International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation (10 papers in press)
Optimal Reliable Routing Path Selection in MANET through Hybrid PSO-GA Optimization Algorithm
by Krishna S.R.M., Seeta Ramanath M.N., Kamakshi Prasad V.
Abstract: In MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc Network) judgment in optimal reliable routing path between source and destination is a challenging task because of the mobility nature of nodes and is deficient in the infrastructure of the network which is so dynamic. So the objective of this paper is to identify optimal reliable ordered routing paths between source and destination nodes in MANET. To meet the above challenging task the paper focus on a hybrid algorithm, this combines particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) also defied PSO-GA. Motivation of hybrid approach is combining the advantage of these both algorithms. As shown, the performance obtained by the proposed approach is best compare to existing methods.
Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET); Particle swarm optimization (PSO); Genetic algorithm (GA); hybrid PSO-GA.
Cognitive based Routing Model with Identity based cryptography in MANET
by G. Shanthi, M. Ganaga Durga
Abstract: In MANET, trust based routing algorithm is the major protocol for selecting optimal route path. The optimal path is selected based on the available maximum path trust value in the network and the transmission is occurred through this selected trust path. This kind of transmission should be securable and energy efficient. So, in this paper we have exhibited a trust model for routing with Identity based cryptography in MANET. For effective course way choice we have proposed cognitive agent based trust model. Cognitive Agents are the self-sufficient projects which sense the environment, follow up on nature, and utilize its information to accomplish their goal(s). This cognitive agent is developed with the Behaviors-Observations-Beliefs (BOB) model to assess the convictions or trust esteem for every node in MANET. For securable transmission, likewise we have proposed Identity based cryptography. In Identity based cryptosystem, confirmation of client's legitimacy is accomplished by its one of a unique identifier (ID). Private Key produces from a private key generator (PKG) while the Public Key is acquired from client's ID. From the simulation results, we show that better packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, throughput compared to the previous work.
Keywords: Cognitive Agents; Behaviors-Observations-Beliefs (BOB) model; Identity based cryptography; MANET.
QoS Aware Multicasting using the enhanced differential evolution cuckoo search routing protocol in MANET
by M. Vijayalakshmi, Duggirala Srinivasa Rao
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc network contains small infrastructure and easy communication by the aid of self configuring network. The multicasting is one of the significant elements which are used to convey the similar data from one basis to numerous targets. So, it encompasses a variety of troubles whereas conveying data such as node failure, delay, high energy utilization, and so on. Therefore, we proposed an enhanced differential evolution cuckoo search routing protocol (EDE- CS) to construct the consistent communication in multicasting. This multicasting network is the mixture of two optimization algorithms such as differential evolution and cuckoo search optimization algorithm. The clustering is involved in our method for reliable transmission of packet using differential evolution algorithm and the cuckoo search found the best route path on transmitting the messages efficiently. The NS2 is a simulation tool which gives the consequence of our proposed method by comparing with the existing protocol. Therefore, it obviously illustrates that the proposed protocol of EDE-CS gives more effectiveness when compared with other existing protocols.
Keywords: MANET; EDE- CS; Multicasting.
A Survey Paper on Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Protocols for Wireless Mannets - A Layered Perspective
by K.S. Shivakumar, V.C. Patil
Abstract: An Ad Hoc wireless system is an accumulation of self-ruling nodes or terminals that interacts with each other by framing a multi-hop radio system and keeps connectivity in a decentralized way . This implies that it can maintain the system promptly without the need of framework organization. In spite there has been a developing enthusiasm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks as the method for giving sudden links to a group of nodes. The energy requirement of a portable node is typically a battery and the battery depletion is one of the real constraints behind the node failure. Entire mobile nodes may not be inside the transmission range of each other thus they need to interact with multi-hop approach. The loss of a unique node can incredibly influence the entire execution of the system.Thus, to utilize the constrained energy source viably and to maximize the life time of the system numerous Energy Effective Routing protocols have been proposed for MANETS that in turn utilize diverse applications to preserve energy. Here it aims to improve the accuracy of performance evaluation therefore it is required to consider the evaluation of protocols at different layers which leads to better energy solutions. Present research will focus on evaluating performance of energy efficient protocols at different layers.
Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks; Energy Efficient Protocols; multi-hop.
Efficient Fuzzy Ant Colony Based Multipath QoS Aware Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
by Gurpreet Singh Chhabra, Garima Ghai, Pushpinder Singh Patheja
Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes with the versatile environment. Since the node varies at each time it is difficult to design the routing protocol in terms of qualities such as energy efficient, routing overhead, bandwidth capabilities and so on. Various researches has been undertaken to make a reliable routing protocol for proper communication. On considering this, we designed a routing protocol based on the fuzzy and ant colony algorithm for a multipath network. In this, fuzzy is used to determine the node qualities with the node valuebased on energy, nodes signal strength and mobility. Then the ant colony optimization helps to reach the destination shortly from the multiple paths with the distance from source to destination and the node value from fuzzy. On combining these two methods the routing protocol was proposed and it compared with the existing MMQARP routing protocol. The simulation result shows that the proposed method gives high performance efficiency in transferring the data from source to destination with the high packet delivery ratio, less delay and high jitter.
Keywords: Routing protocol; Fuzzy; Ant colony optimization; MANET.
Achieving Web Services Reliability in Mobile Cloud Computing
by Amr Elsayed, Tamer Mostafa, EI-Sayed EI-Horbaty
Abstract: Web services are highly requested in mobile communications to provide seamless connectivity between mobile devices and the cloud server. Web service reliability becomes the most demanding feature, which provides low communication overhead and ensures retrieving the appropriate response to avoid the duplicate request execution problem. In addition, it overcomes the request timeout problem that is one of the most affected issues in the mobile experience. This paper proposes two approaches to achieves the reliable web services consumption, Reliable Mobile Agent and WebSocket approach (MAWS), and Reliable Middleware and WebSocket approach (MWS). The two approaches are hybrid between the mobile agent and middleware approaches with WebSocket open connection communication protocol. These approaches recover the data loss because of the intermittent connections, overcomes the timeout problem. Moreover, it enhances the mobile experience by achieving web service consumption reliability.
Keywords: Web service; Reliable request; Mobile Cloud Computing; Middleware; Mobile Agent; WebSocket; Timeout.
Efficient Load Aware Evolutionary routing protocol in Hybrid Wireless Network using MOEAD/D
by A. Vinodh Kumar, S. Kaja Mohideen
Abstract: The hybrid wireless network has developed as a promising solution, enabling mobile customers to accomplish higher execution and access service in a consistent way free of their reality in the range of wireless local area network (WLAN). In this paper, we have proposed the load aware routing protocol for the hybrid wireless network. Hybrid networks were having the combination of several networks such as MANET and VANET. In the hybrid network generally, the data transmission is very high and hence, it is necessary to create a reliable routing protocol for avoiding delay and to increase packet delivery ratio. Thus, we have implemented the optimal algorithm of MOEAD/D i.e. a Multi Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition combined with Djikstra. Here the MOEAD is used to find the best router for transmitting the data packets and the Djikstra algorithm is used to find the shortest path for the router. Thus, this combination of MOEAD and Djikstra has yielded a reliable load aware routing protocol. The simulation result shows that the performance of our proposed routing protocol is better than the existing protocol.
Keywords: Hybrid Wireless Network; MOEAD; Djikstra; Routing; Router.
