Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics


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International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics (49 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Breast abnormality based early diagnosis of breast cancer using noninvasive digital infrared Thermal imaging   Order a copy of this article
    by Priya Hankare 
    Abstract: Breast Thermography is considered particularly valuable for early breast tumors detection. The fast growing tumor has a higher metabolic rate and associated increase in local vascularization. It will cause the occurrence of some asymmetric heat patterns. Clinical interpretation of a breast thermogram is primarily based on the asymmetry analysis of these heat patterns visually and subjectively. In this paper, a new approach early detection of breast cancer is proposed using asymmetry analysis of breast Thermograms. The heat patterns are first segmented with mathematical morphology. The asymmetry analysis is performed by using histogram generation and feature extraction. The abnormality of a breast thermogram is clearly indicated by the features extracted.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer; Infrared Thermal Imaging; Thermography; Asymmetry Analysis; Feature Extraction.

  • Hard Exudate Based Severity Assessment of Diabetic Macular Edema from Retinal Fundus Images   Order a copy of this article
    by Deepthi K Prasad, L. Vibha, K.R. Venugopal 
    Abstract: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a consequence of diabetic retinopathy characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid and protein deposit in the macula region of the retina. Prior disclosure of even a trivial trace of DME is essential as it could consequently lead to blurred vision. DME can be diagnosed by the presence of exudates (glossy lesions) in the retinal fundus images. In this work, OD and macula are detected using morphological operation and hard exudates are segmented. Exudates are classified using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Standard as normal, moderate or severe cases. The proposed work also incorporates the extraction of various features from the retinal fundus image. Various textural and exudate features are extracted and fed to a classifier to detect DME. Experiments are performed on a publically available database. Performance is evaluated with metrics like accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, the results obtained are promising.
    Keywords: Diabetic macular edema; macula; optic disc; hard exudates; feature extraction; classification; Random forest.

  • In-depth Analysis of Neural Network Ensembles for Early Detection Method of Diabetes Disease   Order a copy of this article
    by Bayu Adhi Tama 
    Abstract: Lifestyle-driven disease such as diabetes mellitus has become a serious health problem worldwide. We propose the fusion of neural network-based classifiers, i.e. neural network and support vector machine to assist in early detection of diabetes mellitus. These classifiers are combined to produce the final prediction. However, when considering a number of classifiers in the pool, the selection of combination rule is not easy to understand. The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of different combination rules, including several single classifiers involved in the ensemble. We use various performance metrics and validation tests to assess the performance of these classifiers using a real-world dataset. Finally, among the classifiers we evaluate their performance differences using statistical significant test. The experimental results indicate that combination rule with average voting scheme is the best performer compared with other combination rules and single classifiers in the ensemble.
    Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Neural-based classifiers; Classifier Ensembles; Early Detection.

  • Neuro-fuzzy Implementation for Cervical Lesions Screening in Commercial Sex Workers   Order a copy of this article
    by Efosa ODIGIE, Peter Achukwu, Moses Bello 
    Abstract: The present study proposed a neuro-fuzzy model for cervical lesions (CL) diagnosis. The model intends to use part of reliable preclinical information as a tool to discriminate between abnormal and a normal CL with intent to help the clinicians to have a clear cut of the diagnosis. Therefore, our aims are to formulate a model that is understandable, practicable and capable of predicting CL accurately and use the model in the screening of commercial sex workers (CSWs) operating in some rural communities of Edo state. The specific objective is to confirm the levels of precision of the neuro-fuzzy model the using liquid-based cytology (LBC) method. Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model formulation and liquid-based cytology (LBC) techniques were used for confirmation of ANFIS reliabilities and outcomes. The classification performance of ANFIS model had 98.7% precision with a training error of 1.1652 at epoch 20 on the training dataset and basic testing error 1.255 and 100% accuracy. ANFIS confirmation by LBC showed that 8 cases of CL (15.4%) exist within the confined of 14 brothels (1 case of a low-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion, 2 cases of acute and 5 cases of chronic cervicitis), and was age and duration of commercial sex-dependent (P<0.05). ANFIS implementation in this study is excellent for routine screening of the CSWs, while LBC remains a gold standard for CL diagnosis. ANFIS model may be a useful approximation tool in making faster decisions for cervical lesion screening in commercial sex workers.
    Keywords: ANFIS; Cervical Lesions; Commercial Sex Workers; Liquid-Based Cytology.

  • Classification of heart rhythm disorders using instructive features and artificial neural networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Santanu Sahoo, Priti Das, Prativa Biswal, S.K. Sabut 
    Abstract: Accurate detectionof the heart rhythm disorders at an early stage is helpful for enhancing survivable rate. This paper presents an automated detection and classification process of cardiac arrhythmia by time-frequency analysis of the recorded ECG signals from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database.The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been used effectively to remove noise components in order to enhance the ECG signal. The Hilbert transform with the adaptive thresholding technique has been applied to find precise R-peaks and extracting discriminating features in the ECG signal classification. The temporal, morphological and statistical features have been extracted from each heartbeat and then used as input to train the neural network classifier. The NN classifier such as multilayer perceptron (MLP-BP), RadialBasis Function (RBF-NN) and probabilistic neural network (PNN)has been used to discriminate five important types of cardiac arrhythmia beats. The evaluated result of the proposed method shows the best detection performance with sensitivity of 99.92% and positive predictivity of 99.91% with least detection error rate of 0.17% for detecting QRS complex. The classification process produced results with an average accuracy of 98.72%, 99.77% and 99.16% in MLP-BP, RBF-NN, and PNN respectively. The result indicates that the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed methodto detect the precise R-peaks, QRS complex and classifying ECG beats that provides useful physiological information for diagnostic of heart rhythm disorders.
    Keywords: Heart rhythm,discrete wavelet transform; Hilbert transform; adaptive thresholding; QRS complex; NN classifier.

  • Analysis of Texture for Classification of Breast Cancer on Mammogram Images   Order a copy of this article
    by Hanung Adi Nugroho, Hanifah Rahmi Fajrin, Indah Soesanti, Ratna Lestari Budiani 
    Abstract: Breast cancer is a top cancer among women in the world. In conventional methods, medical experts based on observation on patients mammogram images can detect breast cancer. In some cases, this method could lead to misdiagnose in distinguishing an interest object with naked eyes due to the low quality of images. This research aims to classify mammogram images into three classes, i.e. normal, benign and malignant classes based on texture features. The input image is a full part of image without cropping or segmenting the region of interest (RoI). Some pre-processing techniques were involved, including eliminating label, removing the artefacts, cropping breast area, contrast enhancement and smoothing with median filter. Afterwards, some texture features were extracted followed by classification process by using multi-layer perceptron (MLP) classifier with back error propagation (BEP) learning. The performance of proposed method is evaluated using 60 mammogram images taken from Mias dataset. Classification result gained a maximum value with contrast limited adaptive histogram equalisation (CLAHE) for contrast enhancement method, GLCM-based for feature extraction method and MLP as the classifier with the accuracy of 98.33%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 97.50% for both normal and abnormal classes. On the other hand, the classification of three classes (normal, benign and malignant) obtained an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 87.50% directly without any hierarchy. These results indicate that the proposed method successfully classifies the abnormality of mammogram images.
    Keywords: breast cancer; texture feature; CLAHE; grey level co-occurrence matrices; multi-layer perceptron.

