International Journal of Environmental Engineering (12 papers in press)
Assessment and Toxicity Potential of the Gaseous Pollutants Emitted from Laboratory-Scale Open Burning of Scrap Tyres
by Ishaq Dimeji Sulaymon, Lukuman Adekilekun Jimoda, Zainab Olayemi Sulaymon, Gabriel Ayodele Adebayo
Abstract: Open Burning of Scrap Tyres (OBST) has been identified as a key source of gaseous pollutants. However, OBST has been widely and indiscriminately practiced in Nigerian communities with less attention to its environmental impacts. Gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2 and SO2) emitted from OBST were investigated. In this study, twenty (20) types of tyres representing five from each of bicycle, motorcycle, car and truck category were considered. The emission levels of CO, NO2 and SO2 in the tyre smoke were quantified by means of modules in validated Testo 350 XL flue gas analyzer. The Toxicity Potential (TP) levels of CO, NO2 and SO2 ranged from 0.32 1.12, 0.20 4.83 and 0.29 1.76, respectively. Out of all the gaseous pollutants emitted, 25 % is within the Air Quality Index range of 101150. An assessment of the toxicity potential levels of these hazardous gaseous pollutants suggests that OBST may pose serious threat to human health and environment.
Keywords: Gaseous pollutants; open burning; scrap tyres; toxicity potential; environment impact.
Comparison of performance of three different seeding sludge under three different hyper-thermophilic temperatures
by Isaac Mbir Bryant, Marko Burkhardt, Marion Martienssen
Abstract: The performance of three seeding sludge under three different hyper-thermophilic temperatures, 60 oC, 65 oC and 70 oC was investigated and compared with optimal mesophilic (37 oC) and thermophilic (55 oC) temperatures using the same seeding sludge and substrate in batch tests. Three different seeding sludge: Sludge from Cottbus Wastewater Treatment Plant (LWG), Sludge from thermophilic reactor in Brandenburg University of Technology, Germany (BTU) and Cow Manure (CM) were selected. The performance of the three sludge was compared based on net normalized cumulative volume of methane content, methane yield and higher degree of COD degradation of the black water. Cow manure at 65 oC recorded the highest net normalized cumulative volume of methane content (387.2 mlNCH4-%), methane yield (231.7 mlNCH4/gVS) and degree of COD degradation (79.1%) while BTU at 70 oC recorded the least performance of methane yield (0.0 mlNCH4/gVS) and content (0.0 mlNCH4-%) and degree of COD degradation (0.0%).
Keywords: Methane yield; Net cumulative methane content; Degree of COD degradation; Hyper-thermophilic temperatures; Seeding sludge; Biogas.
Recent Development in Sanitary Landfilling and Landfill Leachate Treatment in Malaysia
by Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Siti Fatihah Ramli
Abstract: The main issue in landfilling in developing countries is the management of leachate. Leachate is rich in organic compounds, ammonia, heavy metals, and other hazardous chemicals. COD, color, and NH3-N, are among the problematic parameters that are difficult to be completely removed. The treatments depend on leachate characteristics, operation and capital costs, and regulations. The development of holistic solutions to leachate-related problems has been widely promoted. Multiple-stage treatments in form of physical, biological, chemical, and combination methods are always necessary. This paper discusses issues on landfill technology and recent techniques for the treatment of the leachate. The low biodegradability and high COD, color, and NH3-N content of leachate treatment perculiar to semi-aerobic landfills in developing countries, especially in Malaysia, is described. Some of the challenging issues in overall leachate treatment processes are also elucidated.
Keywords: color; COD; ammonia; landfill; leachate; treatment.
Evapotranspiration for cotton in plain and hilly areas in Chuadanga and Rangamati districts in Bangladesh using Penman method
by Mahbub Hasan, Aschalew Kassu
Abstract: Water management and its appropriate application for cultivating cotton have been a promising issue to ensure the best quality and quantity of production. Rainfall intensity and pattern, differences in temperature, and cloudiness and non-cloudiness during the growing season, will affect crop water requirement. Different studies showed that excess or less water uses result into a lower yield. Evapotranspiration of any crop is predominantly dependent on environmental factors and crop factors. The environmental factors are further critical for energy requirement for crop development where sunshine hours, intensity of sunshine, duration of sunshine, temperature, and relative humidity play the vital role. Due to the change in geographical location, the energy availability for contributing in the evapotranspiration is also different. Hence, the water requirement for the same cotton crop may vary for two different locations. A dependable and reliable scheduling system for irrigating is desirable for timeliness and quantity of water to irrigate for potential yield of cotton. In this article, a reliable approach to determine crop water requirement for cotton cultivation is proposed using the Penman method for Chuadanga, representing the flat land, and Rangamati, representing hilly areas of Bangladesh.
