International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development (11 papers in press)
Early Stages of Service Business Review and Synthesis
by Matti Muhos, Martti Saarela, Anna-Mari Simunaniemi, Del Foit Jr., Lada Rasochova
Abstract: Many stage models have been introduced to clarify management priorities during the early stages of business growth. However, many of these models are conceptual and universal, providing only limited benefits to specific industries and business contexts. The early stages of technology-based ventures have attracted interest, while little attention has been paid to the early stages of service-based firms. This study examines the early stages of growth in service-based firms. The following research questions are posed: What are the basic characteristics of recent empirical studies on the early stages of service-based firms? What are the themes and sequential patterns in the early stages of service-based firms as revealed in the recent empirical literature? This study provides a meta-analytical review designed to answer the research questions. A group of recent empirical stage models of the early stages of service-based business was selected for meta-analysis and synthesis. The meta-analysis integrates the findings of these models and introduces a self-evaluation framework for the early stages of service-based companies.
Keywords: enterprise development; growth management; stages of growth; growth process; service-based firm; business development; meta-analysis; review.
Heuristics of the Internationalisation of SMEs: A Grounded Theory Method
by Hossein Khorrami, Mohammad Zarei, Behrouz Zarei
Abstract: Heuristics can be a useful and applicable tool, utilised in simplified strategies for solving ill-structured and highly uncertain problems, such as internationalisation of Small-and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). International Entrepreneurship (IE) researches suggest that, paying more attention to discovering the valuable individual initiatives used in internationalisation of SMEs. This paper investigates the Iranian internationalised SMEs to provide a set of heuristic principles and guidelines for running a successful internationalisation process. Analyses of the interview data suggest that, heuristics is an instructional tool of internationalisation, which facilitates and subsequently accelerates the process of SMEs internationalisation. The model of internationalisation based on heuristics is extracted from the systematic grounded theory (GT). Originally, GT was applied for increasing the chance of discovering the unanticipated happenings as an inductive theory-discovering methodology. From the research, it can be concluded that by applying the heuristics-based model of internationalisation, SMEs can make significant contributions in IE such as position stability in foreign markets, problem-solving tools in internationalisation process, sales growth, profitability, as well as added value generation.
Keywords: Internationalisation; Heuristic principle; Grounded theory; International entrepreneurship; Small-and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
Analysing innovation-driven enterprises stakeholders in two spatial ICT ecosystems
by Jukka Majava, Tuomo Kinnunen, Del Foit, Pekka Kess
Abstract: Innovation-driven enterprises (IDEs) engage with various stakeholders during new product development and commercialisation. Spatial ecosystems in which these enterprises operate provide them with the local business environment for new innovation development. Our study analyses IDEs stakeholders in two spatial information and communication technology (ICT) business ecosystems: one in San Diego, California, USA and the other in Oulu, Finland. The study analyses the stakeholders presence and their roles to support innovation. The critical stakeholders for supporting innovation-driven enterprises, such as providers of different forms of capital and research institutes, are identified. Our findings suggest that IDEs should exploit the spatial ecosystems by interacting with various stakeholders and by gaining access to local resources to create new innovations. The results of the study are beneficial both for managers of new innovation-driven ventures and decision-makers designing and implementing innovation policies.
Keywords: innovation; business ecosystem; stakeholder; innovation-driven enterprise (IDE); spatial context; information and communication technology (ICT)
Raising Entrepreneurs: Can Parenting Style Amplify Entrepreneurial Intentions and Behavior?
by David Jiang, Scott Hayward, M. Lane Morris
Abstract: Over a decade ago, Aldrich and Cliff (2003) argued that researchers have unnaturally separated the social institutions of family and business, calling for more exploration of the pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship. Recent research has started to explore these effects within a family business context but scholars still do not know much about how other family environments influence entrepreneurship. Using a family systems theoretical perspective, this conceptual paper addresses how developmental aspects of parenting and family environments, both inside and outside a family business context, contribute to the expression of entrepreneurial intentions and behaviors in adulthood. The most theoretically novel aspects of this paper focus on how family business contexts amplify links between entrepreneurial intentions and behaviors.
Keywords: entrepreneurial intention; parenting style; family business; family systems; entrepreneurship; authoritative; authoritarian; attachment style.
Network visualizations of knowledge assets: their value and user experiences for innovation development
by Martha Russell, Kaisa Still, Jukka Huhtamäki
Abstract: This paper explores the value of network visualizations for presenting complex knowledge assets to executive decision makers in order to develop culturally-relevant insights for program development. The value is first addressed with an analysis of network visualization process called Ostinato, an operational context in relation to cognitive fit as a theoretical context. Then value is explored with an analysis using taxonomy of interactive dynamics for visual analytics. Further evaluating the usability of visualization is conducted in the context of the Parisian ecosystem, with board members using network visualizations to explore complex multi-layered knowledge about relationships among key executives, companies, and financing organizations. All findings support the argument that value of knowledge assets in problem-solving performance depends on both format of the data and nature of the task. Furthermore, the findings support the importance of continual involvement and interaction between data analysts and decision makers; they highlight the importance of considering knowledge assets as value drivers that can support knowledge-based innovation.
Keywords: network visualization; user experience; visual analysis tool; visual analytics; innovation development; ecosystem.
