International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (8 papers in press)
Risk and Diversification in Coffee Plantations in India: An Empirical Analysis
by Deepika M G
Abstract: Coffee cultivators in India are prone to risks of different types. Risks associated with coffee cultivation arise due to variability in yields, volatility in prices, uncertainty in inputs, and problems associated with markets. With the primary information gathered from farmers in one of the largest coffee growing districts of India, the study analyses the risks and identifies sources of those risks in coffee plantations. As the coffee growing regions in India are also suitable for cultivation of different varieties of crops, we examine, through a quantitative analysis, the possible crop diversification scenarios before the farmers. Portfolio analysis using Markowitz mean variance theory reveals the relative risks associated with each crop and suggests on the portfolio of crops that would help farmers in minimising risks. The study, using the mix method of research, also tries to understand the extent to which coffee plantations are diversified, the reasons behind the reluctance of the farmers towards crop diversification and the policies that are needed to support diversification.
Keywords: risk; diversification; coffee; portfolio; India.
AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF GENDER ROLES IN SOYA BEAN VALUE ADDITION AND MARKETING IN KENYA: A CASE OF SMALLHOLDER FARMS IN WESTERN KENYA
by Dave Nyongesa, Robert B. Mabele, Christine K. Mutoni, Anthony O. Esilaba
Abstract: The study investigated the economics of productive gender roles in smallholder soya bean processing/value-addition in Western Kenya. Multistage sampling technique was applied. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 370 interviewees using a semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire in 2011/2012. Data analyses encompassed gender, descriptive and inferential statistics/stochastic frontier modelling. Results showed women dominated (74.0%) the soya bean value-adding activities; men (17.0%); women and men (4.0%); women and children (4.0%) and children alone (1.0%) at p<0.01. The value-adding firms/farms were technically-inefficient with a mean of 46.0% and efficiencies of 8.0-24.0% due to many negatively-signed and statistically-significant coefficients (P<0.05). The values-added/kilogram ranged from KES 30-290 and were profitable amidst constraints faced. Most factors/costs that significantly affected profitability/returns to soya bean processing/value-adding were significant at either 1%/5%/10% (at P<0.05). County governments/other stakeholders interventions would positively impact processors efficiency for increased profitability. rn
Keywords: Soya bean; gender; processing/value-addition; smallholder; cost; efficiency; Western Kenya; marketing; soy-products; interviewees.rn.
May innovation on plant varieties share agricultural land with nature, or spare land for it?
by Simon Bordenave
Abstract: The development of more productive varieties has been at the core of the transformations of agriculture and its environmental impacts throughout the 20^th century. Among the various environmental effects of agriculture, the ability to choose between wide, low-intensity agriculture, and concentrated, high-intensity one, is a crucial component of its impact on biodiversity conservation. The impact of an innovation on land use and intensity of agriculture is thus an important determinant of its environmental footprint. The existing literature has studied how innovation modifies land use, but has not focused on how it changes production intensity. The objective of this paper is to complement the existing analytical framework to account for the impact of varieties improvements on non-land inputs. It shows that innovation can simultaneously reduce land use and increase agricultural intensity only if it is biased towards one of these production factors, demand is elastic and production factors are hardly substitutable.
Keywords: innovation; agriculture; plant varieties; land sharing; land sparing; variety productivity; land use; pesticides use; agriculture intensity; biodiversity conservation; ecology.
The reality of market inefficiencies and technology adoption nexus: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa
by Abdul-Hanan Abdallah
Abstract: Literature tells us that adoption of agricultural innovations mostly occurs when market conditions are right. Unfortunately for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), a wide variety of inefficiencies exists in the resource markets and constrained farmers from accessing resources for adoption of these innovations. Meanwhile, few studies have partially incorporated these inefficiencies in analysis of agricultural technology adoption. This study analysed the role of a variety of inefficiencies in technology adoption in SSA. Specifically, the instrumental variable Poisson is employed on a unique dataset which comes from the SSAs intensification of food crops agricultures (Afrint) project and spans nine agrarian countries. The results indicate that the effects of market inefficiencies are mix and location specific. Similar results are revealed by farmer/household, farm/plot and institutional characteristics. Further, the effects of spatial differentiation on adoption are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Agricultural technologies; inefficient markets; exponential conditional mean model and sub-Saharan Africa.
