International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management (22 papers in press)
Role ambiguity, job interdependence, trust and horizontal flexible design affecting job satisfaction
by Sangeeta Sahu, Avinash Pathardikar
Abstract: This paper investigates how role ambiguity, job interdependence, trust, and horizontal-flexible design at workplace affect job satisfaction. The study is focused on full-time employees of a manufacturing organization in India. Results show relation of these variables with job satisfaction. Path analysis was used to find out relationship between the constructs. Job characteristics like role ambiguity, job interdependence, trust, and horizontal-flexible design predict job satisfaction. Literature on work design and organization behavior highlight that attrition among the employees is affected by satisfaction of employee with the working conditions. The findings add to past knowledge on the factors influencing job satisfaction and open avenues for understanding attrition. An implication on HR interventions for the practitioners is discussed.
Keywords: Job satisfaction; Role ambiguity; Job interdependence; Trust; Work design.
Role of change management using ADKAR model: A study of the gender perspective in a leading bank organisation of India
by Charu Goyal, Manoj Patwardhan
Abstract: Gender inequality has always been an issue of concern; successful organisational change serves as a backbone to the organisations. The purpose of this paper is to study the difference in gender perspective towards organisational change using ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, and Reinforcement) model of organisational change in various branches of a public sector bank in a prominent region of northern India. Correlation and t-test analysis are done to draw the conclusion. The outcome of the study reveals that there is no difference in the perception of male and female employees towards organisational change. The results would help the banking firms to understand the facts about gender perspective towards change management and accordingly formulate their future strategies.
Keywords: ADKAR model; Change management; Gender perspective; Indian banks; Organisational Change; Public sector bank.
LOSING GOOD CITIZENS: THE ENABLING EFFECT OF ORGANISATIONAL CITIZENSHIP ON THE JOB SEARCH-EMPLOYEE TURNOVER RELATIONSHIP
by Tyler Burch
Abstract: The present study extends research and theory on the contingencies that influence turnover from an organisation. Applying perspectives from impression management and social exchange, the study investigates the impact of employee organisational citizenship behaviour on the relationship between job seeking and voluntary turnover. Data was gathered on employees in a US office of a global financial institution. Empirical results indicated that, as individuals high in organisational citizenship behaviour engaged in job seeking, they were more likely to voluntarily turnover from the organisation. The findings suggest that good organisational citizens enjoy more mobility as a result of job seeking when compared to those less inclined to citizenship behaviours, independent of their actual in-role performance or level of job satisfaction. This study has implications for managements understanding of how organisational citizenship behaviours contribute to the turnover of employees.
Keywords: voluntary turnover; job search behaviour; organisational citizenship behaviour; turnover contingencies; impression management; social exchange; job satisfaction; employee discretionary performance.
Antecedents of employee readiness for change in the IT sector and the manufacturing sector: a comparative study
by Devi Soumyaja, Kamalanabhan TJ, Sanghamitra Bhattacharyya
Abstract: A sample of 305 employees comprising nearly equal numbers from the manufacturing sector and from the information technology (IT) sector in India was assessed in terms of (1) attributes of the individual employee (practical intelligence and creative behaviour), (2) processes (participation in making decisions and the quality of communication), and (3) contextual factors (trust in management and history of change) to predict the readiness of the employees for change. The predictors of employee readiness for change differed between the two sectors, and the factor most closely related to the readiness was prior experience of organizational changes.
Keywords: Readiness for Change; IT sector; Manufacturing Sector; individual factors; process factors; context factors.
Institutional pressures and internal motivations of work-life balance organizational arrangements in Italy
by Matteo Pedrini, Laura Maria Ferri, Egidio Riva
Abstract: Drawing upon institutional and organisational culture theories, the present work explores organizational commitment to work-life balance practices, thus proposing an original contribution within the field. Indeed, literature on work-life balance is still limited and, among existing studies, few have analysed the relationships with external social pressure (institutional) and internal motivations (organizational values and increase of productivity).rnThe analyses takes into consideration a sample of 107 organisations nearly equally split among profit, non-profit and public sectors in the Italian national context, which represent a well-known model of welfare state. Findings confirm that differences among the three sectors exist in terms of the rationales and the commitment to WLB policies and practices due to different institutional context and organizational cultures.
