Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management


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International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management (21 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Economic and social dimensions of ecological conflicts: root causes, risks, prevention and mitigation measures   Order a copy of this article
    by Viktor Sabadash, Pavlo Denysenko 
    Abstract: An effective management system of natural resources use and the implementation of the principles of sustainable development requires, above all, the improvement of the concepts of environmental services and their more effective use. The scarcity of natural resources, their uneven distribution, and unequal access, as well as unfavourable economic, social and cultural-historical factors often underlie ecological conflicts. A critical analysis of the economic, environmental and social contradictions in society as well as of the main theoretical and methodological aspects of ecological conflicts helps to determine the importance of ecological and economic security needs. This paper reveals the need for market agents to develop a consolidated approach to the prevention and resolution of ecological conflicts.
    Keywords: ecological conflict; cooperation; deficit; policy; natural resources; sustainable development.

  • Correlations between On-site Screening Methods and Laboratory Analyses of Oil-contaminated Fueling Station Sites   Order a copy of this article
    by Tsung Nan Weng, Chen Wuing Liu, Wen Yao Liu 
    Abstract: In order to assess the potential of soil contamination from petroleum-based products and determine the soil samples required for laboratory analysis, investigators generally use portable instruments such as photo ionization detectors (PIDs) or flame ionization detectors (FIDs) for on-site screening. In this study, PIDs, FIDs, and turbidimetric test kits were integratively used to screen 47 soil samples from 28 fueling station sites suspected of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination. The PIDs and FIDs achieved high accuracy in screening sites contaminated by gasoline (TPHC6-C9); the test kits yielded high accuracy in screening those contaminated by diesel fuel (TPHC10-C40), as well as high correlation with laboratory analysis. Regression analyses showed high coefficients of determination (R2), reaching up to 0.819 (PIDs versus TPHC6-C9), 0.788 (FIDs versus TPHC6-C9), and 0.653 (test kits versus TPHC10-C40). The integration of PIDs, FIDs, and test kits with laboratory analysis can significantly increase the efficiency and accuracy of soil contamination investigations. We suggest that the application of turbidimetric test kits to screen potential oil-contaminated fueling station sites can produce accurate assessment results.
    Keywords: total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH); soil contamination; turbidimetric test kits; field screening; fueling station sites.

  • Integral assessment of national economy sustainable development   Order a copy of this article
    by Olena Shkarupa 
    Abstract: This study is about sustainable development and identifies factors that determine the development of Ukraine. Issues in assessing sustainable development are discussed. It is shown that many indicators that are applicable worldwide are insufficient to make managerial decisions at the national level, in a country with an economy in transition. The analysis shows that there is no comprehensive monitoring of environmental, social and economic indicators in Ukraine. The proposed characterization of trends in the development of the national economy is based on a comprehensive, integral analysis of environmental, economic and social indicators. The criteria for the selection of the indicators, the establishment of standards and factors of development are the main prerequisites for a mechanism ensuring sustainable development. A comprehensive and representative system of indicators is based on the existing statistical information and allows determining a combined sustainability index for the country. Based on international experience, a three-level system of indicators is proposed together with an integrated index of sustainable development. The method allows assessing the development of the different regions of Ukraine and identifies the current trends of their development. This allows observing and characterizing dynamic changes in the complex system of indicators. Interpreting the results is facilitated using criteria determining trends in the development of the region.
    Keywords: sustainable development; business; models; evaluation; region; indicators; ecological modernization.

  • Corporate environmentalism: An assessment of sustainability reporting among firms in Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Albert Ahenkan 
    Abstract: The development of every country ought to be sustainable and for this to happen environmental and social issues must be embedded in national development policies and programmes. This article argues that corporate environmentalism and sustainability reporting are key instruments for achieving socio-economic progress in Ghana and the goals of the United Nations post 2030 Development Agenda. To support this argument, the level and quality of sustainability reporting by firms listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange are critically examined. Using purposive and convenience sampling techniques, thirteen of these companies were selected and investigated on their engagement in sustainability reporting using the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) framework. Data and information gleaned from the annual reports of the sampled firms were studied and subjected to content analysis with the help of GRI G4 reporting analytical benchmark. The results indicate that the quality of sustainability reporting is low though a few of the disclosures made by the firms met the GRI framework requirements. In addition, only a few firms extensively disclosed on most of the aspects and metrics specified in the framework. It is recommended that sustainability reporting by firms in Ghana should be made mandatory and not voluntary. The Ghana Stock Exchange and the Securities and Exchange Commission in the country should therefore educate listed firms to report on their sustainability programmes and activities.
    Keywords: corporate environmentalism; sustainable development; sustainability reporting.

