International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development (11 papers in press)
Offshoring industry of Central and Eastern Europe: the perspective of service vendor and investor
by Damian Kedziora, Andrzej Hak, Andrzej Kraslawski, Timo Kärri
Abstract: Business process offshoring industry has been dynamically growing worldwide in recent years, and its rapid expansion has been particularly visible in Central Europe. Both parties involved in the organizational transformation: service buyer and vendor, can perceive such changes in a different way. The paper examines the attractiveness of a service offshoring destination, both from the investment and customer point of view, and provides comparative analysis of five countries considered as key regional competitors: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania. Although the cost reduction is still very important, additional factors become major influencers for offshore destination, like the potential for business process reengineering and service optimization, political stability, and access to wide talent pools of sector-experienced workers. The study is supposed to serve decision makers as a reference in the assessment of offshoring investments.
Keywords: service; European; regional; offshoring; transition; market; investment; attractiveness; outsourcing; strategy.
The Influence of Cognitive Frames on Small Business Entrepreneurs Perception of Risk Concepts
by Mike Peters, Johannes Brustbauer, Janette Walde
Abstract: This study aims at analysing the influence of cognitive frames on small business entrepreneurs perception of risk concepts in certain stages of their working life. A PCA based on the results of a survey questionnaire reveals that entrepreneurs perceive risk according to the entrepreneurship literature, i.e., as opportunity, as variance, and as downside loss. ANOVA results show a statistically significant influence of cognitive frames, operationalized by personal characteristics, on one risk concept: While the perception of risk as downside loss increases with education and age, it decreases when reaching a certain level of experience. The approach also reveals that personal characteristics are practically not influencing the perception of risk concepts.
Keywords: SMEs; Entrepreneurs; Perception; Risk concepts; Cognitive frames.
A PRODUCT SERVICE SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ENERGY PROVISION
by Ferhat Karaca, Fatih Camci, Ali Turkyilmaz
Abstract: Today's market moves from product sale to service sale in many areas. This is often a win-win situation for both companies and their customers. Companies may increase their profit by increasing the efficiency of their products, whereas the customers do not deal with the operational hassles, such as maintenance or repair of the assets. The service base approach affects not only the provider and the customers but also other players within the chain like manufacturers of devices that use the utilities. Thus, the shift from product-based utility provision to a service based one has the potential to create a greater impact on reaching sustainable and eco-friendly solutions. This paper suggests and discusses a new idea of result oriented service based utility provision with its opportunities and challenges. This suggested approach offers a radical shift in the responsibility of implementing relevant energy efficiency measures of assets from end-users to the providers.
Keywords: PSS; Energy utility provision; Eco-friendly business solutions.
Productivity Enhancement through Intellectual Capital and Information Technology
by Nichanach Katemukda, Prapaisri Sudasna-na-Ayudthya, Narongsak Comepa, Hanna Kropsu-Vehkapera
Abstract: A products competitiveness is highly concerned by the manufacturing sustainability in the market. The products function should impress the customer and the products price should be reasonable. This is the reason why manufacturing firms must add more value into their products and measure their performance by using value added productivity. A firm which has high value added productivity should also have high position of competitiveness within the market. This paper aims to answer a research question "Is competitive advantage directly influenced by the value added productivity?" In conclusion, the purpose of this research is to provide a value added productivity enhancement model. This research constructed a value added productivity enhancement model and applied a structural equation modelling technique to verify the model. The constructed model demonstrated that intellectual capital and information technology both supported competitive advantage. Finally, competitive advantage was found to directly influence the productivity of a firm.
Keywords: Value Added Productivity; Competitive Advantage; Intellectual Capital; Information Technology.
Does the company size affect performance management system? PMSs in small, medium-sized, and large companies
by Erkki K. Laitinen, Tarmo Kadak
Abstract: This study analyses the effect of firm size on performance management system (PMS). Theoretically the study makes use of the chain model of the key factors (KFs) introduced by Kadak and Laitinen (2016a). Hypotheses on PMSs in three different size groups are developed. Empirical data are gathered by an internet survey from firms in Estonia and Finland. In all, the data include responses from 85 firms of different size. Empirical evidence gave support to the research hypotheses. It was showed that the importance of KFs in successful PMSs of small and larger firms differ from each other. Therefore, PMS in a small firm cannot be a simple miniature of PMS of a large firm. However, the strength of the KF chain was positively associated with the success of PMS in each size class. Small firms focused more on operational aspects in control whereas large firms pay considerable attention also to strategic aspects. Thus, in larger firms the chain of KFs was found stronger than in small firms. Small firms use more informal PMSs than larger firms.
