International Journal of Electronic Governance (10 papers in press)
- A tool for the visualization of public opinion
by Konstantinos Soulis, Iraklis Varlamis, Andreas Giannakoulopoulos
Abstract: The rise in popularity of the Web and Social Media has significantly changed the way voters are getting informed, communicate and form their opinions. National governments are also affected by the hype of Social media, so they launch new debate tools and open social platforms where citizens are able to communicate, collaborate and exchange opinions. Their aim is to increase voters interest in political matters and motivate them to discuss politics in order to gather useful information and gain insight into citizens opinion. When the amount of textual information that is contributed by voters -either as public comments or as answers to open ended questions in public surveys- increases then it becomes difficult to process and interpret them manually. In this case opinion mining techniques and information visualization tools can be employed to depict the public opinion and give comprehensive visual summaries. Our aim is to visualize public opining focusing on the processing of textual content, whilst supporting data from closed-ended questions. More specifically, we present an information visualization tool for surveys, which allows users to select from a variety of graphs, drill down to selected periods or roll-up to a larger scale and supports input from both closed end and open end questions. In the latter case, the tool employs opinion mining techniques in order to quantify voters opinion. In addition to this, it allows users to contrast between quantitative and quantified answers. In this work, we integrate open source text mining techniques and chart visualizations in the same tool and provide a demonstration of its application in two opinion data sets, one in Greek and one in English.
Keywords: open source tools; opinion mining; opinion visualization; public opinion mining; voting advice applications
- Carrots and sticks: Internet governance in non-democratic regimes
by Martin Karlsson
Abstract: The utilization of ICTs by non-democratic regimes remains one of the most widely debated issues within the e-democracy field and has gained further importance as global e-participation rankings have indicated an expansive growth of e-participation development in non-democratic countries in recent years. Does these developments indicate a democratization of these regimes in which online participation plays a central role? This commentary article states the opposite argument drawing on empirical data on e-participation as well as filtering, surveillance and Internet censorship. The analyses indicate that non-democratic states characterized by high levels of e-participation generally combine these utilizations of ICTs with reactive strategies for controlling citizens Internet use. These dual strategies of Internet governance generate substantial doubts about the democratizing potential of the Internet.
Keywords: E-democracy, e-participation, Internet filtering, Internet censorship, Internet surveillance, hybrid regimes, non-democratic regimes.
- Public information as a Commons: The case of ERT and the peer-to-peer prospect
by Vasilis Kostakis, Chris Giotitsas
Abstract: This article deals with a new understanding of the public character of information, based on the alternative modes of property that came to the fore with the advent of Commons-based peer production and the information Commons. The case of the ERT digital archive is used to highlight the tension between the traditional understanding of state/public property and a new realisation inaugurated by Commons-based peer production. Our objections to its current form are presented and the possibilities offered by peer alternatives are discussed. We conclude that, especially after recent developments in the case, state adoption of policies that conform to this new mode of production are imperative for the use, sharing and protection of public information.
Keywords: Information Commons; open source; public property; Commons-based peer production
- E-Government as an Anti-Corruption Tool: Citizens Perceptions
by Emad Abu-Shanab, Yousra Harb, Suhaib Al-Zo’bi
Abstract: The link between e-government and administrative corruption is mentioned by more than one research in the literature but with negligible empirical evidence on that. This study tried to assess the literature and better understand how e-government can fight administrative corruption. This study also tried to build an Arabic language instrument that measures the main dimensions of corruption and how they relate to e-government and tried to explore Jordanians perceptions towards such phenomenon. The sample consisted of 390 usable surveys, where three major dimensions that contribute to fighting administrative corruption were explored. Results emphasized the importance of all items with high levels of perceptions, and confirmed the reliability of the proposed dimensions. Analyses and results are stated with research conclusions and future work at the end of this paper.
Keywords: electronic government; e-government; administrative corruption; transparency; Jordan; empirical study
- Internet use and political efficacy: The case of Cyprus
by Nicolas Demertzis, Dimitra Milioni, Vassilis Gialamas
Abstract: Although political efficacy is considered to be an important indicator of a well-functioning democracy, it is so far unclear whether it is being enhanced or undermined by internet use. This study seeks to understand the complex relationship between internet use and political efficacy, focusing on the unique case of Cyprus. It explores the effect of internet use, via Digital Updatedness, on users perceptions about the impact of the internet on political efficacy and the role of sociocultural factors therein. Although the effect of internet use on internet-mediated political efficacy is found to be weak, the role of the sociocultural environment appears to be particularly important. Research findings are discussed and contextualised in terms of the distinct characteristics of the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot political culture.
