International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management (14 papers in press)
Correlations between On-site Screening Methods and Laboratory Analyses of Oil-contaminated Fueling Station Sites
by Tsung Nan Weng, Chen Wuing Liu, Wen Yao Liu
Abstract: In order to assess the potential of soil contamination from petroleum-based products and determine the soil samples required for laboratory analysis, investigators generally use portable instruments such as photo ionization detectors (PIDs) or flame ionization detectors (FIDs) for on-site screening. In this study, PIDs, FIDs, and turbidimetric test kits were integratively used to screen 47 soil samples from 28 fueling station sites suspected of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination. The PIDs and FIDs achieved high accuracy in screening sites contaminated by gasoline (TPHC6-C9); the test kits yielded high accuracy in screening those contaminated by diesel fuel (TPHC10-C40), as well as high correlation with laboratory analysis. Regression analyses showed high coefficients of determination (R2), reaching up to 0.819 (PIDs versus TPHC6-C9), 0.788 (FIDs versus TPHC6-C9), and 0.653 (test kits versus TPHC10-C40). The integration of PIDs, FIDs, and test kits with laboratory analysis can significantly increase the efficiency and accuracy of soil contamination investigations. We suggest that the application of turbidimetric test kits to screen potential oil-contaminated fueling station sites can produce accurate assessment results.
Keywords: total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); soil contamination; turbidimetric test kits; field screening; fueling station sites.
Special Issue on: Ecological Economics in Developing and Transition Countries
The main trends of innovation capacity influence on environmental situation: the case of Ukraine and Poland
by Anna Chernoivanova, Kazimier Wackowski
Abstract: This study explores the interrelations between environmental quality (atmospheric emissions) and the level of innovations in Ukraine and Poland. An in-depth analysis of the environmental conditions and atmospheric emissions shows that changes of environmental indicators are related to the development of innovation. The volume of polluting emissions is determined for both countries considering the achieved level of innovations. Within a paper, the category of innovation is quantified using: the number of innovation workers, the share of expenditures on research-and-development (R&D) in the GDP; the share of expenditures on R&D in the total cost, the educational level and the GDP growth pattern.
Keywords: innovation work; innovation activities; relation of innovation work with environmental conditions; innovation work indicators; Ukraine; Poland.
Decoupling of GDP and air pollution in the Czech Republic: Trend analysis and policy story behind
by Petr Sauer, Alena Hadrabova, Jaroslav Kreuz
Abstract: What is now the Czech Republic was industrialised already when the territory was part of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire before 1918. The economic structure did not change much in the period between the two World Wars. Developing heavy industry was also a priority of the communist governments economic policy in 19481989. The economic structure changed during the transition process after 1990, but the pre-existing industries still dominate today. This structure together with the energy resource base, depending on low-quality coal, causes significant air pollution problems. Relatively recently elaborated long-term series of consolidated data on the GDP before 1990 offer an opportunity for using decoupling models to analyse major air pollutants SO2, NOx, and particulates with CO2 as one of the contributors to climate change. The results look unconventional as they show some turning points already since the 1980s, followed by major improvements since the 1990s, especially during the transition period. The paper also reviewed the air quality policies during the different historical periods. The discussion has shown that, despite significant social changes, some modes of environmental policy are "path-dependent" in the countrys overall history.
Keywords: economic development; air pollution; environmental policy history; decoupling.
BIOGAS AS AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE IN UKRAINE AND ISRAEL: CURRENT ISSUES AND BENEFITS
by Jan Cebula, Olena Chygyrn, Samuel Chayen, Tetyana Pimonenko
Abstract: An increasing number of countries develop and promote renewables which influence their economy. This paper analyses and evaluates the energy potential of biomass in Ukraine as a whole and in the agricultural sector in particular. The benefits for energy (biogas from manure), environment and economy are analysed. The economic effect of implementing a biogas installation plant in Ukraine is addressed. Biogas development should occur according to the main principles of sustainable development. The main practical steps of establishing a Ukrainian biogas market are described.