Hybrid Accuracy-Time Trade-off Solution for Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks
by Albena Mihovska, Antoni Ivanov, Vladimir Poulkov, Ramjee Prasad
Abstract: The rise of cognitive radio systems as a concept for future networks has seen a great amount of scientific effort in recent years. Appropriately, much attention is given to how the vital function of spectrum sensing should be executed. The cognitive radio device is required to be able to evaluate the spectral environment properly so that it may not create additional interference to the primary users. There is the need of optimization of the speed of the process so that the spectrum holes can be utilized. The sensing accuracy and sensing time are conflicting parameters, therefore, a suitable trade-off is necessary for an optimal efficiency. We propose a dual-approach solution. The decision about the spectrum occupancy is made using the measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the received signal levels as inputs in a fuzzy logic algorithm. The result is then compared with the one acquired using the statistical method. Finally, an optimal balance between the sensing time and accuracy has been obtained for the current environmental conditions using the derived closed form expression. The algorithm has been implemented using the Universal Serial Radio Peripheral (USRP) and GNU Radio. We have shown the efficiency of our proposal in relation to other existing methods through simulation results.
Keywords: Cognitive radio; adaptive spectrum sensing; energy detection; USRP; GNU Radio; Fuzzy Logic.
Cognitive Radio Based Solutions for Spectrum Scarcity in Palestine
by Ali Jamoos, Osama Najajri, Ahmed Abdou
Abstract: The access to telecommunication networks varies a lot from one country to another around the world. Indeed, some countries have already deployed the 4G mobile network whereas others are still with the 2G global system for mobile communication (GSM), which is the case of Palestine. The situation of the Palestinian GSM network is critical due to the following reasons: The number of channels allocated by Israeli regulation authorities to the Palestinian mobile operators is limited to 5.1% of the global bandwidth generally allocated to a country to perform GSM. In spite of the efforts of the engineers to optimize the radio planning, it is frequent that the communication links are interrupted. These interruptions are mainly due to the co-channel interference caused by the massive reuse of the allocated frequencies. Moreover, the high population density in some Palestinian cities makes this problem worse. In this paper, we study the feasibility of implementing cognitive radio (CR) secondary network either on the primary Palestinian GSM network or on the ultra-high frequency (UHF) Television (TV) band. Particularly, we propose solutions for spectrum scarcity based on the three CR paradigms, namely: interweave CR, underlay CR, and overlay CR. In the first solution, an interweave CR system is suggested to efficiently utilize the so-called TV white spaces in the UHF TV band allocated for Palestine. In the second solution, an underlay CR system based on code division multiple access (CDMA) is introduced to underlay the primary GSM system. In the third solution, an overlay CR system is proposed based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to share the same spectrum band with the primary GSM system. It is confirmed that the proposed solutions can solve the spectrum scarcity and limit the interference levels, and consequently improve system capacity.
Keywords: Spectrum scarcity; Cognitive Radio; GSM; TV white space; CDMA; OFDM.
A Two Phase Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network to Enhance Data Gathering
by R. Prathiba, G. Nagarajan
Abstract: Underwater sensor network (UWSNs) characteristics such as low bandwidth, long propagation delay, limited energy, node mobility and error rate are bring many challenges in designing routing. UWSNs consist of high density sensor nodes deployed underwater to perform collaborative monitoring and resource exploration tasks over given area. The nodes in network are participates a specific task like sensing and forwarding the information to other nodes using routing protocols. Energy efficiency becomes the basic need of UWSNs in very deep water level condition and the main aim is to operate sensor with smaller battery for a longer time. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient routing protocol for UWSNs using two phase process (EERP-TP). Firstly, the balanced collective region is formed by conditional Sierpinski triangle algorithm using the node constraints, which improves the effectiveness of data gathering. Secondly, the candidate set selection is performed by chaotic multi-criteria decision (CMD) model, which computes best data forwarding node to deliver data to the destination within the required time. The simulation results show that the proposed EERP-TP method can perform very efficient than existing routing in terms of network lifetime, throughput, packet relayed rate, data loss, and energy consumption.
Keywords: two phase; collective region formation; candidate set selection; Sierpinski triangle; data gathering.