Keywords: nd practices due to different institutional context and organizational cultures.
Cross-Culture Management: An Empirical Examination on Task and Relationship Orientations of Japanese and Omani Working Adults
by Lam Nguyen, Thomas Tanner, Loan Pham
Abstract: Globalization has increased the demand of an international group of leaders who can lead multinational corporations across cultures successfully. Understanding the leadership orientations of the international workforces becomes a necessity for these companies. This paper distinctively examines the leadership orientations, which include task and relationship orientations, of working adults in Japan and Oman. Through the analysis of 419 responses including 231 respondents from Japan and 188 respondents from Oman, it appears that Omani working adults are more task-oriented than Japanese working adults. Gender is not a factor in both the task and the relationship orientations of all respondents. However, there is a significant interaction in the relationship scores based on gender between the two cultures: Omani male respondents are more relationship-oriented than their Japanese counterparts while Japanese female respondents are more relationship-oriented than their Omani counterparts. In this paper, managerial implications, recommendations for future research and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Cross-culture management; gender; Japan; leadership; multinational corporations; Oman; relationships; tasks.
Women and the Glass Ceiling in the Community of Madrid Hotel Industry
by Lydia Gonzalez-Serrano, Teresa Villace-Molinero, Pilar Talon-Ballestero, Concepcion De La Fuente-Cabrero
Abstract: The hotel industry labour market has a strong female presence, although women have limited access to management positions. The gender gap in the industry must be identified in order to overcome it. This research is based on a census designed to analyse the participation of women in management positions at the corporate headquarters of hotel chains and 3, 4 and 5 star hotels (independent and related to a chain) in the Community of Madrid (Spain). The study concludes that there is a Glass Ceiling due to male dominance of management and the stereotyping of certain positions (vertical and horizontal segregation). Nevertheless, a change in the trend has been observed with new positions resulting from the appearance of ITCs.
Keywords: Hospitality; discrimination; gender gap; glass ceiling; tourism; profile of women managers.
Employee engagement: Development of a new measure
by Omar Ababneh, Mark LeFevre, Tim Bentley
Abstract: It is claimed that organizations that invest in employee engagement will reap significant benefits in terms of employee productivity, achievement of organizational goals, customer satisfaction, and talent retention. However, fundamental issues revolving around the meaning, measurement, and key antecedents of employee engagement still require further research attention. In response to these issues, this study aimed to develop a reliable and valid engagement scale. Further, this study contributes to the existing theory surrounding employee engagement by providing empirical evidence about the dimensionality of the engagement construct and its distinctiveness from other related attitudinal constructs. Also, this research provides practical recommendations on how to execute certain HR practices (measuring employee engagement, training and development, performance management) in a manner that fosters an engaging climate in the workplace and enhances employees levels of engagement.
Keywords: employee engagement; engagement measure; absorption; behavioural engagement; positive emotions; performance management; training and development.
East Asian Trends of Human Resource Management (HRM): Theories and Practices
by Tarnima Warda Andalib, Mohd. Ridzuan Darun
Abstract: In general, HRM Policies are pretentious by assorted external and internal factors of the organisations and are persuaded by divergent HRM models. Usually, HRM practitioners develop HRM policies by perceiving the most favourable organisational factors and by preferring the most appropriate HRM models or the elements of HRM models. Now, for last several years it has been observed that various researchers have constructed these HRM models. While constructing the HRM Models, few researchers have engrossed the humanitarian ground whereas others have focused on the materialistic ground. In this paper, the authors have reviewed numerous articles and collected secondary data about HRM policies, models and factors. Firstly, the authors have found the HRM factors that put impact and facilitated to build the HRM models. Secondly, they have found and discussed about few HRM models that are discovered and recognised at different times. Thirdly, they have also reviewed several East Asian countries HRM practices and classified the dominant factors and applied HRM Models.
Keywords: HRM (Human Resource Management); Models; Practices; ILO; East Asia.
