International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (7 papers in press)
An Insight into the Implementation of Land Use Right Transfer Policy in China: A Case Study in the City of Zhangye
by Haibo FAN, Tomohiro Akiyama, Ali Kharrazi
Abstract: Land use right transfer (LURT) has been viewed to have significant potential in advancing farmland management in China. However, the implementation of LURT policy and more specifically its effects on the local society and economy is an under-researched area. This paper provides insights into the implementation of LURT carried out in the City of Zhangye, Gansu Province. Eight villages were visited for this study and data was gathered through key informant interviews, statistical datasets, and official legal documents. Our results reveal the socio-economic performance and complicated influence of LURT policy in the region. The promotion of farmers income was confirmed in some villages and more farmers have been involved into non-agricultural sectors. However, not all farmers were satisfied with their income and contract management was somehow unsatisfying. For future improvement, policy makers need to better tackle the ambiguous public awareness and poor management of LURT contracts.
Keywords: Environmental policy; land use right transfer; socio-economic influence; Zhangye City; China.
Socio-economic and Ecological Transition in Community Supported Agriculture: from the "transitional" to the "ideal" CSA
by Roxana Bobulescu, Nhu Tuyen Le, Claudio Vitari, Erin Whittingham
Abstract: This paper focuses on the transitional features of community supported agriculture (CSA). Its key contribution is to show the transformational potential of CSA for agricultural system change. The starting point of this research is the "ideal" CSA model. Instead of a monolithic CSA model, in practice we find a patchwork of experiences that we group together under the "transitional" CSA name. We develop a framework that highlights the "transitional" CSA model and compares it with both the conventional and the "ideal" CSA. The coevolutionary approach helps us to understand how CSAs adapt to their context. We use many narratives from the broad literature on CSAs.
Keywords: Community Supported Agriculture; ecological transition; community building; sustainability; "ideal" CSA; "transitional" CSA; degrowth.
Awareness of Coastal Fishing Communities on Climate Change and Its Impacts: A Case Study of Coastal Erosion and Seawater Inundation in Chanthaburi Province, Thailand
by Jirawat Panpeng, Mokbul Ahmad
Abstract: This paper aims to understand the current awareness of coastal people on climate change and its impacts, particularly the severity of coastal erosion and seawater inundation. Data and information were gathered from primary and secondary sourcesusing key informant interviews, questionnaires, field measurements, and literature reviewand analysed using scientific techniques and toolsclimate models, GIS and Remote Sensing, and SPSS.
Peoples awareness is in the median level while their knowledge on climate change, especially in the context of its impacts, is really inadequate. Based on A2, AR4, in 2060, the rising rate of relative sea level will be up by 12.05 mm/year resulting in increased incidence of shoreline retreats and severe seawater inundations causing land loss of about 74 percent that affects 47 percent of households of the study area.
Meanwhile, the current awareness is not adequate, especially on the severity of shoreline retreat and seawater inundation that continues to increase. To ameliorate and cope with climate change problems, the paper proposed two strategies, creating awareness among coastal people and protecting biophysical conditions of coastal areas. Results of the study provide vital information on climate change for policy makers and government agencies to promote adaptation measures.
Keywords: awareness; climate change; coastal erosion; seawater inundation; coastal areas; coastal fishing communities; climate models; GIS; remote sensing; SPSS; Thailand.
Economics of Public Investment in Rehabilitation of Water bodies in the Saline Zone of West Bengal, India
by Sebak Jana, K. Palanisami, Siddhartha Manna
Abstract: Although surface irrigation through water bodies like tanks or Khals still occupies an important place in the irrigation sector in some ecologically fragile regions like saline zones of India, the importance of it has decreased over the years for various reasons. Recognising the importance of surface irrigation for agricultural development, Government of India has taken various irrigation development programmes to improve surface irrigation based on water bodies over years. The present paper attempts to do cost benefit analysis of selected 22 water bodies renovated under two public investment programmes namely National Project for Repair, Renovation & Restoration (RRR) of Water Bodies directly linked to Agriculture and Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) in the saline zone in West Bengal. The paper finds that out of 22 selected water bodies, public investment on 19 water bodies is economically justifiable. The command area of the water body, fishing in the tank,, type of the water body, existence of irrigation equipment, size of the investment are found to have significant positive impact on the net present value (NPV). The issue of salinity is found to be a great challenge in the management of water bodies in the region.
