International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development (4 papers in press)
- COMPETITIVE STRATEGY AND PERFORMANCE IN SOUTHERN GHANA
by John Parnell, John Spillan, Edwin Mensah
Abstract: There is a dearth of academic work investigating the effectiveness of competitive strategies in retail organizations in emerging nations, particularly within sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigates the relationship between business strategy and performance in business enterprises in Southern Ghana. Data from 184 firms in Accra, Tema and Kumasi suggest thatin terms of both financial and operating performanceGhanaian retailers employing a combination of cost leadership and differentiation strategies outperformed those adopting only one of the two pure strategies.
Keywords: Business; Strategy; Marketing; Strategy; Business; Performance; Strategy; Formation; Management; Functions; Marketing; Function; Marketing; Organization
- Adoption of Focus Group and Policy Delphi to Blue Ocean Strategy: A proposed conceptual model
by Alex Hou Hong Ng, Dominic Hoe Chai Lau, Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail
Abstract: Although blue ocean strategy (BOS) has been well regarded and widely accepted in both academic and business domains recently, nevertheless some researchers criticized the concept is being too descriptive and lack of formulated theoretical foundation. In this context, this paper aims to further extend the BOS formulation process by introducing quantitative approach to substantiate the validity of key competing factors in the strategy canvas to strengthen its theoretical construct. The paper begins by highlighting the background and research questions of this study, followed by a brief review on the concept of BOS and its analytical tools as well as the related research problems and issues. Subsequently, Focus Group and Policy Delphi were introduced to incorporate into the BOS formulation process and a conceptual model is proposed to address the question questions raised earlier. Finally, it is concluded with a proposed conceptual model and the future research avenue.
Keywords: Blue Ocean Strategy, Strategy Canvas, Focus Group, Delphi Method, Policy Delphi.
- INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING CHANGE ON PERFORMANCE OF SMALL ENTREPRENEURIAL REORGANIZING FIRMS
by Erkki Laitinen
Abstract: This paper analyses the moderating effects of different contextual variables on the influence of management accounting change (MAC) on the long-term financial performance of small entrepreneurial reorganizing Finnish firms. Empirical data are based on a survey responded by 85 entrepreneurial firms. The findings show that the influence of MAC on financial performance is weak. They also show that the sign of influence is sensitive for control variables. For univariate analysis without any controlling variables the relationship is weak but positive. When controlling for management control system change (MCSC), organisational change (OC) and contextual variables the relationship is still weak but negative. Twelve contextual variables were used to moderate the relationship between MAC and performance influence. For both the low and high levels of each variable the effect was found negative. The general conclusion is that for very small reorganizing firms the influence of MAC is negative irrespective of the context.
Keywords: Management accounting change; management accounting system; very small firms; entrepreneurial firms; financial performance; moderating effects; contextual variables; Finnish reorganizing firms; regression analysis; interaction variables
- Longitudinal Patent Analysis for International nanotechnology development: Comparison of Innovative Performance for the Ten Leading Countries Using Patent Data Derived from NBER
by Wen-Chih Liao, Chun-Chou Tseng
Abstract: Nanotechnology has seen rapid growth and expansion in recent years. One interesting question to ask is whether or not there is a different development in innovative ability and performance among countries. This paper presents results on the international analysis of nanotechnology patents using U.S. Patent and Trademark office (USPTO) data derived from NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research, USA) website searched by keywords of the entire text between 1976 and 2002 for the ten leading countries. After characterizing the citation linkage as indicator relationships between nanotechnology development and innovation, we aim to compare the innovative ability and performance of the ten leading countries in nanotechnology and contribute to a better understanding of competitive advantage of nations in nanotechnology, to better understand the moves of their competitors and potential commercial benefits.
We find that some countries are obviously more innovative than others according to the different indicators, such as the United States producing the majority of the NSE patents between 1976 and 2002, followed by Japan, France and United Kingdom. Comparative trends in annual adjusted originality index from South Korea and Taiwan had lower creative and innovative values, but the average of citation lags for the latecomers as Taiwan and in South Korea have significantly shortened because of the rapid progress in nanotechnology. Inventions from Australia and American seem to have better commercial potential than others because of the number of their higher claims.
Moreover, the citation networks show an increase of interactions, and a relatively important role of the ten leading countries. Using the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) method, we present overall comparisons of competitive advantages in perceptual maps. The Maps show that there are four distinct groups of attributes. Australia was markedly distinct with the mean value of average citation made and received. As Taiwan and South Korea have developed recently, they had related patents concentrated in a certain area, and had a lower creative and innovative value with a shorter term effect on others. Finally, based upon the country citation network, France, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Italy and Switzerland formed a local agglomerative core with each other and intensively with the United States.
Keywords: patent; citations; nanotechnology; innovation; competitive advantage of nations; citation networks; perceptual maps;