other wireless equipment during the aftermath of disasters has been successfully accomplished by governmental agencies and network providers following previous disasters, there appears to be little optimization effort involved with respect to maximizing key performance measures of the deployment or minimizing overall cost to deploy. This work does not focus on the question of what entity will operate the portable base stations or wireless equipment utilized during a disaster, only the question of optimizing placement for planning and real time management. We examine the modeling and optimization of the deployment of a wireless infrastructure prior to, during, and after an emergency or crisis.
Keywords: Disaster Wireless Communications; Portable Base Stations; Optimization.
Mobile Data Gathering Using PSO and Minimum Covering Spanning Tree Clustered WSN
by Vijaya Lakshmi K, J.Martin Leo Manickam
Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), generally sensors closest to the sink or base station tend to deplete their battery energy faster than other sensors and create an energy hole around the sink. In order to overcome this problem, a Mobile Data Gathering Using PSO and Minimum Covering Spanning Tree (MDG-PSO-MCST) is proposed. In this technique, multiple sensors are arranged to form clusters. Two SenCars with multiple antennas are deployed in the cluster location and Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) technique is applied for data gathering with energy efficiency. The anchor points are selected for intermediate data collection based on the connectivity and node degree, node compatibility and the distance between the sensors of two adjacent clusters parameters using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique. The visiting tour of each Sencars among the selected anchors is performed using the MCST algorithm. By simulation results, we show that the proposed technique minimizes the energy consumption and delay, and enhances the network efficiency.
Keywords: WSN; Data gathering; Spanning tree; Cluster; MCST.
A Location and Mobility Independent Scheme to Quantify the Neighborhood Stability of a Node in Mobile Sensor Networks
by Natarajan Meghanathan
Abstract: We propose to quantify the neighborhood stability of a node without using the location and mobility information of the nodes in a mobile sensor network (MSN). We make use of the notion of Jaccard Similarity to quantify the similarity in the sets of neighbors of a node between any two successive sampling time instants and compute the weighted average of the Jaccard neighborhood similarity (WJNS) over a period of time. Our hypothesis is that nodes with larger WJNS scores have a stable neighborhood and could be preferred for inclusion as intermediate nodes for stable paths. We validate our hypothesis through extensive simulations: The lifetime of the WJNS-based paths is significantly larger than that of the minimum hop paths and the predicted LET (link expiration time)-based paths; the tradeoff being a marginal increase in the hop count compared to that of the minimum hop paths.
Keywords: Neighborhood Stability; Jaccard Similarity; Mobile Sensor Networks; Stable Paths; Simulations.
A novel formation scheme for IEEE 802.15.4 WSN
by Dong Wang, Xiaonan Wang, Qi Sun
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel formation scheme for an IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor network which is organized into a tree topology. This scheme consists of the network formation initialization algorithm and the network formation maintenance algorithm. In the initialization algorithm, each node first calculate the lengths of routing paths reaching all other nodes in the network, and then the node with the minimum path length is elected as a root. In this way, the average length of the routing paths is reduced and accordingly the routing delay is also shortened. After the initialization algorithm is executed, the maintenance algorithm is performed to maintain the tree topology. When the tree topology changes, the maintenance algorithm can dynamically adjust the root in order to reduce the average length of the routing paths and shorten the routing delay. This scheme employs beacons to achieve the initialization algorithm and the maintenance algorithm, so the extra costs and delays are avoided. This scheme is analyzed and evaluated, and the data results show that this scheme effectively reduces the average length of the routing paths and shortens the routing delay.
Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4; wireless sensor network; root; cluster tree; routing.
A Comparative Analysis of Quality Parameters in Wireless Sensor Network with Different Techniques: A Survey
by Tibin Mathew Thekkil, N. Prabakaran
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used for many research works, in particular the framework of processing observation and examination work. Though, it contains many divergence optimization conditions, such as the networks energy indulgence, packet-loss rate, reporting and duration. Manipulating an innovative wireless sensor node is tremendously demanding mission and entail reviewing a quantity of dissimilar limitation necessary through the objective function. This study examined completely 70 thesis are gathered from standard publications such as IEEE and Science direct. Each thesis encompasses a variety of process among a variety of procedure, set of rules and optimizations methods. The classification derived from remote sensing scheme, dissimilar protocols, optimization, and expenditure study progression. The entire distributed works are verified by the WSN among different atmosphere. Presentation study of this review reflects on the eminence limitation like PDR, NLT, AEED, service expenditure, and recognition exactness of dissimilar study documents. Therefore our thesis facilitates to extend new technologies over the WSN among optimization system.
Keywords: WSN sensor; optimization; service cost; network lifetime and protocols.
