International Journal of Leisure and Tourism Marketing (5 papers in press)
A Study of Tourism Market for Chinese Citizens Traveling to USA
by Jinxia Zhang, Yanbin Tu
Abstract: Since China and USA signed the travel memorandum in 2007, the tourism market for Chinese citizens traveling to USA grew very rapidly. USA has become China's the fifth largest tourist destination country, and there is still a huge space for market expansion. This paper summarizes the basic characteristics of tourism market for Chinese citizens traveling to USA. It also analyzes the purposes for Chinese citizens for traveling to USA such as the attractiveness of American nature, the rising of Chinese personal income, and the change of American tourism visa policy to Chinese. It addresses potential concerns the market for Chinese citizen traveling to USA. We discuss the markets trends and consumers evolution in the future. Finally, we offer our recommendations on promoting the tourism market at both macro and micro levels.
Keywords: Tourism Market; Chinese Traveling to USA; Market Characteristics; Traveling Purposes; Tourism Market Trend.
THE INFLUENCE OF PERCEPTIONS OF OTHER CONSUMERS ON CONSUMER RESPONSES AND THE MEDIATION OF CROWDING TOLERANCE: A STUDY ON TOURISM, HOTELS, AND THE OLYMPICS
by Jussara Da Silva Teixeira Cucato, Flávio Santino Bizarrias, Jussara Goulart Da Silva, André Torres Urdan
Abstract: During service encounters, consumers perceive each other. This includes at sporting events where many human interactions occur. Large crowds of people tend to arouse negative emotions, even if the experience promotes positive emotions. This paper investigates the influence of consumers perceptions of each other and the mediating role of crowding tolerance in consumer responses. Research is lacking to demonstrate the effect of interactions between consumers and findings are even scarcer for tourism. This study addresses the global sports entertainment industry and the hotel environment for tourists. A survey targeting the Rio de Janeiro Olympics in 2016 was conducted with students and then we applied structural equation modeling. The results indicate that the perception that a consumer has of other consumers (in a hotel) has a strong relationship with word of mouth and satisfaction and that such a relationship is mediated by the negative perception generated by the agglomeration.
Keywords: Consumer behavior; Perception of other consumers; Crowding; Crowding tolerance; Word of mouth; Satisfaction.
IMPACT OF PLACE BRAND NAMES ON DESTINATION IMAGE
by Rosane Gertner, Joao Freire
Abstract: The tourism industry is a global and highly competitive industry, generating significant economic benefit for innumerable cities and countries. A positive image of a destination may increases its chances to attract more tourists. Consequently, the theory and practice of place branding has been drawn on to build strong destination images and position them in the minds of consumers. The naming of a product or service is integral to the development and implementation of branding strategies; place marketers, however, seldom have the opportunity to rename locations and thereby build brands from scratch. The present study is unique since it investigates the evaluation of two different place brand names for the same geographic area among two different groups of foreign visitors. Specifically, it examines similarities and differences in tourists images of a destination branded as either (1) Lisbon or (2) Lisbon Coast, the former a widely used place brand and the latter used by a few local travel agents. This investigation confirms the need to highlight different attributes to appeal to different target markets and also demonstrates that the Lisbon and Lisbon Coast brands are evaluated differently with regard to almost all of the attributes investigated.
Keywords: Place branding; place marketing; tourism; destination image.
Mouth advertising, an effective tool for Loyalty of sport Customers, Case study: Womens Health Clubs in Mashhad
by Bahareh Gholizadeh, Mahdi Talebpour, Hossein Abdolmaleki, Mohammad Kashtidar
Abstract: Influencing the ideas of others has considerable interest for supplier and service organizations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mouth advertising on loyalty with mediating variable of consumer purchasing behavior of women's health clubs in Mashhad. The study was a descriptive- correlation research. The research population included all customers of 91 female health clubs in Mashhad, obtained through random sampling with appropriate allocation. According to Cochran formula, a sample of 54 clubs and 340 female were selected as the final sample. To collect data, two standard questionnaires, i.e. Kims purchase behavior (2008) and Holbrook loyalty questionnaire (2001) were used. Content Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by 10 professors and experts in sports management. The reliability of the questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha was calculated to be 0.92. To analysis of data, structural equation modelling was used in inferential statistics. The results showed that mouth advertising (β = 0/48, p <0/05), the alternative choices (β = 0/14, p <0/05), and commercial purchase (β = 0/13, p <0/05) had a significant effect on loyalty, while the re-presence (β = 0/03, p = 0/67) had no significant effect on loyalty. According to the results of the research, managers and owners of clubs can be recommend toprovide services to clients showing their best performance so that existing customers attract new clients by mouth advertising in the city.
Keywords: consumer purchasing behaviour; loyalty; mouth advertising.
Explaining visit intention involving eWOM, perceived risk motivations and destination Image
by Manel Hamouda, Imen Yacoub
Abstract: This research aims to understand the effects of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), the perceived risks related to a foreign country, and the main motivations for the cognitive image, affective image and intention to visit a potential destination. 368 completed questionnaires were obtained through convenience sampling and completed by travelers or potential travelers looking for trip destinations information on some Tunisian Facebook groups related to travel and tourism. Findings indicate that the cognitive destination image is only influenced by perceived risk whereas the affective image of a destination is influenced by eWOM, knowledge motivations, relaxation motivations and entertainment motivations. Moreover, affective image is the component of destination image that has a significant and positive impact on the intention to visit. The outcomes of the study help to better develop a more effective and successful tourism marketing strategy.
Keywords: Destination image;Intention to visit;Motivations;eWOM; Perceived risk.