International Journal of Electronic Governance (10 papers in press)
Special Issue on: Electronic Governance and Open Society Challenges in Eurasia
Programme Overview of E-government development within the Eurasian Economic Union: Progress, Challenges and Prospects
by Lyudmila Vidiasova, Andrei Chugunov, Dmitrii Trutnev
Abstract: The paper provides an overview of e-government development within the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU). Taking into consideration the history and specifics of regional cooperation in terms of post-Soviet Union space, as well as best international practices of ICT innovations in regional blocks, the authors conducted research on the progress, challenges and prospects of e-government development in EEU member countries. The research methodology is based on the three stages of regionalism proposed by Van Langenhove and Costea (2005). From measuring the current e-government progress in contemporary EEU economic regionalism conditions, the authors moved to study the challenges that e-governments are faced with. The prospects of e-government that have created possibilities for foreign policies integration and coherent development of inter-regional relations are also described. The research methodology combined qualitative and quantitative methods, which allowed a quick identification of a comparative progress in EEU countries using international sources and identifying challenges and prospects through an expert survey.
Keywords: e-government; expert survey; international ranking; post-Soviet countries; Eurasian Economic Union; national priorities
E-INCLUSION AND PERCEPTION OF TIME AMONG ELDERLY: RUSSIAN REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE
by Olga Sergeyeva, Lyubov Makarova
Abstract: Messages in online social networks can be considered as private archives (letters, photos and videos of ordinary people). But digital writing and images have no physical substance. These new recourses impact social time and collective memory. In this paper we present the results of empirical study the perception of time of the Russian elderly (60+) who use online social networks. We have examined the important trends which are connected with perception of time among the elderly (disembodiment, linearity and synchronization of time). We have analyzed vectors of time and discussed the construction of past as possible everyday practice for contemporary senior users.
Keywords: elderly users, Russia; social time; e-Inclusion; online social networks
Russian movement for Open Government: Issues of civic engagement in politics
by Leonid Smorgunov
Abstract: The paper concerns contemporary trends and issues of transparency, participation, and collaboration in governmental activities in Russia. The problem of open government was first put in connection with the modernization project in Russia, in particular during the presidency of Dmitry Medvedev. The idea was accepted later, when in 2012 Vladimir Putin won the presidency again. Building an open government is based on the institutionalization of access for citizens to the sphere of governmental activities and transformation of government. Its implementation, however, has resulted in a certain gap between the three major clusters of the movement for open government: governmental, presidential, and civil. The article analyzes the structural and ideological movement for open government in Russia. Using a network approach, the author describes the main clusters of the movement for open government, and particularly the structure of political opportunities they create for civic engagement in public policy but also for authoritative control over it. The paper is based on a study of 154 actors of open government using network analysis.
Keywords: open government; network clusters; structure of political opportunities; civic engagement; control; Russia;
Expert Assessment of Open Government in Russia: Methodology, Results and Implementation Impeding Factors
by Evgeny Styrin, Natalia Dmitrieva
Abstract: In the article the authors present open government expert monitoring and evaluation methodology designed according to the international experience in open government adoption. The methodology comprises and logically explains the relationship among open government principles, mechanisms, evaluation criteria and indicators. The methodology is tested by example of Russian federal public agencies. The authors use monitoring and evaluation results to formulate universal factors impeding effective adoption of open government principles and mechanisms worldwide. Among mechanisms of open government the authors consider reference groups, open data, social networks and citizens requests. Finally the authors discuss further research directions enabling effective adoption of openness by governments in future.
Keywords: Open Government, Openness Mechanisms, Openness Tools, Open Data, Civic Councils, Reference Groups, Openness Rating, Expert Monitoring of Openness, Public Agencies, Openness Standard
Community characteristics of Twitter followers in EU-countries governmental accounts
by Konstantinos Antoniadis, Kostas Zafiropoulos, Vasiliki Vrana
Abstract: The paper explores the mentions/replies networks of 56 ministries Twitter accounts in 17 EU countries to find out whether followers of governmental accounts form communities. By recording clustering coefficient, degree-skewnness, average shortest path and assortativity, this research explores whether the properties of small-worlds, scale-free networks and homophily are present. These indexes are then associated with Twitter performance of the accounts in order to distinguish which accounts present community properties to a higher degree. The m/r networks generally are not small-worlds. While the average shortest paths are small, skewnness is moderate, and clustering coefficients are zero. Assortativity is negative; less active followers mention/reply to more active followers, who serve as authorities in this context. Accounts of high Twitter performance also have higher skewnness. However in general, the specific Twitter accounts almost uniformly are not associated with the formation of communities of followers, failing in this way to meet a desirable property of e-government adoption, consultation and discussion.