  • A Distributed Integration System Enabling Electronic Health Records: An Italian Experience   Order a copy of this article
    by Cinzia Muriana, Giulio Gilia, Vincenzo Mistretta, Tommaso Piazza, Giovan Battista Vizzini 
    Abstract: Today distributed systems are commonly employed in patient data management to improve the care process. Moreover, distributed systems can be usefully applied to realise lean and flexible architectures that facilitate health care structure interoperability. Systems used in health care structures are characterised by proprietary data flow formats and encoding systems, which hinder the possibility of sharing data in a standard format, and extracting atomic data for further analysis. This paper describes the architecture of a distributed interoperability system able to structure flow data into standard formats and send them to an advanced electronic health record designed as part of the Smart Health 2.0 project (PON04a2_C). The use of the distributed interoperability system within the experimental phase of the electronic health record highlights the flexibility of the proposed solution in meeting the reality of the health care structures involved.
    Keywords: distributed systems; informatics health care solutions; CDA2; electronic health records; medical informatics; medical engineering.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2019.10011952
  • A Novel Patient Friendly IT Enabled Framework for Selection of Desired Health Care Provider   Order a copy of this article
    by Salaja Silas, Elijah Blessing Rajsingh 
    Abstract: The healthcare providers have tremendously grown during the past decade. Selecting a healthcare provider based on patients preference is really a great challenge. The purpose of this paper is to provide an IT enabled framework that will help the patients to find a suitable healthcare provider based on their preferences. The patients preferences in selecting a healthcare provider differ based on their geographical region, gender, age and socio-economic background. Discovering a set of feasible healthcare providers and selecting the most appropriate healthcare provider based on the patient preferences can be modeled as a multi-criteria decision making problem. In this article, a novel patient friendly framework is proposed for selecting the best healthcare provider. Even with a huge data set, the results show that the proposed framework is robust, reliable, faster and effective. The analysis reveals that the number of preferences and the healthcare providers influence the healthcare selection time. Case studies on 500 patients from different geographical regions reveal that the proposed framework is effective.
    Keywords: Healthcare provider; multi-criteria decision making; service selection; ELECTRE.

  • Real-Time Signal Processing of Photoplethysmographic (PPG) Signals to Estimate the On-Demand and Continuous Heart Rate by spectral Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Madhan Mohan, Nagarajan V, Vignesh J.C 
    Abstract: In Healthcare applications, heart rate is one of the vital signs which give the health informatics of a person and also it is an important parameter to monitor for athletes and fitness enthusiasts during their workouts. In earlier days, the Heart Rate monitoring devices like ECG are very expensive and required more hardware resources. But nowadays, the evolution of PPG sensors help to develop low cost Heart Rate monitoring devices with minimal hardware resources. PPG sensor based Heart rate monitoring devices are non-invasive low cost devices and it can be used in real time applications to estimate the heart rate of a subject. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed to find the Heart rate using frequency spectrum analysis on PPG signals. The proposed algorithm uses minimum hardware so it can be targeted in real time embedded platforms. Using the proposed algorithm, the Heart rate is calculated with a pass percentage of 99.2, Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) of 1.59%, Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 1.20 BPM and Reference Closeness Factor(RCF) of 0.989. The First reliable Heart rate output from the algorithm comes in 6.5th second, which is the minimum possible time. The algorithm operates with a speed of 2 MIPS and with a memory of 18 KB. So the proposed method can be integrated to any low cost real-time embedded platforms to accurately measure the Heart Rate.
    Keywords: Heart rate; Photoplethysmography (PPG); Frequency domain; Smoothing; Decimation; FFT.

  • Detection of Abnormal Blood Cells by Segmentation and Classification   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdellatif Bouzid-Daho, Mohamed Boughazi, Eric Petit 
    Abstract: Leukemia is a cancer of the hematopoietic cells. The detection of abnormal cells before cancer degeneration is a medical problem. The aim of our work is to obtain maximum recognition rate of leukemia. We propose the development of a system based on mathematical morphology and k-means methods capable of segmentation, classification, and detection of the cancerous blood cells. This allows the characterization and the description the cancerous region, which is an important task in the interpretation and diagnosis of pathologies present in blood. The segmentation was carried out using an efficient and fast algorithmic processing. It turns out that the proposed system shows to better segmentation and classification for tested images. The obtained experimental results are very encouraging which help hematologists for identification of abnormal blood cells.
    Keywords: Leukemia; k-means; segmentation; classification; diagnostic; abnormal blood cell.

  • Study of Speech Enabled Healthcare Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Saswati Debnath, Pinki Roy 
    Abstract: Cost and quality of healthcare are the most challenging requirements in todays fastest growing medical technology and to meet these requirements Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is one of the blessings to the medical world. Automatic speech recognition offers the potential to dramatically improve the cost and quality of healthcare service; many developments took place in national and international standard like e-prescription, clinical documentation, speech recognition in radiology, pathological speech signal analysis etc. Speech based healthcare application also helps to access remote healthcare service. Recently large number of hospitals and doctors use these types of medical technology to deliver better services to the patient. This paper presents a review of recent advancement on medical technology based on speech recognition. It covers some of the speech based healthcare research and software in national and international standard, the implementation framework and application and also this paper come up with a new idea that is identify the symptoms of diseases using machine learning. The symptoms are given through speech. The experimental result shows the accuracy of identifying the symptoms through speech recognition. The aim of the research is to improve medical technology using machine learning and speech recognition technology. In future it will help people for remote health care where doctor will not physically available and reduce workload pressure of doctor.
    Keywords: Medical technology; Automatic speech recognition (ASR); Speech features; Machine learning.

  • Automatic Ostia Detection in CTA Volume Data: A Comparative Study   Order a copy of this article
    by Noha Seada, Mostafa G.M. Mostafa 
    Abstract: Objectives: Automatic coronaries ostia detection is implemented using two different methodologies: Template Matching and Corner Detection. Methods/Analysis: The proposed methods used for the ostia detection are selected for implementation after studying ostia anatomical features and observing their appearance on a segmented ascending aorta contour. Findings: Template matching is implemented for coronaries ostia detection, since they have a special pattern on a segmented ascending aorta contour. Therefore two templates are identified, one for the right and one for the left coronaries ostia. These two templates are matched across the input volume to detect the coronaries ostia. For corner detection; Harris corner is implemented to detect coronaries ostia as corners appearing on the ascending aorta. It is applied on the volume to detect corners and ostia points are correctly located based on ostia anatomical features that automatically identifies the ostia points. Novelty/Improvement: The two methods used for automatic ostia detection succeeded to detect the coronaries ostia points in all test cases and results are validated versus a ground truth. Although both approaches succeeded in ostia detection; the template matching accuracy and processing time are better than that of the Harris corner detection. Moreover, the two methodologies presented for comparison; give competitive accuracy and processing time with respect to other previous work for ostia detection and this proves the correctness and efficiency of the methodologies.
    Keywords: Template Matching; Automatic Ostia Detection; Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA).