Keywords: biogas; biofuel; renewable; potential; benefits; efficiency; agricultural sector; demand; cost; investment; sustainable development; biogas market.
Consumer behaviour change through education for sustainable development: case of Latvia
by Tatjana Tambovceva, Dzineta Dimante, Dzintra Atstaja
Abstract: More sustainability and sustainable development are major challenges faced by society today. Consumers choices and the use of products and services have important impacts on the environment; consequently, consumer behaviour is crucial. Education and pedagogics help select real sustainable living attitudes of students, their families and friends. This case study describes the mid-term results of a teaching assignment and survey in three Latvian higher education organizations which involve system thinking and students action on consumer choices of household chemicals. The multilayer results provide insight into the consumption of these chemicals and show that one year after the assignment, students changed their behaviour. Results also show that students households use considerable amounts of chemicals, and in most cases before the assignment, did not pay attention to their health and environmental impacts. The method used is applicable at all educational levels and in different study areas, and for a variety of household products.
Keywords: consumer behaviour; education for sustainable development; household chemicals; self-audit; teaching methods.
Economic and social dimensions of ecological conflicts: root causes, risks, prevention and mitigation measures
by Viktor Sabadash, Pavlo Denysenko
Abstract: An effective management system of natural resources use and the implementation of the principles of sustainable development requires, above all, the improvement of the concepts of environmental services and their more effective use. The scarcity of natural resources, their uneven distribution, and unequal access, as well as unfavourable economic, social and cultural-historical factors often underlie ecological conflicts. A critical analysis of the economic, environmental and social contradictions in society as well as of the main theoretical and methodological aspects of ecological conflicts helps to determine the importance of ecological and economic security needs. This paper reveals the need for market agents to develop a consolidated approach to the prevention and resolution of ecological conflicts.
Keywords: ecological conflict; cooperation; deficit; policy; natural resources; sustainable development.
The impact of environmental determinants of sustainable agriculture on country food security
by Yuriy Bilan, Serhiy Lyeonov, Natalia Stoyanets, Alina Vysochyna
Abstract: The Food Security Index, which consists of 19 indicators that reflect specific aspects of food availability, food access, food stability and food utilization (all statistical information is accumulated by the FAO in the section food security), was developed to assess the impact of environmental determinants of sustainable food security on the state of food security in this study. The formation of the integral index was carried out using one of the most common methods of diminishing the sample size Principal Component Analysis in software STATA SE / 12. The proportions of the inclusion of each of the 19 indicators are based on the eigenvalues of the 1st principal component that explains 48.37% of the variation. Identification of the influence of the individual parameters of the environmental factors on the Food Security Index was carried out using panel data regression analysis (random-effect GLS regression) in software STATA SE / 12 for the sample of 28 post socialistic countries for the period 2000-2016. Empirical results allowed to reveal a statistically significant positive effect of most ecological determinants of sustainable agro-management on food security. While the impact of growth in coal use for electricity and fossil fuels is insignificant, which can be explained by the restructuring of the energy sector. However, the increase in the consumption of electricity received from other sources (NPGS, HPP), as well as the growth of unproductive energy losses during its consumption, negatively affects the food security; it stimulates the introduction of energy-efficient and energy-saving technologies in the agro-industrial complex, and also increases the use of biofuels and agricultural waste to produce electricity.
Keywords: sustainable agriculture; Global Development Goals; panel data regression analysis; Principal Component Analysis; food security.