Keywords: Public Investment; water bodies; CBA; saline zone; irrigation; rehabilitation.
No rain but bumper harvest:the magic of pigeonpea in semi-arid Kenya
by Kizito Kwena, Fredrick Ayuke, George Karuku, Anthony Esilaba
Abstract: Land degradation and low rainfall seriously constrain agricultural production in arid and semi-arid areas. A study was conducted at Katumani Research Centre between 2009 and 2013 to investigate the effect of pigeonpea and crop residues on soil physical properties and maize yields. Sole- and inter-crops of maize and pigeonpea varieties drawn from three maturity groups and three crop residue application rates were evaluated in a split-split plot design with pigeonpea varieties, cropping systems and crop residue application rates as the main plot, sub-plot, and sub-sub-plot, respectively. The treatments were laid out in 4.8 m long x 4.5 m wide plots and replicated four times. Soils were analysed for texture, bulk density, aggregate stability, soil water content and soil organic carbon. Results showed that all the maize-pigeonpea cropping systems tested in this study accumulated very low soil organic carbon (< 1%) and hence did not improve soil physical properties. Instead, they increased soil bulk density beyond the prescribed range for non-restricted plant growth and reduced soil aggregation thereby exposing soils to degradation. However, they did not alter texture of the soils at the study site. Intercropping maize with the three pigeonpea varieties, especially the long duration variety (Mbaazi II), requires more water compared to maize and pigeonpea sole crops. This can be addressed by conserving more water in the profile by ploughing back crop residues. Mbaazi II-maize intercrop offers the best option for farmers in marginal areas like Katumani since it gave the highest maize (1.9 t ha-1) and pigeonpea (1.4 t ha-1) grain yields and produced sufficient maize stover (2.1 t ha-1) and pigeonpea stalks (2.9 t ha-1) to plough back and feed the livestock.
Keywords: aggregate stability; maize yields; crop residues; pigeonpea.
Risk and Diversification in Coffee Plantations in India: An Empirical Analysis
by Deepika M G
Abstract: Coffee cultivators in India are prone to risks of different types. Risks associated with coffee cultivation arise due to variability in yields, volatility in prices, uncertainty in inputs, and problems associated with markets. With the primary information gathered from farmers in one of the largest coffee growing districts of India, the study analyses the risks and identifies sources of those risks in coffee plantations. As the coffee growing regions in India are also suitable for cultivation of different varieties of crops, we examine, through a quantitative analysis, the possible crop diversification scenarios before the farmers. Portfolio analysis using Markowitz mean variance theory reveals the relative risks associated with each crop and suggests on the portfolio of crops that would help farmers in minimising risks. The study, using the mix method of research, also tries to understand the extent to which coffee plantations are diversified, the reasons behind the reluctance of the farmers towards crop diversification and the policies that are needed to support diversification.
Keywords: risk; diversification; coffee; portfolio; India.
IMPACT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD ON HEALTH OF CONSUMERS IN INDIA
by Mohd Farhan
Abstract: The aim of this investigation is to understand the effects of genetically modified food on the health of consumers in the area of Yavatmal, a city in the Indian state of Maharashtra. This knowledge is essential since Genetically Modified (GM) foods are newly introduced in India. GM cotton is publically available; however, approval for GM Brinjal and GM mustard is still pending in India. To understand the impact of GM Food consumption on the health of consumers, a survey was organized in Yavatmal district in Maharashtra among 350 consumers of GM cotton and its by-products (like cotton oil) and 350 consumers of non-GM cotton and the by-products. This study also observed the health of 125 livestock that eats GM food and 91 livestock that eat non-GM food. The collected information was analyzed with t-test along with the descriptive statistics. Results of this investigation show that GM food consumers were less affected by any health-related problems than non-GM food users. This study is useful for policymakers to prepare the most favorable policy for different stakeholders of G.M. food.
Keywords: health; consumers; food; livestock; diseases; GM cotton; Yavatmal; India; pesticide.