International Journal of Environment and Health (12 papers in press)
Special Issue on: AA2015 Environmental Trends for Sustainable Development
Applying reactive transport modelling in a chromium contaminated site in the Matanza-Riachuelo basin, Buenos Aires, Argentina
by Elina Ceballos, Sergio Andrés Bea, Romina Sanci
Abstract: Chromium (Cr) is one of the main pollutants affecting both soil and groundwater systems in some areas within the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin in Argentina. The particular site of study is located near an abandoned tannery and chemical industry facilities. Cr toxicity and mobility depend on its oxidation state: Cr(VI) is an active carcinogen, more soluble and mobile, whereas Cr(III) shows low toxicity and solubility, precipitating in the form of amorphous Cr(OH)3(am). This paper is devoted to elucidate the main key controls on the Cr(VI)-plume transport at this site using reactive transport (RT) modelling, and uncertainty quantification analysis tools. RT results suggest a Cr source term on the surface to explain the observed Cr concentrations in both Pampeano and Puelche aquifers. UQ analysis indicates that the Cr(VI) concentrations in both aquifers are sensitive to hydraulic connectivity between them, the reaction reduction rates Cr(VI)-Cr(III), and the organic matter contents.
Keywords: reactive transport modelling; hexavalent chromium; groundwater; Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin.
Use of speciation modelling of heavy metals in Los Patos lagoon, Argentina, to improve waterbody management
by Erica Sanchez, Lucila Elordi, Leonardo Cano, Esteban Colman Lerner, Santiago Elisio, Soledad Represa, Dario Andrinolo, Andres Porta
Abstract: Levels established in water quality guidelines for protection of aquatic life are based on the total concentrations of heavy metals regardless of speciation. However, there are numerous studies that show the importance of determining both the physicochemical characterisation of waterbodies, and the total concentration of heavy metal in them, including their chemical speciation, given the specific correlation with the bioavailability. In this regard, the objective of this study is to quantify concentrations of heavy metals in Los Patos lagoon, Argentina, and to show the utility of estimating with Visual Minteq software the fractions in which these metals are forming aqueous inorganic species or are complexed with organic matter. The results demonstrate the relevance of using speciation calculations of metal cations, particularly when their concentrations are in the order of guide levels.
Keywords: Visual MINTEQ; speciation; bioavailability; trace metals.
Effects of chlorpyrifos on acetylcholinesterase activity in two freshwater fish species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and Gambusia affinis)
by Daissy L. Bernal-Rey, Maria Dos Santos Afonso, Renata J. Menendez-Helman
Abstract: Chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O−3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphorothioate, CPF) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide. In the present work the effect of chlorpyrifos exposure on acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE, biomarker of neurotoxicity) was evaluated in two non-target species of freshwater fish (Gambusia affinis and Cnesterodon decemmaculatus). The animals were exposed to sublethal concentrations (1 and 5
Keywords: chlorpyrifos; pesticides; biomarkers; acetylcholinesterase; AChE; Gambusia affinis; Cnesterodon decemmaculatus; freshwater fish; teleost.
Metals and metalloids in mussels from the Argentine Patagonia
by Adriana Ángela Pérez, María Angélica Fajardo, Silvia Farias, Analia Strobl, Silvina Camarda, Betiana Garrido, Fiorella Alassia
Abstract: Mussels are bioaccumulative organisms that are used to monitor marine environments. The levels of 19 metals and metalloids were determined in Mytilus edulis platensis in three sites of the San Jorge Gulf: Bah
Keywords: Mytilus edulis; heavy metals; bioaccumulation; San Jorge Gulf.
Natural adaptation to the environmental conditions affects the oxidation dependent processes in limpets
by Paula Mariela González, Susana Puntarulo, Gabriela Malanga
Abstract: Exploitation of benthonic resources is an important fraction within the craft catch. The main objective of this work was to obtain information on the oxidative condition and tissue damage in gills of the limpets Nacella deaurata and N. magellanica within subtidal and intertidal natural habitats, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the two species in the carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and ashes content. Ascorbyl radical and lipid radical content was higher in N. deaurata compared to N. magellanica (224% and 3.5-fold respectively). However, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher in N. magellanica than in N. deaurata. These data suggested that in the intertidal species, which is exposed to extreme conditions, antioxidant activity is responsible for preventing lipid damage. Thus, organoleptic characteristics are improved, and conservation and handling stress could be prevented in intertidal compared to subtidal species. These studies would contribute to the sustainable management of valuable native species.
Keywords: limpets; oxidative damage; ascorbyl radical; lipid radicals; antioxidants; catalase; superoxide dismutase; biochemical composition; natural marine environments; craft catch; electron paramagnetic resonance.
Atmospheric gas-particle partitioning of E-EHMC and Z-EHMC estimated from their liquid vapour pressures at 298.15 K.
by Malisa Chiappero, César Nicolás Pegoraro, Hernán Alfredo Montejano
Abstract: The UVB filter E-ethylhexyl p-methoxycinnamate (E-EHMC) is extensively used as a UV protectant in commercial products. Its photoisomerisation into Z-EHMC is well known. In this work, we estimate the thermodynamic properties of the vaporisation processes of E-EHMC and Z-EHMC using an indirect experimental method developed in our laboratory named Effusion Method under Atmospheric Pressure (EMAP). The atmospheric particle bound fractions and air-particulate partition coefficients for E-EHMC and Z-EHMC were derived from the vapour pressure P/Pa (298.15 K) estimated by EMAP methodology.
Keywords: vapour pressure; air-particulate partition coefficient; EMAP; particle-bound fraction.
