International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development (12 papers in press)
Areas of Innovation in cities: The evolution of 22@Barcelona
by Josep Miquel Pique, Francesc Miralles, Jasmina Berbegal-Mirabent
Abstract: Areas of Innovation (AOIs) are on the agenda of urban planners in the revitalization of inner cities. The knowledge-based economy provides the opportunity to base these revitalization efforts in creating AOIs as an evolution of the old industrial districts. Although many theoretical insights have been proposed to understand different perspectives of this process, this research stream lacks a comprehensive model that describes and maps the evolution steps entailed in this process.
Grounded in some of the most widely spread conceptual frameworks in this research fieldTriple Helix model, Knowledge Based Urban Development paradigm, Clusters of Innovation framework, co-evolutionary theory, Learning Region theory and lifecycle of a new ventureas a reference, this work contributes to the existing literature by proposing a comprehensive model for the evolution of AOIs. The proposed model integrates previous theoretical insights that have been applied for the revitalization of inner cities with an evolutionary perspective, providing a better understanding of how extant insights can fit into the different steps of the evolution of an Area of Innovation.
Based on a case research study approach, this work uses the 22@Barcelona case, an area of innovation that transformed an old industrial district into a knowledge-based one, to analyse its evolution and to elaborate a model.
The academic value of this work stems from shedding new light on a new perspective for theorizing the evolution of AOIs from inception to maturity. Urban planners can benefit from the outcomes of this work by getting additional clues in planning revitalization efforts in inner cities.
Keywords: Areas of Innovation; Science Parks; Triple Helix; Knowledge Based Urban Development; Clusters of Innovation; Innovation Districts; Knowledge Cities; Lifecycle; Co-evolution; 22@Barcelona.
Planning a Global Knowledge City: Experience from Melbourne, Australia
by Sajeda Tuli, Richard Hu, Lain Dare
Abstract: This study investigates planning policy shifts to shape a global knowledge city in the dual contemporary transformative processes of globalisation and the knowledge economy. It develops an integrative conceptual and policy analytical framework from cross-fertilising the global city and the knowledge city, and tests it by applying it to Melbourne as a case study. The empirical analysis involves a content analysis of strategic plans and elite interviews with key policy makers and informants. The findings are mixed. At both the State and the City levels, the strategic plans demonstrate a growing presence and importance of key themes that define Melbourne as an emerging global knowledge city. However, the absence of a national policy and problematic inter-governmental coordination in strategic directions, and a lack of focus on human capital without due considerations of home grown talent and international students, are limiting Melbourne from fully reaching its potential as a global knowledge city. Drawing on these findings, this study concludes with a discussion about the effectiveness of the constructed framework in conceptualising the global knowledge city and policy analysis; it also points out a few limitations of this exploratory study that require further research.
Keywords: planning policy shift; global city; knowledge city; strategic plan; Melbourne.
Application of the Triple Helix Model in the revitalization of Cities: the case of Brazil
by Josep Miquel Pique, Francesc Miralles, Clarissa Stefani Teixeira, Jadhi Vincki Gaspar, José Roberto Branco Ramos Filho
Abstract: A new trend in urban projects has risen around a common problem: old urban spaces are losing most of their productive capabilities and becoming obsolete. In most cases, these spaces are revitalized by transforming them in knowledge based development areas. The aim of this paper is to understand how these transformation projects are developed. After reviewing the theoretical framework of the Triple Helix Model and Knowledge Based Urban Development, we analyse several Brazilian cities that are in the process of urban revitalization, transforming old industrial districts into knowledge and creativity districts. Specifically, four cases are examined in detail in this multiple-case study: the Porto Digital initiative, which performs an important role in the City of Recifes renewal; the Porto Maravilha project, already regarded as the major Rio de Janeiro Olympics legacy for revitalizing the port; the 4o Distrito, which seeks to transform part of the old industrial region of Porto Alegre; and the Centro Sapiens, created to give the eastern sector of the historic center of Florian
Keywords: Brazilian cities; 22@Barcelona; urban revitalization; urban transformation; urban renewal; knowledge based economy; innovation districts; creativity districts; triple helix; knowledge based urban development.