  • Learn Quest A Virtual Reality based system for training Autistic Kids   Order a copy of this article
    by Shriram K Vasudevan, Abhishek S N, Swathi S, Akshaya Lakshmi, Anandram S 
    Abstract: Childhood is the best part of life. A child enjoys anything and everything in this world without any discriminations. It is also the period of rapid brain development, where the kids learn the stepping stones for life. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities that causes major impairments in social, communication and behavioral aspects of the children. Unlike other children, an autistic kid finds it difficult to go along and communicate with others. Social interactions and communication are the major aspects for peaceful living of any human being, and these children face difficulties in the same. So, we have developed a virtual reality based game engine that would attract the children and make them enjoy interacting with it while increasing the chance for learning. As the children continues playing this game, their learning and interacting ability increases nullifying some effects of autism, thus making it a boon for these kids.
    Keywords: Virtual Reality; Autism; 3D; game; interaction; Gesture; Leap Motion Sensor.

  • Mechanics of the septal wall may be affected by the presence fibrotic infarct in the free wall at end-systole   Order a copy of this article
    by Fulufhelo Nemavhola 
    Abstract: The relationship between infarct mechanics and ventricular function of septal wall in the presence of fibrotic infarct in the free wall remains poorly understood. This study compares the mechanics of the septal wall in the healthy and fibrotic infarcted rat hearts models during active ejection. Finite element models of rat heart were developed to study the ventricular mechanics of the septal wall in the presence of fibrotic infarct in the left ventricular free wall. To simulate active contraction, three dimensional constitutive Fung model was implemented in Abaqus
    Keywords: septal wall; myocardial mechanics; heart computational models; fibrotic infarct; infarct modelling.

  • Optimized DBN for Effective Enhancement of Ultrasound Images with pelvic Lesions   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandanand L. Shelgaonkar, Anil B. Nandgaonkar 
    Abstract: Nowadays, the ultrasound modality is the current research areas for lesion analysis. Moreover, it is renowned; the ultrasound images exhibit hassle- free utilization as well as cost effectiveness. In the literature, merely a small number of reliable contributions have been reported from the females for analyzing the pelvic lesions. However, the literature lags with adopting a prominent enhancement procedure to facilitate the diagnosis process. This paper adopts an Optimized Deep Belief Neural (ODBN) network for enhancing the US image of pelvic portions. It considers the higher order as well as lower order statistical characteristics of the image to define the appropriate filter band for image enhancement. The lower order features are optimized to use with the higher order features so that the optimal usage of features is reported here. To optimize the lower order features, an advanced optimization search algorithm named Grey Wolf Optimizer algorithm (GWO) is exploited. The ODBN learns the optimized features and the noise characteristics for precise prediction of the filter bands, which enhance the image substantially over the conventional filter bands. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the conventional methods using the benchmark as well as real-time US images of pelvic lesions. The quality of enhancement is ensured using the renowned measures such as PSNR and ESSIM that exhibit the performance of the proposed approach.
    Keywords: ultrasound; PSNR; ESSIM; GWO; DBN.

  • An innovative technical solution to avoid Insomnia and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss   Order a copy of this article
    by Shriram K V, Ikram Shah, Sriharsha Patallapalli, Karthikeyan S, S. Subhash Chandran, U. Adithya Bharadwaj 
    Abstract: The major challenge these days with the increased usage of the mobile phone is loss of sleep (insomnia), increased stress and finally more damages to the health and mental wellness. Most of us have the habit of even keeping the phone underneath the pillow while sleeping. There are people who are now treated for mobile addiction. People are there to use a phone to get sleep sooner. Sleep time is meant for the brain to rejuvenate, organize thoughts and relax. If the sleep patterns are disturbed due to a continuous external commotion, it will result in the subconscious to spend energy and brain space. Hence, it is wise to switch off the music after the person sleeps which most of us do not do as we are already slept by then. Also, wearing headphones for an hour will increase the bacteria in your ears by 700 times. Many researches in the past prove that music is a solution to reduce stress and to bring sleep. But, we, the users are using headphones for music and it causes some dangerous side effects including affecting the sleep and noise-induced hearing loss. There is a strong need to avoid unnecessary health problems which are meant to be avoided. Here, we propose a system which will ensure that the music player is stopped after understanding that the person using it has slept and he no more needs the tunes thereby not disturbing the deep sleep and preventing insomnia and noise-induced hearing loss. Novelty is what we present in this research through making sure if the person has really slept or not. Our innovative system switches off the audio automatically when a person falls asleep. The same can be expanded and improvised to provide analytics to the user as in how many hours did he sleep peacefully, how is his body tuned towards listening to music, how long does he need music, under what conditions does he over listen or under listen etc.
    Keywords: Sleep monitoring; Headphones/ Earphones ; Wearables; Heart rate ; Pulse; Mobile Application; Multimedia Playing; Insomnia; NIHL.

  • Health Panel: a Platform Useful to Physicians for Fast and Easy Managing of FPGA-based Medical Devices   Order a copy of this article
    by Agostino Giorgio 
    Abstract: The Design of Medical Devices is frequently based\r\non Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This is especially\r\ndue to their unique properties in order to fast prototyping and\r\ntheir great capabilities in Digital Signal Processing (DSP). The\r\nproblem arises to make physicians able to manage such devices\r\nespecially to set and program during prototyping, experimental\r\nand validation processes of new medical devices. Therefore, the\r\nobjective of this paper is the description of a platform, named\r\nHealth Panel, in its hardware and software components,\r\novercoming these issues. The design methods and the test and\r\ndebug methods are also detailed. The hardware is an Embedded\r\nSystem (ES) and the software, developed in Matlab environment,\r\nacts as user friendly interface making the physician able to\r\nmanage quick and easy the FPGA. Results of tests and of an\r\naccurate debug of the platform are described. The platform aims\r\nat providing a significance contribution for designing hardware\r\nand software interfaces for an easy and quick use of FPGA-based\r\nmedical devices. Conclusions and final remarks provide\r\nsuggestions for future developments of the platform.
    Keywords: FPGA; Embedded Systems; Digital Signal Processing; Matlab; Medical Devices; Electrocardiogram, Auscultation.

  • Spectro-Temporal Analysis of Electromyogram Signals (EMGs)   Order a copy of this article
    by Meziani Fadia, Rerbal Souhila, Debbal Sidi Mohammed El Amine 
    Abstract: Electromyography (EMG) signals can be used for clinical/biomedical applications. Is a very important biomedical signal that measures electrical currents generated in muscles during its contraction representing neuromuscular. Individual muscle fiber action potentials are sometimes acquired using wire or needle electrodes placed directly in the muscle. The combination of the muscle fiber action potentials from all the muscle fibers of a single motor unit is the motor unit action potential (MUAP) which can be detected by a skin surface electrode (non-invasive) located near this field, or by a needle electrode (invasive) inserted in the muscle. The simple detection with electrodes has been recognized for a long time as an important tool for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, although its accuracy is still insufficient to diagnose some neuromuscular diseases (Myopathy and Neuropathy). It does not enable the analyst to obtain both qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the EMG signals. The efficiency of diagnosis can be improved considerably by using modern digital signal processing techniques. Therefore, these last can provide useful and valuable information on these signals. The aim of this study is to analyse EMGs signals using temporal and frequency analysis. This analysis is based on temporal parameters such as :amplitude, energy, entropy... and frequency parameter such as median frequency and mean frequency by using the FFT and the non-linear information by using the bispectrum analysis , can provide a wide range of informations related to the type of signal (normal and pathological).
    Keywords: Electomyogram; EMG; signal; time-frequency; analysis; parameters; pathology.

