International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy (11 papers in press)
FISHBONE DIAGRAM FOR TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND FORESIGHT
by Mario Coccia
Abstract: Fishbone diagram is a graphical technique to show the several causes of a specific event. Fishbone diagram is applied here as a novel graphical representation to identify, explore and analyse the source and evolution of innovation and especially General Purpose Technologies (GPTs). Firstly, the study here shows the driving forces of GPTs, such as: higher democratization, high investment in R&D, etc. Secondly, these drivers of GPTs and in gen-eral of new technology are represented with fishbone diagram for the technological analysis. Some examples are given by applying the Fishbone diagram to specific GPTs, such as steam engine and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Overall, then, fishbone diagram seems to be an appropriate and general technique of graphical representation for the technological analysis and foresight of path-breaking innovation in society.
Keywords: Fishbone Diagram; General Purpose Technology; Technological Foresight; Sources of Innovation; Technological Evolution; New Technology; Technological Analysis.
Scientific inquiry circle activities of local citizens for bottom-up type innovation
by Hajime Eto
Abstract: This paper proposes a long-ranged innovation policy via intellectual or scientific development of locals in the situation of economic depression. Specifically, this paper proposes to organise local inquiry circles of citizens such as teachers, experienced farmers or fishermen, unemployed youths with a certain educational background, and students. The creative inquiry activities are purposed to accumulate intellectual or scientific knowledge for future innovation potentials in locals. These circle activities can learn lessons from the experiences of success in small volunteer-based circle activities such as 4-H clubs (Head, Heart, Hands, and Health) in agricultural areas in the early and the middle 1900s and quality circles in industries in the middle and the late 1900s. These proposed activities can be voluntarily allied with the currently active tourism policies in locals. In a long-ranged scope, they are expected to foster the intellectual or scientific potentials in locals and to push up the innovations in locals.
Keywords: citizens participation in innovative inquiry; creativity education in locals; fosterage of local innovation potentials; 4-H club; grassroots level innovative inquiry; inquiry-based science education; little science; local-centric innovative circles; long-ranged innovation policy; pushup-type innovation.
Brand ethics and social media engagement
by Ayse Begum Ersoy, Halil Zaim, Yavuz Keceli, Selma Kurtishi-Kastrati
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate ethical nature of social media engagement of companies and examines whether or not ethical perception of customers about the companies based on their social media activity and their actual ethical performance make an impact on consumer preferences. Social media engagement of preferred brands/companies and customers is analysed from the perspective of ethics, ethical behaviour, and ethical perception. One of the major findings of this research is that ethical performance positively affects consumer preferences. According to data analysis ethical policies and social media engagement of companies, have direct effects on ethical performance, thus ethical performance positively affects consumer preferences. Moreover, the research indicates that consumer awareness of ethical practices positively affects consumer preferences. The effects of ethical policies on ethical performance are also examined in this research and a positive direct relationship has been disclosed. The research also reveals the positive relationship between social media engagement and consumer awareness.
Keywords: social media; brand ethics; social media engagement; consumer behaviour; social media attribution; econometric modelling.
Competitiveness and sustainability in horticulture: strategy for small businesses
by Filippo Sgroi, Enrica Donia, Fabrizio Piraino
Abstract: Vegetable cultivation has a significant history in the countries of the Mediterranean basin. Italy is an important horticultural producer and, in this context, Sicily offers ideal conditions for the protected cultivation of field vegetables. Apart from a few well-organised producers, in many areas horticulture is characterised by backward entrepreneurial systems and fragmented production lines that make the vegetable market one that is very close to being a rigged competition in which companies must accept the price and have no negotiating power. This situation has been aggravated even further by the recent economic crisis and the subsequent recession, resulting in the disappearance of the production conditions for many small horticultural businesses. According to the theory of economic development, this loss causes the impoverishment of the area and has negative consequences on employment and income. In the present work, the profitability of a horticultural enterprise was measured. The study was conducted in Sicily, an island in the centre of the Mediterranean, where the cultivation of vegetables has a long history. The results show low profitability in relation to high production costs, as well as low market prices, reflecting imports from other countries in the Mediterranean basin and other Italian regions.
Keywords: horticultural producer; farm; innovation.
Sharing of tacit knowledge and service innovation performance
by Rana E. Jisr, François Thérin
Abstract: This paper examines the relationships among tacit knowledge, knowledge sharing, and service innovation performance. To examine the relationships, we collected the survey data by targeting employees in a service industry, The Lebanese Broadcast Corporation International (LBCI) located in Lebanon (n = 162). It is a leading Lebanese and Arab television station. The results indicate that there exists a positive relationship between (1) tacit knowledge and service innovation performance; and (2) knowledge sharing and service innovation performance. Also, this study finds that knowledge sharing mediates the relationship between tacit knowledge and service innovation performance. The value of the current study is presented in examining the mediating role of knowledge sharing. Our findings suggest that firms could encourage and motivate their employees to share their knowledge in order to enhance service innovation performance.
Keywords: tacit knowledge; knowledge sharing; service innovation performance.