Acculturative Stress of internal migrants: Impact on work Attitudes
by Benita Monica, M.V. Supriya
Abstract: Accelerated urbanization and industrialization have engendered more employment opportunities in the urban areas of India. The constant flow of migrants to the metropolitan cities each year makes the study more vital. These internal migrants strive hard to acquire better wellbeing in their life. The employees who migrate to industrialized urban areas for job are the major component of this internal migrants. These internal migrants are unaware of the cultural and environmental changes they experience which in turns leads to acculturative stress. The major objective of the study is to understand the role played by acculturative stress on the work attitudes of the internal migrants. The work attitudes considered in the study are job satisfaction and intention to quit. The moderating effect of perceived income adequacy and migration characteristics is also studied. The 607 respondents of the study are internal migrants who are working in an organisation in Chennai. Acculturative stress has a negative effect on job satisfaction of internal migrants. Whereas it has a positive effect on intention to quit the job. Perceived income adequacy reverses the effect of acculturative stress on work attitudes. Migration characteristics enhances the effect of acculturative stress on work attitudes. Based on the results, the implications for the various stakeholders are discussed.
Keywords: Acculturative stress; job satisfaction; intention to quit; perceived income adequacy; previous experience; internal migrants.
Factors affecting turnover intentions in Indian retail industry
by Pallavi Pandey, Saumya Singh, Pramod Pathak
Abstract: This research is one of the initial attempts to investigate the turnover intentions in Indian retail industry. The study aims to investigate the impact of organizational factors- job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work stress, work environment and realistic job information on intention to quit in Indian retail industry. A questionnaire based survey approach is used. Responses from front end employees (297 usable responses) were collected. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling to identify the strength of relationships. The results indicated that intention to quit among front end employees is influenced by work related stress, organizational commitment, realistic job information, work environment and job satisfaction. Further, job satisfaction and realistic job information were found to have significant positive impact on organizational commitment. This study would help decision-makers and practitioners in controlling attrition which poses a serious threat to Indian retail industry by better understanding the probable causes of turnover.rn
Keywords: Job satisfaction; organizational commitment; works related stress; realistic job information; work environment; intention to quit.
Relationship between innovation, HRM and work organization. An exploratory study in innovative companies
by Aitziber Lertxundi, Jon Barrutia, Jon Landeta
Abstract: Previous research has addressed the relationship between Human Resource Management (HRM) and work organization practices and innovation outcomes. However, the findings suggest that the causal mechanisms of this link are not yet fully understood. Further work is therefore considered necessary in this regard. This study contributes to this field with an exploratory investigation. The purpose is to extend our understanding of how such practices can improve innovation outcomes, based on the experiences of professionals from leading innovating companies. A qualitative methodology has been applied, comprising successive application of in-depth personal interviews and the Delphi technique. The results suggest that three of the instruments that make a major contribution are leadership style, an innovation-friendly culture and the creation of work teams to find solutions to customer needs.
Keywords: innovation; work organization; human resource management; Spain.
Excellence in Public Administration: Job Satisfaction as a Factor of Good Administration
by Aleksander Aristovnik, Polonca Kovač, Anamarija Leben, Nina Tomazevic
Abstract: The concept of good administration comprises five key elements that emphasise the service-mindedness of public administration and the restriction of authority. It has long been primarily understood also referring to Article 41 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights as a legal doctrine, with specific rights of citizens and businesses in relation to authorities. However, the notion of good administration has to be expanded and connected with the concept of business excellence since public administration as a system is inevitably interdisciplinary and holistic. In particular, it must incorporate specific managerial elements because satisfied civil servants better satisfy the public interest and the rights of parties (i.e. public services users) as well as legitimate expectations. In view of the above, an analysis of good administration in relation to job satisfaction was conducted, with a special focus on Slovenian practices in various types of administrative agencies. First, the results show that job satisfaction is a factor of good administration and, second, that the understanding and enforcement of the integration of good administration and job satisfaction in Slovenia vary according to the type of public administration agency involved (service or authoritative). Third, there is an insufficient level of awareness of the importance of caring for job satisfaction and its impact on both the satisfaction of parties in administrative procedures and on good administration.
Keywords: good administration; job satisfaction; public administration; excellence; civil servants; Slovenia.
