International Journal of Environment and Pollution (9 papers in press)
by Rachel Batt, Simon Gant, Jean-Marc Lacome, Benjamin Truchot, Harvey Tucker
Abstract: It is a known problem that CFD models using the standard k-ε turbulence model do not maintain the correct Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) profiles along a flat, unobstructed domain. The present work examines the impact of these errors in the ABL profiles on dispersion model predictions for three field-scale experiments from the Prairie Grass and Thorney Island datasets. The modified ABL profiles produced by the CFD model in the Prairie Grass experiments result in differences in the predicted concentrations of up to a factor of two, as compared to a reference model. For the Thorney Island experiment, the results for the standard k-ε turbulence model are sensitive to the ground surface roughness, and problems are identified in relation to the grid resolution near the ground. Industrial risk assessments involving atmospheric dispersion of toxic or flammable substances using CFD models should take into account these limitations of the k-ε turbulence model.
Keywords: CFD; atmospheric boundary layers; passive gas; dense gas; dispersion; Prairie Grass; Thorney Island.
EDTA and citrate impact on heavy metals phytoremediation using Paulownia hybrids
by Maria Geneva, Kameliya Miladinova-Georgieva, Katya Ivanova, Teodora Georgieva, Petar Petrov, Ira Stancheva, Yuliana Markovska
Abstract: The influence of the EDTA and citrate addition to the industrially polluted soil on phytoextraction of heavy metals, leaf anatomy, and gas exchange parameters of two Paulownia hybrid lines (Paulownia tomentosa x fortunei - TF 01 and Paulownia elongata x fortunei - EF 02) was evaluated. Both lines were accumulators of Cu, Zn and Cd because bioaccumulation factor values were higher than 1.00. The levels of heavy metal accumulation in shoots indicated that both hybrids may be used for phytoremediation, since transfer factors for Pb and Zn in hybrid TF 01 were higher than 1.00, and in hybrid EF 02 for Zn only. Application of EDTA produced heavy metal accumulation in hybrid lines higher than those obtained with citrate. Treatment with 1 mM EDTA displayed a protective effect on leaf development in both lines and overcame damage in the morphological structure caused by heavy metal stress
Keywords: Paulownia elongata x fortunei - EF 02; Paulownia tomentosa x fortunei - TF 01; phytoextraction; mesophyll thickness; gas exchange.
Assessment of ambient air quality around mines, in buffer zone and along ore transportation routes in iron ore mining region of Goa: emphasis on spatial distributions and seasonal variations
by Gurdeep Singh, Atahar Perwez
Abstract: Monitoring was done with respect to PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOX at 34 stations selected in mines, buffer zone and along ore transportation routes. Particulate pollutants (PM10 and PM2.5) were observed as the major pollutants in the study area, and ore transportation was identified as the most polluting activity. The calculated values of AQI also evidenced the same. The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 along the ore transportation routes were observed as 130
Keywords: ambient air quality; assessment; air quality index; ANOVA; correlation; mining; NOX; PM10; PM2.5; ratio; SO2; transportation routes.
Using 137Cs and 210Pbex to quantify the effects of land use on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the subtropical Dianchi watershed, southwest China
by Mingli Zhang, Xia Wang, Biao Xie, Yong Zhang
Abstract: The conversion from forest to agricultural land in the last three decades represents a significant shift in land use in China. However, few direct measurements have been made to investigate the dynamic processes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) under land use change. Our results showed that converting forest to grassland and farmland led to an increase in SOC content, and decreases of TN concentration and C:N ratio in the topsoil. The erosion rate and nutrient loss estimated by 137Cs showed highest under farmland. The highest nutrient losses were found in cultivated farmland, with 4.08 and 0.40 t km-2 year-1 for SOC and TN, respectively. We conclude that forest system could be an effective strategy to improve SOC stocks in the subtropical Dianchi watershed. The accumulation of nitrogen in cultivated farmland soils poses a potential threat to nearby Dianchi Lake.
Keywords: soil organic carbon; total nitrogen; C:N ratio; 137Cs and 210Pbex; Dianchi watershed.