  • Removal of methyl orange from synthetic wastewater using analcime-C, MCM-41 and γ-Al2O3 composite membranes   Order a copy of this article
    by R. Vinoth Kumar, Kannan Pakshirajan, G. Pugazhenthi 
    Abstract: The present study describes the fabrication of analcime-C, MCM-41 and γ-Al2O3 composite membranes and their potential in removal of anionic dye from aqueous solution. The hydrothermal crystallisation technique was employed to deposit the charged inorganic oxides such as analcime-C, MCM-41 and γ-Al2O3 on the low cost ceramic support. The formation and purity of analcime-C, MCM-41 and γ-Al2O3 powders were verified by XRD analysis. The porosity, average pore size and water permeability of analcime-C composite membrane were calculated as 24% (23% and 29% for MCM-41 and γ-Al2O3 composite membrane), 0.155 μm (0.173 and 0.970 μm for MCM-41 and γ-Al2O3 composite membrane) and 4.53 × 10−8 m3/m2s.kPa (6.05 × 10−8 and 8.23 × 10−6 m3/m2s.kPa for MCM-41 and γ-Al2O3 composite membrane), respectively. To identify the effectiveness of the prepared composite membranes, applied pressure of the filtration process and initial dye concentration was varied to study their influence on the permeate flux and percentage of dye removal. The results showed that the percentage of dye removal is found to be reduced while increasing applied pressure for all the membranes. The maximum percentage of methyl orange removal was exhibited as 67% for analcime-C, 44% for MCM-41 and 56% for γ-Al2O3 membrane.
    Keywords: membrane; removal; composite; analcime-C; MCM-41; γ-Al2O3; dye; FESEM; X-ray diffraction method; XRD; porosity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2018.10019111
  • A comparative study of hexavalent chromium estimation in drinking water by direct aspiration method and chelation extraction method   Order a copy of this article
    by Mayur Panchal, Sandip Kumar Ghosh, Vincent Joaquim Braganza 
    Abstract: With the development of industries, an increase in the discharge of toxic effluent has been observed which causes detrimental effects on living creatures and the environment. This study is mainly focused on estimation methods of hexavalent chromium in drinking water samples and their comparison. The study area is the state of Gujarat in India, and touches South Gujarat where industries have proliferated. In the present work, a comparative study has been done using two different methods for the estimation of hexavalent chromium in drinking water. The results show that chelation extraction method (CEM) is better as compared to direct aspiration method (DAM). Furthermore, we have established that the hexavalent chromium content in drinking water samples collected from the South Gujarat area is several folds higher as compared to the permissible limits suggested by Public Health Goal which is 0.02 ppb.
    Keywords: metal toxicity; chromium estimation; direct aspiration method; DAM; chelation extraction method; CEM; drinking water; atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2018.10019112
  • Identification and characterisation of two novel azo dye degrading microorganisms from contaminated ground water and soil of a textile mill   Order a copy of this article
    by Sudipta Kumar Mohanty, Usharani Longjam, Priyanka Patel, Mallappa Kumara Swamy, Anuradha Maniyam 
    Abstract: Bacterial isolates were tested for biodegradability potential of azodyes. S1 and S2 isolate effectively decolorised all azodyes tested within 72 hours. These isolates were later characterised as Achromobacter and Bacillus sp. The resistance traits on plasmid were evidenced from curing experiments. Sodiumdodecyl sulphate (SDS) and rifampicin (9 mg/ml) was found to be most effective curing agent. Achromobacter sp. was positive for tryptophanase, indole and citrate permease with ability to ferment glucose and produced gas. While, S2 showed the presence of tryptophanase, but found negative for the urease. Both the isolates were able to sustain salt concentration between 4%-10% suggesting moderately halotolerant. Bacillus sp. exhibited tolerance to heavy metal, zinc and arsenic up to 8 M; copper, cobalt and nickel to an extent of 500 mM. Efficient decolorising activity, heavy metal and salt tolerance capability indicates that isolated strains can be utilised effectively for the treatment of effluents in the dye industries.