We do get terribly enthusiastic about everything! Performing emotion rules through parody
by Eeva Aromaa, Paivi Eriksson, Albert Mills
Abstract: This paper adopts a performational approach to critical sensemaking to explore how organisational members enact innovation-related emotion rules through the performance of parody. The approach was motivated more by induction than deduction. During an action-research study in a small service company, humour, teasing, and laughter occurred in a workshop organized for the company. On close examination of the videotaped workshop data, it was noticed that parodic performances were used to make critical sense of the innovation-related emotion rules and power relationships within the company. Analysis of this study shows in detail how, through parodic and imitative performances, the leader and employees constructed three emotion rulesshow your emotions, show your enthusiasm, and show your criticism in a nice waythat are set by the leader to promote innovation practice within the company.
Keywords: emotion rules; critical sensemaking; performativity; parody; humour; Goffman; innovation practice; power.
Combining behaviourist and interactionist approaches to explain applicants attraction to organizations
by Daniel Roque Gomes, Jose Neves
Abstract: This study discusses a model of analysis integrating interactionist and behaviorist theoretical guidance to explain applicants' attraction to organizations. rnThrough confirmatory methodology, we sustain a theoretical model pointing organizational attractiveness and perceived p-o fit as sequential mediators of the path starting on the organizational attributes and explaining intention to apply to a job vacancy. We justify our theoretical model along with a discussion regarding the integration of interactionist and behaviourist theoretical guidance to explain applicants' intention to apply to a vacancy.rnMain results point that main results sustain our theoretical model. The organizational attributes lead to attractiveness of the organization. This positive affective reaction is critical for prospective applicants to perceive to be fitted to the organization. This sequence of relations explains applicants' intention to apply to a job vacancy.rn
Keywords: organizational attributes; organizational attractiveness; person-organization fit; intention to apply to a job vacancy; applicants’ attraction; recruitment; interactionist; behaviorist; organizational attraction.
Special Issue on: Employee Satisfaction and Engagement Theory and Praxis for Today’s Excellence
Linking Womens Glass Ceiling Beliefs and Employee Satisfaction: The Mediation of Engagement
by Senthil Arasu Balasubramanian, Remya Lathabhavan
Abstract: The role of employee engagement and satisfaction is very important in todays world of changing labor market, technology, and job patterns. With an increase in women participating in the labor market, understanding their attitude towards the glass ceiling and its relationship with work engagement and job satisfaction is important for individual, organizational, and societal progress. This article studies the relationship between glass ceiling beliefs and job satisfaction through the mediating role of work engagement. 420 women employees were surveyed as the sample for this study and Structural Equation Modelling was used to understand the relationships. The relationship between glass ceiling beliefs and job satisfaction was found to be fully mediated by work engagement. The study recommends longitudinal studies for future studies in this area.
Keywords: Glass ceiling beliefs; work engagement; job satisfaction; mediation; women’s career barriers; glass ceiling.
ENABLERS OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT AND ITS SUBSEQUENT IMPACT ON JOB SATISFACTION
by Monica R, Krishnaveni R
Abstract: Research supporting the importance of employee engagement and its impact on organisational effectiveness is abundant, but there is paucity of research on how to go on about creating employee engagement. Facilitating robust employee engagement strategies is the overarching need in an organisation, because of the significant impact it has on the employees which will eventually reflect in the team and consequently at the organisation level. Though there is plenty of information on job characteristics, competence development practices, social support, communication, employee engagement and job satisfaction as individual constructs, there is no integrative framework that empirically examines the relationship between these unique combinations of variables. This study will investigate the relation between job characteristics, competence development practices, social support, communication, employee engagement and job satisfaction. Findings of the study propounds the need of a robust employee engagement strategy that is levered by the identified enablers namely job characteristics, competence development practices, social support and communication and its subsequent impact on job satisfaction.
Keywords: Communication; Competence Development Practices; Employee engagement; Enablers; Job characteristics; Job satisfaction; Social Support.
