International Journal of Electronic Governance (21 papers in press)
Can E-Government Empower Jordanian Citizens and Reinforce Citizenship?
by Emad Abu-Shanab, Rania Bakier, Mona Bataineh
Abstract: The recent political events in the Middle East made the relationship between governments and their citizens at stake. Governments need to strengthen citizens empowerment, and their levels of citizenship to improve the collective capacity of society. It is expected that good public services, trust, effective participation and social inclusion reinforced by the implementation of e-government, will improve citizenship and empowerment levels. The Jordanian government has made a big leap toward providing high quality e-services via the new e-government portal. This study explored Jordanian perceptions regarding a comprehensive set of constructs that would ultimately predict perceptions of citizenship and empowerment. This study tried to explore such context utilising a sample of 299 responses from Jordan. Data is collected and analysed to test a model that predicts citizenship level focusing on e-trust, e-participation and empowerment. Results indicated a strong support for the model and predicted the level of citizenship by 41.4%.
Keywords: E-government; citizenship; empowerment; e-participation; trust; digital divide; usefulness; ease of use; Jordan.
Integrating Offline and Online Participation Tools for Engaging Citizens in Public Space Management
by GIORGOS SOMARAKIS, Anastasia Stratigea, VASILIKI KROMMYDA
Abstract: Due to the escalating urbanisation trend and commercialisation of public space (PS), degradation of this space is an emerging issue in many urban contexts. Since PS constitutes the ground for socio-political action and community interaction, while it demarcates local identity and sense of belonging, its sustainable management and regeneration as well as strengthening of its functionalities attracts communities interest. The focus of this paper is on community engagement in PS management through the development of a participatory planning framework, integrating offline/online tools and approaches. This framework is tested in a peripheral town of the Greek territory, seeking to end up with an inclusive, vision-driven, strategic plan for PS regeneration. Outcomes produced provide evidence on both the performance of the proposed framework and related participation tools (level of community engagement) for serving the goal of the planning exercise; and the impact of community engagement on the final outcome of this exercise.
Keywords: public space management and regeneration; community engagement; participatory planning; participation tools; offline and online participation.
Social Innovation, Games and Urban Planning: An analysis of current approaches.
by Margarita Angelidou, Artemis Psaltoglou
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between social innovation and urban planning, analysing how gaming approaches can support a more collaborative and inclusive process of urban planning. Building on the growing body of literature at the intersection of gaming and urban planning, we examine how various aims and characteristics of social innovation have been incorporated in four different projects related to urban planning: Block by Block, CityScope, What is FAR and Game of Urban Renewal. The findings suggest that a gaming approach can help participants
Keywords: social innovation; spatial planning; urban planning; community engagement; citizen participation; smart cities.
A Rule-Based Approach for Multi-Perspective Adaptation of Service-Based Systems
by Sridevi Saralaya, Vishwas Saralaya, Rio D\\\\'Souza
Abstract: A key feature of any business process (BP) implemented as servicebased system (SBS) is adherence to compliance. BP workflows are frequently prone to faults or anomalies of various kinds namely, functional, temporal, structural, regulatory or technological updates. If faults are not handled in a timely manner, it may result in violation of service level agreements (SLAs). Therefore it is crucial for any BP to be flexible enough to adapt to changes of various categories. Current adaptation approaches try to adapt from either data (interface) mismatches from service perspective, temporal requirements from business perspective or resource constraints from the infrastructure perspective. We propose an adaptation framework which is capable of recovering from data, control-flow, temporal and infrastructure faults. The prototypical implementation using rule based approach is applied on a laboratory simulation.
Keywords: Multi-perspective Adaptation; Service-Based Systems; Fault Recovery; Rule-Based Adaptation; Business Process Adaptation; Multi-layer Adaptation; Proactive Adaptation; Reactive Recovery.
Social Media Use by Government: Adoption and Efficiency
by Sultan Al-masaeed
Abstract: This paper examines the presence, engagement and governmentuser-interactivity of all Jordanian governmental social media accounts (n = 110). The survey explored both the extent and nature of social media usage. The study found that roughly a third of Jordanian government entities do not utilise social media in any identifiable manner. Dialogue via social media platforms in Jordan is a one-way dialogue with very low level of government-to-user interactivity, which indicates a low level of efficiency of Jordan governmental social media accounts in utilising social media tools. Furthermore, the survey also discovered instances of a lack of technical efficiency in government agencies linkages to their social media.