The use of territory carrying capacity in an urban development master plan in Neuqu
by Juan Mendía, Carlos Roca
Abstract: The city of Neuqu
Keywords: carrying capacity; land use planning; urban master plan; territorial ordering plan.
Performance evaluation of aerobic reactor and Sarcocornia perennis to reduce the COD and chloride of effluents from tanning sheepskins
by Lorena Cortizo, Natalia Scelsio, Sergio Perotti, José Martegani, Laura López
Abstract: Tannery is an industry that generates wastewater characterised by high levels of organic matter, chrome, dissolved solids, sulphides and salinity. The aim of this work was to evaluate at laboratory-scale the decrease of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity from effluents from tanning sheepskins, using physical chemical methods in primary treatment, and bioreactor and wetlands for secondary and tertiary treatment, respectively. Effluents were collected from tanning processes of sheepskins carried out on the CITEC tannery plant, La Plata, Argentina. Conventional primary treatments selecting coagulants and flocculants were employed. For secondary treatment, batch bioreactors were designed, and the maximum COD removal was 60-70%. For the tertiary treatment, wetlands at laboratory-scale were employed. In this test, wetlands were filled with granite stone, with and without the vegetal species Sarcocornia perennis. Results showed that the COD decreased on average by an additional 64% and chloride concentration decreased by around 15%.
Keywords: effluent; tannery; activated sludges; wetlands; Sarcocornia perennis; sheepskins.
Safe disposal of solid wastes generated during arsenic removal in drinking water
by Elizabeth Graciela De Seta, Fernando Damián Reina, Fernando Isaac Mugrabi, Luis Eugenio Lan, Juan Pablo Guerra, Aitor Porcel Laburu, Esteban José Domingo, Jorge Martín Meichtry
Abstract: Wastes generated during the treatment of water containing arsenic were mixed with Portland cement in 3:1 volume ratio, to produce mortars that were then used to manufacture monolithic bricks. Two different wastes, containing 1.0 x 103 and 2.0 x 103 mg As per kg of dried waste, were generated in experiments of aqueous trivalent arsenic removal ([As(III)] = 50 mg L-1) removal in columns filled with a mixture of zero-valent iron and sand (1% w/w of ZVI). The mechanical tests indicated that the waste-containing bricks showed a decrease in the compression tests, while no significant differences were found in the flexural tests. Studies on arsenic leaching indicated that, in normal conditions, the amount of released arsenic is not significant, as extreme conditions are required to exceed the maximum allowable limit for non-hazardous waste. Even though the quality of the resulting mortar is lower, it is still well suited to make bricks for use in the construction of foundations or for final disposal in landfills.
Keywords: safe disposal; solid wastes; ZVI; arsenic removal; drinking water treatment; stabilisation/solidification; Portland cements mortars; arsenic leachates.
Natural sciences and environmental issues: a contribution from the philosophy of environmental sciences
by Gabriela Klier, Tomás Busan, Federico Di Pasquo, Paula Blois, Christian Francese, Guillermo Folguera
Abstract: The environmental issue has been considered a starting point for certain epistemological transformations that aim at rethinking the way of performing science and interpreting the nature-society relationship. In this article, we will explore controversial disputes inside the natural science field through the analysis of a particular case study: the socio-environmental issues in the Argentinean Gran Chaco. Analysing the relation between scientific problems and socio-environmental issues and the traditional scientific approximations, our conclusions point that environmental issues arouse challenges to the sciences, to the way they are thought of, situated and built. They make manifest the idea that it is crucial to recover the 'for what' of the scientific practice, building a science that dialogues with other voices and with a starting point in local and situated problems.
Keywords: philosophy of biology; nature-culture; environmental issues; Gran Chaco; OGMs; science and society; scientific problems; environmental philosophy; dialogue of knowledge.
Study of physicochemical changes of polluted sediments from Reconquista river basin (Argentina) after remediation processes
by Melisa S. Olivelli, Myrna J. Simpson, Natalia Porzionato, Mariela Fernandez, Rosa Torres Sanchez, Gustavo Curutchet
Abstract: The physicochemical properties of sediments and their ability to retain pollutants are affected both by contamination and by remediation processes. The aim of this study is to determine structural and physicochemical changes in real sediment contaminated with metals, subjected to bioleaching processes in a previous study. The sediment contaminated with heavy metals and samples of the same sediment treated with different heap leaching tests were used. They were characterised by potentiometric titrations, electrophoretic mobility, organic matter (OM), nuclear magnetic resonance, volatile solids and sulfides. For contaminated and treated sediment samples, the results of organic matter, sulfides, volatile solids heated to 600 degrees, potentiometric titrations and surface charge depended on the bioleaching treatment performed previously. The contaminated sediment sample without any bioleaching treatment presented the greatest amount of OM and sulfides. Moreover, metal adsorption isotherms were derived. The contaminated sediment without bioleaching treatment was the one with the highest adsorption capacity. The pristine sample did not present a noticeable adsorption capacity. This study indicates the importance of the contribution of OM and sulfides to sediments and structural and physicochemical studies after remediation treatments.
Keywords: sediments; remediation; physicochemical properties.
Special Issue on: Understanding and Promoting Well-being in Organisations Theoretical, Cultural and Managerial Challenges
The human side of leadership: exploring the relationship between servant leadership, organisational facilitators and happiness at work
by Andres Salas-Vallina, Rafael Fernandez
Abstract: Although human resource management research has established a significant relationship between leadership styles
Keywords: Leadership; servant leadership; leadership style; organisational facilitators; positive attitudes; happiness; happiness at work; engagement; job satisfaction; affective organisational commitment; job demands-resources theory; leader-member exchange; mediation; quantitative analysis; HRM blackbox.