  • Generating a stable primary schedule for an integrated surgical suite   Order a copy of this article
    by Asie Soudi, Mehdi Heydari 
    Abstract: Efficient utilization of operating room (OR) is a common anxiety of surgical suit manager which necessitate an effective planning and scheduling of surgeries. In this paper we investigate predictive / reactive scheduling of an integrated surgical suite in the form of a two-stage hybrid flow shop scheduling problem (HFSP). The deterministic model comprises both assignment and sequencing decisions for elective surgeries. By further considering shared capacity between elective and emergency patients, a chance constrained programming model is extended for the first time to cope with uncertain disruption. It is shown that how a chance constrained model will reduce to just considering an augmented surgery which processing time depends on distribution function of emergency surgery processing time and confidence level of scheduler. Two new important measures in reactive scheduling literature, 'stability' and 'robustness' are taking into account in surgical suite scheduling for the first time. Computational results demonstrate the efficiency of primary schedule generated by extended chance constrained programming model as well as the effectiveness of new measures in hospitals. As the chance constrained model is NP-hard, a decomposition heuristic algorithm based on tabu search (TS) is proposed to cope with problems of real size.
    Keywords: Stability and robustness; predictive / reactive scheduling; hybrid flow shop; integrated surgical suite.

  • Adaptive Improved Binary PSO Based Learnable Bayesian Classifier for Dimensionality Reduced Microarray Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Barnali Sahu, Satchidananda Dehuri, Alok Jagadev 
    Abstract: This article presents, an adaptive improved binary particle swarm optimization based learnable Bayesian classifier for dimensionally reduced microarray data. In the first fold of this two-folded work, the problem of dimension is reduced by unsupervised method of feature reduction. We apply k-means clustering algorithm on the microarray data to group functionally redundant genes followed by application of signal-to-noise-ratio ranking technique to generate an intermediate feature subset consisting of most relevant and non-redundant feature subsets. In the second fold, the feature subset has been given to adaptive binary particle swarm optimization based learnable Bayesian classifier for simultaneous selection of features and classification. We conduct an extensive experimental work on a few benchmark datasets to validate its classification accuracy with and without reducing the dimensionality of micro-array data. It was observed that our method is not only accepted as a good classifier over methods, which are considered here for comparison but also be treated as an alternative method of reducing dimension of the problem.
    Keywords: Microarray data; Feature selection; Signal-to-Noise-Ratio; Classification; Bayesian classifier; Adaptive PSO.

  • Product Unit Neural Network trained by an Evolutionary Algorithm for diabetes disease diagnosis   Order a copy of this article
    by Radhwane BENALI, Nabil Dib, Fethi Bereksi Reguig 
    Abstract: Diabetes disease occurs when the level of glucose in the blood becomes higher than normal because the body is unable to produce the insulin which is needed to regulate glucose. In this study, a new classification method for the diagnosis of diabetes disease was developed. This method is based on a special class of neural network known as product-unit neural networks (PUNN) which was trained by an evolutionary algorithm (EA). We have used EA in order to determine the basic topology of the structure of the PUNN, and to estimate its coefficients weights. The performances of the proposed classifier were evaluated through the sensitivity, the specificity and the classification accuracy using both conventional and 10-fold cross-validation method using the Pima Indian Diabetes (PID) dataset. Obtained results reveal that the proposed approach outperforms several famous and recent methods existing in the literature for diabetes disease diagnosis.
    Keywords: Product Unit Neural Network (PUNN); Evolutionary Algorithms (EA); Diabetes disease diagnosis; Pima Indian diabetes (PID).

  • Development of a Serious Game to Enhance Assistive Rehabilitation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mauro Bellone, Andrea Martini, Francesco Argese, Piero Cirillo, Italo Spada, Antonio Cerasa 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate novel assistive technologies based on serious gaming for the assessment of postural control and motor rehabilitation. Previous research already demonstrated that rehabilitation and physical activities can improve the quality of life of patients, and virtual reality applications may act as good additional companions during the therapeutic sessions. Indeed, workout routines supported by serious gaming encourage patients to train harder, bringing the therapy towards a pleasant game into a virtual environment. During the game, sensors track the movements of the players and transfer the data to software components that record a database from which patients progress can be determined. The acquired measures are interpreted in the form of new biomarkers, which enable the assessment of postural control. Such biomarkers are based on a probabilistic approach and show the capability to discriminate between well-performed exercises and incorrect movements. A long-term experimentation on a specific exercise is proposed, showing a considerable improvement, ranging from 5\% to 30\%, in the performance of patients.
    Keywords: rehabilitation; virtual reality; motor inabilities; visual tracking; assistive technologies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2019.10012730
  • An Evaluation of Released Mobile Health Apps in Popular Iranian App Stores   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamid Naderi, Kobra Etminani 
    Abstract: The rapid growth in development and using mobile health applications had significant potential in the field of health. The study objective was to describe apps in the most popular Iranian Android and IOS app stores. Detail information of apps were extracted, categorized by subject and descriptive analyses were done. 3331 android and 277 IOS apps were remained for study. 88% of popular android mHealth apps were free on the other hand 70% of popular IOS apps were paid. The average price of android and IOS paid apps were $0.37 and $6.55. The average of rating value for all android subcategories (total average 4.33) is higher than IOS subcategories (total average 3.58). Our study confirmed fitness was the most popular topic. The average of rating value for all android subcategories was higher than IOS subcategories. It seems large number of mHealth app users preferred using applications which can update their content continuously.
    Keywords: mHealth; Iranian app stores; Mobile applications; Descriptive analysis.

  • Digital Watermarking in Medical Imaging: A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Hana Ouazzane, Hela Mahersia, Kamel Hamrouni 
    Abstract: This paper presents considerations on the digital watermarking potential to fit within the medical imaging field. We aim to identify watermarking applications and main strategies within different approaches through previous works. An analysis and evaluation of previous literature quality is also established. We conclude that digital watermarking has considerable purposes in the medical imaging field, it joins and complements existing security measures and management tools for medical images.
    Keywords: digital watermarking; fragile/semi-fragile watermarking; robust watermarking; lossless watermarking; medical imaging; content security; e-health; medical information systems.

