International Journal of Environmental Engineering (10 papers in press)
Feasibility studies of using domestic wastewater for landscape irrigation purposes near a nuclear power plant
by Muhammad Saleem, Usman Jabbar
Abstract: The current domestic wastewater treatment unit in a local Nuclear Power Plant (Karachi) was found to bring major wastewater parameters to ranges suitable for landscape irrigation purposes according to US-EPA and Jordanian standards, except for TSS, BOD5, and coliforms. The inclusion of a sedimentation basin was found to reduce suspended solids to 30 mg/l and coliform by 40-50%, which was a relatively insignificant improvement. In order to improve the wastewater treatment facility further, laboratory runs were conducted by passing treated wastewater through a Slow Sand Filtration (SSF) unit for 168 hours. SSF unit was found to reduce TSS by 81.7%, BOD5 by 71.7% and fecal coliforms by 99.75%. As a result, it is recommended to include both a sedimentation basin as well as an SSF unit in the wastewater treatment train in the future to allow treated wastewater from the Nuclear Power Plant to meet international standards for landscape irrigation.
Keywords: Treated wastewater; Landscape irrigation; Nuclear Power Industry; sedimentation; fecal coliforms; SSF.
The Application of Crosslinking Oil Palm Trunk Starch (C-OPTS) Coagulants for Landfill Leachate Treatment
by Mohd Suffian Yusoff, Hamidi Abdul Aziz, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad Zamri
Abstract: Coagulation-flocculation has been extensively used as a semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment, prior to other treatment methods. Polyaluminium Chloride (PAC) coagulants is prominent in landfill leachate treatment, however the application of PAC may introduce potentially harmful residuals into the aquatic environment. In this study, crosslinked starch-based coagulants had been produced from oil palm trunk waste (C-OPTS). To date, no attempt has been made to avail crosslinked oil palm trunk starch application in landfill leachate treatment. Based on the results, C-OPTS can be employed as coagulants. Jar test results had ascertained that optimum pH and dosages value for C-OPTS and PAC Indeed, no pH adjustment was required for C-OPTS and its optimum dosage was only one-eighth of PAC optimum dosage. Therefore, C-OPTS would be an alternative coagulant substituting PAC, depending on leachate condition. The overall findings concluded that C-OPTS were feasible for landfill leachate treatment in terms of coagulation performance and sustainable environmental management.
Keywords: Starch; Oil Palm Trunk; Natural Coagulant and Landfill Leachate.
Polyaluminium chloride and flocculation aids for color removal from biologically treated textile mill effluent
by Gemima Santos Arcanjo, Pedro Henrique Guerra Alves, Rafael Kopschitz Xavier Bastos, Leonardo Oliveira Cordeiro
Abstract: The objective of this work was to construct the polyaluminium chloride (PACl) diagram of coagulation for secondary effluent from a textile industry in order to determine the best coagulant dose and coagulation pH. PACl doses vary between 200 and 450 mg/L with pH values from 4.5 to 8.0. In addition, it was evaluated the effect of applying a copolymer of acrylamide and sodium-acrylate as a flocculation aid and the addition of a decolorant, composed by dicyandiamide, to increase the color removal efficiency, at the best coagulant dose and pH obtained. Apparent color removal of 70% was reached in the pH range and coagulant dose predicted for the enhanced coagulation process: high coagulant doses, between 200 and 450 mg/L; and low coagulation pH, between 4.5 and 5.0. The application of the copolymer and the decolorant resulted in an apparent color removal between 10 and 30% less than the efficiency obtained with PACl application. These results indicate the need for further studies to optimize the application of these combined products with the PACl and improve the color removal from textile mill effluent.
Keywords: Polyaluminium chloride; enhanced coagulation; textile effluent.