Keywords: Social media; e-Government; Twitter; Public engagement; Government-user-interaction; Facebook; YouTube.
Explaining Download Patterns in Open Government Data: Citizen participation or private enterprise?
by Sumin Lee, Jonathan Bright, Helen Margetts, Ning Wang, Scott A. Hale
Abstract: Open data remains one of the significant trends in public administration, with hundreds of projects seeking to open up public sector information for re-use for various hypothesised benefits, especially in terms of enabling citizen participation in government. However, critical literature questions who the true beneficiaries of open data are, highlighting the high costs it places on government. Hence, systematic research on the actual outcomes of open data projects is needed. Based on a unique observational dataset scraped from data.gov.uk, this article seeks to explain the factors that promote downloads of open government data, and shed light on the types of values actually supported by such programmes. We show that downloads of datasets relevant for private sector enterprise far outnumber downloads of data which could enhance government transparency or efficiency through citizen participation. Our results support developing calls for prioritisation in open government data programmes.
Keywords: open government data; open data; digital government; e-government.
Proposed Solutions to Citizen Engagement in Virtual environments of social participation: A Systematic Review
by Carlos Oliveira
Abstract: This paper aimed to understand how the engagement of citizens in virtual environments of social participation is studied in the literature. By virtual environment of social participation I understand: an Internet platform where themes for direct or indirect dialogue between civil society and the various spheres of government are made available through the digital participation of the citizen. A systematic review identified 96 papers, which were then analysed. Proposals to engage citizens in virtual environments of social participation use one of the following approaches: gamification, games, social networks, collaborative contribution or specific and personalised information. This study is important for researchers wanting to be current with the scientific state of the art. This review will also assist the scientific community working with citizen engagement in virtual environments of social participation to build a common understanding of the challenges that must be faced, and to identify areas where research is lacking.
Keywords: Systematic review; e-Participation; Engagement.
The Interslavic Language as a tool for supporting e-Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe
by Vojtech Merunka, Jan Van Steenbergen, Lina Yordanova, Maria Kocor
Abstract: The quality of information systems to support democracy and public administration in the Slavic countries between Western Europe and Russia can be improved through the use of Interslavic, a zonal constructed language that can successfully replace English as a regional lingua franca, enhance participation and improve the overall quality of ICT used for e-Democracy assignments. Its potential role in improving computer translation between fusional languages with free word order by means of graph-based translation is discussed as well. This paper gives an overview of the pros and cons of various language options and describes the results of public research in the form of surveys, as well as the practical experiences of the authors. Special emphasis is given to the crucial role played by education: it is assumed that language, e-democracy, and education form a triangle of three inseparable, interdependent entities. Finally, the paper describes how these ideas can be developed in the future.
Keywords: e-democracy; education; Interslavic language; lingua franca; zonal constructed language; receptive multilingualism; Slavic countries; Central and Eastern Europe; human-computer interaction.
Digital Readiness in Government: the Case of Bah
by Marisa A. Sánchez, Juana Zuntini
Abstract: Government organisations do recognise the opportunities of technology but seem uncertain about whether they are ready for the digital transformation. The aim of this research work is to formulate a framework that explains resources, capabilities, and management choices necessary to respond to the new environment. The problem is essentially approached from a strategic analysis perspective coming from the private-sector strategic analysis and management. The research methodology is based on literature review and an in-depth case study based on a municipal level government. The framework describes: a) the impact of digital innovations on external forces; b) adequate strategies arising from a value chain analysis; c) resources and capabilities of critical importance; d) and the new role of government as a platform provider. In terms of practical contributions, the paper provides specific and actionable recommendations on relevant challenges when municipal-level governments conduct a digital transformation process.
Keywords: Digital transformation; digital readiness; public sector; e-government; municipal government; strategic analysis; digital ecosystem; Public Agency Program Five Forces Framework.
Big Data in Political Communication: Implications for Group Privacy
by PAOLA VIOLA MAVRIKI, Maria Karyda
Abstract: A growing body of academic literature explores privacy implications stemming from the adoption of big data analytics technologies in the area of political marketing and communication. While academic and public discourse on privacy focuses on the individual level, this paper explores a scarcely studied issue: group privacy. We elaborate on the importance and role of group privacy showing that even when the members of a group have their data protected, there are still privacy risks concerning the group and we identify and analyse threats to group privacy stemming from the exploitation of big data for political purposes. This paper argues that the use of big data analysis technologies in a political context can have severe implications for group privacy, including (political) targeting of particular groups and biased decision making based on group behaviour. We also show that threats to group privacy may have long term implications for society, especially with regard to the impact of populist movements.