Keywords: evapotranspiration (ETc); Penman method; reference crop coefficient (Kc); Cotton irrigation; hilly and non-hilly areas ET; net radiation (Rn); energy balance.
CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-SIZED PARTICLES IN CHEMICAL MECHANICAL POLISHING WASTEWATER
by NOOR AINA MOHAMAD ZUKI, NORLI ISMAIL, FATEHAH MOHD OMAR
Abstract: Treatment of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) wastewater and fluoride-containing wastewater in semiconductor manufacturing are conventionally separated. The combined treatment of these two streams of wastewater was studied in terms of zeta potential and z-average hydrodynamic diameter profiles as a function of pH 2 to 12. Optimum pH for CMP wastewater was at pH 6 with zeta potential value of -10 mV and mean particle size of 180 d.nm. Meanwhile, for fluoride-containing wastewater the optimum pH obtained was at pH 9 with zeta potential of 10 mV and mean particle size of 5214 d.nm. These two streams were combined together at their respective optimum pH and resulted a zeta potential value of 0.55 mV and mean particle size of 12590 d.nm. Results indicated that the combined treatment for both polishing and fluoride-containing wastewater were beneficial as a larger flocs of fluorosilicate (SiF62-) was generated without the presence of coagulation chemicals. It is proposed that positively charged particles present in fluoride-containing wastewater become adsorbed on the surface of silica nanoparticles in CMP wastewater in which act as nuclei and enhances flocculation since repulsive force of both wastewater is decreased.
Keywords: Semiconductor wastewater; chemical mechanical polishing; pH; zeta potential; particle size; aggregation; disaggregation.
Special Issue on: ICERT 2017 Synergizing Environmental Management and Technology
FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH COMPOSTING PROCESS IN MALAYSIA: CASE STUDY IN SELECTED AREA IN KUANTAN, PAHANG
by Mohd Armi Abu Samah, Khairul Bariyah Abd Hamid, Kamaruzzaman Yunus
Abstract: The best method to treat food waste is composting but its still unnoticeable because of it was hard to monitor and longer time is needed to complete it. The focus in this research is to enhance process and reduce time during composting. The final product which is compost can be used as a fertilizer or as a soil amendment. The collected food waste will undergo pre-treatment steps before starting the process. Throughout the process, the food waste will be stirred for 3 days. Data for moisture content, pH and temperature will be recorded. Temperature below 20
Keywords: Composting; Food Waste; Moisture Content; pH; Temperature.
Urbanization in the George Town Conurbation and It's Impact to the Environment
by Narimah Samat, Mohd Amirul Mahamud
Abstract: Rapid urbanization has brought positive social and economic impacts in term of improving public facilities and employment opportunities respectively. However, drastic increase of urban population has increased the demand for land to cater for the need for a growing population. This paper aimed to monitor urban expansion in the George Town Conurbation and evaluate its impact on the environment. The study used mixed methods approach where at the first stage Remote Sensing (RS) technique using Erdas Imagine 2016 were utilized to monitor urban expansion from series of Landsat images and Geographic Information System (GIS) using ArcMap 10.3 proprietary software were used to map areas underwent land use transformation. Then, the household survey using questionnaire was administered to investigate the perception of the community residing in the areas undergoing rapid urbanization. The findings indicated that the respondents residing within urbanized areas where 73.44 percent of respondents in Bayan Lepas and 59.62 percent of respondents in Kerian had perceived negatives environmental impacts as compare to respondents in newly developed areas where 53.74 percent of respondents in Kuala Muda didnt perceive negative environmental impacts. The findings provided valuable insights for planners in managing urban expansion thus reducing the impact on the environment.
Keywords: Community; Environment; Geographic Information System; Land Use Changes; Remote Sensing; Urbanization.
PRELIMINARY STUDY ON HEAVY METAL REMOVAL AND TURBIDITY REDUCTION FROM GROUNDWATER BY USING APPLE PECTIN (BIOFLOCCULANT)
by Anis Nabilah Muhamad Tarmizi, Norli Ismail, Harlina Ahmad
Abstract: Apple pectin, Malus Pumila is used as an alternative flocculant in the water treatment of groundwater for removal of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Fe and Pb) and turbidity reduction. There is 97.71% turbidity reduction achieved by using apple pectin with the optimum dosage of magnesium chloride, 15 mg/L at pH 10. From the heavy metal analysis, the results have shown that before treated with pectin, it has been found that all selected elements, As, Cd, Cr, Fe and Pb with concentration of 0.136 mg/L, 0.076 mg/L, 0.089 mg/L, 1.374 mg/L and 0.099 mg/L respectively exceed the standard. After the treatment conducted with apple pectin, only the concentration of Fe (0.107 mg/L) is accepted within the standard limit.
