International Journal of Global Energy Issues (4 papers in press)
The Economic viability of the utilization of biogas as an alternative source of energy in rural parts of Nigeria.
by Eric Chekwube Okonkwo, Kingsley Ifeanyi Okafor, Ertan Akun
Abstract: The role of energy in the economic development of any nation cannot be overemphasized, yet Africa largest economy Nigeria has just over 50% of its population having access to electricity, with frequent power outages, low availability of energy for lighting and other domestic purposes mostly in rural areas. The environmental issues associated with the use of fossil fuels and firewood, population increase in combination with a growing economy resulting in a high degree of biowastes generation. An average Nigerian family makes an average income of $450 to $645 per month, and an average of $10 is spent on cooking energy alone with about $3 spent for 4 hours per night on generator fuel for electricity in rural communities in Nigeria. 60 % to 70 % of these families own a greater number of domestic animals and farmlands that generate massive wastes, as well as municipal wastes, abattoirs wastes, and wastes from markets. The study is conducted to evaluates and estimates the biogas potential from these rural areas of the country through anaerobic digestion processes from the wastes available in these areas. The acceptance of biogas as an alternative energy source for rural homes in southeastern Nigeria and the economic viability of the system taking into consideration the mean earnings of the residents of the same location. The analysis shows a wide acceptance of the technology. Cost-benefit analysis shows that a 3m2 family-size biogas plant installation estimated at a cost of $500 is viable with a financial rate of return of 23 % and Net Present Value of $223.94. The results show that the system can adequately replace the use of fossil fuels, reduce environmental pollution through a reduction in greenhouse gas emission and aid municipal waste management by utilizing these wastes as an energy source.
Keywords: biomass; biogas; Anambra state; Nigeria.
Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from a Resource-Rich Landlocked Economy
by Shishir Shakya, Rabindra Nepal, Kishor Sharma
Abstract: This paper unfolds the short run and the long run causality between per capita electric power consumption (LPEC) and per capita gross domestic product (LGDP) for Nepal during the period 19712010 using time-series econometrics. We find that LGDP granger causes LPEC in the long run and weakly granger causes in the short run while the reverse causality is not found. The results indicate that total electricity consumption has no causal role as a component of economic growth in Nepal. Thus, the electricity consumption policy should be designed and implemented as cohesion to growth.
Keywords: Error correction models; Granger-Causality; Johansen cointegration.
A bibliometric analysis of research on the energy-water nexus from 1963 to 2016 based on SCI-E/SSCI databases
by Jing-Li Fan, Qinying Song, Xian Zhang, Kun Zhang
Abstract: Using the bibliometric method, this paper characterizes literature regarding the energy-water nexus from 1963 to 2016 based on the Web of Science. The results indicate that the USA, the Peoples Republic of China and Canada were predominant in this field. The Chinese Academy of Sciences was the highest-yield research institute; the Journal of Power Sources was the most productive journal; and cooperation among prolific authors centered mainly on 2 or 3 people. Using co-keyword analysis, the current key research areas in this field are as follows: water management, life cycle assessment, PEM fuel cell, desalination and renewable energy, energy efficiency, and climate change. The most salient finding is that there is significantly more research from the micro-level perspective than the macro-level perspective, which means that to fully understand relationships relevant to water and energy issues, more research is needed.
Keywords: Energy-water nexus; Bibliometric analysis; Web of Science; Social network analysis; Co-Keyword analysis.
Substituting Wood Pellets for Coal in Large Scale Power Stations: A Dynamic Life Cycle Assessment Examination
by Brandon Morrison, Jesse Daystar, Jay Golden
Abstract: This study assesses the environmental impacts resulting from the use of wood pellets produced in the Southeastern United States and burned for electricity generation in the United Kingdom. A cradle-to-grave, comparative life cycle assessment is performed, comparing electricity produced from wood pellets versus electricity generated from coal. Assuming immediate carbon neutrality of the wood biomass, the results presented here indicate an 86% reduction in climate change impacts when utilizing wood pellets as compared to coal. Incorporating the timing of emissions, using dynamic life cycle assessment methodologies, shifts the time horizon of carbon dioxide savings in comparison to emissions from coal. When accounting for the timing of emissions, wood pellets equate to a 94% or 80% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, depending upon whether the trees utilized for wood pellets are considered to be planted or harvested in year one, respectively, given a 100-year time horizon.
Keywords: Renewable Energy; Bioenergy; Life Cycle Assessment; Sustainable Systems; Dynamic Life Cycle Assessment.