Manufacturing strategies in different environments: Does equifinality or a dominant strategy exist?
by SHAOHAN CAI
Abstract: This study addresses two essential issues related to equifinality: (1) whether firms can choose different but equally effective manufacturing strategies for different environments (equifinality) and (2) whether there is one strategy adopted by more firms than others (dominant strategy) in each individual environment. With data collected from 434 Chinese manufacturing companies, this study identifies a four-cluster taxonomy of business environments (harsh, labor munificent, stable, and low-cost) and a four-cluster taxonomy of manufacturing strategies (mass servers, marketeers, manufacturing emphasizers, and low emphasizers). The analyses show that dynamism and munificence exert joint effects on equifinality and the existence of a dominant strategy.
Keywords: Manufacturing strategy; Taxonomy; Equifinality; China.
Special Issue on: Behavioural Issues in Family Enterprises
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT AND SOCIAL EXCHANGE IN FAMILY FIRMS
by Timothy Madden, Laura Madden, Jason Strickling, Kimberly Eddleston
Abstract: This study tests a social exchange theory model that links firm family members transactional and relational psychological contract obligations to firm performance. Evidence supports the hypotheses that organizational obligations are antecedents of individual contributions to firm performance in the psychological contract model. When family firms meet the employees perceived obligations to their employees, the employees meet their perceived obligations to their employers. Participative decision making and succession planning are of particular importance to maintain transgenerational control and evidence is found to support succession planning as fully mediating the relationship between participative decision making and firm performance.
Keywords: social exchange theory; psychological contract; family firms; participative decision making; succession.
Success Factors of Polish Family Businesses
by Krystyna Kołodko, Elżbieta Weiss, Agnieszka Bitkowska, Sabina Knauf, Krystyna Leszczewska
Abstract: This article presents the results of a study carried out among family businesses operating in Poland. It is intended to supplement previously generated knowledge in the area of the operation of family businesses in the specific socio-economic and legal conditions in Poland. The objective was to collate the opinions of entrepreneurs regarding the need for visibility of the family and the family business status in business relations and the marketing activities of enterprises. The data was collected using in-depth interviews with the Polish family business owners. This paper outlines the conclusions of the study with respect to success factors such as: the trust among the family members, flexibility and adaptability to changing market conditions or the ability to act flexibly and quickly, adapt to changes in the environment and success-hindering factors for Polish family firms such as: the financial challenges borne by employers like taxes and social security costs or the instability of the law.
Keywords: Polish family firms; success factors; success-hindering factors.
FAMILY BUSINESS GOALS, CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: DISENTANGLING THE CONNECTIONS
by Claudia Astrachan Binz, Keith E. Ferguson, Torsten M. Pieper, Joseph H. Astrachan
Abstract: Prior research has suggested that family businesses may have a higher proclivity to behave as good corporate citizens, as compared with non-family firms, which may impact financial performance. However, while this idea is intuitively appealing, the actual antecedents of corporate citizenship behavior in the family firm context have not yet been assessed systematically. In addition, empirical evidence regarding the impact of citizenship behavior on firm performance remains inconclusive. Drawing from literature on family business goals and corporate citizenship, our conceptual framework proposes that family-centered and business-centered goals act as determinants of family firm citizenship; but each with a different impact. Furthermore, we argue that family firm reputation partially mediates the relationship between family firm citizenship behavior and family firm performance. We discuss implications for family business research and practice and offer suggestions for future studies.
Keywords: Family Business; Goals; Corporate Citizenship Behavior; Reputation; Firm Performance.
TIME TO RECALIBRATE? EXPLORING ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION OF FAMILY BUSINESSES BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER AN ENVIRONMENTAL JOLT
by G. Tyge Payne, Curt Moore, Jennifer Sexton
Abstract: Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has become a construct of considerable interest in the family business literature. Despite such attention, scholars have yet to examine if and how EO in family businesses changes over time. This study explores this gap by investigating both continuous and discontinuous change in EO in a sample of S&P 500 family businesses between 2001 and 2012. We find that EO changes before, during, and after an environmental jolt, which is defined as a major unforeseen and discontinuous environmental change. More specifically, we find that EO gradually increases at a linear rate prior to the occurrence of a jolt, discontinuously decreases during the initial stage of the jolt, then resumes a gradual linear growth trend following this period. We further explore the relationship between time and EO by examining change in EO across different industries, finding significant changes between family firms in different industries.
Keywords: Family Business; Entrepreneurial Orientation; Temporality; Time; Crisis; Discontinuous Change.
Internationalization of Publicly Traded Family Firms: A Transaction Cost Theory Perspective and Longitudinal Analysis
by Esra Memili, Kaustav Misra, James Chrisman, Dianne Welsh
Abstract: There has been a prominent stream of research investigating internationalization of organizations. While the importance of transaction costs in the governance decisions of firms has been well established in the literature, transaction cost theory (TCT) in family firms remains under utilized. We examine the impact of family governance (i.e., family ownership and familys involvement in management and board) on internationalization within the domain of TCT on 386 of S&P 500 firms. Our findings indicate an inverted U-shaped relationship between family ownership and internationalization and a u-shaped relationship between familys involvement in management and board and internationalization. This illustrates the interesting differential impact of family involvement components on internationalization. We conclude by discussing future research and implications for practice.
Keywords: Transaction Cost Theory; Internationalization; Family Firms; Family Ownership; Family Management