Keywords: Bioflocculant; Groundwater; Heavy metal; Pectin; Turbidity.
Utilization of calcined Asian green mussel (Perna viridis) shells as partial cement replacement in concrete
by Nadia Razali, Raja Nur Farhana Raja Aris, Nadlene Razali, Khairul Faizal Pa'ee
Abstract: The aim of this study is to produce an eco-concrete mix by replacing the binder calcined mussel shells (Perna viridis) without compromising the durability of the concrete. Specimen cubes (40mm x 40mm x 40mm) with various replacement percentages by volume were produced. Primary concrete parameters such as pH, carbonation depth, compressive strength and sorptivity were studied for 56 days. From the investigation, all modified concrete formulations performed better in carbonation depth, compression strength and sorptivity than control specimens on all testing days. It was been observed that the higher the replacement percentage, the better carbonation depth and sorptivity values. However, the opposing trend was detected in compressive strength; in which the higher the replacement percentage, the less strength the concrete possessed. It is believed that the aragonite polymorphs of the mussel shells contribute a low strength development due to its different symmetry and crystal shapes to calcite (from limestone) thus leading to poor bonding properties of the concrete matrix. These outcomes were meaningful for our understanding on the modified concrete mixing formulation, specification and product design of cement materials and the revalorization of seashell wastes.
Keywords: cement; compressive strength; concrete; modified concrete; mussel shells; partial replacement.
A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE ACTIVATED CARBON AND EFFECT ON ADSORPTION PARAMETERS
by MOHD ADIB MOHAMMAD RAZI, Mimi Nur Attahirah Mohd Hishammudin, Muhammad Amirza Abd Rahim, Nur Aqila Hani Mohd Salleh
Abstract: Activated carbon is widely used in industrial wastewater treatment operation because of the effectiveness in removing the dye. As the conventional activated carbon on market nowadays is expensive, lots of research were done on agricultural materials to replace the activated carbon. Sugarcane bagasse is listed as one of the agricultural material alternatives. This review compiles the characterization of sugarcane bagasse and several agricultural wastes based activated carbon including proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, and activated carbon surface characteristic used to remove dye in textile wastewater. Nevertheless, the adsorption parameters are the main focus as it affecting the removal of dye. The expansion review regarding activated carbon performance implies that dye removal efficiency depends on the amount of adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH solution, dye concentration applied during the adsorption process. This review shows the need of a thoughtful information on adsorption parameters with an expanded list of various types of agricultural based activated carbon and various dye removal.
Keywords: activated carbon; adsorption; dye removal.
Opportunities and challenges in supported liquid membrane technology for heavy metal extraction and recovery: A review
by Lai Yee Lee, Norhashimah Morad, Norli Ismail, Mohd Rafatullah
Abstract: The present paper is an extended review on supported liquid membrane (SLM) for extraction and recovery of heavy metals, followed by the problems encountered during implementations and its potential outlooks for future applications. SLM technology integrates the processes of extraction, transport and re-extraction of heavy metals in a single continual system and has been proven with promising potential over other methods. Extraction and recovery of various heavy metal ions with several SLM configurations have been summarized. This review highlights the recent developments of SLM technology and the key issues related to their implementations with the performance efficiency and their apparent limitations. Substantial progress and breakthroughs to promote improvement of SLM are discussed. Future outlooks are also discussed to integrate this technology for better metal extraction and recovery processes and to further broaden the research and development related to SLM.
Keywords: Heavy metals; supported liquid membrane; heavy metal extraction; heavy metal recovery; membrane separation process.
Characterizations and Attenuation Properties of Corn Starch-bonded Rhizophora spp. Particleboards as Water Equivalent Phantom Material at 16.59-25.26 XRF Photons and 99mTc Gamma Energies
by Puteri Nor Khatijah Abd Hamid, Mohd Fahmi Mohd Yusof, Rokiah Hashim, Abd Aziz Tajuddin
Abstract: Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated at ≤ 74
Keywords: Rhizophora spp.; particleboard; phantoms; CT number; electron density; mass attenuation coefficient.