Cu EDTA and Cu DTPA effects on essential & trace metal uptake by Tritium sativum(Wheat) with varying combinations of superphosphate and Mussoorie rock phosphate
by Suruchi Kumar
Abstract: Cu ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid and Cu diethylenetriamine pentaacetate along with superphosphate and Mussoorie rock phosphate were applied to the soil at various dosages. Uptake and translocation of N,K,P,Ca,Mg,Cd,Zn,Cu and Fe were determined in shoots and seeds of Tritium sativum. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of these metals from experimentally contaminated sandy loam soil of by Wheat. It was found from the study that the increasing level of chelates increased the organic carbon, organic matter, micronutrient i.e. Fe,Cu and Zn in the soil. Further it was noticed that the test combination increases the N,P and K content in soil. From the study it was concluded that the increased in chemical constituents in the shoot and seeds of wheat crop mostly depended on the medium and higher levels of chelates.
Keywords: EDTA,DTPA,Interaction,Fe,Cu,Zn,essential elements ,Mussorie Rock Phosphate,.
Experimental Study on Air Pollutants Movement Process in High-rise Buildings under the Help of Wind Tunnel
by Ying Li
Abstract: In order to describe the movement process of air pollutants in high-rise buildings under the help of wind tunnel, an air pollutants movement process experiment in high-rise buildings under the help of wind tunnel is designed. First, make a high-rise building model with height of 100 meters and 33 floors. The surface partial pressure coefficient of high-rise building model was measured by the wind pressure test program on the outer surface of the building. The concentration of air pollutants was detected by flame ionization detector in building outer windows of different building floors using high-rise building model concentration test scheme. Pollutant concentration measurement and dimensionless representation method are given. Based on the coefficient distribution of wind pressure outside the building surface and the distribution of tracer gas concentration, the movement process of air pollutants in high-rise buildings under wind power is analyzed, and the modeling analysis of motion process is completed. Experimental results show that the proposed method has high accuracy and application value in the process of air pollutant movement in high-rise buildings.
Keywords: Wind tunnel; High-rise building; Air pollutants; Movement process; Modeling.
Assessment and Toxicity Potential of the Gaseous Pollutants Emitted from Laboratory-Scale Open Burning of Scrap Tyres
by Ishaq Dimeji Sulaymon, Lukuman Adekilekun Jimoda, Zainab Olayemi Sulaymon, Gabriel Ayodele Adebayo
Abstract: Open Burning of Scrap Tyres (OBST) has been identified as a key source of gaseous pollutants. However, OBST has been widely and indiscriminately practiced in Nigerian communities with less attention to its environmental impacts. Gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2 and SO2) emitted from OBST were investigated. In this study, twenty (20) types of tyres representing five from each of bicycle, motorcycle, car and truck category were considered. The emission levels of CO, NO2 and SO2 in the tyre smoke were quantified by means of modules in validated Testo 350 XL flue gas analyzer. The Toxicity Potential (TP) levels of CO, NO2 and SO2 ranged from 0.32 1.12, 0.20 4.83 and 0.29 1.76, respectively. Out of all the gaseous pollutants emitted, 25 % is within the Air Quality Index range of 101150. An assessment of the toxicity potential levels of these hazardous gaseous pollutants suggests that OBST may pose serious threat to human health and environment.
Keywords: Gaseous pollutants; open burning; scrap tyres; toxicity potential; environment impact.
Study of Rainwater Harvesting Potential in an Industrial Area Using Stormwater Management Model (SWMM V 5.0)- A Case Study of Quaid-E-Azam Apparel Park (QAAP) Sheikhupura, Punjab, Pakistan.
by Aneeque Ahmed, Amir Farooq
Abstract: The threat of water scarcity is an issue that constitutes one of the biggest challenges to Pakistan. Therefore, alternate water sources including rain water harvesting (RWH) is dire need of the time. The present study applied SWMM V 5.0 to analyze the stormwater and evaluate the potential of RWH in managing the stormwater in the study area i.e. an Industrial Estate naming Quaid-E-Azam Apparel Park (QAAP) located at M-2 near Sheikhupura, Pakistan. After analyzing model on 2, 5 & 10-year return period, results show that the maximum flow at outfall with stormwater of 2-year return period without RWH was 693 cusecs (19.7 cumec) and with RWH it was 529 cusec (14.98 cumec) thus a reduction of 24%. Furthermore, with RWH, there was 9% reduction in flooding of manholes, flooding time of manholes reduced significantly and with RWH many manholes stopped flooding. Moreover, with RWH the O&M cost of pumping station reduced by 26%.