Human resources management in responsible small businesses: why, how and for what?
by Silvia Cantele
Abstract: Corporate social responsibility pushes firms to be accountable for their effects on society and the environment, and to be responsive to all groups of stakeholders. The literature has pointed out the unique approach of small firms to social responsibility and human resources, which are considered the most important stakeholder group in this kind of business. This study is aimed at deepening our understanding of relationships between the motivation behind a socially responsible approach, the practices towards employees and the perceived benefits, in the context of Italian small businesses. The analysis of conducted interviews highlights that small businesses consider employee satisfaction and commitment a priority. Despite what is shown in the literature, they do not avoid implementing formal tools to manage and communicate their ethical approach to human resources management and are completely aware of the strategic relevance of engaging with employees in order to gain firm success and excellence.
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; employee satisfaction; organisational commitment; small and medium enterprises; Italy.
Engagement as an antecedent of the satisfaction-performance relation: a study with line managers
by Pedro Ferreira, Paula Rodrigues
Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between satisfaction and performance, when preceded by employee engagement. Specifically, it examines the relation of job satisfaction and company perceived performance after the influence of the three dimensional concept of employee engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption) on job satisfaction. In order to accomplish this goal, a literature review was undertaken to support the conceptual model and hypothesis. Data was collected from a sample of line managers of several major companies in Portugal. Results show, on the one hand, that vigour and dedication are related with job satisfaction, but absorption does not make a significant contribution. On the other, job satisfaction influences company perceived performance. Some theoretical and empirical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Employee Engagement; Job Satisfaction; Company Performance; Portugal; Structural Equations Model.
Relationship between time perspective and job satisfaction
by Bostjan Bajec
Abstract: This study explores the relationships between time perspective dimensions, the big five personality traits and job satisfaction. People with higher past-positive and lower past-negative and present-fatalistic time perspectives are more satisfied with their jobs, individuals with higher present-hedonism show higher affective job satisfaction, and those with higher future time perspective show a higher cognitive job satisfaction. Results also show that time perspective dimensions and a balanced time perspective explain additional variance in job satisfaction beyond the one explained by personality traits, age and gender. Additional variance of 2.3%/1.3% for affective job satisfaction, 7.9%/3.1% for intrinsic job satisfaction, 2.9%/1.0% for extrinsic job satisfaction and 6.1%/2.4% for general job satisfaction was explained by time perspective dimensions/balanced time perspective. Results of the study can guide possible interventions to affect organisational commitment, turnover intentions and other outcomes of job satisfaction.
Keywords: time perspective; job satisfaction; personality traits; balanced time perspective; multiple regression.
The mediating role of work engagement between psychosocial safety climate and organisational citizenship behaviours: a study in the nursing and health sector in Quebec
by Sari Mansour, Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay
Abstract: The objective of this research, conducted with 562 staff working in the health sector in Quebec (Canada), mainly nurses, is to examine the direct and indirect effects of the psychosocial safety climate on work engagement and organisational citizenship behaviours. The results of structural equations show that the psychosocial safety climate increases engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption). However, it has no direct effect on organisational citizenship. The bootstrap results indicate that vigour, dedication and absorption all mediate the relationship between psychosocial safety climate and altruism and compliance; however, the indirect link between climate and altruism through absorption is not significant.
Keywords: psychosocial safety climate; PSC; work engagement; organisational citizenship behaviour; resource caravan passageways; Canada.
Special Issue on: ICMC 2016 Integrating Individual and Company Needs for Organisational Cultural Alignment
The Effects of Leadership Development on Womens Career Success
by Anna-Maija Lamsa, Terttu Savela
Abstract: This study extends our knowledge of leadership development, specifically Masters in Business Administration (MBA) programs, from a gender perspective. It presents a comprehensive case, women-only development program and conducts an empirical, longitudinal, qualitative study of the effect of one of the program modules, namely, the women-only MBA, on the womens career success. The empirical study focused on self-efficacy mechanisms for explaining the womens appraisals of their changes in abilities affecting their career success during the MBA program. The participants were interviewed twice: once at the beginning of the MBA and then after completing it. A trusting atmosphere, social support, new business competencies, and the participants ability to re-frame their mindsets concerning womens career potential were detected as significant sources of self-efficacy gained from the MBA. Encouragement from significant others, typically respected males, was also found to be a promoting factor.
Keywords: case study; career success; gender; leadership; leadership development; MBA; self-efficacy; woman.