International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management (12 papers in press)
Drivers for environmental technologies selection in the shipping industry: A case study of the North European Sulphur Emission Control Area
by Roberto Rivas Hermann
Abstract: This study tackles the question: How do new air pollution regulations interact with other eco-innovation drivers in the adoption of environmental technologies in the shipping industry? In the North Sea, Baltic Sea, and the English Channel, short sea shipping is subject to strict requirements on sulphur emissions by the European Union and the International Maritime Organization after the creation of a Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA). The creation of this SECA creates a critical case for analyzing the interactions of the regulations with technological pull, market demand, and green business strategies. The study found that a globalized industrial sector, such as shipping, tends to oppose regional regulations. These regulations benefit from market conditions which slightly push the shipping companies to embrace environmental technologies when operational costs increase due to expenses such as increasing fuel prices. Meanwhile, voluntary initiatives like participating in eco-labelling schemes can motivate eco-innovations, especially cleaner-processes, as shipping firms need to increase fuel efficiency to reduce high operational costs within SECA sulphur limits. The research contributes to the ongoing debate about eco-innovation characteristics in different industrial sectors, but more specifically, it moves forward the proposition of dynamic interactions between regulation, technology, business and markets, which modify the dominant focus on market pull and technological push.
Keywords: Sulphur; shipping industry; eco-innovation; environmental technologies; environmental regulation; MARPOL.
Assessing preferences for sewer network asset management in France
by Anne Rozan, Bénédicte Rulleau, Caty Werey
Abstract: This article aims to contribute to the limited literature dealing with the impacts of sewer network disturbances on neighbouring residents by exploring the preferences of residents in the Eurom
Keywords: economic valuation; sewerage; flooding;.
Agricultural use of sewage sludge in India: benefits and potential risk of heavy metals contamination and possible remediation options- a review
by Sushanta Saha, Bholanath Saha, Sajal Pati, Biplab Pal, Gorachand Hazra
Abstract: Application of municipal sewage sludge in agriculture is one of the best options for its safe disposal as it provides an opportunity to recycle plant essential nutrients (N, P, secondary nutrients and micronutrients) and improves soil physical, chemical and biological properties due to high organic matter content. Yield and productivity of a wide range of crops has been improved due to soil application of sewage sludge than that of well-fertilized control. Depending upon the origin, sewage sludge often contains very high amount of potentially toxic heavy metals and as such their excessive use for a longer period increases metal bioavailability in soil and ultimately causes food chain contamination. In this article we reviewed the available information on various aspects of land application of municipal sewage sludges on crop yield, soil fertility and problems of heavy metals accumulation in edible portion of the crops as well as possible options for remediation of heavy metals toxicity in contaminated soils to explore the possibility of safe recycling this waste in agriculture.
Keywords: Contamination; bioavailability; food chain; heavy metals; nitrogen; phosphorus; productivity; remediation; sewage sludge; yield.
Actinobacteria are better bioremediating agents for removal of toxic heavy metals: An overview
by Kannabiran Krishnan
Abstract: Accumulation of high concentrations of heavy metals in the environment can cause numerous health problems in humans and also create a lot of ecological problems. Increased concentration of heavy metals in soil not only causes soil contamination but also become toxic to microorganisms. Heavy metals get accumulated within the tissues of the organism and at various levels of the ecological chain; they also cause a decrease in the biomass and biological diversity by affecting the growth, morphology, and activity of the organism. Removal of hazardous heavy metals and radionuclide-contamination through biological means has received considerable attention in the recent past. Bioremediation using microorganisms is receiving much attention due to their efficiency and safety. Actinobacteria are considered as one the powerful microorganism having significant bioremediation potential. It forms one of the most important groups of microbes, responsible for degradation and transformation of organic and metal substrates. They can degrade high doses of pesticides, chemical complexes, and heavy metals. Microbes respond to different xenobiotics in the environment and they do produce different stress proteins during their detoxification process in the environment. Actinomycetes utilize toxins as carbon sources and in turn synthesize commercially viable antibiotics, enzymes, and proteins. In this review, the efficacy of actinomycetes in bioremediation of heavy metals such as copper, chromium, mercury, lead, zinc, and cadmium was discussed.
Keywords: Actinobacteria; bioremediation; heavy metals; heavy metal resistance.