  • An Innovative Solution for prevention of reverse flow of blood in IV set (Intravenous set) using Embedded Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Abhishek SN, Ikram Shah, K.V. Shriram 
    Abstract: The demand for medicine and doctors is never ending and it is really evergreen as our society has been revolutionized and the life expectancy rate has increased. Everyone starting from a six year old child to 90 year old veteran is aware of all kind of diseases exists as of now, specialization of doctors, which doctor to approach when we have a particular problem and so on. Thus, a common wish prevailing in everyone irrespective of age is that to live long and stay in pink of health. Adding to this point, millions and millions of innovations are being made in the medicinal field every decade to enhance the average life expectancy rate. There are various sectors of engineering that are involved in creating and/or maintaining various medical instruments. Say, from the smallest equipment like syringe to the largest one like CT scan machine have major contributions from the engineering sectors. IV Set (Intravenous set) is one among those substantial inventions in the medicinal field; it is actually used for transferring blood or saline from the IV/fluid bag to the patients body at a speed and pressure that the human body can accept. There is a notable threat associated with using the IV set which most of the doctors and care takers are aware of; When the fluid in the IV bag runs out (gets emptied) the patients blood would start flowing through the IV tube in the reverse direction towards the empty IV bag as the pressure of blood in the human body is more than the pressure experienced by the empty IV bag (diffusion), thus leading to blood loss and pain, at times. Thus the caretakers must be vigilant enough to replace the fluid bag at an appropriate time to avoid blood loss. The innovation proposed here is a solution that would prevent such blood losses and doesnt require manual monitoring of the IV bag thereby stopping the reverse blood flow well in time. This not only prevents blood loss but also reduces the stress for the care takers and pain for the patients. The product is tested and is costing less than 100 USD and is one-time investment for the hospitals.
    Keywords: Intravenous set; Blood loss; intelligent IV Set; Hospitals; Medicine; Saline; Intelligent medical support; Patient monitor;.

  • Identification of Important Biomarkers for Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease using Feature Selection and Classification Algorithms   Order a copy of this article
    by E. Sivasankar, Pradeep R, Sivanandham S 
    Abstract: Health informatics plays a critical role to discover, innovate and reform the healthcare system towards betterment by fostering a collaboration between patients' data and medical practices. Development of easy, accurate and convenient methods for detection of diseases is a growing field of study in health informatics because of its easy scalability and affordability. In this paper, we have tried to identify important biomarkers for the detection of Chronic Kidney Diseases. We have used filter and wrapper based feature selection techniques and four different classification methods to analyse and interpret data to help us diagnose Chronic Kidney Disease faster. We have reported the top attributes and their predictive accuracy in detecting CKD and Support Vector Machine with Chi-squared feature selection method provided us with the best accuracy.
    Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; CKD; Feature selection; Classification; Detection predictive model; Biomarkers for CKD; Risk factors; Machine learning; glomerular filtration rate; GFR; Nephrology.

  • Discrimination of signals phonocardiograms by using SNR report   Order a copy of this article
    by Mostefa Meriem, Hamza Cherif Lotfi, Debbal Sidi Mohammed El Amine 
    Abstract: The phonocardiographic PCG signal presents the acoustic recording of heart sounds; witch may reveal significant information that the human ear cannot. The current study develops methods for classification of signals using wavelet transform PCG, in Particular, the discrete wavelet transforms (DWT). In every case of PCG signal, different degree of noise will be gradually added and Ratio Signal to Noise (SNR) is Calculated. The intensity of the (SNR) is the basic parameter used in the classification of signals PCG.
    Keywords: Phonocardiogram; Discrete wavelet transforms; SNR; Sound; ER.

  • An inventive and innovative system to detect fall of old aged persons A novel attempt with IoT, Sensors and Data Analytics to prevent the post-fall effects.   Order a copy of this article
    by Juluru Anudeep, Gudimetla Kowshik, Popuri Vamsi Krishna, Ikram Shah, K.V. Shriram 
    Abstract: According to the statistics of NCOA (National Council on Aging) these days rate of deaths in the old aged people has reached a critical state that for every 11 seconds an older adult is being treated for a fall and for every 19 minutes a death is taking place. Most of the old aged people are suffering from the back pain, joint pain, knee pain and they mostly are the ones who arent able to walk properly and are mostly constrained to bed. Statistics by north eastern Ohio state reveals that, the rate of emergency room treatment of fall-related injuries in persons aged 75 and older approached 80 per 1,000 per year in women and 60 per 1,000 per year in men. Falls are indications to some critical problems like immobility, fragility of bones and chronic health impairment. Falls in elders vary from that of the falls in kids, as the healing power in the old people slackens with their age. Falls are going to play a crucial role in the health line of the old people. Due to the falls there will even be a huge impact on the heart. Old people with heart diseases when falls suddenly, there is risk of being affected by Tachyarrhythmia which is typically a heart disorder in which the heartbeat raises to an abnormal rate of more than 100 beats per minute which is approximal to an cardiac arrest. So, in order to reduce these type of risks in elderly people , We present a frugal and affordable system that could monitor the motion of the old people and can detect their fall. Detection is not done before the fall or when person remains in rest state, it detects immediately after fall and alerts the concerned persons to do the necessary action to save the person. We use IoT, Sensors and Data analytics to build this system. The system is tested for its functioning and is fool proof.
    Keywords: Fall detection; Old age support; IoT; IoT for medicine; Old aged tracking system; Gyroscope;.

  • Pragmatic Realities on Brain Imaging Techniques and Image Fusion for Alzheimers Disease   Order a copy of this article
    by P.S.Jagadeesh Kumar, Yang Yung, Mingmin Pan 
    Abstract: Alzheimers Disease is the absolute generous of age-related neurodegenerative syndrome. It specifies substantial brain atrophy, amnesia and major neuro-logic disintegration. Brain imaging techniques has been progressively employed for medical explanation and variant diagnosis, and to afford understanding into the paraphernalia on functional and structural measurements of the brain, sketches of dimensional distribution besides their normal antiquity and progression over time. This paper makes an exertion in performing a practical virtuosity on brain imaging techniques and image fusion for the diagnosis of alzheimers Disease. Several brain imaging techniques like computerized tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, magnetoencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tensor imaging was evaluated for alzheimers disease based on their degree of confidence, quality, volumetry, availability, cost and limitations.
    Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease; Brain Imaging Techniques; Image Fusion; Performancer Evaluation; Neurodegenerative Syndrome.

  • An Artificial Intelligence approach for the recognition of early stages of - ECZEMA   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhananjay Kalbande, Rohit Naik, Janvi Jatakia, Uday Khopkar 
    Abstract: The rural population of India currently suffers from various medical ailments and due to the lack of medical facilities and practitioners, enough support is not available. Medical help might come late and in the meanwhile, the problem might have been aggravated. In usual cases, it might not be possible to provide high-quality medical help, but nowadays, with the world advancing technologically, almost everything seems within reach. With the increasing awareness about artificial intelligence, mobile computing, and the trend of image classification, it is now possible to solve these problems using technology. The research aims at detecting an early stage of the skin disease Eczema in individuals, when the affected part of the human body is captured as an image through a smart phone device and approximate symptoms are provided by the medical practitioner. It uses Artificial Intelligence algorithms like Convolutional Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines Algorithms for classifying the images, and Back Propagation algorithm for training a model based on the symptoms. Around 50 Clinical photographs of Eczema acquired from Department of Skin andV.D of Seth G.S.M.C&KEMHospital, Mumbai were used to train the classifier and then different images were tested for the disease with an accuracy of greater than 85%.
    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Backpropagation Network; ConvolutionalrnNeural Network; Support Vector Machine.