Factors affecting the leaching behaviour of magnesium phosphate cement-stabilised/solidified Pb-contaminated soil. Part I: water-to-solid ratio and Pb concentration
by Ping Wang, Qiang Xue, Jiang-shan Li, Ting-Ting Zhang, Shan-Yong Wang
Abstract: Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) is widely used to effectively stabilise/solidify (S/S) heavy-metal-contaminated soils, and leachability is the most important parameter for MPC-treated metal-contaminated soil. However, various factors in the S/S process, such as the metal concentration in the soil and the water-to-solid (W/S) ratio of the S/S paste treated using MPC, can greatly affect the leaching behaviour of heavy metals in the S/S monolith. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching tests were conducted to investigate the effects of metal concentrations and W/S ratios on the leaching behaviour of MPC-treated Pb-contaminated soil. Results showed that the Pb concentration and W/S ratios change the leaching behaviour and leaching mechanisms of MPC-treated Pb-contaminated soil, and the optimum W/S ratio 0.50 was obtained when MPC was used to stabilise Pb-contaminated soils.
Keywords: stabilisation/solidification; leaching; water-to-solid ratio; magnesium phosphate cement.
Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface waters, soils and sediments of the Kaidu River catchment, northwest China
by Beibei Shen, Jinglu Wu, Zhonghua Zhao
Abstract: We investigated residual levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, soil and sediments from the Kaidu River catchment in Xinjiang, an arid zone in northwest China. Sediments from areas with highly polluted soil have higher OCPs and PAHs, caused by intensive anthropogenic activities. Pollution concentrations, however, were lower than those in Lake Bositeng, indicating that the lake is a sink for pollutants in this region. Source analysis indicated that hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) originated mainly from historical agricultural applications. DDTs in sediments of the Lake Bositeng Estuary, however, may contribute to pollutant resuspension, resulting from sediment disturbance, and recent inputs. Low-molecular-weight PAHs were predominant, indicating that PAHs originated primarily from low-temperature combustion processes and petroleum-derived sources. A risk assessment of OCPs and PAHs in soil and sediment, suggested that concentrations were not high enough to cause adverse biological effects in the aquatic ecosystem.
Keywords: organochlorine pesticides; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; residue distribution; anthropogenic input; Kaidu River catchment; arid area.
Genotoxic action of naphthenic acids on the fish macrophage cell line, RTS11
by Marcus Vinicius Cardoso Trento, Pedro Henrique Souza Cesar, Silvana Marcussi, Lucy E.J. Lee
Abstract: Naphthenic acids (NAs) have been identified as one of three main chemical constituents found in oil sands process affected waters (OSPW) that are distinctly toxic to biota. NAs comprise an ill-defined mixture of carboxylic acids that have been implicated in endocrine disruption, acute toxicity, immunotoxicity, tissue malformation and embryotoxicity in several fish species, in addition to being cytotoxic. Recent evidence points to a possible genotoxic effect and the present study evaluated the genotoxic potential of NAs using the 'comet' assay and the rainbow trout spleen cell line, RTS11. The results provided a genotoxic value (in arbitrary units) two times higher for the NA concentration at 10 μg/mL (≈ 105) relative to the NA at 1 μg/mL concentration (≈ 45). NAs at a concentration of 10 μg⁄mL were responsible for a damage index of 45.86% in comparison to the damage observed with a positive control [hydrogen peroxide] which was 90.66% (evaluated at 100 μM). The data obtained suggest a genotoxic potential for NAs at doses that could occur naturally in OSPW.
Keywords: environmental pollution; DNA fragmentation; comet assay; rainbow trout; naphthenic acids.
Special Issue on: HARMO17 Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes
Evaluation of some blood parameters in parallel with expression of P53 and IL-6 in industrial pollution exposed subject
by Hadis Ahmadirad, Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh, Gholamhossien Hassanshahi, Mehdi Mahmoodi
Abstract: Industrial pollution, including trace elements, has the ability to cause cancer and inflammatory diseases in humans. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine inflammatory and cancer biomarkers, such as P53 and IL-6, in parallel with some other blood biochemical parameters in normal subjects and people who were exposed to industrial trace elements. The studied population included 45 workers who were exposed to trace elements and 45 control group members. Blood biochemical parameters such as CBC were examined by cell counter, and gene expression of P53 and IL-6 was detected by real time PCR technique; liver enzymes were also measured by a Hitachi 912 analyser. Our findings showed that the gene expression IL-6 (as an indicator of inflammation) was significantly increased in workers who were exposed to pollution, and P53 was also considerably increased (as an indicator of DNA damage). The levels of liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT, along with the number of both red blood cells and white blood cells, were also increased; however we observed no significant changes in these factors. The results showed that the exposure to industrial pollution leads to increased expression of P53 and IL-6. This evidence may confirm a potential role for pollution and trace elements in developing inflammatory diseases and cancer in workers.
Keywords: industrial pollution; trace elements; IL-6; p53.
Special Issue on: Dioxins, Sources and Effects, Formation and Abatement
GC-HRMS analysis for POPs and new POPs with GC-Tof/MS techniques
by Takumi Takasuga