    Keywords: azo dyes; microbes; industry; environment; degradation; pollution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2018.10019118
  • Health risk and bioaccessibility assessment of lead in waste from the Malaysian Lynas rare earth processing plant using an in vitro DIN gastrointestinal model   Order a copy of this article
    by Yasmin Mohd Idris Perama, Muhammad Zulhilmi Hussin, Syazwani Mohd Fadzil, Khoo Kok Siong 
    Abstract: This study examines the bioaccessibility of lead from water leach purification (WLP) waste collected from the Malaysian Lynas rare earth processing plant using an in vitro DIN digestion model. A contamination factor (Cf) value of 2.7 was obtained from study results, which is considered to be a moderate level of Pb contamination in WLP waste. The bioaccessibility of Pb in digested WLP waste ranged between 0.064 ± 0.010 to 0.080 ± 0.010% and 0.018 ± 0.013 to 0.103 ± 0.046% in the gastric and gastrointestinal phases f, respectively, during the 5-hour study period. To evaluate the human health risks associated with Pb in WLP waste, the bioaccessible estimated daily intake (BEDI) and bioaccessible target hazard quotient (BTHQ) were calculated. The values obtained for children exceeded the recommended safe limit, in contrast to the values obtained for adults, indicating potential human health risks. The results of this study suggest that the WLP waste from Lynas waste disposal facility should be further evaluated and monitored to eliminate any adverse health effects associated with accidental human exposure to Pb.
    Keywords: lead heavy metal; bioaccessibility; health risk assessment; water leach purification waste; in vitro; estimated daily intake; target hazard quotient; health risk; gastrointestinal model; rare earth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2018.10019119
  • Genotoxic effects on fish species and water quality parameters of two tributaries of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil   Order a copy of this article
    by Thaís Dalzochio, Leonardo Airton Ressel Simões, Mateus Santos De Souza, Gabriela Zimmermann Prado Rodrigues, Lucas José Schvambach, Pablo Cesar Albornoz Lehmann, Günther Gehlen, Luciano Basso Da Silva 
    Abstract: The integrated use of water quality parameters and the micronucleus test in fish represent a reliable tool in environmental assessment. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate water physicochemical and microbiological parameters and micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) frequencies in peripheral erythrocytes of three native fish species (Bryconamericus iheringii, Diapoma alburnus and Hyphessobrycon luetkenii) captured in the mouth of two tributaries (Ilha River and Paranhana River) of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil. Aluminium, iron and thermotolerant coliforms levels exceeded the limits established by the Brazilian legislation at both sampling sites. There were no differences in MN frequencies between sites and species; however, H. luetkenii presented higher rates of NA in comparison to D. alburnus captured in the Ilha River. Thus, this study provides the first in situ database of DNA damage for these fish species. Furthermore, water quality parameters indicate both sampling sites are under anthropic impacts.
    Keywords: micronucleus; Sinos River; water quality; genotoxicity; pollution; Characiformes; fish; metals; environmental quality; Southern Brazil.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2018.10019129
  • Cadmium adsorption by natural zeolite in a circular flume   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsen Nasrabadi, Mohammad H. Omid, Ali Mahdavi Mazdeh, Toktam Shahriari 
