International Journal of Environment and Pollution (10 papers in press)
Verification of the EDMS model adapted to Budapest Liszt Ferenc Airport
by Veronika O. Groma, Zita Ferenczi, János Osán, Szabina Török, Roland Steib
Abstract: This paper quantifies the ability of the Emission and Dispersion Modelling System (EDMS) to reproduce observed pollutant concentrations in the vicinity of a European airport. For the validation, one receptor point was selected at Liszt Ferenc International Airport, Terminal Building 2, where an air quality monitoring station operates. Modelling results superimposed on background concentrations generated from a suburban monitoring station in the vicinity were compared with hourly measured concentrations using statistical indicators for three compounds (CO, NOX and PM10). Acceptable correlation coefficients (0.53-0.76) were obtained, although in case of PM10 the modelled values show slight but significant underestimation for the entire studied period. Also, an obvious overestimate of NOX concentration was found for certain days. Pollution roses were generated that highlighted the spatial distribution of the pollution sources that affect the air quality at the receptor point. Sensitivity of the model to input data, especially to the emission inventory, is discussed. The contribution of aircraft ground movement and apron area emission was found to be well characterised, but in the case of CO and NOX a small (15
Keywords: airport air quality; dispersion modelling; EDMS modeling system.
Characterisation and assessment of spatiotemporal variations in nutrient concentrations and fluxes in an urban watershed: Passaic River Basin, New Jersey, USA
by Jinglong Du, Huang Feng
Abstract: This study investigated the spatial and temporal variations in total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and total phosphorus (TP), and examined the relationship between water quality and urbanisation in the Passaic River watershed. The results indicate three things. (1) The mean TIN and TP concentrations and fluxes showed a relatively steadily decreasing trend in last two decades. (2) TIN and TP concentrations in summer and autumn were higher than those in spring and winter, but the fluxes were lower than those in spring and winter. At the same time, TIN and TP concentrations in normal flow condition were also higher than those in storm flow condition, but the fluxes were lower than those in storm flow condition. (3) Spatially, water quality in upper reaches of the rivers was better than that of middle and lower reaches, and the nutrient concentrations in Water Management Area (WMA) 4 were the highest, followed by WMA 6 and WMA 3. Land use change, population growth, urbanisation and environmental protection investment were the main factors that influence the change of environment in the Passaic River Basin.
Keywords: total inorganic nitrogen; total phosphorus; spatial and temporal variations; geographic information system; Passaic River.
Influences of single and binary metal mixtures on microbial growth in sandy soil of infiltration site
by In Chul Kong, Kyung Seok Ko
Abstract: Effects of single and binary mixtures of metals on microbial biofilm growth were evaluated on silty-sandy soil collected from an artificial storage and recovery (ASR) site. The effects of metals on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and viable cell count (VCC) showed considerable differences depending on the metal types and concentrations, whereas dehydrogenase activity (DHA) did not change significantly. The sensitivity of the ATP and VCC measurements was also greater than that of DHA. Toxicity based on the ATP content was Cu ≈ Cd > Cr ≈ As(III) ≈ As(V). In the presencence of the binary metal mixtures, a synergistic and additive effect was commonly observed for the ATP contents and VCC, respectively. Therefore, understanding the effects of metal mixtures is essential for proper assessment of the contaminated environment. This study also indicated that the evaluation of metal effects may be considerably influenced by the endpoints of microbial growth measurement.
Keywords: ATP; DHA; metal mixture; microbial growth; VCC.
Adsorption of cobalt() by HCl and H2O2 modified activated carbon
by Zhen Liu, Yanguo Zhang, Bing Han, Zhongchao Tan, Qinghai Li
Abstract: Activated carbon prepared from coconut husk was modified with HCl and H2O2 and tested for the removal of cobalt(Ⅲ) in aqueous solutions. The modification altered the activated carbon pore structures and quantities of the functional group. Batch-mode adsorption experiments were carried out for activated carbons modified at different temperatures (25-75℃), reagent concentrations (0.01-0.04 molL-1), and times (1-8 h). Results show that, under optimum experimental conditions, H2O2 modified activated carbon performs better in terms of adsorption efficiency. Cobalt(Ⅲ) adsorption efficiency is approximately 86%, and HCl modified activated carbon is around 79%.
Keywords: activated carbon; adsorption; modified activated carbon; cobalt(III).
Spatial water quality estimation of artificial lakes in Central Poland
by Barbara Krawczyk, Dominik Szczukocki, Monika Szczepanska, Karolina Czarny, Piotr Seliger, Sławomira Skrzypek
Abstract: Cyanobacterial blooms that occur in the two largest water reservoirs located in Central Poland (Jeziorsko and Sulej
Keywords: environmental monitoring; water quality parameters; water reservoirs; cyanobacterial blooms; cluster analysis; principal component analysis.