Keywords: group privacy; group targeting; political communication; big data analytics; privacy implications; political privacy.
Transparency-Enabling Information Systems: Trust Relations and Privacy Concerns in Open Governance
by Aggeliki Tsohou, Konstantinos Lambrinoudakis, Aristomenis Gritzalis
Abstract: Information systems designed to enable transparency of public expenses and discourage corruption in the public sector are being embraced worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to examine the value of transparency-enhancing IT from a citizens perspective. In order to fulfil this objective we address several research questions associated with the impact of openness on citizens trust, focusing on transparency-enabling IS. In addition, we explore the impact of privacy requirements and regulations on these systems, and the effect they have on citizens attitude towards openness. This study comprises a web survey, followed by an empirical investigation involving citizens who have used a specific system of this kind,
Keywords: information systems; transparency; anti-corruption; open data; privacy; trust.
Experiencing the soundscape with Mobile mixing tools and participatory methods
by Aura Neuvonen
Abstract: Neighborhood as a living room is a subproject of a large Creative Europe project The Peoples Smart Sculpture. The project aimed to raise the interest and participation of especially young people towards their sonic surroundings. The article examines the issues of creating and experiencing soundscapes in mobile soundscape workshop. The perception of the workshops indicated that the pedagogical approach and the orientation part of the workshop has an effect on the level of participation and individual sonic experience. The article concludes that the soundscape platform and the workshop methods implemented in the project enhanced participation and engagement in the topic among the participants. The soundscape workshop and the tools created for it offered the young people a possibility to participate in the conversation about the urban sonic environment, changes in it and the future of it.
Keywords: soundscape; smart city; urban planning; sonic environment; mobile tools; participatory methods.
Innovation, technologies, Participation
by Federico Amato, Giorgia Botonico, Antonio Graziadei, Gerardo Sassano, Beniamino Murgante, Francesco Scorza
Abstract: The spread of information and communications technologies (ICT) and mobile devices is changing the relationship among citizenship and urban spaces. The use of the internet allows communities
Keywords: citizens participation; e-participation; community engagement; urban planning; urban acupunture.
Enhancing University students privacy literacy through an educational intervention. A Greek case-study.
by Christos Kalloniatis, Maria Sideri, Stefanos Gritzalis, Aggeliki Kitsiou, Eleni Tzortzaki
Abstract: Social network sites (SNSs) have doubtlessly altered the way that social actors communicate and interact worldwide. Several researches have shown that users disclose personal information within SNSs, while expressing privacy concerns. Users inability to protect their privacy within SNSs, despite their recorded privacy concerns, constitutes the core of
Keywords: Social Network Sites; Facebook; privacy concerns; privacy awareness; educational intervention; semester course.
Using a Service Blueprint and the Service Catalogue Concept to Plan a Smart Governance System: The case study of the Southern Taiwan Science Park
by Tung-Cheng Lin, David Fang
Abstract: To improve the Southern Taiwan Science Park efficiency, the administration of the park used the smart city concept to transform it into a smart science park. Beyond the information and communication technology (ICT), the key to the development of a smart science park was to consider the requirements of the parks relevant stakeholders. Hence, this study applied the concept of persona, a service blueprint, and the service catalogue concept as the planning methodology and used smart governance as an example to demonstrate our planning process. We held focus group meetings with each persona, used a service blueprint to visualise the groups requirements, and utilised a service catalogue to present the service contents of the related smart governance systems. The study suggested that the relevant authority should implement the smart governance data centre, a public equipment management monitoring platform, and a disaster management platform to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the public service of the park.
Keywords: Smart City; Smart Science Park; Service Blueprint; Smart Governance; e-Government; Service Catalogue; Public Service; Persona.