Extended optimization mechanism for radio resource allocation in multicast mobile networks
by Jacques Bou Abdo, Rabih Jreish, Jacques Demerjian
Abstract: Mobile communication paradigm has shifted from a closed network of transmitters and receivers to an access network transporting what the content providers have to offer. Many existing and future applications offer the same content to most, if not all, clients. These applications include crowdsensing, news, and traffic monitoring portals. Mobile operators would largely benefit if such applications use multicast messages instead of unicast. Multicast communication suits such applications, but in some scenarios its efficiency can drop to reach that of unicast. In this work, we will propose a mechanism to optimize the allocation of radio resources when used for multicast, thus offering the mobile operator an opportunity to increase profit without affecting user satisfaction. The performance of the proposed mechanism is measured for various simulation scenarios.
Keywords: mobile cloud computing; mobile networks.
OLSR Protocol for Vehicular Sensor Network in Cognitive Radio
by A. Priyadharshini, M. Sundarambal
Abstract: In our proposed system, the Vehicular Sensor Network (VSN) is formulated based on the cognitive radio with the aid of optimal link state routing (OLSR) protocol. Here the Cognitive Radio related Vehicular Sensor Networks is anticipated for the data communication. The optimal link state routing protocol is modified by utilizing the optimization technique for selection of nodes. The optimization algorithm used here is hybrid group search and genetic algorithm (HGSO-GA) algorithm. The OLSR protocol is used to pick the adjacent nodes which disseminate the power package to diminish the quantity of control transparency in the network. The data packages are conveyed from source to destination with the help of Multi point relay (MPR) vehicles, which is the subset of the chosen neighbor vehicles by each source to access all the two-hop neighbors act as forwarders. Cognitive Radio (CR) is a possible solution for guiding OLSR to discover unused frequency bands and utilize them opportunistically. OLSR routing protocol to efficiently manage spectrum allocation that helps reduce the routing delay. Suitable channel allocation techniques must be deployed in OLSR routing to find next best hop with improved link transmission time. The proposed technique is implemented in the working platform of NS2. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by packet delivery ratio, delay, and drop, throughput and channel utilization. From the result, the suggested technique attains minimum delay and drop and maximum delivery ratio, throughput and channel utilization when compared to the existing technique.
Keywords: Cognitive Radio; vehicular sensor network; optimal link state routing protocol; group search optimization; genetic algorithm and Multi point relay.
Energy efficient wireless sensor network with efficient data handling for real time landslide monitoring system using fuzzy data mining technique
by Sumathi M S, Anitha G.S.
Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) is one of the emerging areas which are extensively being used for development of real time monitoring systems. Landslides are the major cause of loss of life, human settlements, agriculture, forestland, and lead to damage of communication routes. It occurs as gravitational forces exceed the strength of material in a slope. Some landslides move slowly and cause damage gradually, whereas others move so rapidly that those can demolish property and lives suddenly and unexpectedly. The causes of landslides in India are mainly due to extreme rainfall and earthquake. In this paper, we propose new landslide monitoring system with maximizing the life time of sensor nodes by avoiding link failure in the routing protocol. The three different sensors, rain gauge, moisture sensor and pore pressure sensor used for sensing rainfall, soil moisture and pore pressure respectively. The cluster based routing protocol with the sensor nodes is capable of data acquisition, data storage, data processing, and wireless data transmission. Then collected sensed data are aggregated using fuzzy data mining technique which maximize lifetime of all sensor nodes in the network area. The proposed approach is implemented and results are obtained through NS-2 simulation shows that the proposed algorithm performs better than other landslide monitoring systems in terms of network life time, sensor node life time, data transmission and energy consumption.
Keywords: rain gauge; moisture sensor; pore pressure sensor; clustering; fuzzy data mining; network simulator (NS-2).
Optimal Reliable Routing Path Selection in MANET through Hybrid PSO-GA Optimization Algorithm
by Krishna S.R.M., Seeta Ramanath M.N., Kamakshi Prasad V.
Abstract: In MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Network) judgment in optimal reliable routing path between source and destination is a challenging task because of the mobility nature of nodes and is deficient in the infrastructure of the network which is so dynamic. So the objective of this paper is to identify optimal reliable ordered routing paths between source and destination nodes in MANET. To meet the above challenging task the paper focus on a hybrid algorithm, this combines particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) also defied PSO-GA. Motivation of hybrid approach is combining the advantage of these both algorithms. As shown, the performance obtained by the proposed approach is best compare to existing methods.
Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET); Particle swarm optimization (PSO); Genetic algorithm (GA); hybrid PSO-GA.
