International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development (6 papers in press)
- Business model research using an evolutionary theory perspective
by David Brannon, Verona Edmond
Abstract: We show how evolutionary theory may be used as an overarching tool to develop a better understanding of the business model concept. The business model concept continues to draw interest. Academics have approached the business model concept as a means to explain value creation and implementation of innovative business ideas. Progress on the concept has been slowed due to disparate views and definitions. This paper illustrates that evolutionary theory provides a comprehensive, well-established theoretical basis to examine the business model concept - especially in terms of innovation and entrepreneurship. This includes theoretically guided origins of innovation based on firm characteristics. Research on the business model concept has been conceptual or case studies. Configuration analysis (based in evolutionary theory) is proposed as a means to empirically examine this complex concept. Evolutionary theory has the potential to bridge the different views of the business model as a holistic concept for implementing innovation.
Keywords: Business Models; Innovation; Entrepreneurship; Evolutionary Theory; Organizational Routines; Configuration Theory
- Success Factors for Active Internationalization of Small and Medium-Sized Software Enterprises: Case Analyses from France and Brazil
by Maurício Floriano Galimberti, Raul Sidnei Wazlawick
Abstract: In many countries there is a small but growing tendency towards the internationalization of small and medium-sized software enterprises (SMEs). This paper searches for insights about the internationalization process of SMEs with highly innovative products. It compares the internationalization process in France, as a mainstream country in terms of technology, and Brazil, as a non-mainstream one. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: what are the factors that enable SMEs to offer high value-added products to the foreign market, and what are the differences and similarities between internationalization processes from both countries. Based on a multiple case study, this research shows that although innovation, entrepreneurship, and foreign market knowledge are important dimensions for the active internationalization, networking is not as relevant as it was thought to be. Moreover, the study shows that internationalization consists of two different processes.
Keywords: active internationalization; software innovation; software SMEs
- Financial failure of a startup: A simulation approach
by Erkki K. Laitinen
Abstract: The objective is to develop a simulation model of a startup to assess the ceteris paribus effects of (sixteen) different parameters on the likelihood of financial failure. The deterministic growth path is described by a second-order Pascal distribution. Uncertainty is incorporated assuming a random variable proportional to sales. Three criteria for financial failure are developed to assess the likelihood of different failure types (profitability, solidity, and liquidity failures). Finnish data from 9066 non-failed and 118 failed startups are used to approximate the value range of the parameters in non-failed and different types of failed startups. For each parameter, effects are analyzed for 25 different values based on 1000 simulation rounds each. The findings strongly emphasize the central role of internal rate of return in the likelihood of each type of failure. They also emphasize importance of early generation of sales for the likelihood of profitability failure and the strong effect of fixed expenses, size of initial investment, and initial equity capital on failure likelihood.
Keywords: Startup; financial failure; bankruptcy; liquidity crisis; profitability; failure probability; simulation.
Special Issue on: "Intangible Asset Management in Inter-Organisational Innovation Processes,"
- Inter-Organisational Innovation Processes in the European Food & Drink Industry
by Ana Isabel Almeida Costa, Marco Greco, Michele Grimaldi, Livio Cricelli, Vincenzo Corvello
Abstract: Although the Food and Drink (F&D) industry is Europes largest manufacturing sector, few studies have explored its innovation activities so far. Starting from the widespread assumption that F&D manufacturers are supplier dominated
Keywords: food & drink; food & beverages; R&D intensity; capital goods investment; open innovation; community innovation survey; CIS; internal R&D; external R&D; supplier dominated; innovation activities
- EXPLORING INNOVATION CONTEXTS: SYSTEM, NETWORK AND ECOSYSTEM INNOVATION
by Anna D'Auria, Marco Tregua, Tiziana Russo-Spena, Francesco Bifulco
Abstract: This paper aims to depict conceptualizations of many-to-many innovation, in order to understand which are the most relevant features theorized. The growing interest in the topic led to the definition of different innovation labels to those analysed in the present research, namely innovation system, innovation network and innovation ecosystem.rnIn order to pinpoint common and different elements in the three literature contexts, we performed a bibliometric analysis to observe the wide range of literature on the themes. In detail, we investigated the keywords provided by authors through a double-step co-word focusing the analysis on the last five years contributions.rnThe analysis led us to observe the relevance of management and technological features as tools to get the best from open contexts, especially as concerns knowledge; while the role of strategy appeared less significant, especially when moving from system to network to ecosystem literature.
Keywords: innovation, innovation system, innovation network, innovation ecosystem, system, network, ecosystem, bibliometric analysis, co-words analysis
- Investigating the relationship between open business models and intangible assets
by Emilia Lamberti, Mauro Caputo, Antonello Cammarano, Francesca Michelino
Abstract: The purposes of this paper are to (1) define the open business models of companies and (2) relate them to the intangibles portfolio composition in terms of R&D, goodwill and other intangibles. A sample of 234 worldwide top R&D spending firms is examined, drawing on secondary data from audited consolidated annual reports for the period 2010-2012.
The work provides a contribution to both innovation management theory and practice. On one side, it investigates inbound and outbound aspects of open innovation after a pecuniary perspective. Five models are defined - collaboration, outsourcing, licensing, trading, and incorporation - which, if combined, denote the openness of companies innovation strategy. On the other side, the devised framework constitutes a starting point to develop guidelines for managers to leverage the intangible assets of their organisations in order to innovate and generate value in an open innovation context.
Keywords: Intangible assets; Intangibles portfolio; Open business models; Open innovation; Inbound open innovation; Outbound open innovation; Innovation strategy; Bio-pharmaceutical; Technology hardware & equipment.