    Abstract: In this study, the adsorption characteristics of cadmium by the natural zeolite have been experimentally investigated in a circular flume. The effect of various parameters, such as initial cadmium and zeolite concentrations has been studied to get enhanced simulations for the natural conditions. The optimum equilibrium time was found to be 2 to 3 hr, which was independent of initial cadmium concentration. The results showed that the cadmium adsorption increased with an increase in the zeolite doses. The adsorption values increase by decreasing the initial cadmium concentration. The results of this study also showed that the absorption rate of zeolite increases from 33.3 to 123.23−1, but removal percentage of natural zeolite is reduced from 45.45 to 33.6%. In addition, with increasing the zeolite concentration from 3 to 20 gr.lit−1, the absorption rate decreased from 123.23 to 32.5−1. The results showed that pseudo second order model best described the adsorption rate.
    Keywords: adsorption; natural zeolite; cadmium; circular flume.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2018.10019130
  • Laboratory analysis of Marshall parameters of dense bituminous macadam mix using waste materials   Order a copy of this article
    by Shubham Bansal, Anil Kumar Misra, Tanuj Chopra, Purnima Bajpai 
    Abstract: One of the main purposes of this research is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic bottles, i.e., polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and waste rubber tyres on the engineering properties of dense bituminous macadam mix. The strength, flow and volumetric properties of DBM mixes, which includes various percentages of plastic waste (4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) and rubber waste (5%, 10% and 15%) were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. To analyse the effect on stability, flow and volumetric characteristics of DBM mix of waste plastic material and rubber tyres experiments were performed. Marshall tests were performed to estimate the strength and flow of the modified DBM mix. The experiments demonstrate that by partial replacement of 8% bitumen with plastic, about 15% increment in strength and by 10% replacement of bitumen with rubber material, about 49% increase in strength can be achieved as compared with a conventional mix.
    Keywords: DBM; waste plastic bottles; rubber tyres; bitumen mix; strength; environmental sustainability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2018.10019132
  • Hydrogeochemical quality and characterisation around the sediment-basement contact of Akamkpa and environs Southeastern Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Gregory Udie Sikakwe 
    Abstract: Twelve water samples were collected around the Odukpani-Akamkpa southeastern Nigeria. The goal was to assess the drinking water sources in the farming and quarrying land use areas. This was achieved by determining hydrochemical facies, water types and suitability of the water quality for domestic, irrigation and other uses. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, As and NH4+ recorded mean values that exceeded acceptable limits for potable water using potable water guidelines and are potentially toxic elements. Ferruginous waters rust borehole installation materials, impart reddish colour while arsenic is carcinogenic. (NH4+) recorded the highest cationic mean value in the water samples. The ionic ratios: Na+/Ca2+, HCO3/Cl indicated fresh water condition. The ionic ratio values of Cl/HCO3, CEV and Mg/Ca2+ show that the groundwater is of low salt inland origin. The water type in the study area is HCO3, Na+K and Cl-SO42−, Na+Mg. Cations trend as: NH4+>Ca2+>Mg2+>Na+>K+. Anions trend in the order HCO3>Cl>SO42−>NO3.
    Keywords: hydrochemical facies; potable water; irrigation; water types/quality; ferruginous waters; potentially toxic; carcinogenic; ionic ratios; farming; quarrying.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJETM.2018.10019147