Cognitive based Routing Model with Identity based cryptography in MANET
by G. Shanthi, M. Ganaga Durga
Abstract: In MANET, trust based routing algorithm is the major protocol for selecting optimal route path. The optimal path is selected based on the available maximum path trust value in the network and the transmission is occurred through this selected trust path. This kind of transmission should be securable and energy efficient. So, in this paper we have exhibited a trust model for routing with Identity based cryptography in MANET. For effective course way choice we have proposed cognitive agent based trust model. Cognitive Agents are the self-sufficient projects which sense the environment, follow up on nature, and utilize its information to accomplish their goal(s). This cognitive agent is developed with the Behaviors-Observations-Beliefs (BOB) model to assess the convictions or trust esteem for every node in MANET. For securable transmission, likewise we have proposed Identity based cryptography. In Identity based cryptosystem, confirmation of client's legitimacy is accomplished by its one of a unique identifier (ID). Private Key produces from a private key generator (PKG) while the Public Key is acquired from client's ID. From the simulation results, we show that better packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, throughput compared to the previous work.
Keywords: Cognitive Agents; Behaviors-Observations-Beliefs (BOB) model; Identity based cryptography; MANET.
QoS Aware Multicasting using the enhanced differential evolution cuckoo search routing protocol in MANET
by M. Vijayalakshmi, Duggirala Srinivasa Rao
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc network contains small infrastructure and easy communication by the aid of self configuring network. The multicasting is one of the significant elements which are used to convey the similar data from one basis to numerous targets. So, it encompasses a variety of troubles whereas conveying data such as node failure, delay, high energy utilization, and so on. Therefore, we proposed an enhanced differential evolution cuckoo search routing protocol (EDE- CS) to construct the consistent communication in multicasting. This multicasting network is the mixture of two optimization algorithms such as differential evolution and cuckoo search optimization algorithm. The clustering is involved in our method for reliable transmission of packet using differential evolution algorithm and the cuckoo search found the best route path on transmitting the messages efficiently. The NS2 is a simulation tool which gives the consequence of our proposed method by comparing with the existing protocol. Therefore, it obviously illustrates that the proposed protocol of EDE-CS gives more effectiveness when compared with other existing protocols.
Keywords: MANET; EDE- CS; Multicasting.
A Survey Paper on Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Protocols for Wireless Mannets - A Layered Perspective
by K.S. Shivakumar, V.C. Patil
Abstract: An Ad Hoc wireless system is an accumulation of self-ruling nodes or terminals that interacts with each other by framing a multi-hop radio system and keeps connectivity in a decentralized way . This implies that it can maintain the system promptly without the need of framework organization. In spite there has been a developing enthusiasm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks as the method for giving sudden links to a group of nodes. The energy requirement of a portable node is typically a battery and the battery depletion is one of the real constraints behind the node failure. Entire mobile nodes may not be inside the transmission range of each other thus they need to interact with multi-hop approach. The loss of a unique node can incredibly influence the entire execution of the system.Thus, to utilize the constrained energy source viably and to maximize the life time of the system numerous Energy Effective Routing protocols have been proposed for MANETS that in turn utilize diverse applications to preserve energy. Here it aims to improve the accuracy of performance evaluation therefore it is required to consider the evaluation of protocols at different layers which leads to better energy solutions. Present research will focus on evaluating performance of energy efficient protocols at different layers.
Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks; Energy Efficient Protocols; multi-hop.
Efficient Fuzzy Ant Colony Based Multipath QoS Aware Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
by Gurpreet Singh Chhabra, Garima Ghai, Pushpinder Singh Patheja
Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes with the versatile environment. Since the node varies at each time it is difficult to design the routing protocol in terms of qualities such as energy efficient, routing overhead, bandwidth capabilities and so on. Various researches has been undertaken to make a reliable routing protocol for proper communication. On considering this, we designed a routing protocol based on the fuzzy and ant colony algorithm for a multipath network. In this, fuzzy is used to determine the node qualities with the node valuebased on energy, nodes signal strength and mobility. Then the ant colony optimization helps to reach the destination shortly from the multiple paths with the distance from source to destination and the node value from fuzzy. On combining these two methods the routing protocol was proposed and it compared with the existing MMQARP routing protocol. The simulation result shows that the proposed method gives high performance efficiency in transferring the data from source to destination with the high packet delivery ratio, less delay and high jitter.
Keywords: Routing protocol; Fuzzy; Ant colony optimization; MANET.