Examining Voters Intention to Use Internet Voting System: A Case of Ghana
by Samuel Agbesi
Abstract: This study seeks to examine and understand factors that influence internet voting (i-voting) adoption intention from young voters perspective, using unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) and the trust as a framework. Using a quantitative research method, the researcher collected data from 274 university students in Ghana, using closed-ended questions, and the data was analysed using the partial least square with SmartPLS 3. The results of the findings indicates that accuracy (? = 0.251, p = 0.001), performance expectancy (? = 0.406, p = 0.000), and effort expectancy (? = 0.136, p = 0.008) have a significant positive effect on behavioural intention to use i-voting system. Facilitating condition was also find to have significant effect on trust in EC (? = 0.237, p = 0.001). But social influence (? =
Keywords: adoption; accuracy; e-voting; elections; i-voting; internet voting; trust; UTAUT; Ghana.
Anonymity in social networks: The case of anonymous social media
by Vasileios Chatzistefanou, Konstantinos Limniotis
Abstract: The anonymity provided by the so-called anonymous social networks is studied in this paper. More precisely, emphasis is given on investigating whether the underlying personal data processing in such networks may suffice to result in tracking or identification of the users. To this end, five popular anonymous smart applications are being analyzed through monitoring the outgoing traffic of Android devices in real-time when using these applications, to examine which personal data - including device data - are being processed by either the anonymous networks or third parties such as library providers. The corresponding privacy policies of these applications are also examined, towards evaluating whether the information provided to the users is sufficient. Our analysis concludes that there is personal data processing in place even in such (so-called anonymous) applications which in turn implies that users anonymity cannot ensured, whilst the corresponding privacy policies may leave room for further improvement.
Keywords: Android; Anonymous social networks; Device Identifier; Dynamic analysis; Personal data; Pseudonymization.
Administrative Errors and the Burden of Correction and Consequence: How Information Technology Exacerbates the Consequences of Bureaucratic Mistakes for Citizens
by Rik Peeters, Arjan Widlak
Abstract: Administrative errors are an overlooked cause of administrative burdens. Citizens face costs in the correction of an error and in the material and immaterial consequences of an error, such as loss of access to benefits or services. This problem is especially relevant given the characteristics of information technology in the public sector, which is increasingly used to share data among multiple organisations through master data management systems. We conceptualise administrative errors and their burdens through the analysis of an exemplary case of a Dutch womans Kafkaesque problems because of a registration error by the police regarding her stolen car.
Keywords: administrative errors; administrative burdens; master data systems; information technology; bureaucracy.
Decentralization and governance in IoT
by Anass Sedrati, Nelly Stoyanova, Abdellatif Mezrioui, Aziz Hilali, Aziza Benomar
Abstract: In the era of digital revolution many contemporary events that changed the world were shaped through the internet. Nowadays, the emergence of internet of things (IoT), combining physical objects with virtual networks is expected to have even more influence. This new
Keywords: Governance; Internet; Decentralization; Bitcoin; Wikipedia; Democracy; Power; IoT.
Authenticated Academic Services through eIDAS
by Michael Maliappis, Kostis Gerakos, Tina Costopoulou, Maria Ntaliani
Abstract: The eIDAS regulation on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the European single market, provides a legal framework to enable secure and seamless transactions between citizens, businesses, and public agencies. The objective of this paper is to present the design and implementation of academic eIDAS-based services. Two particular services have been studied, namely, the Erasmus student mobility and the certificate issuance services. In this context, microservice architecture has been deployed, as it comprises an innovative approach for facilitating the process of registration of Erasmus students and the issuance of certificates in a fast, secured and reliable way.
Keywords: Authentication; Identification; Cross-border services; Erasmus Mobility; Microservices.
Citizen informatics: integrating urban data and design for future stakeholders
by Carl Skelton, Jeremy Bowes, Martin Koplin, Jee Won Kim, Michael Carnevale, Nannini Lee Balki, Sara Diamond
Abstract: This paper describes a range of existing software tools and prototypes for ICT-supported participatory urban design and planning as a subset of participatory governance, and outlines key features of a future software architecture capable of supporting urban planning and pre-design practices that are both more inclusive and more rigorously evidence-based than the current state of the art. The authors propose a scenario in which existing tools and practices can be adapted to co-evolve with complementary developments in the realms of data literacy and collaborative design media, towards the evolution of expert public realms, i.e., societies whose lay citizens could be as expert and engaged in matters of design and governance of complex built environments as researchers and professional experts are today. The paper is offered less as a compte-rendu of research than as an RFC (Request for Comment) in the spirit of Steve Crockers RFC 1 of 1967.
Keywords: citizen informatics; digital literacy; data literacy; collaborative design; participatory design; participatory governance.