The impact of economic performance on environmental quality in developing countries
by Lina Sineviciene, Oleksandr Kubatko, Oleksandr Derykolenko, Oleksandra Kubatko
Abstract: The relationship between environmental quality and economic performance using a generalized least squares (GLS) regression framework is assessed for 15 developing countries during the period 20002010. The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is used as an indicator of environmental quality. The results do not show an inverted U-shape relationship nor the effect of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Concerning the environmental performance, the GDP per capita and energy use have the most significant explanatory power on pollution for developing countries. The other economic determinants of pollution are trade openness, financial development, foreign direct investment, and urbanization are of indirect influence because they are strongly correlated with economic growth and energy use. The obtained results show a positive and statistically significant relationship between economic performance and environmental quality, and empirically an increase in GDP per capita by USD 100 improves EPI in absolute value by 0.1. Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) is statistically significant and negatively correlated with environmental performance. Thus, 100 kilograms of oil equivalent per capita reduces EPI in absolute value by 0.2. One of the policy implications of research is to stimulate economic development, while reducing oil consumption.
Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve; environmental quality; economic development; panel data analysis; developing countries.
National culture and attitude to ecology: on the example of Ukraine and Mongolia
by Tetyana Blyznyuk, Batkhuu Gavaa, Tetyana Lepeyko
Abstract: Inefficiency of the economic system and specific features of the national culture are the main causes of environmental crises. This study identifies relationship between the characteristics of the national culture of a country and its attitude to the environment in Ukraine and Mongolia. Hofstede's method is used comparing the main cultural parameters. The two cultural parameters of Hofstedes approach ("masculinity femininity" and "long term orientation short term orientation") largely explain the attitude to ecology in these countries; environmental indicators in Ukraine and Mongolia are suggested for these parameters. This analysis indicates that both countries face an environmental crisis. At the same time, prerequisites for ecological revival exist in the national cultures; they indicate readiness to changes in attitudes towards ecology.
Keywords: national culture; Ukraine; Mongolia; cultural dimensions; masculinity; femininity; uncertainty avoidance; attitude towards ecology; Ukrainian culture; Mongolian culture.
Regional differentiation of electricity prices: social-equitable approach
by Grzegorz Mentel, Tetiana Vasylieva, Yaryna Samusevych, Svitlana Pryymenko
Abstract: Based on the principle of social equitability and the concept of green energy, a new approach to electricity pricing on local level has been developed. The balance of electricity production and its consumption by the population of a certain territory, the volumes of direct and indirect hazardous substances emissions from the energy sector and the structure of the energy capacities of the region are the main factors determining the electricity pricing at the regional level. The calculations were carried out on the statistical data of 22 regions of Ukraine up to 2016. It is proposed to implement regional differentiation of retail tariffs for electricity. It is advisable to apply a reduction in fixed tariffs for electricity in 13 regions of Ukraine where the largest energy capacities concentrated. The increase in the electricity tariff is expected to be carried out in 9 regions that do not meet the needs of the population with the help of energy of own production. The use of correction factors provides for the formation of long-term incentives for switching to the production of green energy both in regions that have a deficit and an excess of energy capacity.
Keywords: electricity pricing; regional tariff; carbon emissions; energy consumption; social equitability.
Is phosphorus really a scarce resource?
by Jörg Köhn, Dana Zimmer, Peter Leinweber
Abstract: Phosphorus is not a physically scarce resource but more than 90 perrncent of the stock is not technically extractable today. Economic scarcity takesrnthis and other aspects into considera-tion. The price spike in 2007/8 induced arnscientific debate on a "peak P" similar to the dis-pute on the oil peak back inrnthe 1970ies. The processing of phosphate rock to P fertilizers fed the GreenrnRevolution and, therefore, was seen a chance to overcome the hunger on earth.rnThus, the expansive use of P had serious negative impacts to the reserve stockrnof P. Howev-er, if and only if business sees a certain price margin as arnthreshold beyond P cannot be ex-plored and marketed with benefit forrnagricultural use in this particular case only P gets real-ly a scarce resource. The peak price shock in P had almost other reasons than a real physical shortcoming in the reserve stocks. Moreover, if a certain price threshold would be exceeded and agriculture and industry still demand P, recycling technologies and better management practices are already at hand to supply enough P for sustaining food production. Additional-ly, a consequent recycling of P rich wastes and usage of P accumulated in soils and sedi-ments cannot only set limits for P pricing but also revoke postulated P peak and P scarcity.
