International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation (15 papers in press)
Effect of maize cob ash as supplementary cementitious material on the mechanical properties of concrete
by Orlando Bagcal, Melito Baccay
Abstract: In this study, the effect of maize cob ash (MCA) as a supplementary cementitious material on the mechanical properties of concrete was evaluated. Maize cob ash as a pozzolanic material was partially used to replace cement ranging from 0% to 20% by weight in increment of 5% with varying water-cementitious ratios of 0.44 and 0.56. The results of this study indicated that the strength of concrete decreased as the amount of maize cob ash in the concrete mix increased. Generally, it can be concluded that maize cob ash can be utilized as partial replacement for cement in concrete at a suitable amount and can be used for building walls and other minor construction works. It was also established in the study that the optimum amount of 6.43% maize cob ash cement replacement could be used for structural members with compressive strength of 25 MPa.
Keywords: Cement; cementitious materials; compressive strength; maize cob ash; mechanical properties; tensile strength.
Effect of Deep Cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties of AISI D3 Tool steel
by Satish Kumar, Mohan Nagaraj, Arunkumar Bongale, Nitin Khedkar
Abstract: The research paper presents a study on deep cryogenic treatment and its effects on mechanical properties of AISI D3 grade high carbon steels. Commercially available AISI D3 steel was subjected to deep cryogenic treatment for soaking durations of 12 hours, 24 hours and 36 hours using a cryogenic refrigerator at -196 0C and then followed by tempering for 2 hours at a constant temperature of 150 0C. Thus prepared samples were tested as per ASTM standards to evaluate their mechanical properties such as microhardness, impact and tensile properties. Further, to understand the effect of deep cryogenic treatment, the fractured surfaces were subjected to scanning electron microscopic examinations. X-Ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis were also conducted to investigate the changes in structure of the material after deep cryogenic treatment. Results indicate that 12 hours soaking time during cryogenic treatment will give optimum mechanical properties compared to 24 and 36 hours. Also, reduction in mechanical properties by 4-6% were observed for 24 and 36 hours cryogenic treated samples compared to 12 hours treated samples.
Keywords: Deep cryogenic treatment; D3 Tool Steel; Microhardness; Tensile Test; Impact Strength Fracture Surface.
Modelling and Simulation of Natural Fibre/Epoxy Composites - Prediction of Stress State and Deformations
by R.T. Durai Prabhakaran, Mohit Gupta, Puneet Mahajan, Graham A. Ormondroyd
Abstract: Natural fibres usually include hemp, jute, and flax fibres are gaining importance in composites with an increasing potential to replace synthetic fibres in advanced composites. Current glass and carbon fibre systems require large amount of energy in production, which has led to an upsurge in interest in the reinforcement potential of natural fibres. To improve composite performance, designers try different possibilities i.e. vary material thickness (lamina), fibre volume fraction, fibre weight ratio, fibre orientation, and fibre layups. Especially with natural fibres, higher variability of mechanical properties is a major challenge due to fibre parameters such as lignin content, pectin content and degree of polymerisation. Therefore, prediction of laminate performance at early stages of design requires computation. The present work is intended to understand how the flax fibre layups and orientation affect the mechanical behaviour of layered laminated composites. Unidirectional 4S, cross-ply [0/90]2S, angle-ply [+45/-45]2S, and quasi-isotropic [0/90/45/-45]S laminates made up of flax fibre reinforced epoxy composites are considered to study tensile, flexural behaviour, and stress distribution in the individual laminae. A classical laminate plate theory (CLPT), which considers the elastic behaviour of the laminae, and a numerical simulation method based on finite element modelling (FEM) are used to predict the stressstrain response of a layered composite. Further, the analytical results and the numerical predictions show that the quasi-isotropic flax/epoxy laminate perform better than angle-ply and cross ply laminates.
Keywords: Natural fibre; Epoxy; Flexural Loads; Cross/Angle-ply; Plate Theory; FE analysis.