Keywords: internet use; digital divide; political efficacy; Cyprus
Special Issue on: "Security and Privacy of E-Government Applications and Services"
- E-GOVERNANCE PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURE (PKI) MO
by William Akotam Agangiba, Millicent Sasu Kontoh, Albert Kwansah Ansah
Abstract: Delivery of services to citizens efficiently and at affordable cost is a major concern of many Governments today. Many national electronization projects today aim at empowering governments to implement and accept digitally signed tax returns, execute transactions securely and tighten border controls while maintaining strong security and streamlining administration under affordable costs. To do this, the need for technologies and policies to ensure trusted transactions and identities become very significant. In line with this, digitally enhanced travel and identity documents,
e-health and business authentication methods are gaining great popularity and importance in recent times. The Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) using X.509 digital certificates can provide a great framework for handling such government services and concerns with high level of integrity. This paper seeks to develop an architecture of a government PKI, efficient and effective for providing secure government services to citizens.
Keywords: E-governance, Digital Certificates, Security, Public Key Infrastructure, Service, Confidentiality, Digital certificate, Information
- Employing Privacy Policies and Preferences in Modern e-Government Environments
by Prokopios Drogkaris, Stefanos Gritzalis, Costas Lambrinoudakis
Abstract: The evolvement of e-Government has raised users concerns on personal data disclosure and privacy threats as more and more information is released to various governmental service providers. This paper addresses the consideration of users who would wish to retain control over their personal information while using advanced governmental electronic services. Additionally, it proposes a simple, yet effective, architecture which promotes the employment of Privacy Policies and Preferences in modern e-Government environments. The aim is to simplify the provision of electronic services while preserving users personal data and information privacy.
- Secure e-Government services across EU
by Konstantinos Rantos, Yorgos Katsikogiannis, Andreas Papadakis, Antonis Stasis
Abstract: Seamless and secure service provision has been the holy grail of e-Government initiatives at a national and European level. For the first time a concrete architectural framework accompanied by solid implementation is emerging at a European level, within the context of the Services Directive. The basic framework is adopted by EU countries and currently struggles to gain the critical mass. In this paper we describe the security requirements and operational details of this framework in order to carry out secure electronic transactions and to adopt new services. We also focus on e-Signatures and the way they cover secure and interoperable document exchange.
Keywords: e-gov services, e-Documents, e-identification, e-Signatures, privacy, trust, authentication
- Are security and privacy equally important in influencing citizens to use e-consultation?
by Lornie Enggong, Brian Whitworth
Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of two factors: security and privacy in e-government based on the e-consultation aspect of government-to-citizen (G2C) interaction. Prior research on what factors influence citizens in using e-government has focused mainly at the personal level e.g. security, ease of use, usefulness, etc. The advent of information and communication technology (ICT) particularly the Web 2.0 technology makes citizens sharing common interest to communicate with one another, suggesting bigger voice or speak of higher volume when dealing with government agencies. Therefore, it is important to investigate what other factors contribute to citizens to use e-government especially at the community level. From a socio-technical design perspective, this paper proposes an e-government framework that reflects G2C interaction by introducing privacy as a community factor of an e-government web site in addition to security as a personal factor. Results suggest privacy is rated slightly more important compared to security in influencing citizens to use e-consultation
Keywords: Citizens participation; government-to-citizen interaction, security; privacy; community factors, e-consultation, e-government, personal factors.
- Secure eID (electronic identification) in the intersection of politics and technology
by Elin Wihlborg
Abstract: There is a growing demand for secure identification systems in on-line relations. Electronic identification (eID) is becoming a critical issue, both for e-government and for on-line relations in general. The development of eID is a combination of technical innovations such as system design and regulatory and policy considerations. This paper analyses the development of eID in Sweden, by considering it both as a technical and a political development process co-constructed through policymaking. However, the main conclusion is the lack of political awareness in this process. This is especially noticeable since the process leads to a formation of the embryo of a digital citizenship based on the need for safe and efficient identification within public administration.
Keywords: ELECTRONIC IDENTIFICATION, CITIZENSHIP, POLICY MAKING