International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (10 papers in press)
Food Security Performance Assessment of the U.S. States: A DEA-Based Malmquist Productivity Index Approach
by Gokhan Eglimez, Shannon Stewart
Abstract: The national trend in food security has been declining and a state-by-state analysis considering social and macro-economic characteristics of the holistic food security assessment problem has not been addressed in the literature or organizational reports. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of socioeconomic input parameters on maximizing the food security and evaluate the relative efficiency trend in food security performance of the U.S. states over a 13-year study period. To do so, eight socioeconomic input categories and the single output, food security rate, were aggregated into a single food security performance with the proposed DEA-based Malmquist Index approach. The period between 2003 and 2015 was determined as the study period based on the availability of most recent data. Results indicated an overall negative pure efficiency growth, while there is a positive technological change. Majority of the U.S. states social and macro-economic parameters have been improving during the study period, whereas effective policy making towards zeroing food insecurity is still a big question mark. Gas price, educational attainment, and home ownership rates were found to be the most sensitive socio-economic parameters to the food security performance of the U.S. states, while all of the eight input parameters were found to be statistically related to the food security.
Keywords: Food security; socio-economic impact; data envelopment analysis; Malmquist Index; Efficiency.
Assessment of ammonium hydroxide effect on Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826): acute toxicity and avoidance tests
by Nadia ZEGUERROU, Rachid ADJROUDI, Abdelkrim SI BACHIR, Mohamed EL HADEF EL OKKI
Abstract: In this study, acute toxicity and avoidance tests were conducted to assess the effect of ammonium hydroxide AH on the Brandling worm Eisenia fetida (Annelida: lumbricidae). Adults earthworms were exposed to an increasing concentration of AH (0.0001; 0.001; 0.01; 0.1; 1 and 10 mg.cm-2) for contact filter paper test and (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg.g1 of soil) for soil and avoidance tests. Our results show that AH caused a high mortality rate and a decrease in biomass according to the increase of concentrations and exposure time, causing some physiological symptoms (bleeding and burns) and behavioural responses. The LC50 calculated for contact filter paper test after 48h was 1.01 mg.cm-2 and 1.05 mg.g-1 for soil test after 14th days. Moreover, the EC50 obtained in avoidance test was 0.05 mg.g-1; this means that the earthworms were able to immediately detect low concentration of AH in soils, avoiding it.
Keywords: Ammonium Hydroxide; Eisenia fetida; acute toxicity; avoidance; mortality; biomass.
Motivations for Sustaining Urban Farming Participation
by Noriah Othman
Abstract: Farming in urban areas is recognized as a sustainable approach towards the provision of food and has increased in Malaysia over recent years. Nonetheless, sustaining the peoples participation in urban farming is challenging. Knowing the participants motivations for urban farming can help address this challenge. Despite numerous researches in the past on the types of motivations for urban farming participation, only a few of those researches have been on the motivations of urban farming participants in Malaysia. This paper reports on a research about the motivational factors (physical and mental health, environmental, social and economic factors) for urban farming participation in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. A questionnaire survey was conducted, of which the respondents comprised 243 practitioners of urban farming in Selangor. The results revealed that physical and mental health and the environment were the motivations with the highest scores among urban farming practitioners. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the mean scores for the motivation factors of health, social, the economy and environment in terms of the age, gender and race of the respondents. Further investigations are warranted to understand the influences of age, gender and race on urban farming motivations and to help sustain urban farming programmes.
Keywords: Urban farming; Sustaining participation; Motivations.
Performance measurement system for the cold fish supply chain: The case of National Fish Logistics System in Indonesia
by Ruth Nattassha, Yuanita Handayati, Gatot Yudoko, Togar M. Simatupang, Akbar Adhiutama, Nur Budi Mulyono
Abstract: While fisheries represent one of the most important economic sectors in Indonesia, the industry still experiences problems related to imbalances in product distribution. The volume of fish products might be abundant in one area, but scarce in another, a problem which has prompted the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries to develop a logistics system for fisheries, the National Fish Logistics System (Sistem Logistik Ikan Nasional or SLIN). To monitor the implementation of the SLIN, a tool is required to assess its performance. This research aims to develop such a performance measurement tool. Through a combination of analysing previous research and conducting focus group discussions on the implementation goals of the SLIN, seven performance indicators have been devised together with their respective weightings from the perspective of SLIN stakeholders. These performance indicators can be used to measure SLIN performance in different geographical areas, in addition to identifying the areas and aspects that should be prioritized.
Keywords: performance measurement system; fish supply chain; cold chain; national fish logistics system.
Effects of slaughter house wastes on soil properties and cocoyam corm yield in Abakaliki, Nigeria
by James Nte Nwite, Chima Njoku, Mathew Okpani Alu
Abstract: Cocoyam corm yield is largely dependent on robustness of soil properties. To this extent, a research was carried out in Research and Teaching Farm of Department of Soil Science and Environmental Management; Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki to determine effects of different rates of slaughter house wastes on soil properties and cocoyam corm yield. Four rates of slaughter house wastes namely 0 (control), 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 were studied in order to find their effects on soil productivity. Soil and cocoyam were analyzed using analysis of variance and differences between treatment means detected using Fishers Least Significant Difference (FLSD) at 5% probability level. Results from the study showed that slaughter house wastes application significant (P < 0.05) improved soil properties and cocoyam corm yield compared to control. Also, the higher the application of slaughter house wastes in the plots, the higher the improvements in soil properties though not all the improvements were significant (p < 0.05). The treatments showed significant (P < 0.05) differences in available Phosphorus, total N, organic carbon, calcium, magnesium, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. Slaughter house wastes significantly increased cocoyam corm yield compared to control but there was non-significant difference between 6 and 9 t ha-1 in cocoyam corm yield. It is recommended that either 6 or 9t ha-1 of slaughter house wastes amendment on soil would be enough for the soil properties of Abakaliki and for optimal cocoyam corm yield.