Keywords: Performance Management Systems; company size effect; SME; chain model; key success factors; success of PMS; performance.
Motivational and success factors: through the lens of women entrepreneurship
by Sucheta Agarwal, Vivek Agrawal, Anand Mohan Agrawal
Abstract: With the development of society, women entrepreneurs turn out to be more prominent. Their significant contribution in economy makes them recognized at national and international level. The initiation, growth and success of women owned enterprises are determined by the push and pull factors of motivation. This study emphasized on the role of motivational factors in the entrepreneurial success of women in Indian context. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data through personal administration of the questionnaire among women entrepreneurs of different regions of Uttar Pradesh, the biggest state of India. The collected data was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the factors related to motivation and successes of the entrepreneurship was explored and according to that, five hypothesis were framed. The findings focussed on the constructive relationship between motivational and success factors with the help of regression coefficients. The invigorating of women enterprises is necessary for maintaining the gender justice and equality around the world.
Keywords: exploratory factor analysis; India; motivation; multiple regression approach; success; women entrepreneurs.
Special Issue on: Governance, Social Responsibility and Business Ethics
Market efficiency: an information entropy perspective
by Imen Mahmoud, Kamel Naoui
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the market efficiency from an information entropy perspective. Specifically, we compare some emerging and developed markets to pinpoint efficiency of these markets in time. We also used the symbolic time series analysis to detect dynamics of the processes under investigation over the period 2003-2013. The results indicate that these markets show a dynamic market efficiency unlike what static tests seem to suggest. Moreover, emerging and developed markets are less efficient. This lower efficiency comes in parallel with crisis periods (financial or political). When the market is efficient, market returns move following a random position and information entropy reaches its maximum. However, when an event is particular, entropy decreases and the market is considered inefficient. When the market is inefficient, prices do not instantly reflect new information, which replicates an information comprehension process, through a learning process that is considered time-consuming.
Keywords: crisis; information approach; knowledge; learning; market efficiency; Shannon entropy.
The impact of banking strategies on the net interest margin of Tunisian banks
by Monia Ben Ltaifa
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the impact of banking strategies on the performance of banks. To do so, we use a sample composed of 11 Tunisian banks during the period of study from 2000 to 2015. We employ a regression by Ordinary Least Square. The empirical findings show that a portion of bank strategies on specific characteristics of banks have an impact on deposits/liabilities ratio. Also, we find that bank strategies on specific characteristics of banks and on financial development environment have an impact on the net interest margin of banks Tunisian during the period of study.
Keywords: bank performance; banking strategies; net interest margin; panel data.
Credit risk stress testing: theory and practice of the Spanish evidence
by Ahlem-Selma Messai, Mohamed Imen Gallali
Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology to estimate banking system credit portfolio's losses. For this purpose, we used quarterly data for the period from 2000 to 2011 in order to estimate unexpected losses in the credit portfolio for four Spanish sectors under extremely bad conditions. Our results show that macroeconomic shocks (extreme inflation, gross domestic product and unemployment rates) affect negatively the Spanish banking system. The unusual thing about this study is that it was conducted with different sectors (industry, construction, agriculture and services). We find that construction was the most damaged sector. Our study will discuss the reasons for adopting stress tests and will provide solutions to prevent crises and to absorb losses especially in Spain.
Keywords: credit risk stress testing; loss distribution; non-performing loans; Spanish sectors.
Corporate governance and corporate social responsibility
by Fathi Jouini, Aymen Ajina, Abdelkader Derbali
Abstract: This paper seeks to explore the relationship between corporate governance and corporate social responsibility for a sample of 65 French companies listed on the SBF 120 index for the period 2010-2014. The result of our estimate shows that the performance of corporate social responsibility is positively influenced by the size of the board, the presence of institutional investors, and negatively by the proportion held by the majority shareholder. These results suggest that firms may improve social performance by adopting best practices of corporate governance that mitigate unethical behaviour.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; institutional investor; board size; stakeholders.
Development of SMEs in an emerging economy: does corporate social responsibility matter?
by Masoumeh Doshmanli, Yashar Salamzadeh, Aidin Salamzadeh
Abstract: Despite its importance in development of firms, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is rarely studied in the literature of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the correlation between CSR and development of SMEs to find a way to develop SMEs in a more responsible manner. This study followed a survey research design, and the statistical population of the study included 720 owners/managers of SMEs. The results indicated that there was a significantly positive correlation between all four dimensions of economic, legal, ethical and discretionary social responsibility and development of SMEs. Moreover, facilitating legislation and giving more authority to SME owners/managers for developing their enterprises are highly advised.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; enterprise development; small and medium sized enterprises; SME; Iran.