International Journal of Biometrics (6 papers in press)
- Hough Transform based Technique for Fingerprint Alteration Detection and Classification
by Anoop T R, Mini M.G
Abstract: Fingerprint alteration is a major threat to automatic fingerprint identification systems, especially in boarder security control system. A Hough transform based method for detection and classification of altered fingerprint is presented here. Altered fingerprints consists of huge amount of broken ridges due to different process used for making alteration and this in turn causes large number of ridge ending. The amount of ridge endings is different in different types of altered fingerprints. Hough transform based method proposed in this paper utilizes the variation in ridge ending density as a feature for detection and classification of altered fingerprints. The ridge end points in normal and altered fingerprints are collinear even though they are distributed randomly in the image space. Due to the variation of ridge ending density, the number of collinear ridge end points varies with respect to normal and different types of alteration. Making use of this, a threshold is selected in the Hough accumulator to perform detection and classification of fingerprint alteration. A method for the classification of scar present in altered and normal fingerprints is also proposed here.
Keywords: Fingerprint alteration; Detection; Classification; Hough Transform; Hough accumulator; Thresholds; Scar; Obliteration; Distortion; Imitation; Accumulator enhancement.
- Fingerprint Template Protection Scheme based on Partial Minutiae Patterns: A Comprehensive Non-invertibility Analysis
by Vedrana Krivokuca, Waleed Abdulla
Abstract: A crucial property of an effective fingerprint template protection scheme is non-invertibility, which ensures that the original fingerprint template cannot be recovered from its secured counterpart. Since it is extremely difficult to design a function that achieves a high degree of non-invertibility, it is unsafe to use an entire fingerprint template as the input to any such function. Most existing fingerprint template protection mechanisms, however, do exactly this. One scheme that stands apart from the rest, in that its protected template originates from only a small portion of the minutiae template, is a new fingerprint construct based on partial minutiae patterns. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the non-invertibility of this scheme. It is found that the new fingerprint construct has extremely strong non-invertibility and good resistance to a Record Multiplicity Attack in practice. We also propose a modification to improve the methods resistance to this type of attack.
Keywords: biometrics; fingerprints; minutiae; minutiae template; fingerprint template protection; non-invertibility; cancellable biometrics; compact minutiae pattern; partial minutiae pattern; Record Multiplicity Attack.
- Gender Recognition from Biologically Guided Anthropometric Features
by Dustin Bruening, Charles Goodyear, David Bowden, Rebecca Barone
Abstract: Automated gender recognition from whole body images is a challenging problem with multi-disciplinary utility. A greater understanding of potential feature components (e.g. anthropometry, movement, etc.) may help future feature selection algorithms better target effective features, reduce feature complexity, and increase algorithm generalizability. In this study we evaluated the potential of static anthropometric measurements for gender recognition. Utilizing a large 3D body scan repository, we first captured novel measurements directly relevant to computer vision applications, and used these to create biologically guided feature sets. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used to classify gender across specific demographics to additionally evaluate the potentially confounding influences of race, age, and obesity. The effects of view angle were also preliminarily analyzed. Classification results showed greater accuracy in the frontal plane than the sagittal plane, with models reaching 99% and 96% accuracy, respectively. Feature rankings and correlations are presented and discussed in relevance to future algorithms.
Keywords: soft biometrics, sex recognition, anthropomorphics, linear discriminant analysis, feature selection, feature correlation
Special Issue on: "Emerging Biometric Modalities,"
- Overview and Challenges of Palm Vein Biometric System
by Zarina Mohd Noh, Abdul Rahman Ramli, M. Iqbal Saripan, Marsyita Hanafi
Abstract: Palm vein biometric system is one of the biometric technologies that has grabbed the attention of scholarly researchers and industrial alike, due to its distinctive properties and hidden nature. Constant effort had been done in improving the palm vein biometric system performance through the design of its vein acquisition system and vein image analysis. This paper provides an overview of the underlying elements of a palm vein biometric system that summarizes the works done, and predicts the upcoming research focus in this area.
Keywords: palm vein pattern; biometric recognition; acquisition system; vein image analysis
- Multi-resolution elongated CS-LDP with Gabor Feature for Face Recognition
by Xi Chen, Fangyuan Hu, Zengli Liu, Qingsong Huang, Jiashu Zhang
Abstract: Center-symmetric local derivative pattern (CS-LDP) algorithm is proposed to describe the local second-order derivative feature of texture, However, CS-LDP can only describe second-order derivative feature of texture on four directions and lost some discriminant information on other directions. Addressing such problems, this paper proposed multi-resolution elongated CS-LDP (ME-CS-LDP) to solve such problem. By increasing the number of directions, which can be implemented by increasing the sampling points on the ellipse radius with interpolation, multi-resolution elongated CS-LDP can provide more discriminant information on more directions. Furthermore, our proposed multi-resolution elongated CS-LDP is defined in ellipse field to depict some important ellipse part of faces, like eyes and mouth. Gabor filter plus ME-CS-LDP/weighed ME-CS-LDP is used for face recognition in this paper. Experiments are carried out on the illumination subset of Yale B database，the subset of PIE illumination database and VALID face database. Experimental results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Keywords: Face recognition; Gabor filter; Multi-resolution elongated CS-LDP
- Multimodal Biometric Cryptosystem based on Fusion of Wavelet and Curvelet features in Robust Security Application.
by Sajeeda Mir, Yogesh Dandawate
Abstract: The authentication system used at the Automated Teller Machines (ATM) is a unique Personal Identification Number (PIN). This PIN can be easily tapped, to have a more secure transaction we propose a method wherein the PIN is replaced by the Biometrics of the individual.
Hardware is designed to capture the biometric traits such as face, fingerprint and palm vein. The captured images are enhanced and then features are extracted which are fused at feature level. Cryptography is applied to the fused feature vector. Matching is done using Euclidean distance. Palm vein is chosen as a biometric trait because it is unique and its impossible to forge the vein pattern of an individual. Curvelet Transform and Wavelet Transform are used for feature extraction. Experimental results indicate a good level of security and recognition rate of 91% and 89% is achieved when Wavelet Transform and Curvelet Transform is used as feature extraction methods respectively.
Keywords: Multimodal Biometrics, Curvelet Transform, Gabor Filter, Discrete Cosine Transform, RSA.