  • Transmission and Archiving of Reduced MRI Medical Images   Order a copy of this article
    by Hedi AMRI, Med Karim ABDMOULEH, Ali KHALFALLAH, Jean-Christophe LAPAYRE, Med Salim BOUHLEL 
    Abstract: Medical images are often large. To minimize their file sizes, different compression standards like JPEG, JPEG 2000 and TIFF have been developed, but they can affect the image quality in case of lossy compression. In this paper, we propose a compression method based on image resizing that can reduce the file size to a quarter before its transmission or archiving. When it is received or before its display, the reduced image is enlarged to ensure better visual comfort. This approach is called REPro. In this context, we have used three image reduction techniques namely Square-Square Mesh Decimation, Square-Square filtered Mesh Decimation, the Square-Staggered-Square filtered Mesh Decimation. In addition, we have utilized four enlargement techniques namely Zero padding, Nearest Neighbor interpolation, Cubic Spline interpolation and B-interpolation to resize MRI images. The experimental results prove that the combination of the Square-Square Mesh Decimation with the B-Spline interpolation ensures the minimum distortion of the original image.
    Keywords: Telemedicine; Archiving; Transmission; Medical images; image Reduction; image Expansion.

  • Breast Cancer Detection in Mammogram image with Segmentation of Tumor Region   Order a copy of this article
    by Vikramathithan A C, Dandinashivara Revanna Shashikumar 
    Abstract: In our proposed breast cancer malignant detection study are performed with the aid of fuzzy min max neural network technique. Majority of womens are affected in this breast cancer at a early stage the mammogram images are mostly play in a vital role. Initially the input mammogram image smoothened with the aid of adaptive median filer from that smoothened image we are segmenting tissues with the aid of Histon based Fuzzy c-means clustering. We are extracting features from that segmented image the features are statistical and semantic features. Then we can identify the malignant region with the aid of these features. The segmented region is maligned or benign using an optimal fuzzy min max neural network with gray wolf optimization algorithm with the aid of these we will identify a breast cancer region.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer; Mammogram; Fuzzy min max; gray wolf; optimization; segmentation.

  • Radial Basis Function Neural Network with Genetic Algorithm for Discrimination of Recombination Hotspots in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashok Dwivedi 
    Abstract: Recombination influences the evolution of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Genomic regions where recombinations occurs are known as recombination hotspots. There are two kind of hotspots for recombination. The spots where recombination occurs more frequently are called recombination hot spots and regions where recombination occurs less frequently are known as cold spots. In this work, we have formulated methods based on neural network models for the classification of these hot and cold recombination spots on the basis of compositional features of nucleotide sequences. These models were validated using tenfold cross validation technique. The classification accuracy of 83%, 82%, and 78 % were achieved using radial basis function neural network with genetic algorithm, radial basis function neural network and multilayer perceptorn models respectively. Moreover, the performance of these model were evaluated on differenct classification measurements. Furthermore, results indicate that redial basis function neural network with genetic algorithm gives best result.
    Keywords: : Artificial Neural Network; Radial Basis Function Neural Network; Genetic Algorithm; Multi-Layer Perceptron; Classification; Machine Learning; Evolution.

  • Analysis of salivary components as non-invasive biomarkers for monitoring chronic kidney disease   Order a copy of this article
    by Navaneeth Bhaskar, Suchetha M 
    Abstract: Saliva, a valuable source of biochemical information, is a potential diagnostic substance that helps to identify many diseases. Studies have revealed that saliva tests help identify many diseases. Saliva test has excellent advantages over blood test as the former can be collected non-invasively using simple equipment. This paper explores how salivary components can be used as diagnostic tool to identify chronic kidney disease (CKD). Experimental analysis was conducted to assess the levels of salivary components in whole saliva of CKD patients in contrast with healthy people. Urea and creatinine are the most accepted biomarkers of CKD. The correlation between creatinine and urea levels in human saliva and blood were analyzed. Unstimulated saliva flow rate and pH levels were also monitored in this study. The results obtained from this study give concrete evidence that there is a positive correlation between creatinine and urea levels in blood and saliva. From the derived regression line equations, serum urea and creatinine values can be predicted from salivary values. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) performance analysis was performed and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.95 and 0.89 was obtained for salivary creatinine and urea.
    Keywords: saliva; non-invasive; electrolytes; urea; creatinine; chronic kidney disease.

  • Time-Frequency Analysis based Method for Application of Infant Cry Classification   Order a copy of this article
    by J. Saraswathy, M. Hariharan, Wan Khairunizam, J. Sarojini, Sazali Yaacob 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a new investigation of time-frequency (t-f) based signal processing technique using wavelet packet spectrum (wpspectrum) for classification of newborn cry signals. T-f approaches can analyze the non stationary signals comprehensively in joint t-f domain compared to the time or frequency domain techniques. This study was initialized with the extraction of a cluster of t-f features from the generated t-f matrix of recorded cry signals using wpspectrum by extending time-domain and frequency-domain features to the joint (t-f) domain. In accordance, conventional features such as Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and Linear prediction coefficients (LPCs) were also extracted in order to compare the performance of the suggested t-f approach. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and general regression neural network (GRNN) were used to evaluate the efficacy of the extracted feature vectors. The proposed methodology was implemented to classify different sets of infant cry signals cry including binary and multiclass problems. Best empirical result of above 99 % was reported and revealed the good potential of t-f methods in context of infant cry classification.
    Keywords: Keywords: Infant cry; Time-frequency analysis; Feature extraction; Classification.