Coagulation process for fluoride removal by comparative evaluation of Alum & PACl coagulants with subsequent membrane microfiltration
by Madhu Agarwal, Swati Dubey, A.B. Gupta
Abstract: Coagulation based Nalgonda technique is a batch defluoridation process which involves addition of aluminium salts, lime followed by rapid mixing, flocculation, sedimentation, but suffers from the limitation of high residual aluminium (>0.2ppm) in treated water. In this paper, removal of fluoride from water using poly aluminium chloride (PACl) as coagulant, was examined for different fluoride concentrations of 2-10 ppm, in batch& continuous mode. The fluoride removal efficiency of PACl was compared with that of alum both in batch & continuous mode. The optimum dosage for PACl was 438-2410 ppm and for alum, the dose was 275-1510 ppm for treating fluoride concentrations of 2-10 ppm. The results showed that PACl was equally effective in bringing the fluoride level to the acceptable limit (1ppm) in water with half lime dosage, compared to alum. Residual fluoride in dissolved form was found to be 0.66-0.83 for alum and 0.78-0.99 for PACl. It was also observed that the residual aluminium decreases from 0.46 (alum) to 0.34 (PACl) when initial fluoride concentration in water was 4 ppm. After subsequent microfiltration, residual Al was found to be 0.182ppm (alum) & 0.143ppm (PACl). From the results, it can be stated that the residual turbidity & TDS is higher when treated with alum, as compared to PACl. Thus, switching the process to continuous mode & replacing alum with PACl with a sequential microfiltration, could meet quality criteria for drinking water.
Keywords: Alum; Defluoridation; Fluoride removal efficiency; Coagulation Technique; Polyaluminium chloride; Sweep floc; Bridging action; Membrane.
An Approach for analysis the effects of Solid Waste Management in Slum Areas by Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) Analysis
by Nekram Rawal, Shweta Rai, S.K. Duggal
Abstract: Magh Mela (Mela) is a mass gathering festival and one of the greatest annual religious affair for Hindus in India. It is held on the banks of the confluence (SANGAM) of the three great rivers Ganga, Yamuna and the mythological Saraswati in religious holy city Allahabad (India). It starts on the day of Makar Sankranti i.e. 14th January of every year, and it continues for a stretch of 45 days. This study deals with the analysis of its on solid waste management (SWM) systems in slum areas near the confluence (Daraganj, Allahpur and Kydganj) before, during and after the Mela. A survey was conducted before, after and during the Mela. The questionnaire comprising of physical/chemical, biological/ecological, social/cultural and economical/operational aspects was prepared for this survey. The responses were analyzed with Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) tool to quantify the intangible effects on the environmental score (ES). The results were used to compare the cumulative impacts in a rational manner. Environmental Performance Index (EPI) was computed for all the three phases to intelligibly ascertain the efficacy of the systems/methodologies involved in SWM system. The SWM system did show remarkable improvements during the Mela compared to the conditions of others phases, but after the Mela, the systems briskly morphs into its maiden substandard state.
Keywords: Solid Waste Management; Priority Vector; Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM); Environmental Performance Index (EPI).
Solving the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Problem: Socio-economic Assessment on sustainable E-waste management in South Eastern Nigeria
by Johnson Ojiyovwi Okorhi, Joe E. Amadi‐Echendu, Helen Olubunmi Aderemi, Roland Uhunmwangho, Osita Benedict Agbatah
Abstract: Nigeria still considers Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) problem as more of socio-economic benefits rather than long-term human and environmental impacts. The study assessed the socio-economic factors affecting the trend of WEEE generation and handling in South Eastern Nigeria. The research concept identified key strategic aspects relative to socio-economic assessment of WEEE management. It used investigative approach through questionnaire administration. 20 local government areas were purposively selected from 5 mutually exclusive strata. Data from 201 respondents were analyzed using linear multiple regression and percentage. Results revealed that monetary provisions and public participation does not have significant relationship with WEEE generation and collection. The study revealed that the factors determined as affecting the trend of WEEE generation and collection cut across cheaper pricing of WEEE, availability of WEEE, quality/superiority of E.o.L EEE to newer ones, durability of device, low income consumers and the accessibility of end-users to WEEE.
Keywords: Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE); Socio-economic Assessment; South Eastern Nigeria; WEEE Framework.