Revisiting complexity theory to achieve strategic intelligence
by Gianpaolo Basile, Hans Rüdiger Kaufmann, Marco Savastano
Abstract: The present work aims to analyse the choice of strategic management conditions considering both, systemic and complexity perspectives applied by analogy to business. The approach represents the firm as a complex adaptive system, where management, to make strategic and operative decisions, must reduce complexity amplifying information variety. According to this approach the firm, in a turbulent environment, must develop different competences, especially in the field of innovation, in order to achieve survival/dynamic conditions through the creation and/or maintenance of relationships with numerous, diverse and heterogeneous stakeholders. This work aims to answer the following research questions: can the complexity theory meet the needs of managers and marketers as well as scholars' theoretical foundations, to develop strategic intelligence to effectively manage the dynamism of organisations/brand in turbulent environments; does regarding organisations and networks as adaptive systems help scholars and managers in their decision making processes?
Keywords: complexity; dynamic decision making; problem solving; information variety; complexity theory; environmental dynamism.
The influence of business and political ties on supplier selection decisions: the case of the Nigerian public sector
by Eyo Emmanel Essien, Anastasia Konstantopoulou, Ioannis Konstopoulos, George Lodorfos
Abstract: Extant relevant literature suggests that nonmarket elements such as social ties are important strategic options that may help organisations enhance their competitiveness relative to other competitors when bidding for important supply jobs. However, our current understanding of their effects on organisational outcomes, especially in public supplier selection decisions in emerging economies, is far from complete. Using a sample of 342 experienced senior management team (SMT) members and senior level staff in 40 public sector organisations in Nigeria, this study examined the relative importance of business and political ties as sources of advantage and strategic intelligence for prospective vendors and contractors during strategic supplier selection decisions. Our findings show that both business and political ties are significant predictors of supplier selection outcomes, and their relative importance in the selection outcome is indistinguishable and key to strategic decision making. Overall, our result suggests that both business and political ties can be utilised as sources of important resources by supplier firms.
Keywords: business and political ties; supplier selection decision; public sector.
Building dynamic capabilities in large global advertising agency networks: managing the shift from mass communication to digital interactivity
by Wisam Suheimat, Thim Prætorius, Jan Vang
Abstract: Interactive digital technologies result in significant managerial challenges for the largest global advertising agency networks. This paper, based on original data from in-depth case research in three of the largest global advertising networks, investigates how advertising agency networks manage the change from mass communication to digital interactivity by applying theory of dynamic capabilities to assess challenges and solutions. Relatedly, the paper analyses the change agent role ascribed to the Chief Digital Officers mandated to solve the digital interactivity challenges. The findings uncover the cognitive, structural, operational and process changes needed to develop digital interactivity, thereby highlighting important managerial implications.
Keywords: advertising; dynamic capabilities; digital technology; digital interactivity; organisational change; change agent.
Corporate crisis management in Italy: execution, monitoring and performance analysis of recovery business and financial plans
by Alberto Tron, Giuseppe Valenza, Andrea Caputo
Abstract: This paper presents a thorough investigation of how corporate crises are managed in the Italian context. It offers an investigation of the legal, accounting, finance and managerial aspects that are involved in the formal resolution of the crisis. The paper adopts a qualitative methodology consisting in a critical review of both the academic and the practical literature to present a systematic overview of how recovery plans are executed, monitored and their performance analysed. The paper presents important insights for researchers, practitioners, entrepreneurs and managers interested in crisis management.
Keywords: crisis management; Italy; restructuring; turnaround; monitoring; finance.
Future strategic plan for national immunisation program in Iran: cost effectiveness of acellular pertussis versus whole-cell
by Roxana Mansour-Ghanaei, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Abdollah Karimi, Mohsen Yaghoubi, Afshin Amiraslany, Amarjit Gill, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei
Abstract: We investigated the new strategic plan of immunisation against whooping cough by conducting cost effectiveness analysis of acellular whooping cough vaccination compared with whole-cell vaccination, a current strategy used in the Iranian national immunisation program. We used a decision tree model together with sensitivity analysis to find the results. The findings of this study suggest that the implementation of acellular immunisation program for children and acellular immunisation program for high-risk groups are the most cost-effective strategies in Iran by US$12,691 incremental cost per disability adjusted life years averted. The results also suggest that acellular vaccine for children is cost-effective scenario in Iran when resulting from whole-cell vaccine associated side-effects is accounted. This study contributes to the literature on the factors that decrease healthcare sector costs. The study also provides critical policy recommendations for the decision makers in the healthcare sector. The findings may be useful for decision makers in the healthcare sectors and the government of Iran.
Keywords: strategic plan; whooping cough; acellular; whole-cell; cost effectiveness; children; Iran.
Special Issue on: Policies and Developmental Studies for Migration and Global Society
World Risk Society. Environmental Risks: A Driving Force for Cosmopolitanism
by Veronika Wittmann
Abstract: Risk society today means world risk society. Its essential features are man-made risks, which have no social, space or time limits. World risk society identifies three main global risks: transnational terrorism, financial hazards and environmental risks. Environmental issues in this framework cannot be seen as problems in the environment of society, but they have to be considered as inner world problems of society itself. \r\nThe interpretational framework of world risk society can be subdivided into three levels: First, global threats cause global commonalities; the contours of a world public are emerging. Secondly, the perception of global self-hazards releases a politically tailored impulse for the revitalization of national policy as well as for the training and design of cooperative international institutions. Thirdly, the delimitation of the political has to be researched: the perceived needs of world risk society give way to a world civil society. Henceforth, in world risk society environmental hazards can be interpreted as a driving force for cosmopolitanism, global environmental risks and their practical and discursive treatment create transnational communities.\r\n
Keywords: world risk society; environmental risks; cosmopolitanism; reflexive modernization; cosmopolitan view; risk society; cosmopolitan moment; global hazards; global commonalities; world civil society.