International Journal of Intellectual Property Management (5 papers in press)
Multi-territorial licensing of rights in musical works for online use in the internal market: Directive 2014/26/EU
by Laura Prieto
Abstract: This paper will consider questions around the Directive 2014/26/EU concerning the multi-territorial licensing of rights in musical works for online use in the internal market, considering the digital economy and the context of the Digital Agenda for Europe and the Europe 2020 Strategy aiming for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and the article 167 and others of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). The paper will consider the need to provide of coordination of national rules to avoid the inefficiencies in the exploitation of copyright and related rights across the internal market, looking for the benefit of rightholders and users, and the need of metadata systems for an effective aggregation of repertories. The paper will also consider the derogation for online music rights required by a broadcaster to communicate or make available to the public its radio and television programmes.
Keywords: intellectual property; copyright, related rights; collective management; digital economy; single market; broadcasting; music; radio; television; multi-territorial licensing; directives; Digital Agenda; online services
How patent experts create patent breadth
by Karin Beukel
Abstract: Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies.
Keywords: intellectual property strategy; patent agents; science;
Text Mining as a Facilitating Tool for Deploying Blockchain Technology in the Intellectual Property Rights System
by Ibrahim Alnafrah, Elena Bogdanova, Tatyana Maximova
Abstract: The aim of the study is to introduce a new application of machine-learning techniques (text mining, clustering, and classification) and the Blockchain technology within the intellectual property rights (IPRs) management system. Using such machine-learning techniques facilitates the management process of intellectual properties (IPs) and makes it more efficient. Additionally, using the Blockchain technology for IPRs management purposes enables all stakeholders to utilise the extracted data of the IP objects from the Blockchain network.
In this study, a text-mining technique was used to identify the two types of IP documents based on specific categories, namely, patent and trademark. In order to achieve this objective, a range of machine-learning techniques was used for 5500 patent documents and 400 trademark documents.
The results of the logistic regression model showed a high level of prediction accuracy of document type at the pre-registration stage on the Blockchain network. This high level of prediction accuracy demonstrates that using machine-learning and text-mining techniques will facilitate the IPRs management system.
This new application of specific machine-learning techniques in the IPRs management process contributes essentially to solving the problem in a conventional IPRs system associated with rights protection and data availability.
Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights; Blockchain Technology; Machine-Learning Techniques; Text Mining; Smart contract.
Special Issue on: MIPS 2016 IP for Development The Emerging Paradigm
Intellectual Property: Country-wise trends of contributors and indicators in the knowledge economy
by Ankur Kashyap, P.K. Ghosh
Abstract: The transition of the economy from production based to knowledge focused is in process. This process has revealed two aspects; one is the production or generation of knowledge which could be done through research and the other is the dissemination or transfer of this knowledge to the commercial world. For a company, there are two options, whether to conduct research in-house in the company itself or hire the external agencies for innovation in its products without involving in any research activities. In both the cases, intellectual property needs to be protected through an appropriate tool. The role of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) becomes crucial and more important when innovation is derived from research institutes or higher academic institutes. The present study focuses on the role of IP and explores the importance of industrial indicators of IP in different geographic regions. To estimate the degree of responsiveness of the country's financial prosperity to IP, top 15 countries based on their GDP performance in the year 2014 were selected for the present study. We found that there is no single formula for enhancing GDP through IPRs, as the combination of different tools of IPR differs from country to country. The study also provides a conceptual framework which elaborates the role of different factors that are contributing to IP base, which further leads to faster economic growth in knowledge economy.
Keywords: Intellectual Property Right; Knowledge Economy; inter-country comparison.
Measuring Research Efficiency of Higher Academic Technical Institutions of India: A Malmquist Productivity Index Approach
by Akriti Jain, Ruchi Sharma, P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan
Abstract: Purpose: The objective of this paper is to measure the relative research efficiency of scientific departments of Indian higher academic technical institutions and to understand the change in their Total Factor Productivity (TFP) over the period of time. The paper also explores the change in relative research efficiency of different departments and institutes with respect to the change in the type of competitive Decision-Making Units (DMU) and the type of research outputs.
Design/Methodology/Approach: Panel datasets for nine departments of six Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) have been created for the time period 2009-13. Stochastic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) model has been used for efficiency measurement due to the presence of panel data with multiple inputs and outputs.
Findings: Results indicate that in inter-IIT comparison, several departments of IIT Bombay (Aerospace Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Physics) and that of IIT Madras (Biotechnology, Chemistry, Mechanical Engineering) outperform similar departments in other IITs for publication output while none of the IITs is on the efficiency frontier for patent output consistently for the given period. In intra-IIT comparison, Biotechnology and Electrical Engineering departments of many IITs outperform other different departments for both patent and publication output.
Keywords: Efficiency; DEA; Malmquist Productivity Index; Universities; Technical Institutions; India; Research; Patent; Publication.