  • Towards understanding the aetiology of high myopic strabismus using mechanical analysis and finite element modelling   Order a copy of this article
    by Haipeng Liu, Yinglan Gong, Zhiqing Chen, Shahina Pardhan, Rajshree Mootanah, Ling Xia, Dingchang Zheng 
    Abstract: It has been widely accepted that the pathology of high myopic esotropia, a special form of strabismus, is still not fully understood. In this study, the mechanical analysis and finite element analysis (FEA) of the oculomotor system was based on clinical MRI data and applied to examine the physiological hypotheses of extra-ocular muscle obliquity and deformation respectively. Our mechanical analysis indicated that the muscular obliquity is not the dominated cause of high myopic strabismus. Next, by simulating the effect of different forces applied to the cross section of each extra-ocular rectus muscles, the corresponding eyeball rotations were quantified on normal eyes, and high myopic eyes with and without strabismus. The model suggests that the limitation of rotation in high myopic strabismic eyes is mainly caused by the extra-ocular muscle deformation instead of, but related with, its obliquity, providing a better understanding of the aetiology of high myopic strabismus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first mechanical and FEA model developed from clinical data to investigate the aetiology of high myopic strabismus, providing important tools for future studies.
    Keywords: eyeball; finite element analysis; FEA; high myopia strabismus; mechanical analysis; simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2018.10013911
  • SMOTE and ABC optimised RBF network for coping with imbalanced class in EEG signal classification   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Kumar Satapathy, Satchidananda Dehuri, Alok Kumar Jagadev 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a novel approach for coping with imbalanced class problem by combining the best attribute of synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE) and artificial bee colony optimised radial basis function neural networks to identify epileptic seizure from electroencephalography (EEG) signal. EEG is the recording of electrical activity in brain. Careful analysis of these recordings can provide valuable information and understanding the mechanisms of several brain disorder diseases such as epilepsy. Since epileptic seizures occur irregularly and unpredictably, automatic seizure detection in EEG recordings is highly required. We have used discrete wavelet transform (DWT) technique for extraction of potential features from the signal. For classification of these signals into two classes, we have trained the RBFN by a modified version of ABC algorithm (MABC). In this work, we realise, this two class classification problem is highly imbalanced i.e., the instances in one class known as majority class outnumber the instances of other class called the minority class. The SMOTE is first applied to generate synthetic instances in the positive class to balance the training data set. Using the resulting balanced dataset, the MABC optimised RBF network is then constructed to identify the epileptic seizure.
    Keywords: electroencephalography; radial basis function neural networks; artificial bee colony; ABC; discrete wavelet transform; DWT; imbalanced class.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2018.10013912
  • Force evaluation and stress distribution at possible weight and structure of femur bone in pelvis frame while standing   Order a copy of this article
    by Bhaskar Kumar Madeti, Chalamalasetti Srinivasa Rao, S.K. Sundara Siva Rao Bollapragada 
    Abstract: The present paper gives a clear idea of hip joint, it is very complicated structure here we resolve the forces acting on hip joint by using Lami's theorem, by using the geometry from the CT scan the tensile force of ligament and axial compressive forces across the femoral head are obtained at various possible positions of pelvis frame while standing. Analysis is done for a person whose weight varies from 600 N to 1,500 N while standing, it is also extended to finite element analysis, stress distribution and deformation is noticed on the surface of femur. Factor of safety is also obtained.
    Keywords: hip joint; femur; acetabular cup; axial compressive force; tensile force; ligament; stress distribution; deformation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2018.10013913
  • Activity monitoring and meal tracking for cardiac rehabilitation patients   Order a copy of this article
    by Usama Pervaiz, Saed Khawaldeh, Tajwar Abrar Aleef, Vu Hoang Minh, Yeman Brhane Hagos 
    Abstract: Heart disease has been ranked as the first cause for death in Pakistan along with being the leading cause of death worldwide ( Recovering heart patients need to monitor their diet and activity routines to mitigate chances of another occurrence ( The proposed application aims to provide a platform that would help patients to keep track of their activity, alongside allowing the patients to keep track of their diet; which will act as fitness monitoring for cardiac rehabilitation patients. Further more, activity classification algorithm used only seven features to shows classification into five different classes with accuracy of 98% in real time. Also, meal tracking module is designed to support the cardiac patients with timely feedback and notifications about their dietary routine.
    Keywords: cardiac rehabilitation; heart diseases; meal tracking; activity monitoring; support vector machine; SVM; Scikit toolbar; machine learning; android application; real time monitoring.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2018.10006898
  • SEPHYRES 2: applying semantic-pseudo-fuzzy methods in medical diagnostic ontologies   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Sanaeifar, Mahmood Tara, Ahmad Faraahi, Bibimasoumeh Mir Mousavi, Mitra Ahadi, Ali Bahari 
    Abstract: To date, ontology-based medical diagnostic systems have not incorporated complete descriptions of diseases and their semantic relations with signs and symptoms. In SEPHYRES 1, a pain-focused-only solution was proposed which applied not only general semantic reasoners, but also weight spreading techniques. Proceeding the research, we developed the SEPHYRES knowledge base to address all signs, symptoms and complex relations, including similar terms, terms with the variant generality level, composed terms, terms which include several other terms based on medical diagnostic criteria. The evaluation outcomes, in terms used in patient's descriptive history in both of the MEDSCAPE and PubMed case studies, showed that the recall amount of system-oriented evaluation was about 90% provided that just top ten results were considered. Furthermore, the Wilcoxon signed-ranked test between SEPHYRES 2 and the best symptom checker, Isabel engine power, showed that the SEPHYRES 2 significantly improved the matching process of the patient's disease profiles.
    Keywords: computer assisted diagnosis; clinical decision support; knowledge modelling; computer assisted decision making.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2018.10013914
  • Parametric electrical impedance tomography for monitoring bone mineral density in the spine using 3D human model   Order a copy of this article
    by Neta Naimark, Shimon Abboud, Marina Arad 
    Abstract: Monitoring methods of bone mineral density (BMD), the standard measure for osteoporosis diagnosis, are both costly and complex. Since changes in bone permittivity and conductivity values occur due to changes in BMD, they can be used as a simple and inexpensive tool for monitoring BMD. In this work the parametric electrical impedance tomography (pEIT) method for monitoring BMD in the spine using 3D human model is theoretically evaluated. Numerical solver on the forward problem in 3D is used for computing electric potential measured on body surface. Varied spinal BMD are simulated by varying bone relative permittivity and conductivity values which represent different disease stages. The inverse problem is solved by creating a lookup-table of different BMD values.
    Keywords: spine bone mineral density; electrical impedance tomography; osteoporosis; simulation study.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJMEI.2018.10013915

Special Issue on: Health Engineering and Informatics

  • Bio-Medical Analysis of Breast Cancer Risk Detection based on Deep Neural Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Nivaashini M, Soundariya R S 
    Abstract: - Breast tumor remains a most important reason of cancer fatality among women globally and the pathetic condition is that most of them pass away due to delayed diagnosis. But premature recognition and anticipation can significantly diminish the chances of death. Risk detection of breast cancer is one of the major research areas in bioinformatics. Bioinformatics can be narrowly defined as a field at the crossroads of biology and computer engineering, responsible for the storage, distribution, and analysis of biological information. Various experiments have been conceded to examine the fundamental grounds of breast tumor. Alternatively, it has already been verified that early diagnosis of tumor can give the longer survival chance to a patient. Consequently, early prediction of breast tumor is very critical to rescue a patients life. To deal with this issue, in the proposed framework a model with deep learning techniques has been introduced to identify breast tumor at primary stage. This paper aims at finding an efficient set of features for breast tumor prediction using deep learning approaches called Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM). The proposed framework diagnoses and analyzes breast tumor patients data with the help of Deep Neural Network (DNN) classifier using the Wisconsin dataset of UCI machine learning Repository. and, thereafter assesses their performance in terms of measures like Accuracy, Precision, Recall, F-Measure, etc.
    Keywords: Breast tumor Prediction; Feature Selection; Restricted Boltzmann Machine; Deep Neural Network.

    by Rejith K.N., Kamalraj Subramaniam 
    Abstract: Parkinsons disease individuals have been stressed and shown difficulty in emotion recognition & facial expression with increasing cognitive decline. In recent years, various studies have been conducted in emotion recognition of Parkinsons disease patients. In many research works, emotional state assessment using facial expression and EEG based stimuli were used for emotion recognition study. In this paper, a review of EEG based emotion recognition in Parkinsons disease and its various research analyses in the past two decades have been analyzed. Most of the papers have investigated total of six emotions in Parkinsons disease study such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, and disgust to evaluate the emotion difficulties in Parkinsons disease people.
    Keywords: Cognitive deficit;Electroencephalogram;Emotion; Emotional deficits; Event related potencial;Facial emotion recognition; Non-linear methods; Parkinson’s disease.