Keywords: carcasses of the animals; cocoyam; slaughter; soil properties; wastes; yield.
Home gardens from the point of view of housewives in Amman City, Jordan
by Reham Tahtamouni
Abstract: The importance of home gardens in the cities had been discussed in many studies, and their results encouraged policy makers to take serious actions to encourage home gardening in the cities. Meanwhile, no previous researches discussing such important topic were made in Jordan. So, in this study (383) housewives living in Amman city were given a questionnaire to find out their attitudes toward a number of topics concerning home gardens. Results revealed that, most of the housewives see that presence of home gardens in Amman city is highly important. Moreover, the housewives revealed that their general knowledge about home gardens was of a medium level. Also, the results indicated that, the most serious challenges facing home gardens were lack of land area. Moreover, the results revealed that there were significant differences between the levels of importance of home gardens from the perspective of housewives attributed to qualification, age and work status. The study findings are important for decision makers especially in Municipality of Amman to find means to encourage housewives to establish gardens in their homes.
Keywords: Amman; Aesthetic value; Cities; Home gardens; Housewives; income; knowledge; questionnaire.
Gender Responsive Budgeting and Programming in Zimbabwes Agricultural Sector: National and Local Level Analyses for 2017
by Walter Mutsa Sakarombe
Abstract: Gender responsive budgeting and programming have become integral components of Zimbabwes agricultural agenda. Women are playing an increasingly fundamental role in reducing the incidence of hunger and malnutrition at the household level. Recent empirical data show that they constitute the larger proportion of the agricultural labour force in the country. However, women are often systematically excluded in making strategic decisions in the sector. Notions of feminine inferiority and gender-induced cultural stereotypes conspire to relegate women to the periphery of the agricultural space. This article presents the findings of a research that was conducted on gender responsive budgeting and programming in the agricultural sector in Zimbabwe. The units of analysis were the ministry responsible for agriculture and the Murewa Rural District Council. A composite methodology that integrated both primary and secondary data generation techniques was utilised. The study revealed wide disparities between men and women in the sector at all levels.
Keywords: Agricultural programming; Agricultural sector; Gender mainstreaming; Gender responsive budgeting; Murewa Rural District Council; Zimbabwe.
Opinion leaders' influence and innovations adoption between risk-averse and risk-taking farmers
by Albert Yosua, Shuang Chang, Hiroshi Deguchi
Abstract: This research aims to study innovations adoption behaviour of farmers, especially when the opinion leaders are present and the others, who follow these opinion leaders, have different attitudes to risk. An agent-based model was constructed to simulate opinion leaders' influence and farmers' subjective risk level change on the number of adopters. From the results, the intervention by opinion leaders appeared to increase the number of adopters who are risk-averse farmers, retained the number of adopters from declining in the case of risk-taking farmers, and caused few farmers to have less cumulative income at the end of the simulation. This paper provides an alternative approach to analysing the effectiveness of opinion leaders on accelerating the diffusion of innovations. When agricultural policy-makers plan to increase innovations adoption through opinion leaders intervention, the policy-makers should pay attention to farmers risk attitudes and their learning processes during the experimentation with the innovations.
Keywords: opinion leaders; risk attitudes; risk-averse farmers; risk-taking farmers; risk perceptions; subjective risk; agricultural innovations; adoption process; agent-based approach; social simulation; expected utility theory; Bayes' theorem; agricultural policy-making.
Collective negotiation of rural insurance in Brazil: Conditions, opportunities, and challenges of a model supported by cooperatives
by Pedro Loyola, Vilmar Rodrigues, Claudimar Pereira Da Veiga
Abstract: Crop insurance is a high-risk market worldwide, mainly due to the complexity involved in developing this market, high administrative costs, and the increased likelihood of disasters in rural areas. Recognizing these difficulties, the Brazilian government created the Rural Insurance Premium Subsidy Program (PSR - Pr
Keywords: Rural Insurance; Agricultural Policy; Brazilian Agribusiness.
Consumer Buying Behavior and Responsibility Towards Organic Foods and Cross-Cultural Evidence
by Md Tareq Bin Hossain, Md Ahbabur Rahman, Kuaanan Techato
Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the present status of consumers buying behavior towards organic foods within the emerging market. A comparative study has been undertaken to understand the consumers buying behavior towards organic foods at intervals the southern part of Thailand and north Malaysia. Based on extensive literature review, the authors identified several factors that influence consumers intention towards buying behavior of organic food which are environmental knowledge and concerns, perceived belief and attitudes, and government support and policy. Moreover, this is often urging that the intention has mediating influence on buying behavior as well as the country different has moderating effect and alleviative result on purchasing organic food. The drop off and collect survey administration techniques were used to collect a total of 190 questionnaires from Thailand and Malaysia, Partial Least Square (PLS) structural equation modeling combined with resampling and bootstrapping techniques were used to examine the hypotheses. The study found out that environmental knowledge, environmental concerns, perceived belief and attitudes have significant positive relationship with consumer buying behavior towards organic foods. Furthermore, different country moderates significantly on consumers behavior toward organic food.
Keywords: Consumer Buying Behavior; Organic Foods; Partial Least Square (PLS); Theory of Planned Behavior; Thailand; Malaysia.