Keywords: Twitter; mentions/replies networks; small-worlds; EU countries; ministries; assortativity; clustering coefficient; skewnness; average shortest path; performance.
Open government ideologies in post-Soviet countries
by Karin Hansson, Anton Talantsev, Jalal Nouri, Love Ekenberg, Tony Lindgren
Abstract: Most research in research areas like e-government, e-participation and open government assumes a democratic norm. The open government (OG) concept is commonly based on a general liberal and deliberative ideology emphasizing transparency, access, participation and collaboration, but where also innovation and accountability are promoted. In this paper, we outline a terminology and suggest a method for how to investigate the concept more systematically in different policy documents, with a special emphasis on post-Soviet countries. The result shows that the main focus in this regions OG policy documents is on freedom of information and accountability, and to a lesser extent on collaboration, while other aspects, such as diversity and innovation, are more rarely mentioned, if at all.
Keywords: Open government; E-government; E-participation; democracy; Diversity; Deliberation; Freedom of information; Accountability; Interoperability.
Special Issue on: Electronic Participation (eParticipation)
Analysing Deliberation Quality of Online Forum Users in Turkey with Net-based Tools as Variables
by Demet Gencer-Kasap
Abstract: This study focuses on comparing the quality of online deliberations that have the same deliberation process, concept, and discussion topics but use different net-based technologies. For this, a Web-based forum, a social networking site, and a 3D virtual world were chosen as research areas. Discussions regarding Turkeys public issues were examined by using the rationalistic and ethical criteria that come from the studies of J
Keywords: Deliberative Democracy, Online Deliberation, Habermas, Deliberation Design, Turkey, Web-Based Forum, Facebook, Second Life.
The Influence of Social Media on Mass Demonstrations:
An Exploratory Conceptual Model
by Carla D. M. Soares, Luiz Antonio Joia
Abstract: Information and communication technology affects all issues in the modern world, including mass demonstrations. The impact of these technologies on such movements has been felt worldwide in recent years, affecting both developed countries such as Spain and the United States, as well as developing countries such as Brazil, Egypt, and Tunisia. The intensive use of the Internet and especiallysocial media has been a distinctive common denominator in the public demonstrationsthat have occurred in the most diverse scenariosover the past few years with respectto their organization and communication. Therefore, based on a review of theextant literatureon the topic, this paper seekstopropose an exploratoryconceptual model about the influence of the use of social media onmass demonstrations,whereby possible scenarios in which these popular demonstrations tend to occur can be identified.
Keywords: Social Movements, Internet, E-Participation, Social Media
(Not) talking about politics on Facebook: The case of Croatian young adults
by Lucia Vesnic-Alujevic
Abstract: In the era of declined public trust in democratic institutions, the emergence of social media renewed hopes for citizens' firmer inclusion and engagement in politics. Research into uses of social media for political engagement continues to grow. This study explores young adults' online political engagement in a new European Union member state Croatia. This case is particularly important as it deals with a newly democratic country that faces low levels of trust in politicians.
In this study I was interested in exploring young Croats' attitudes to politics in general and online in particular. Starting with their levels of offline participation, I examined levels of online political participation and the connection and interaction between them. An online survey was supplemented with a limited number of in-depth interviews to further examine the underlying reasons for certain opinions and attitudes. The results show that social media are a good tool for boosting political participation among young Croatian citizens and influencing voters opinions, despite the fact that one of the main characteristics of this type of communication remains clicktivism.
Keywords: political engagement; young adults; Croatia; Facebook
Identification in E-Participation: A Multi-Dimensional Model
by Judith Schobbock, Bettina Rinnerbauer, Michael Sachs, Peter Parycek
Abstract: A crucial question in the conceptual design of e-participation processes is the selection of electronic identification methods (IDs). Both technical security of a system and low participation threshold are important factors that should be considered on all levels of e-participation. IDs that are perceived as too complex are likely to cause lower participation rates. While anonymous participation is favoured by a great number of users, some forms of e-participation, in particular those asking for authorised participants, require a more secure form of identification with a high quality of identification data. This paper presents an expert-based model that maps selected IDs with the levels of e-participation and evaluates the appropriateness of their usage for each stage. The results are discussed for different ID methods and aspects like transparency and privacy are taken into consideration.
Keywords: e-participation; evaluation; security; identification; identification data; electronic identification; levels of e-participation; e-participation model; participation threshold; obstacles in e-participation; information; consultation; cooperation; co-decision; decision;