Special Issue on: Ecological Economics in Developing and Transition Countries

  • The main trends of innovation capacity influence on environmental situation: the case of Ukraine and Poland   Order a copy of this article
    by Anna Chernoivanova, Kazimier Wackowski 
    Abstract: This study explores the interrelations between environmental quality (atmospheric emissions) and the level of innovations in Ukraine and Poland. An in-depth analysis of the environmental conditions and atmospheric emissions shows that changes of environmental indicators are related to the development of innovation. The volume of polluting emissions is determined for both countries considering the achieved level of innovations. Within a paper, the category of innovation is quantified using: the number of innovation workers, the share of expenditures on research-and-development (R&D) in the GDP; the share of expenditures on R&D in the total cost, the educational level and the GDP growth pattern.
    Keywords: innovation work; innovation activities; relation of innovation work with environmental conditions; innovation work indicators; Ukraine; Poland.

  • Decoupling of GDP and air pollution in the Czech Republic: Trend analysis and policy story behind   Order a copy of this article
    by Petr Sauer, Alena Hadrabova, Jaroslav Kreuz 
    Abstract: What is now the Czech Republic was industrialised already when the territory was part of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire before 1918. The economic structure did not change much in the period between the two World Wars. Developing heavy industry was also a priority of the communist governments economic policy in 19481989. The economic structure changed during the transition process after 1990, but the pre-existing industries still dominate today. This structure together with the energy resource base, depending on low-quality coal, causes significant air pollution problems. Relatively recently elaborated long-term series of consolidated data on the GDP before 1990 offer an opportunity for using decoupling models to analyse major air pollutants SO2, NOx, and particulates with CO2 as one of the contributors to climate change. The results look unconventional as they show some turning points already since the 1980s, followed by major improvements since the 1990s, especially during the transition period. The paper also reviewed the air quality policies during the different historical periods. The discussion has shown that, despite significant social changes, some modes of environmental policy are "path-dependent" in the countrys overall history.
    Keywords: economic development; air pollution; environmental policy history; decoupling.

    by Selma Alcantara, Flávia Froes 
    Abstract: The Pecem Industrial and Port Complex (CIPP) was established in order to support the economic development in the region of Cear
    Keywords: regional development; environmental transition; sustainability.

  • Consumer behaviour change through education for sustainable development: case of Latvia   Order a copy of this article
    by Tatjana Tambovceva, Dzineta Dimante, Dzintra Atstaja 
    Abstract: More sustainability and sustainable development are major challenges faced by society today. Consumers choices and the use of products and services have important impacts on the environment; consequently, consumer behaviour is crucial. Education and pedagogics help select real sustainable living attitudes of students, their families and friends. This case study describes the mid-term results of a teaching assignment and survey in three Latvian higher education organizations which involve system thinking and students action on consumer choices of household chemicals. The multilayer results provide insight into the consumption of these chemicals and show that one year after the assignment, students changed their behaviour. Results also show that students households use considerable amounts of chemicals, and in most cases before the assignment, did not pay attention to their health and environmental impacts. The method used is applicable at all educational levels and in different study areas, and for a variety of household products.
    Keywords: consumer behaviour; education for sustainable development; household chemicals; self-audit; teaching methods.

  • The impact of environmental determinants of sustainable agriculture on country food security   Order a copy of this article
    by Yuriy Bilan, Serhiy Lyeonov, Natalia Stoyanets, Alina Vysochyna 
    Abstract: The Food Security Index, which consists of 19 indicators that reflect specific aspects of food availability, food access, food stability and food utilization (all statistical information is accumulated by the FAO in the section food security), was developed to assess the impact of environmental determinants of sustainable food security on the state of food security in this study. The formation of the integral index was carried out using one of the most common methods of diminishing the sample size Principal Component Analysis in software STATA SE / 12. The proportions of the inclusion of each of the 19 indicators are based on the eigenvalues of the 1st principal component that explains 48.37% of the variation. Identification of the influence of the individual parameters of the environmental factors on the Food Security Index was carried out using panel data regression analysis (random-effect GLS regression) in software STATA SE / 12 for the sample of 28 post socialistic countries for the period 2000-2016. Empirical results allowed to reveal a statistically significant positive effect of most ecological determinants of sustainable agro-management on food security. While the impact of growth in coal use for electricity and fossil fuels is insignificant, which can be explained by the restructuring of the energy sector. However, the increase in the consumption of electricity received from other sources (NPGS, HPP), as well as the growth of unproductive energy losses during its consumption, negatively affects the food security; it stimulates the introduction of energy-efficient and energy-saving technologies in the agro-industrial complex, and also increases the use of biofuels and agricultural waste to produce electricity.
    Keywords: sustainable agriculture; Global Development Goals; panel data regression analysis; Principal Component Analysis; food security.