Special Issue on: Organic Pollutants in Different Compartments of the Biosphere - Origins, Emissions, Abatement and Destruction, Risk Analysis
Catalytic decomposition of 1,2-dichlorobenzene over V2O5/TiO2 catalysts blending with typical carbon nanotubes
by Cuicui Du, Xuan Cao, Shengyong Lu
Abstract: A series of V2O5/TiO2-CNTs catalysts, prepared by the sol-gel method, were studied on their activities for 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCBz) decomposition. Three kinds of typical carbon nanotubes, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT1) with outer diameter of 20-30 nm, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes with thinner walls (MWCNT2), were used. The gelling time has an important effect on the textural properties and acidity of the catalysts prepared by this sol-gel method. Owing to its excellent adsorption ability, the V2O5/TiO2-SWCNTs exhibit the best reactivity at low temperature (150
Keywords: catalytic oxidation; carbon nanotubes; 1,2-dichlorobenzene; gelling time.
Fly ash from a Belgian stoker-type municipal solid waste incinerator
by Mengmei Zhang, Junhong Liao, Alfons Buekens, Xiaodong Li
Abstract: This study establishes some salient characteristics of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration by combining various instrumental analytical techniques (SEM-EDS, XRD and XRF, etc.) while analysing size-classified fractions of high-temperature (HT) and baghouse (BH) dust. First, the two samples were sieved in eight (HT) or six (BH) size fractions and these were separately analysed for PCDD/F, PCB and PAH. These two samples, showing distinct differences from each other, were collected from a small MSWI stoker plant in Belgium with frequent operational problems. The BH sample presented more homogeneity than the HT sample. The variation in main elemental composition between different fractions of the same sample was limited; while a growing concentration of heavy metals was observed with falling size of particle. The loads of PCDD/F and PCB in the BH sample are one to two orders of magnitude larger than those in HT samples, while the load of PAH shows no obvious evolution. High internal correlation was found for the contents of PCB and PCDD/F and even higher for dl-PCB and PCDD/F. The primary purpose of this study is verifying in how far such off-line fly ash analyses supplement the continuous routine emission monitoring, mandatory for such plants, and developing an additional understanding of the operating state of the plant and its potential to form PCDD/F, PCB and PAH. The secondary purpose is to test a range of methods for studying fly ash arising from large-scale plant in China, provide a West European point of reference and improve operating methods and decrease emissions.
Keywords: fly ash; municipal solid waste incineration; polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; polychlorinated dibenzofurans; polychlorinated biphenyls; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in off-gas and residue during desulphurisation of iron ore sintering off-gas
by Yibo Zhang, Rong Zhu, Jingling Yang, Alfons Buekens, Hui Wang, Yun Wang, Pu Zhang
Abstract: The iron ore sintering process has always been considered as a key issue in the discharge of PCDD/Fs pollutants. In this study, the concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in brief dioxins (PCDD/Fs), was measured in the off-gas and solid by-products from two selected and distinct desulphurisation processes, one operating wet and one dry on sintering off-gas. All samples analysed showed a PCDFs to PCDDs ratio larger than unity. The removal efficiency obtained in the two facilities was almost identical, about 40%, when based on the toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ); the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs was higher, however, with 40.4% and 63.5%, respectively, for the wet and the dry processes. Unexpectedly, the removal efficiency was strongly dependent on chlorination level and far higher for low chlorinated PCDD/Fs than for high chlorinated PCDD/Fs, showing even negative removal efficiency. Moreover, the Hagenmaier profile was markedly different for the gas phase samples than for residue. These findings suggest that these results are not representative for steady-state conditions. During desulphurisation both physical effects, such as adsorption, and chemical reactions, as well as memory effects, may have occurred. This study provides some supporting information for multiple pollutant control and disposal of desulphurisation by-products, taking into account its PCDD/Fs load. Further work is needed to explain, e.g., the deep difference between the two PCDD/Fs sintering signatures at the entrance and at the exit of the two lines, the removal mechanisms operating during wet and dry desulphurisation and the possibilities to improve the PCDD/Fs removal during gas treatment. Further work should emphasise establishing balances over both units, identifying the rate-controlling steps in wet and dry SO2 removal systems and deriving complete fingerprints, so that their mechanisms of influence may be established.
Keywords: PCDD/Fs; desulphurisation; iron ore sintering; off-gas cleaning; by-product.
Soil pollution by chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls from an electronic waste recycling area in northern Vietnam
by Chiya Nishimura, Go Suzuki, Hidenori Matsukami, Tetsuro Agusa, Masaki Takaoka, Shin Takahashi, Nguyen Minh Tue, Pham Hung Viet, Shinsuke Tanabe, Hidetaka Takigami, Takashi Fujimori
Abstract: We investigated soil pollution by chlorobenzenes (CBzs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Bui Dau, a village in Vietnam known for informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities. The total concentrations of CBzs and PCBs ranged from 17 to 1400 ng/g and 2.0 to 7200 ng/g, respectively, with the highest concentrations of the two compounds detected at e-waste open burning sites (EOBSs) in the survey area. The homologue profiles of CBzs and PCBs in the soils collected at the EOBSs were different from those in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash. This result suggests that CBzs are formed from different processes during the open burning of e-waste and municipal solid waste incineration, even though both are combustion processes. The spatial distributions of CBzs and PCBs, and the results of a multiple comparison test, showed that these compounds were released from the EOBSs and spread around this survey area.
Keywords: chlorobenzenes; polychlorinated biphenyls; e-waste open burning; soil; Vietnam.
Special Issue on: Dioxins, Sources and Effects, Formation and Abatement
GC-HRMS analysis for POPs and new POPs with GC-Tof/MS techniques
by Takumi Takasuga