International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development (5 papers in press)
Entrepreneurial efficacy and orientation in Greece: exploring the gender gap
by Alexandros Kakouris, Nikolaos Apostolopoulos, Zacharias Dermatis, Dimitrios Komninos, Panagiotis Liargovas
Abstract: The aim of this article is to observe the expected gender gap in entrepreneurship in Greece. Drawing upon entrepreneurial literature which has revealed certain differences between male and female entrepreneurs, or prospective entrepreneurs, and the wide fostering of the entrepreneurial mindset through formal or informal educational settings during the last years, the survey seeks to examine persistent gender differences. The survey analysed responses to a questionnaire from local graduates and practitioners of a Greek region. The prevalence of male entrepreneurs, or nascent entrepreneurs, was verified along with the elimination of gender differences regarding self-confidence in entrepreneurial tasks as a result of educational interventions. Nonetheless, the expected higher need for independence than financial rewards for females was not verified, indicating a homogeneous entrepreneurial orientation between the genders. The study revealed gender differences in normative beliefs, competitiveness and entrepreneurial identity that could be attributed to the Greek culture. The latter characteristics are the most resistant to change through educational interventions compared with entrepreneurial self-efficacy and knowledge. The implications of the findings concern policies and educational interventions towards empowering female entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial orientation; gender; entrepreneurial self-efficacy; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial identity; normative beliefs; entrepreneurship education.
Promoting University-Business Cooperation in Developing Countries: Evidence from Central Asia
by David Morris, Xavier Leal, Hannes Gobel
Abstract: Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are increasingly recognising their role in promoting innovation. HEIs now see themselves, and are seen as, equal partners with business and government actors in a dynamic process. However, successful innovation and university-business cooperation (UBC) requires the creation of platforms dedicated to the generation and exploitation of innovation and realisation of value. Such platforms form a space that facilitates and encourages different actors to share capabilities to foster co-creation. They are based on building a shared institutional logic (routines, protocols etc.) which fosters a collaborative culture amongst key actors in the innovation ecosystem.
UBC is an accepted and expected feature of the higher education and innovation landscapes of developed countries, but has not yet become institutionalised or well understood in developing economies. This research was conducted in Central Asia (CA). CA HEI managers and academics do not always have sufficient experience and knowledge to design innovation platforms. Dynamic shared tools are needed to enable stakeholders to learn from each other and build a common pool of knowledge, resulting in decisions that are most valuable to an emergent innovation system.
The paper takes an instutional perspective based on a group of fourteen case studies of the design, development and implementation of new UBC intermediary agencies. The research methodology is one of action research as a major component of an EU-funded project with an overall aim of developing a model for UBC which learns from experience elsewhere but is firmly grounded in CA needs and the development of the regional economy. Few relevant studies have been undertaken in CA and exploring the fit betweeen the culture of CA economies and their HEIs is an important addition to our overall understanding of UBC. Whilst care needs to be exercised in generalizing findings from this context, there are useful lessons to be learned which have much wider application.
Keywords: Innovation platforms; Knowledge Triangle; University-business cooperationrn.
Factors Influencing Academic Entrepreneurship in Nigerian Universities
by Caleb Muyiwa ADELOWO
Abstract: This paper explored academic entrepreneurship in selected Nigerian universities with a view to understanding important determinants and support structures for promoting innovations in these institutions. With intense pressure on universities to contribute to economic growth and fulfil the third mission objective through knowledge transfer activities, it becomes imperative to examine various ways Nigerian academics contribute to this development. This paper argued along the wave of entrepreneurial university and the need to stimulate economic activities through research commercialisation, linkage with industry and other related activities. This paper, premised on the spill-over theory of entrepreneurship, shifted the lens of analysis on scientists and researchers within the universities. Diverse factors influencing their entrepreneurial engagements were examined. Data for the study was collected through questionnaire which was administered on randomly selected 350 faculty members from thirteen universities in Southwest, Nigeria with 65.4% response rate. The entrepreneurial engagements of faculty members were divided into five major activities, that is, training and consultancy related, contribution to universitys start-up formation, start-up formation based on owned research, collaboration with industry and teaching-research related activities. Faculties participation in these activities was measured based on whether they ever engaged in these activities and at what time. The results revealed that most faculty members participated in entrepreneurial activities related to training and consultancy while the incidence of start-up formation was low. The type of research they conduct (whether applied or basic), intellectual property disclosure, entrepreneurship training attended and rewards system in their university were statistically significant to entrepreneurial engagement of faculty members. However, the job position and presence of technology transfer offices or other similar facilities were not significantly correlated with academic entrepreneurship. The study concluded that academic entrepreneurship could be enhanced in the selected universities if the participating faculties were rewarded or recognised for such efforts.
Keywords: Academic Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Nigeria; knowledge transfer; commercialisation.
Special Issue on: ECIE 2017 The Entrepreneurial University across Regions
The entrepreneurial university as an engine for sustainable development
by Nikolaos Apostolopoulos, Christopher Moon, Andreas Walmsley
Abstract: This study adopts a novel approach of conceptualising entrepreneurial universities through the lens of the UN Higher Education Sustainability Initiative (HESI). Moving beyond the narrow approach of the entrepreneurial universities as generating spin-offs, entrepreneurial universities are closely linked with the concept of sustainable development. Interpreting entrepreneurial university as agents promoting economic, social and environmental change, the HESI can offer a useful framework for expanding the potential of entrepreneurial universities. This study reveals that whilst the majority of HESI signatories only commit to a limited number of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), there is sufficient evidence of best practices to regard the HESI as a useful and transformative framework for HEIs that can encourage innovation and entrepreneurship. To this extent, this paper aims to capture the interaction between entrepreneurial universities and the SDGs. However, the paper draws attention to the need for a holistic approach for HEIs that allows for more transdisciplinary thinking and collaboration. It is revealed that this can be challenging for HEIs.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial University; sustainability; HESI; SDGs; entrepreneurship.
Special Issue on: ECIE 2017 The Entrepreneurial University across Regions
A Sub-Regional Innovation Ecosystem? Life Sciences & Health in the Swansea Bay City Region
by Gareth Davies, Sian Roderick, Michael Williams
Abstract: This paper presents the case of AgorIP, a novel technology transfer approach to support knowledge-based regional economic development in the post-industrial region of south west Wales, UK centred upon an entrepreneurial learning university applying smart specialisation in a Regional Innovation System (RIS). In this context, West Wales and the Valleys has been working to develop a nascent Life Sciences & Health cluster through efforts of private sector, health service, academia and government.rn rnA central part of this agenda is driving technology transfer within the recently-approved Swansea Bay City Region. This associated Internet Coast City Deal combines efforts of UK, Welsh & Local Governments together with wider partners to exploit identified strengths in Life Sciences & Health. Through analysis of regional sector survey data and case study review of key regional initiatives, this paper examines the opportunities and challenges for the region to flourish in uncertain changing times. rn
Keywords: Smart specialisation; Life Sciences; Regional Innovation Systems; Technology Transfer; City Regions.