Knowledge creation in knowledge-intensive small and medium sized enterprises
by Elsa Grimsdottir, Ingi Runar Edvardsson, Susanne Durst
Abstract: The paper presents insights into the knowledge creation process in three Icelandic knowledge-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Data were obtained through a case study methodology. The findings indicate that the three knowledge-intensive companies use complex, non-routine knowledge to deal with complex problems. Often, practical problems are a starting point for new ideas and knowledge development. Brainstorming, collaboration, teamwork, informal and formal gathering and other knowledge creation activities are used in the knowledge creating process. The companies showed many characteristics of SMEs with little formal structure and strategies. The subject of knowledge creation has received little attention in the literature. Thus, the study responds to this situation by giving insights into the knowledge creation processes in knowledge intensive SMEs.
Keywords: Knowledge creation; knowledge-intensive companies; knowledge management; small and medium sized enterprises.
Boosting the entrepreneurial scene in cities: experiences and reflections from the InFocus networka short communication
by Willem Van Winden
Abstract: This short communication contains a reflection on local entrepreneurial ecosystems and how to boost them, in the context of smart specialisation strategies of cities and regions. It is based on a literature study and inputs from 10 member cities of the InFocus project (sponsored by the EUs URBACT programme), that exchange and develop knowledge about the development of smart specialisation strategies on the urban level. In September 2017, the network held a meeting in Turin, dedicated to the topic of promoting an entrepreneurship ecosystems. The paper discusses several specific aspects of policies regarding entrepreneurship: the relation with smart specialisation approach, startup promotion policies, fostering a culture of entrepreneurship, and the different development stages in entrepreneurship: Starting, scaling, growing, with examples from cities in the InFocus network. Among other things, it concludes that a stronger alignment between the urban and regional policy levels is required to link the urban-focused startup ecosyetems to the regional industrial tissue.
Keywords: entrepreneurship ecosystems; startups; smart specialisation; cities; incubators; innovation systems.
Capturing Innovation in Surgeries: An Evaluation from a Management Perspective
by Gökçen Arkalı Olcay, Hacer Özgen Narcı, Metin Gürler, Melih Bulu
Abstract: Surgery is considered as an integral part of any health system, comprising 30% of global burden of disease alongwith serious access problems and catastrophic payments across the world. And more than 230 million major surgeries are done every year. Surgical innovations typically represent the greatest part of innovations in terms of their contributions to ensuring safer and high-quality care and thus saving lives in the field of healthcare management. Such innovations also contribute significantly to the knowledge society. Correctly identifying innovations in surgery and enabling them to be known and adapted by other surgeons is a critical concern for all stakeholders in healthcare. There exists no information on surgical innovations from a managerial perspective in Turkey. This study aims to explore how surgeons identify surgical innovations based on their real experiences of past surgeries using a semi-structured questionnaire distributed to surgeons in a major hospital chain in İstanbul, Turkey. The results shed light on recognizing and evaluating surgical innovations provided by the practicing surgeons via a management perspective.
Keywords: Surgery; Surgical innovation; Innovation process; Healthcare management.
Knowledge management in developing regions: The case of Valle de Aburr
by Walter Darío Castro-Ramírez
Abstract: This study aims to identify the components of a knowledge management model to support innovation governance in a Colombian cosmetics cluster. The inter-organisational management of knowledge applied to innovation governance, and the perspective of endogenous economic development emphasises the structural specificities of developing countries. In line with this objective, the Community-Based Participatory Research and Delphi methods were combined to collect information from the cluster's different stakeholders, among them dependent shareholders who expressed their views through spokespersons. In an initial stage, a knowledge management model was built. After a second stage with a planning exercise, it integrates organisational and contextualisation proposals, together with the specificities of each of the cluster's stakeholders.
Keywords: Knowledge management; knowledge management model; endogenous knowledge; developing regions; cosmetics; community-based participatory action research; territory; cosmetics cluster; governance; dependent stakeholders; minority groups; knowledge-based development;.
Knowledge-based environments in the city: Design and urban form in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area
by Tommi Inkinen
Abstract: Knowledge-based development is of interest to cities, as it promotes economic growth and boosts dynamic urban image. Creative environments are arguably highly dependent on sociality, and they are usually located near city centres. The focus of this study is on three knowledge-based locations in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in Finland. The research material composes of field observation data and photographs. Results indicate that knowledge-intensive environments include several elements of good city design, for example, pedestrian-friendly street networks and green areas, but they tended to lack vibrant urban life, that is, human activity. The findings support the claim that ICT-based companies are not very dependent on the sociality of environment. As cities are spaces for individuals working, studying and visiting, attention must be paid to the urban design of these areas.
Keywords: Knowledge-based urban development; Urban design; Planning; Qualitative research; Visual methods.