Achieving Web Services Reliability in Mobile Cloud Computing
by Amr Elsayed, Tamer Mostafa, EI-Sayed EI-Horbaty
Abstract: Web services are highly requested in mobile communications to provide seamless connectivity between mobile devices and the cloud server. Web service reliability becomes the most demanding feature, which provides low communication overhead and ensures retrieving the appropriate response to avoid the duplicate request execution problem. In addition, it overcomes the request timeout problem that is one of the most affected issues in the mobile experience. This paper proposes two approaches to achieves the reliable web services consumption, Reliable Mobile Agent and WebSocket approach (MAWS), and Reliable Middleware and WebSocket approach (MWS). The two approaches are hybrid between the mobile agent and middleware approaches with WebSocket open connection communication protocol. These approaches recover the data loss because of the intermittent connections, overcomes the timeout problem. Moreover, it enhances the mobile experience by achieving web service consumption reliability.
Keywords: Web service; Reliable request; Mobile Cloud Computing; Middleware; Mobile Agent; WebSocket; Timeout.
Efficient Load Aware Evolutionary routing protocol in Hybrid Wireless Network using MOEAD/D
by A. Vinodh Kumar, S. Kaja Mohideen
Abstract: The hybrid wireless network has developed as a promising solution, enabling mobile customers to accomplish higher execution and access service in a consistent way free of their reality in the range of wireless local area network (WLAN). In this paper, we have proposed the load aware routing protocol for the hybrid wireless network. Hybrid networks were having the combination of several networks such as MANET and VANET. In the hybrid network generally, the data transmission is very high and hence, it is necessary to create a reliable routing protocol for avoiding delay and to increase packet delivery ratio. Thus, we have implemented the optimal algorithm of MOEAD/D i.e. a Multi Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition combined with Djikstra. Here the MOEAD is used to find the best router for transmitting the data packets and the Djikstra algorithm is used to find the shortest path for the router. Thus, this combination of MOEAD and Djikstra has yielded a reliable load aware routing protocol. The simulation result shows that the performance of our proposed routing protocol is better than the existing protocol.
Keywords: Hybrid Wireless Network; MOEAD; Djikstra; Routing; Router.
Hybrid Accuracy-Time Trade-off Solution for Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks
by Albena Mihovska, Antoni Ivanov, Vladimir Poulkov, Ramjee Prasad
Abstract: The rise of cognitive radio systems as a concept for future networks has seen a great amount of scientific effort in recent years. Appropriately, much attention is given to how the vital function of spectrum sensing should be executed. The cognitive radio device is required to be able to evaluate the spectral environment properly so that it may not create additional interference to the primary users. There is the need of optimization of the speed of the process so that the spectrum holes can be utilized. The sensing accuracy and sensing time are conflicting parameters, therefore, a suitable trade-off is necessary for an optimal efficiency. We propose a dual-approach solution. The decision about the spectrum occupancy is made using the measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the received signal levels as inputs in a fuzzy logic algorithm. The result is then compared with the one acquired using the statistical method. Finally, an optimal balance between the sensing time and accuracy has been obtained for the current environmental conditions using the derived closed form expression. The algorithm has been implemented using the Universal Serial Radio Peripheral (USRP) and GNU Radio. We have shown the efficiency of our proposal in relation to other existing methods through simulation results.
Keywords: Cognitive radio; adaptive spectrum sensing; energy detection; USRP; GNU Radio; Fuzzy Logic.
Cognitive Radio Based Solutions for Spectrum Scarcity in Palestine
by Ali Jamoos, Osama Najajri, Ahmed Abdou
Abstract: The access to telecommunication networks varies a lot from one country to another around the world. Indeed, some countries have already deployed the 4G mobile network whereas others are still with the 2G global system for mobile communication (GSM), which is the case of Palestine. The situation of the Palestinian GSM network is critical due to the following reasons: The number of channels allocated by Israeli regulation authorities to the Palestinian mobile operators is limited to 5.1% of the global bandwidth generally allocated to a country to perform GSM. In spite of the efforts of the engineers to optimize the radio planning, it is frequent that the communication links are interrupted. These interruptions are mainly due to the co-channel interference caused by the massive reuse of the allocated frequencies. Moreover, the high population density in some Palestinian cities makes this problem worse. In this paper, we study the feasibility of implementing cognitive radio (CR) secondary network either on the primary Palestinian GSM network or on the ultra-high frequency (UHF) Television (TV) band. Particularly, we propose solutions for spectrum scarcity based on the three CR paradigms, namely: interweave CR, underlay CR, and overlay CR. In the first solution, an interweave CR system is suggested to efficiently utilize the so-called TV white spaces in the UHF TV band allocated for Palestine. In the second solution, an underlay CR system based on code division multiple access (CDMA) is introduced to underlay the primary GSM system. In the third solution, an overlay CR system is proposed based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to share the same spectrum band with the primary GSM system. It is confirmed that the proposed solutions can solve the spectrum scarcity and limit the interference levels, and consequently improve system capacity.
Keywords: Spectrum scarcity; Cognitive Radio; GSM; TV white space; CDMA; OFDM.