International Journal of Export Marketing (4 papers in press)
How culture shapes user responses to firm-generated content on social media: the role of cultural dimensions of In-group Collectivism, Indulgence, and Masculinity
by Agnieszka Chwialkowska, Minnie Kontkanen
Abstract: As users across the globe interact with firms on social media, firms operating in international markets are striving to generate desired responses to their social media content in culturally diverse markets. The objective of this study is to establish how user responses to firm-generated content on social media are affected by three cultural dimensions: in-group collectivism, indulgence, and masculinity. To accomplish this objective, we conduct an exploratory inquiry involving research diaries, open-ended narratives, and interviews with informants from Finland and Poland. Our study reveals that it is not the intensity of social media use that differs among cultures with different levels of in-group collectivism, as previously thought, but whether user responses to firm-generated content are public (content sharing, commenting, or clicking like, or private (reading and watching content). We establish how previously neglected cultural dimensions of masculinity vs. femininity and indulgence vs. restraint shape user responses to firm-generated content. Moreover, we demonstrate that cultural dimensions should not be studied in isolation. The study offers critical managerial insights regarding how to appeal to motivations of social media users from different cultural backgrounds.
Keywords: social media; responses to firm-generated content; in-group collectivism; individualism; indulgence vs. restraint; masculinity vs. femininity; social norms; Hofstede cultural dimensions; GLOBE cultural dimensions.
Special Issue on: Challenges and Opportunities of Export Marketing in Emerging Economies
AN EXPERIMENT ON THE EFFECT OF PSYCHIC DISTANCE ON INTERNATIONALIZATION OF RETAILERS
by Flavia Szylit, DELANE BOTELHO
Abstract: One influential factor in internationalization strategy, from export to own subsidiaries, is psychic distance, constituted by cultural and business distances. Many studies have analysed the relationship between internationalization strategy and psychic distance, however all the empirical studies thus far have analyzed the strategy a posteriori. Our research investigates the impacts of psychic distance on the internationalization of retailers in a manipulated environment setting in an emerging market, which allows us to explain a priori the possible motives that lead respondents to determine their strategic decisions. Our results evidence that the business distance influences both the aggressiveness of the entry strategy and the adaptation of the marketing strategy, and that cultural distance influences the adaptation of the marketing strategy. We provide insights for practitioners and academics according to the international marketing literature.
Keywords: psychic distance; cultural distance; business distances; internationalization of firms; entry strategy; marketing strategy; adaptation of the marketing strategy; aggressiveness of the entry strategy; managers with international experience; retailing; emerging markets.
Challenges to the internationalization of the Brazilian fashion industry
by Maria Laura Maclennan, Mariana Suter, Renata Spers
Abstract: This study seeks to compare emerging market enterprises (EMEs) characteristics described in the literature with the particularities found on Brazilian fashion export industry. The study analyses its relevance and proposes a new dimension related to creative industries. A qualitative and exploratory approach was applied. In depth interviews were conducted with market agents (three demanding agents and five support agents to the internationalization of Brazilian fashion). Results reveal challenges that Brazilian exporters face in the fashion industry. Many of them are external to the company, such as high duty and exchange rates variation. There are also internal challenges, such as the lack of quality and customer support.
This research could have a broader sample, despite current one is adequate for the purpose of the study. The study shows attitudes that can mitigate some difficulties and challenges faced by EMEs. Thus, contribute to guide managers in the fashion industry in the search for competitiveness abroad in features such as greater attention to the deadlines agreed, quality in sewing and professionalism in the relationship with foreign agents. This research explains competitiveness according to recent studies and expands understanding by bridging fashion with EMEs literature. The study points out the main challenges towards an increased maturity in international operations and provides novel insights about opportunities of development business for Brazilian fashion exporter.
Keywords: Brazilian exporters; Brazilian fashion; emerging markets; competitiveness on exports.
Special Issue on: Market Entry Strategies Agenda Exporting, IJVs/ISAs, Acquisitions and Greenfields
Market Entry Strategies and Performance of Indian Firms in Germany
by Ritam Garg
Abstract: This study explores the relationship between market entry strategies of emerging market firms, by focusing particularly on Indian firms, and their post entry performance in a developed market-Germany. Based on the learning theory of internationalization, hypotheses were developed on the impact of different market entry modes on performance, and on the moderating effect of international exposure on this relationship. The hypotheses are tested against a dataset of 159 Indian firms in Germany by using secondary data. Multivariate regression analyses show strong interaction effects of international exposure, but only weak direct effects of different market entry modes on performance. The study contributes to the market entry literature in general and provides new insights to the analysis of market entry strategies of emerging market firms in particular.
Keywords: Learning Theory; Market Entry Strategy; Emerging Market Firms; Performance; International Exposure; India.