Perspective paper: Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management, Politics and Billionaires
by Eduardo Tome
Abstract: In this paper we analyse if Intellectual Capital can have an impact in political terms namely in what comes to influence the outcome of elections. More specifically we analyse how Intellectual Capital helps billionaires in becoming political actors that may have success in those elections. The question is relevant because it is globally perceived that the political landscape changed dramatically in the last decade and that change was marked by the ascension to power of the billionaires or of people that are closely related with those billionaires. It may also be argued that Intellectual Capital and billionaires also have been having massive influence in defining some of the questions around which elections are decided such as inequalities, marketing brands and new routines like social media. We base our analysis in usual and well-known concepts and theories about Intellectual Capital which has been widely used in relation with companies, organizations, and regions, and that in this paper we extend to apply to billionaires in the context of political power. We find that both conceptually and in practice Intellectual Capital seems to have a major impact in the political process and in the political results, particularly when it is the case of billionaires. Politics changed because Intellectual Capital
elements became the decisive in elections. Intellectual Capital generates billionaires and is also a major enabler of the political success of billionaires. However, and quite decisively, Intellectual Capital only becomes decisive if billionaires are good at political Knowledge Management. This means that a billionaire may have the Intellectual Capital and may not be elected if he does not do good Knowledge Management. Finally, this influence in elections is itself a mirror of the growing influence of Intellectual Capital in societies.
Keywords: Intellectual Capital; Knowledge Management; elections; billionaires; politicians.
The Digital, Quaternary, or 4.0 Web Economy: Aspects, Effects and Implications
by Philip Cooke, JinHyo Joseph Yun, XIAOFEI ZHAO, YoungDuk Kim
Abstract: The world economy is changing dynamically with the expansion of information technology (IT). The change is not only happening at the technology industry itself; other industries are also being disrupted with the appearance of smart factories, autonomous cars, smart e-commerce, and the like. This paper preliminarily analyzes the economic effects and concrete aspects of the quaternary economy, the knowledge-based part of the economy, which typically includes services such as information technology, information generation and sharing, media, research and development, as well as knowledge-based services. First, it analyzes the economic effect of the quaternary economy on the United States, United Kingdom, and Israel in addition to the technological base of the quaternary such as Internet of Everything and financialization effects. Second, it investigates the concrete aspects of the quaternary economy in five main areas including interactive or crossover innovation in artificial intelligence, appearance of cybersecurity from firewalls to cyber warfare, precision agriculture and smart farming, smart grid, electric vehicles and pilotless planes, and precision medicine. Third, the paper discusses the governance of the quaternary economy along with thin globalization and relevant regulatory issues of the digital culture of our time.
Keywords: Quaternary economy; the fourth sector; Web 4.0; knowledge economy; and information technology.
The Roles of Universities in Knowledge-Based Urban Development: A Critical Review
by Andrew Johnston
Abstract: Universities are increasingly recognised as key actors in the knowledge-based development process, occupying a crucial role of knowledge creators and transmitters. This paper takes a critical view of these roles and reviews the extant literature to present a synopsis of relevant work examining universities and open innovation, the uncertainties involved in the process of knowledge transfer, and the spatial scope of university-industry links. The paper proposes a number of areas for future development: understanding the heterogeneity of universities and how this influences their potential roles in knowledge-based development; a better understanding of how uncertainties in the partner selection process may prevent efficient university-industry collaboration to promote knowledge based development; further exploration of the micro-level processes involved in knowledge transfer between universities and firms; and a broader understanding of the roles of proximities in facilitating these links.
Keywords: university-industry links; knowledge-based development; innovation; collaboration.
Exploring the evolution of urban emotions in the city of Seoul using social media information
by Rachida Benabbou
Abstract: The city is a complex combination of various features that create our everyday living environment. It influences our perception of the urban surroundings and generates in us different feelings and emotions. Today, thanks to new technologies, social media provide multiple networking platforms where people can share their emotional experiences. These platforms generate a wide range of data and make available open information for all. However, their potential benefits are still not largely explored. This research focuses on visualizing the evolution of urban emotions in the city of Seoul, using emotion information from social media platforms. The main purpose of this study is to explore the evolution of Koreans feelings about their city for the last five years, through processing their urban emotions in geospatial and temporal dimensions. The insights brought by this research may help understand the interaction between humans and the urban landscape. Thus, help improve existing urban spaces and create emotionally enjoyable places that meet the citizens expectations.
Keywords: Evolution; urban emotions; social media; urban space; geo-mapping.