Keywords: Rainwater harvesting; Stormwater Management Model (SWMM); Industrial Estate; Rain Barrel; Stormwater; Low Impact Development (LID).
Exploring the possibility of use of sludge as a soil supplement via short term plant study
by Bhupinder Dhir
Abstract: Utility of sludge as a soil supplement was assessed by plant growth studies. Two grass species viz. Setaria viridis L. (Green foxtail) and Cynodon dactylon L. (Bermuda grass) were raised in soil supplemented with sludge in the proportions of 50% and 100%. The growth of the plants was evaluated via physiological and biochemical indices. The growth of the plants was not affected when raised in soil supplemented with 50% sludge concentration in comparison to control (untreated). Parameters such as chlorophyll content, sugar, protein levels and photosynthetic capacity showed no significant differences between control and treated samples (50%). A significant decline was noted in plants grown in sludge (100%). Stress induction was not seen in plants raised in soils supplemented with 50% sludge concentration. The cell membrane stability index (CMI), relative water content (RWC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline levels did not show significant differences in these samples, though a significant change was noted in plants raised only in sludge (100%). Sludge can be suggested as a substitute for fertilizer as it improves soil quality (by adding nutrients and organic matter) which positively influences plant growth and yield.
Keywords: Grass; Growth; Photosynthesis; Sludge; Stress.
Special Issue on: ICERT 2017 Synergizing Environmental Management and Technology
FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH COMPOSTING PROCESS IN MALAYSIA: CASE STUDY IN SELECTED AREA IN KUANTAN, PAHANG
by Mohd Armi Abu Samah, Khairul Bariyah Abd Hamid, Kamaruzzaman Yunus
Abstract: The best method to treat food waste is composting but its still unnoticeable because of it was hard to monitor and longer time is needed to complete it. The focus in this research is to enhance process and reduce time during composting. The final product which is compost can be used as a fertilizer or as a soil amendment. The collected food waste will undergo pre-treatment steps before starting the process. Throughout the process, the food waste will be stirred for 3 days. Data for moisture content, pH and temperature will be recorded. Temperature below 20
Keywords: Composting; Food Waste; Moisture Content; pH; Temperature.
Urbanization in the George Town Conurbation and It's Impact to the Environment
by Narimah Samat, Mohd Amirul Mahamud
Abstract: Rapid urbanization has brought positive social and economic impacts in term of improving public facilities and employment opportunities respectively. However, drastic increase of urban population has increased the demand for land to cater for the need for a growing population. This paper aimed to monitor urban expansion in the George Town Conurbation and evaluate its impact on the environment. The study used mixed methods approach where at the first stage Remote Sensing (RS) technique using Erdas Imagine 2016 were utilized to monitor urban expansion from series of Landsat images and Geographic Information System (GIS) using ArcMap 10.3 proprietary software were used to map areas underwent land use transformation. Then, the household survey using questionnaire was administered to investigate the perception of the community residing in the areas undergoing rapid urbanization. The findings indicated that the respondents residing within urbanized areas where 73.44 percent of respondents in Bayan Lepas and 59.62 percent of respondents in Kerian had perceived negatives environmental impacts as compare to respondents in newly developed areas where 53.74 percent of respondents in Kuala Muda didnt perceive negative environmental impacts. The findings provided valuable insights for planners in managing urban expansion thus reducing the impact on the environment.
Keywords: Community; Environment; Geographic Information System; Land Use Changes; Remote Sensing; Urbanization.