Traffic emission modeling at road transport corridors in Delhi
by Amrit Kumar, Rajeev Mishra
Abstract: The Environmental pollution caused by motor vehicles has increased substantially in recent times, particularly in urban areas. This is a direct result of the continual rise in vehicle density at various transport corridors of the major cities worldwide triggered by favourable economic conditions leading to increased demands. There has been an ever-seen increase in the vehicle ownership levels, especially in Indian mega-cities like Delhi which has distinctly been credited with dangerously high vehicular pollution levels. The tremendous growth in vehicle numbers is giving rise to an alarming concentration of various air pollutants in Delhi that too exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and guidelines formulated by World Health Organization (WHO). The present study has been undertaken aiming at pollution estimation for different transport corridors of Delhi city with a view to analyzing the changing traffic composition trends and its impact on the levels of ambient air pollutants. From the study, it was found that Ring road (Safdarjung) had the highest concentration of CO and PM10 as 3066 and 422
Keywords: Exposure; Mega-cities; Public health; Transport corridor; Vehicular emission.
Numerical Investigations on Feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Remediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbonc in an Unsaturated Subsurface System beneath an Onshore Surface Spill Site
by VASUDEVAN MANGOTTIRI, BERLIN MOHANDHAS, MOHANASUNDARAM S, SURESH KUMAR GOVINDARAJAN, INDUMATHI NAMBI
Abstract: The adaptability of in situ remediation techniques for low soluble fractions in petroleum products such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) is generally constrained due to their limited bio-availability owing to hydrophobicity. In the present study, a numerical model is developed to evaluate the effect of unsaturated hydraulic properties, equilibrium chemical partitioning as well as coupled reactions on the fate and transport of a typical PAH (phenanthrene) originating from a surface spill. Simulation of surfactant enhanced remediation using a non-ionic surfactant (Triton N-101) resulted in significant modifications in unsaturated hydraulic properties. Presence of natural organic matter (adsorption partitioning coefficient of 8.97
Keywords: Contaminant transport; Numerical model; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon; Surfactant enhanced remediation; Unsaturated subsurface.
Special Issue on: Entrepreneurship and Sustainability A Skill India Perspective
Antecedents of Consumer Environmental Attitude and Intention to Purchase Green Products: Moderating Role of Perceived Product Necessity
by Chirag Malik, Neeraj Singhal, Surendra Tiwari
Abstract: With the increasing environmental problems, companies have started realizing their moral and ethical duties and gradually adopting sustainable business practices. The challenging task of communicating with the consumers with varied attitude towards the environment can be undertaken by understanding the factors influencing environmental attitude. This paper aims at identifying the antecedents of consumer environmental attitude and studying its relationship with the green purchase intention. Another objective of this paper is to find out the moderating effect of perceived product necessity on the relationship of consumer environmental attitude and intention to purchase green product. A conceptual model has been proposed and tested using confirmatory factor analysis and SEM. From a dataset of 729 Indian consumers, it has been found that four antecedents; environmental knowledge, environmental concern, interpersonal influence and collectivism are positively related to consumer environmental attitude which is further positively related to intention to purchase green product. It has also been found that perceived product necessity does not moderate the relationship between environmental attitude and green purchase intention.
Keywords: Consumer environmental attitude; environmental knowledge; environmental concern; collectivism; individualism; green purchase intention; perceived product necessity; structural equation modeling; green consumers.
Modelling Effectiveness of Organisational Learning: An Interpretive Structural Modelling Technique
by Mani Bansal, Anil Vij, Ruchi Nayyar
Abstract: Although organizational learning theory and practice has been studied by the practitioners and scholars over the past several years, there is much to be explored regarding interactions between variables related to organizational learning. Learning starts from individuals and ultimately forms the basis of organizational learning. In the present paper, interrelationship of variables related to effective organisational learning has been studied using Interpretive Structural Modelling. The model aims to identify the strategic and performance variables so that their role dominance can be identified. Further these variables have been categorized according to their driving power and dependence.
Keywords: Organizational Learning; Interpretive Structural Modelling Technique.
AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE OF PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYEES
by Padmini Jayagopal
Abstract: Work-life balance has turned into an imperative issue in the twenty-first century. Work and family life are two sides of an indistinguishable coin from both are interconnected and meddle with each other. Expanded work requests meddle with family life, and then again, family requests meddle with the work-life of employees. In this way, clashes happen, which adversely influence an employees performance at work and also at home. Taking a gander at the pattern, organisations have progressively begun to take a dynamic enthusiasm for executing rehearses that empower employees to adapt to the work-life balance issues. The review endeavored to investigate the work-life balance practices of chosen public sector undertaking. The finding proposed that public sector undertaking in India have understood that work-life balance practices are pivotal for organizational performance.
Keywords: Work Life Balance; Organizational Behavior; Organizational Development; Employee welfare; Stress.