Effect of Hot Extrusion on Mechanical Behavior of Boron Nitride Reinforced Aluminum 6061 Based Metal Matrix Composites
by MUKESH Y B, Bharatesh T P, Saravanan R, Keshavamurthy R
Abstract: In this present investigation Al6061 based BN reinforced metal matrix composites were developed with 6 and 9 wt% of Boron Nitride. The Al6061 was chosen as base material owing to its superior formability, light weight and moderate strength. Boron nitride was used as reinforcement keeping in mind its excellent wear and corrosion resistance along with superior strength and thermal properties. The stir casting method was adopted for development of composites since it is most flexible and universally accepted method for preparing castings economically. The developed composites were subjected to extrusion process. Mechanical properties were tested both before and after the extrusion to study the impact of extrusion process on properties of composites. It was observed that hardness and tensile strength of both casted and extruded samples were improved by the addition of the BN reinforcement. Whereas ductility of samples reduced with the increase of boron nitride concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to identify the distribution of boron nitride (BN) and to study the fractured surfaces of Al6061-BN metal matrix composites.
Keywords: Al6061; Boron Nitride; composites; Extrusion.
3D Printed Functional Prototypes for Electro Chemical Energy Storage
by Kamaljit Singh Boparai, Rupinder Singh
Abstract: This study outlines the three dimensional (3D) printing of functional prototypes as electro chemical energy storage devices (EESD). The EESD has been prepared with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)- Graphene (Gr) blended feedstock filament on commercial fused deposition modelling (FDM) setup. The rheological suitability of ABS-Graphene composite material for FDM applications has been examined by melt flow index (MFI) test. Finally the feedstock filament for FDM has been prepared on twin screw extrusion. The in-house prepared feedstock filament can be used for the 3D printing of EESD. The effect on glass transition temperature with the inclusion of Gr particles has been examined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis. Moreover, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra visualized the structural changes in Gr/ ABS matrix. Further, the study has been supported with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) based photomicrographs.
Keywords: Fused deposition modeling; electro-chemical energy storage devices; FTIR spectra; Differential scanning calorimeter.
Optimization of Gaseous Nitriding Process Parameters for Hard Surface Layer of Duplex Stainless Steel
by Md Abdul Maleque, Lailatul Harina, Norinsan Kamil Othman, M.M. Rahman
Abstract: The optimization for gaseous nitriding process parameters of duplex stainless steel was performed using Taguchi approach. The nitiridng process parameters of temperature, time and gas mixture ratio of NH3 and N2 are considered as input parameters. Three responses are chosen which are surface hardness, wear weight loss and coefficient of friction. The optimum process parameters for surface hardness and coefficient of friction are similar with 550
Keywords: Optimization; duplex stainless steel; Taguchi method; hard surface layer; nitriding.
Experimental investigation on the effect of multilayer TiCN/TiAlN/WC-C coating on the tribological behaviour of tool inserts for machining applications
by Moganapriya Chinnasamy, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Ponappa Kannayiram, Sathish Kumar Palaniappan, Samir Kumar Pal, Mahalakshmi Somasundaram, Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan
Abstract: Coating on cutting tool insert is one of the important approaches in improving the friction and wear resistance properties for machining applications. The study investigates the effect of sliding speed and applied normal load on the wear and frictional behavior of pure and coated (single layer Titanium Carbo Nitride (TiCN), bilayer Titanium Aluminium Nitride/Tungsten Carbide/Carbide (TiAlN/WC-C), multilayer (TiCN/TiAlN/WC-C)) tool inserts. Dry sliding wear and friction tests were performed using pin-on-disc tribometer. All the deposited coatings were subjected to three different sliding speeds (1.0 m/s, 1.5 m/s and 2.5 m/s) and three different loads (5 N, 10 N and 15 N) against silicon carbide sliding counterpart for the running time duration of 1200 s. Hardness and surface roughness of the inserts were investigated through Vickers micro hardness tester and surface roughness tester respectively. Higher hardness (25.83 GPa) and lower surface roughness (0.219
Keywords: Multilayer coating; PVD; Friction; Wear.