Keywords: Phosphorus; peak P; P-reserves; P-recycling; P-pricing.
THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTEGRATION ON THE NORTHEAST COAST OF BRAZIL: THE CASE OF PECÉM BEACH-CEARÁ
by Selma Alcantara, Flávia Froes
Abstract: The Pecem Industrial and Port Complex ("CIPP") was established in order to support the economic development in the state of Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. Pecem is a municipal district of São Gonçalo do Amarante Municipality. Since then the population and the surroundings have been subjected to repeated cultural, economic and environmental changes. This study highlights the challenges before and after the installation of the CIPP, while considering the sustainability discourse linked to local development. State, community and private institutions are involved as stakeholders. The research addresses the following questions: Did the regional development plan in Pecém consider how CIPP could influence the sustainability of the community? How does the regional development deal with the discussion about economic growth and sustainable development? The literature and fieldwork, based on local daily observation and semi-structured interviews, highlighted the following principles of ecological economics: sustainable scale, fair distribution, and efficient allocation. The results show that many residents know the word "sustainability" but the targeting actions are still not part of their daily lives. Population growth in this area was not accompanied by a policy promoting and stimulating sustainable growth from the start. Using this context, companies that settled in the region and selected partners drafted the "Pact for Pecém". This document focused on environmental management and social policies to promote sustainable development in the region.
Keywords: regional development; environmental transition; sustainability.
Integral assessment of national economy sustainable development
by Luc Hens, Shkarupa Olena, Karintseva Oleksandra, Kharchenko Mykola
Abstract: This study is about sustainable development and identifies factors that determine the development of Ukraine. Issues in assessing sustainable development are discussed. It is shown that many indicators that are applicable worldwide are insufficient to make managerial decisions at the national level, in a country with an economy in transition. The analysis shows that there is no comprehensive monitoring of environmental, social and economic indicators in Ukraine. The proposed characterization of trends in the development of the national economy is based on a comprehensive, integral analysis of environmental, economic and social indicators. The criteria for the selection of the indicators, the establishment of standards and factors of development are the main prerequisites for a mechanism ensuring sustainable development. A comprehensive and representative system of indicators is based on the existing statistical information and allows determining a combined sustainability index for the country. Based on international experience, a three-level system of indicators is proposed together with an integrated index of sustainable development. The method allows assessing the development of the different regions of Ukraine and identifies the current trends of their development. This allows observing and characterizing dynamic changes in the complex system of indicators. Interpreting the results is facilitated using criteria determining trends in the development of the region.
Keywords: sustainable development; business; models; evaluation; region; indicators; ecological modernization.
Corporate environmentalism: An assessment of sustainability reporting among firms in Ghana
by Albert Ahenkan, Alice Anima Aboagye, Emmanuel Boon
Abstract: The development of every country ought to be sustainable and for this to happen environmental and social issues must be embedded in national development policies and programmes. This article argues that corporate environmentalism and sustainability reporting are key instruments for achieving socio-economic progress in Ghana and the goals of the United Nations post 2030 Development Agenda. To support this argument, the level and quality of sustainability reporting by firms listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange are critically examined. Using purposive and convenience sampling techniques, thirteen of these companies were selected and investigated on their engagement in sustainability reporting using the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) framework. Data and information gleaned from the annual reports of the sampled firms were studied and subjected to content analysis with the help of GRI G4 reporting analytical benchmark. The results indicate that the quality of sustainability reporting is low though a few of the disclosures made by the firms met the GRI framework requirements. In addition, only a few firms extensively disclosed on most of the aspects and metrics specified in the framework. It is recommended that sustainability reporting by firms in Ghana should be made mandatory and not voluntary. The Ghana Stock Exchange and the Securities and Exchange Commission in the country should therefore educate listed firms to report on their sustainability programmes and activities.
Keywords: corporate environmentalism; sustainable development; sustainability reporting.