International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development (7 papers in press)
Can universities play an active role in fostering entrepreneurship in emerging ecosystems? A case study of the University of São Paulo
by Artur Tavares Vilas Boas Ribeiro, Eduardo De Senzi Zancul, Justin Hugo Axel-Berg, Guilherme Ary Plonski
Abstract: The present study aims to identify patterns and roles that can be played by research universities in emerging entrepreneurship ecosystems. Its methodology is based on a case study of the University of São Paulo, analysing three startups born inside the university and the characteristics of its development processes. As a conclusion, we identify strategies to deal with bottlenecks and enhancers of an emerging entrepreneurship ecosystem, as well as patterns on how a university can stimulate entrepreneurship in a context of regional constraints such as: 1) building interfaces between academic environments; 2) applying processes such as customer development using university capabilities; 3) empowering grassroots movements for entrepreneurship.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship ecosystems; entrepreneurial universities; startups; venture creation; university; third mission; technology development; new business; economic development.
Behind the emergence of clusters: spinoffs and social ties. The case of an Italian industrial district
by Christian Garavaglia
Abstract: The traditional economic literature explains the process of geographic agglomeration of firms with regard to the existence of external economies or agglomeration economies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate an alternative view, following some more recent influential studies about spinoffs and the emergence of clusters (Boschma, 2015). We discuss how the joint processes of spinoffs, knowledge inheritance and social ties may shape the emergence of firms in a cluster without referring to the existence of external economies. This paper presents the case of the industrial swimwear district in Oleggio, Italy, and provides evidence that the formation of spinoffs and social ties contributed to the emergence of the district.
Keywords: cluster; industrial district; spin-off; social ties; external economies.
An Alternative Approach towards the Knowledge Production Function on a Regional Level - Applications for the USA and Russia
by Jens K. Perret
Abstract: The present study picks up on the aspect of knowledge generation in the context of the USA and the Russian Federation. Following Fritsch and Slavtchev (2006) a knowledge production function is used to account for the efficiency of an innovation systems.
In detail this study provides a quantile regression estimation of the knowledge production function to account for a non-linear relationship between knowledge inputs and knowledge output that up to date has not been considered in studies focussing on the efficiency of innovation systems. Using regional data for researchers, expenditures on R&D and patent grants for the USA and the Russian Federation a quantile regression is performed for a basic knowledge production function design; for Russia as well for an extended design.
The results show that in both countries there exist groups of regions with smaller sized research systems that report significantly different dynamics and thus knowledge production functions than regions with larger sized research systems. While in the USA regions with small research systems report decreasing returns to knowledge inputs while region with large research systems report increasing returns to knowledge inputs. In the Russian Federation the effect is exactly the opposite. Thus, in the US efficiency is achieved in fostering larger regional innovation systems while in the Russian Federation it is the smaller regional innovation systems that are the most productive.
Keywords: Russian Federation; USA; Innovation System; Knowledge Production Function; Knowledge Generation; Quantile Regression; Regional Economics.
Do Social Conditions Matter For Emergence of Innovative Firms? The case of Kosovo
by Fadil Sahiti
Abstract: The theory of innovative enterprise emphasises the importance of social conditions in the capabilities of firms to innovate. Firms operate in a particular social context characterized by national economic institutions that influence the social conditions of innovative activities. Governance institutions influence strategic control, employment institutions influence organizational integration, and investment institutions influence financial commitment. This paper examines whether these social factors matter for the emergence of innovative firms in the context of low-income economies, with evidence from Kosovo firms. The findings suggest that Kosovos economy provides little incentives for firms to innovate. While the country has established an institutional framework which to a great extent is comparable to developed countries, the major challenge remains its enforcement. The number of business entities endowed with innovative capabilities is low, and this is an outcome of macro as well as micro social context.
Keywords: innovation; social conditions; strategic control; organisational integration; investment capabilities.
Relating inclusiveness and innovativeness in inclusive innovation
by Malin Lindberg
Abstract: The increasing interest in innovative solutions to societal challenges in policy and research has opened up the innovation area for a wider range of participants and beneficiaries than previously acknowledged, which in this article is studied in terms of inclusive innovation. In order to strengthen the conceptual connection between the dawning field of inclusive innovation studies and more established fields within innovation studies, the study scrutinizes how innovativeness relates to inclusiveness and vice versa in the light of previous knowledge. The conceptual outline is applied in a comparative case study of two regional innovation processes in Sweden, that share the ambition to tackle societal challenges by cross-boundary interaction, guided by values of equality and sustainability, at the same time as differing in scope and beneficiaries, due to their industrial and societal orientations. The combined theoretical and practical insights help delineate six distinct links between innovativeness and inclusiveness in inclusive innovation.
Keywords: Inclusive innovation; inclusiveness; innovation; innovativeness; participatory innovation; regional development; social innovation.
Innovative Regional Development through Triple Helix Collaboration: A Comparative Case Study of Strategic Structures and Implementation
by Tuomo Kinnunen, Satu Rinkinen, Jukka Majava, Jay Gillette
Abstract: Intense global competition forces regions to seek new ways to boost innovativeness and the success of local enterprises. This paper focuses on triple helix collaboration to support regional innovation-led development and economy. Various options exist for structuring and implementing triple helix collaboration. However, current empirical knowledge is inadequate for stakeholders interested and involved in regional strategy creation and implementation. This study analyses the strategic structures and implementation of triple helix collaboration in two regional cases: Brainport (Netherlands) and Oulu Innovation Alliance (OIA, Finland). Case Brainport introduces a holistic approach and high profile role in regional development, whereas case OIA demonstrates the knowledge institutes role in regional development in five spearhead areas. The cases illustrate two empirical ways to utilise triple helix mandate and strategic structures in regional development and strategy processes. The case comparison demonstrates diverse options for organising triple helix collaboration.
Keywords: regional development; regional innovation; triple helix; collaboration; innovation; empirical case studies.
Social Entrepreneurship and Charismatic Leadership: Master Cheng Yen and Tzu Chi Foundation
by Ho-Don Yan, Chi-Yin Wu, Ruey-Fa Lin
Abstract: Successful social enterprises are usually accompanied with charismatic leadership, which is instrumental to stimulate followers to help accomplish social missions. Based on three key behavioral components of charismatic leadership, namely envisioning, empathy, and empowerment, we propose an analytical framework to demonstrate how a faith-based organization, Tzu Chi Foundation under the leadership of Master Cheng Yen, develops effective motivational strategies to help mobilize an enormous number of followers to fulfill the goals of social missions. In order to capture the interaction between leaders and followers and its performance, we use qualitative study method by focusing on important details. Due to the inaccessible interview with Master Cheng Yen, data are adopted from articles, reports, and researches of Tzu Chi Foundation and its followers. Notwithstanding, we take stock of an earned-income social enterprise, DA.AI Technology, which is created by some successful entrepreneurs following Master Cheng Yen, as a case to provide a way to avoid the tensions of mission conflicts. We finalize to discuss that even Tzu Chi Foundation could not escape from the trepidation of succession issue and group thinking as over-relying upon charismatic leadership might incur.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship; charismatic leadership; social enterprise; Tzu Chi Foundation; empathy; empowerment; Innovation.