  • A Study on Indirect Immunofluorescence Image Classification Methods for Bioinformatics   Order a copy of this article
    by Divya BS, Kamalraj Subramaniam, Nanjundaswamy HR 
    Abstract: The Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF) test with Human Epithelial type-2 (HEp-2) cells as substrates is the gold standard for Anti Nuclear Antibodies (ANA) test to diagnose autoimmune diseases. The specialists in the laboratory visually examine the specimen under microscope to recognize the staining patterns and generate the report. So ANA test is subjective and needs systemic automation for bioinformatics. In this view international benchmarking initiatives were organized by IAPR in the last six years. In this paper the state of the art on IIF HEp-2 cells classification task was analyzed. This paper highlighted the original aspects with the detailed discussion of the published methods. Design choice verses performance was analyzed.
    Keywords: Anti Nuclear Antibodies; pattern classification; HEp-2 cell,Computer Aided Diagnosis; Indirect Immunofluorescence; Healthcare System.

Special Issue on: Biomedicine in Industry and Society

  • Improving the Classifier accuracy with an Integrated approach using Medical data - A Study
    by Maragatham Ganesan, Rajendran s 
    Abstract: As information plays a vital role in the current scenario, Fetching of information from the voluminous quantity seems to be challenging. Therefore, the data mining community work on this area to find an improved solutions to help the end users. The end users may be an organization or may be an ordinary user. The authors have used different classification techniques for the study purpose. The article attempts to analyze the accuracy of classifiers with respect to that of medical data. Dataset from the repository is considered for analyzing purpose. Initially a preprocessing step is used on the data set for finding out the missing values. Next, the resulting data set is applied to the classifiers to study its performance accuracy. Initially, after the preprocessing step a classifier is selected based on which the accuracy of the classifier is studied. Next, a subset evaluation step is performed to determine the relevant attributes. In order to improve the classifier accuracy an attribute selection filter of supervised category is selected. In this article, the authors have done a study on integrated approaches that helps in classifying the instances of a bio-medical data. For the analysis purpose the Naïve bayes classifier is used, the comparative study of the classifier is done with the Genetic approach, supervised – Best first approach and rank approaches. The study shows that, out of all the integrated approaches, the genetic approach is proven to be on the higher end of accuracy.
    Keywords: Naive Bayes, Multilayer perceptron, chi-square, logistic regression.

  • Wavelet Packet Transform based Medical Image Multiple Watermarking with Independent Component Analysis Extraction
    by Nanmaran Rajendiran, Thirugnanam Gurunathan, Mangaiyarkarasi Palanivel 
    Abstract: Rapid growth of internet in all aspects of life has led to the easy availability of the digital data to everyone. E-commerce, telemedicine etc., are among the many applications of internet. Telemedicine is a crucial field where internet finds application. Healthcare professionals use internet to transmit and receive medical data. Thus the medical images can be shared, processed and transmitted through computer networks. All patient records, linked to the medical secrecy, must be confidential. Because of the importance of the security issues in the management of medical information, there is a need to develop watermarking techniques for protecting medical images. In this paper, colour medical image watermarking methods rely on Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) and extraction using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). For watermark extraction, Pearson ICA is applied as it attains the new trait is that it not entail the renovation procedure in watermark extraction. The grades show that projected method is vigorous beside attacks such as Gaussian noise, Salt and Pepper noise, Rotation and Translation. The performance measures like PSNR, Similarity Measure and Normalized Correlation are assessed to confirm the robustness of the scheme.
    Keywords: discrete wavelet transform; image watermarking; independent component analysis; pearson ICA; wavelet packet transform.rn

  • Novel Feature extraction of EEG signal for accurate event detection
    by saravanan santhanam, Govindarajan S 
    Abstract: Electroencephalograph (EEG) signal analysis is one of the essential biomedical signal processing research for diagnosis of diseases, detect the various event and analyze psychological problems. The accuracy of event detection depends on the feature vectors used to identify the event. Even though there are many feature vectors in literature, they provide performance only for a specific application and performance becomes poor for other application. This paper presents a new feature vector generation based on the fusion of energy feature vectors of different types. The energy features of alpha, beta and gamma component signal is extracted as base feature after decomposition of the EEG signal. A fusion rule is formulated to fuse that base features using Hjorth Activity Features to improve the accuracy of classification. The performance of the proposed new feature vector is tested on Seizures detection, sleep state detection and emotion detection application. The resulting analysis shows that the proposed fusion based new feature outperform comparing to the traditional features with 26% of improved accuracy for emotion detection and 5% of improved accuracy for Seizures detection application. The sleep state detection application provides around 4% improved accuracy.
    Keywords: EEG, event detection, feature extraction, fusion

    by Neha Vutakuri, Sita Somara 
    Abstract: Cancer is a life-threatening disease that can grow in any part of the human body and may result in the abnormal growth of millions to trillions of cells. There are currently 200 types of human cancers. Cancer is treated with various treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, targeted therapy, and others. However, these treatments produce side effects, such as anemia, diarrhea, appetite loss, bleeding, hair loss, infections, lymphedema, nerve problems, urinary, bladder problems, and others. The side effects of cancer treatments may also lead to death. Some spices are used to naturally fight cancer. Spices are usually used in cooking as a flavoring ingredient and may have thousands of medicinal characteristics. Spices such as turmeric, ginger, garlic, saffron, black pepper, cayenne pepper, mustard, mint leaves, black cumin, and others are used in Ayurveda medicines for the natural treatment of cancer. This paper addresses the use of garlic (Allium sativum) in the treatment of breast cancer and its promising results. Garlic is a medicinal plant and an antibacterial agent that provides many benefits to humans if consumed in the regular diet. Garlic has been used for thousands of years to treat several diseases and is known to inhibit breast cancer growth. Many epidemiological studies have found that garlic is one a natural remedy that inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells. The dietary consumption of garlic in various forms effectively minimizes the growth of breast cancer and other diseases. This paper provides a complete description of garlic including its history and then discusses its utility for preventing of breast cancer and its use in clinical trials; hence, this paper will be helpful for researchers and physicians in treating breast cancer.
    Keywords: Breast cancer; Spices treatment; Garlic; Ayurveda; Antibacterial agent.

  • Investigation of Problems faced during capturing of Gait Signals   Order a copy of this article
    by Vinothkanna Rajendran, Prabakaran Narayanaswamy, Sivakannan Sivakannan 
    Abstract: To solve the issue of close human contact in Biometric Authentication system, relatively a new technique Gait Recognition is used. In this paper we investigate the problem of people recognition by their gait. The coordination and cyclic nature of the body motion makes gait as unique characteristics of each individual, thus a good biometric identification approach. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the problems that make it difficult to apply gait as a biometric identification and use recent literature to show suggestions being made to solve some of these technical issues.
    Keywords: Gait Recognition; Biometrics; Walking Style; Pathology; Injuries.