An Experimental Study of Tribological Behaviors of Aluminium- and Copper-Based Metal Matrix Composites for Bearing Applications
by Vipin Kumar Sharma, Ramesh Chandra Singh, Rajiv Chaudhary
Abstract: To improve the tribological properties for journal bearing materials, composites have been developed in this work. Copper-Aluminium (Cu-Al), Copper-Phosphorous (Cu-P), Aluminium-Flyash (Al-F), and Copper- Lead (Cu-Pb) composites were produced with stir casting method. Pin on disc experiments were performed in a starved lubrication condition for the evaluation of wear and coefficient of friction between the composite pins and mild steel disc. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were obtained for the worn composite samples to study the wear behavior. In this experimental study, Copper-Phosphorous exhibits better tribological properties as compared to the conventional Copper-Lead. However, The Aluminium-Flyash composite resulted in the lowest coefficient of friction and highest wear among all considered composite materials.
Keywords: metal matrix composites; starved lubrication; aluminium; copper; wear; friction; pin on disc.
Application of Interpretive Structural Modelling for analysis of factors influencing Composite fabrication using Additive Manufacturing
by Shwetha S Kumar, S. Vinodh
Abstract: Additive Manufacturing (AM) applications are being increasingly witnessed in composite fabrication. This study is essential to determine the factors which influence AM processes so that they can be optimized. In this context, this article presents a study in which 19 factors influencing AM for composite fabrication is realized. A structural model is developed based on Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach and the dominant factors are being identified. MICMAC analysis is being done to categorize the factors. Results showed that 5 out of the 19 factors are dependent factors while 10 are independent factors.
Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Composite fabrication; Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM); MICMAC analysis; Factors.
Wear and Corrosion behavior of titanium carbide reinforced metal matrix composites for automobile brake disc application
by Sivananth Varatharajan, Karuppusamy P, Lingadurai K
Abstract: The wear and corrosion behaviour of Aluminum Silicon (Al-Si ) alloy with titanium carbide(TiC) as reinforcement were investigated in this article. Initially automobile brake discs were fabricated by stir casting method with 10 wt.% TiC in Al-Si alloy. A small part cut from the automobile brake shoe used as a pin to slide against MMC and Cast iron in dry condition. The load and velocity varied accordingly to simulate the vehicle running condition. It was found from the results that the wear resistance and coefficient of friction for TiC reinforced MMC is better than the grey cast iron material. SEM analysis shows that wear debris form a built-up transfer layers at higher loads in MMC. An artificial neural network (ANN) model using back propagation network was developed in this study to predict the wear. The observed results showed that the experimental values of wear agrees very closely with ANN results. Frictional heating parameter is also calculated to determine how effectively the load and sliding speed converted into heat during the wear test. The corrosion tests were carried out in 3.5 wt.% NaCl environment to study the effect of TiC addition (3, 7 and 10 wt.% ) on Al-Si matrix. Potentiodynamic polarisation measurements exhibits that the corrosion resistance decreased with increasing TiC weight percentage. SEM analysis showed more nos. of corrosion spots in samples with 10 wt. % of TiC revealed that the presence of reinforcement in matrix affect the corrosion rate
Keywords: wear; corrosion; TiC; brake disc.
Special Issue on: Advances in Materials Forming
Optimisation and modelling of thinning and geometric accuracy in incremental sheet forming combined with stretch forming
by Rahul Jagtap, Shailendra Kumar
Abstract: In the present experimental study incremental sheet forming is combined with stretch forming in order to obtain uniform thickness distribution, minimise thinning and to improve geometric accuracy of formed part. Preforming or stretch forming is initially done in order to obtain initial thickness distribution. Incremental sheet forming is then employed to obtain final part shape and thickness distribution. Forming time is also minimised considerably because of initial stretch forming process. The experiments are designed using central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology. From the results, it is observed that preforming and preform tool shape have significant influence on sheet thinning. Also the combination of ISF and stretch forming processes yields in reduced thinning and uniform thickness distribution. Multi-performance optimisation using desirability function is also performed to improve thinning and geometric accuracy. Further mathematical models are developed which are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Keywords: incremental sheet forming; stretch forming; preforming; thickness distribution; thinning; accuracy.