  • The impact of economic performance on environmental quality in developing countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Lina Sineviciene, Oleksandr Kubatko, Oleksandr Derykolenko, Oleksandra Kubatko 
    Abstract: The relationship between environmental quality and economic performance using a generalized least squares (GLS) regression framework is assessed for 15 developing countries during the period 20002010. The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is used as an indicator of environmental quality. The results do not show an inverted U-shape relationship nor the effect of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). Concerning the environmental performance, the GDP per capita and energy use have the most significant explanatory power on pollution for developing countries. The other economic determinants of pollution are trade openness, financial development, foreign direct investment, and urbanization are of indirect influence because they are strongly correlated with economic growth and energy use. The obtained results show a positive and statistically significant relationship between economic performance and environmental quality, and empirically an increase in GDP per capita by USD 100 improves EPI in absolute value by 0.1. Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) is statistically significant and negatively correlated with environmental performance. Thus, 100 kilograms of oil equivalent per capita reduces EPI in absolute value by 0.2. One of the policy implications of research is to stimulate economic development, while reducing oil consumption.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve; environmental quality; economic development; panel data analysis; developing countries.

  • National culture and attitude to ecology: on the example of Ukraine and Mongolia   Order a copy of this article
    by Tetyana Blyznyuk, Batkhuu Gavaa, Tetyana Lepeyko 
    Abstract: Inefficiency of the economic system and specific features of the national culture are the main causes of environmental crises. This study identifies relationship between the characteristics of the national culture of a country and its attitude to the environment in Ukraine and Mongolia. Hofstede's method is used comparing the main cultural parameters. The two cultural parameters of Hofstedes approach ("masculinity femininity" and "long term orientation short term orientation") largely explain the attitude to ecology in these countries; environmental indicators in Ukraine and Mongolia are suggested for these parameters. This analysis indicates that both countries face an environmental crisis. At the same time, prerequisites for ecological revival exist in the national cultures; they indicate readiness to changes in attitudes towards ecology.
    Keywords: national culture; Ukraine; Mongolia; cultural dimensions; masculinity; femininity; uncertainty avoidance; attitude towards ecology; Ukrainian culture; Mongolian culture.

  • Regional differentiation of electricity prices: social-equitable approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Grzegorz Mentel, Tetiana Vasylieva, Yaryna Samusevych, Svitlana Pryymenko 
    Abstract: Based on the principle of social equitability and the concept of green energy, a new approach to electricity pricing on local level has been developed. The balance of electricity production and its consumption by the population of a certain territory, the volumes of direct and indirect hazardous substances emissions from the energy sector and the structure of the energy capacities of the region are the main factors determining the electricity pricing at the regional level. The calculations were carried out on the statistical data of 22 regions of Ukraine up to 2016. It is proposed to implement regional differentiation of retail tariffs for electricity. It is advisable to apply a reduction in fixed tariffs for electricity in 13 regions of Ukraine where the largest energy capacities concentrated. The increase in the electricity tariff is expected to be carried out in 9 regions that do not meet the needs of the population with the help of energy of own production. The use of correction factors provides for the formation of long-term incentives for switching to the production of green energy both in regions that have a deficit and an excess of energy capacity.
    Keywords: electricity pricing; regional tariff; carbon emissions; energy consumption; social equitability.

  • Is phosphorus really a scarce resource?   Order a copy of this article
    by Jörg Köhn, Dana Zimmer, Peter Leinweber 
    Abstract: Phosphorus is not a physically scarce resource but more than 90 perrncent of the stock is not technically extractable today. Economic scarcity takesrnthis and other aspects into considera-tion. The price spike in 2007/8 induced arnscientific debate on a "peak P" similar to the dis-pute on the oil peak back inrnthe 1970ies. The processing of phosphate rock to P fertilizers fed the GreenrnRevolution and, therefore, was seen a chance to overcome the hunger on earth.rnThus, the expansive use of P had serious negative impacts to the reserve stockrnof P. Howev-er, if and only if business sees a certain price margin as arnthreshold beyond P cannot be ex-plored and marketed with benefit forrnagricultural use in this particular case only P gets real-ly a scarce resource. The peak price shock in P had almost other reasons than a real physical shortcoming in the reserve stocks. Moreover, if a certain price threshold would be exceeded and agriculture and industry still demand P, recycling technologies and better management practices are already at hand to supply enough P for sustaining food production. Additional-ly, a consequent recycling of P rich wastes and usage of P accumulated in soils and sedi-ments cannot only set limits for P pricing but also revoke postulated P peak and P scarcity.
    Keywords: Phosphorus; peak P; P-reserves; P-recycling; P-pricing.