Prediction of life of piercing punches using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems
by Sachin Salunkhe, D. Rajamani, Esakki Balasubramanian, U. Chandrasekhar
Abstract: Predicting the life of piercing punch is one of the major concerns in the design of compound dies. Finite element analysis is performed to determine the maximum and minimum principal stresses through which fatigue limit of punch is estimated. The factors affecting the life of punch are examined and a mathematical model is established using artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS). The developed model is utilised to evaluate the life of punch for varied load conditions. Comparative evaluation of ANN and ANFIS results suggested that the later model is superior in predicting the life of punch and it can be effectively utilised in machine tool applications.
Keywords: piercing punch; compound die; finite element analysis; artificial neural network; ANN; adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems; ANFIS.
Deformation behaviour of A356, Al-11Si-2.5Cu-0.6Fe, and Al-18Si-2.5Cu-0.6Fe alloys forged under different processing conditions
by Khemraj, A.K. Jha, S.N. Ojha
Abstract: The present paper aims to investigate the feasibility of bulk processing of Al-Si alloys under different processing temperatures. Three different compositions of Al-Si alloys (namely A356, Al-11Si-2.5Cu-0.6Fe, and Al-18Si-2.5Cu-0.6Fe) have been forged between flat die platen at 300 and 500°C processing temperatures. High-speed forging was performed with the help of power hammer. The results obtained are discussed critically to illustrate the interaction of various processing parameters associated with the processing of the alloys. The results reveal severe crack generation on the outer periphery of forged billets, while it reduced with low amount of silicon in the alloy. During processing, microstructural refinement and improvement in the mechanical properties were observed. The present work provides valuable insight into producing complex formed products of Al-Si alloys for extensive industrial applications.
Keywords: A356 alloy; Al-11Si-2.5Cu-0.6Fe alloy; Al-18Si-2.5Cu-0.6Fe alloy; deformation behaviour; forging; processing temperature.
Experimental investigation of geometric accuracy in single point incremental forming process of an aluminium alloy
by Narinder Kumar, R.M. Belokar
Abstract: Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is an emerging sheet metal forming process which is used to build a prototype of sheet metal parts with complex geometries. Geometrical inaccuracies of the formed parts are the significant obstruction in the commercialisation of this process. In this paper, Taguchi method and analysis of variance have been used to comprehensively study the effect of four process parameters such as step depth, tool diameter, spindle speed and feed rate on the geometrical error in the form of average radial error of the formed part. Parametric analysis and formulation of an empirical model for predicting the amount of geometric error in this process have been discussed. From the Taguchi method and analysis of variance, the optimal results are identified adequately and proficiently to produce a minimum geometric error.
Keywords: incremental forming; geometric accuracy; Taguchi method; optimisation.
Experimental study of single point incremental forming with dummy sheet
by Vikas Sisodia, Shailendra Kumar
Abstract: The present article focuses on single point incremental forming (SPIF) process with dummy sheet. Influence of process parameters namely dummy sheet thickness, tool size, step size, wall angle and feed rate on minimum thickness of formed parts is investigated. After experimentation and analysis, it is found that the wall angle, tool size, dummy sheet thickness and step size are significant parameters. Based on the analysis mathematical model is developed to predict minimum thickness of formed part. Further optimisation of process parameters is performed using desirability function in order to maximize the minimum thickness. In SPIF process with dummy sheet, it is observed that the variation in wall thickness is small and overall wall thickness distribution along the depth of formed parts is almost uniform. Also, wall thickness distribution obtained is close to the value predicted by sine law.
Keywords: single point incremental forming; SPIF; wall thickness; dummy sheet; tool size.