Prioritizing Sustainable Agricultural Practices in a Changing Climate: Empirical Evidence from Ebonyi State, Nigeria
by Robert Onyeneke
Abstract: Ebonyi State produces significant proportion of the food consumed in Nigeria. Incidentally, the State suffers from the impacts of climate change manifested in the form of extreme rainfall events, changing rainfall pattern and distribution, floods, extreme temperature and erosion. Sustainable agriculture is considered as one of the important strategies for climate risk management. Hence, the promotion and prioritization of adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) in a changing climate is important for agricultural resilience and security in Ebonyi State. Unfortunately, little is known about prioritization of sustainable agricultural practices in the State. This study therefore prioritized sustainable agricultural practices in Ebonyi State, Nigeria by applying a participatory methodology and selected two hundred and forty farmers from the State for interview and group discussion through a multistage sampling technique. Scoring and bidding exercises using pseudo money were employed to check the willingness to pay for various SAPs. Stated preference and chi-square were adopted for data analysis. There were strong similarities and differences in preferences for different SAPs by farmers in different agroclimatic zones. Crop insurance, climate change-based advisory services, improved crop varieties, mounds and adjusting planting dates were the commonly preferred technologies. Farmers scoring and bidding differed significantly for crop insurance, improved crop varieties and climate change-based advisory services. This study shows the potential for adopting a participatory sustainable agricultural practices prioritization method to provide information on climate risk management and planning at the local level.
Keywords: Sustainable agricultural practices; climate change; stated preferences; scoring and bidding; Ebonyi State of Nigeria.
Barriers to Technology Adoption in Agriculture based Industry and its Integration into Technology Acceptance Model
by SNEHA KUMARI, Shrirsh Jeble, Yogesh Patil
Abstract: This paper attempts to develop a scale to overcome barriers to technology adoption. The study is unique, as it interlinks barriers of technology adoption with the Technology Acceptance Model. For the present study, the barriers to technology adoption were extracted from the literature, and a survey of 150 agriculture-based industries was conducted. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was carried out to develop the scale for barriers. The study carried out for the present paper helps to extend prior research works on grouping several barriers to technology adoption. The significant barriers to technology adoption that have been grouped are finance and economy, industrial policy and research, complexity, knowledge, government, and technical skills. The groups have further been interlinked with the Technology Acceptance Model. These groups thus help in the perceived usefulness and usage of technology. The study can be applied for developing a technology-based agriculture industry by working out some solutions for the barriers to technology adoption. The present paper can be useful for setting initiating establishing technology adoption in the industry.
Keywords: agriculture based industry; barriers to technology; interlinking; technology adoption; technology acceptance model.
Modelling strategies for the reduction of fat dormice in northern Italian hazel groves.
by Giovanni Scire'
Abstract: The production of hazelnuts represents an important resource for several Italian rural areas. Sicily and Piedmont, two of the most important producers of hazelnuts, are affected by the presence of the dormouse (Glis glis), that has considerably severely harmed the production of hazelnuts. This study aims to analyse the issue in the Province of Cuneo in Piedmont and to evaluate the sustainability of the policies implemented by using the System Dynamics (SD) methodology. An SD predator-prey microworld was built to reproduce the main relevant cause and effect relationships between the development of the dormouse population and local hazelnut production. The results of the SD microworld simulation show the effects of reduction policies on hazelnut production over time. The findings and further research recommendations are briefly reported in the conclusion section.
Keywords: MODEL FOREST; SYSTEMS ANALYSIS; SYSTEMS DYNAMICS; FAT DORMOUSE; EDIBLE DORMOUSE; HAZELNUTS; DYNAMIC SUSTAINABILITY; AGRICULTURE; PREDATOR-PREY MICROWORLD; DYNAMIC MODEL; STOCK AND FLOW DIAGRAMS; CASUAL LOOP DIAGRAMS.
Sustainability Assessment of the Agri-environmental Practices in Greece. Indicators' Comparative Study
by Ioannis Vardopoulos, Sotirios Falireas, Ioannis Konstantopoulos, Elli Kaliora, Eleni Theodoropoulou
Abstract: This research attempts to study whether the Common Agricultural Policy is targeted enough and actually integrates the initial environmental concerns, aiming in understanding of the effectiveness of the policy in Greece. Through the development and calculation of several agri-environmental sustainability indicators, following the Driving Force - Pressure - State - Impact - Response (DPSIR) model, the authors evaluate the environmental performance of Greek agriculture in comparison with Italy, Spain, Germany, and the Netherlands, under the Common Agricultural Policy scheme. Results indicate that Greek agricultural production should follow the agricultural practices and environmental controls more closely, in order to increase agricultures environmental performance rate and reach sustainability.
Keywords: common agricultural policy; indicator; sustainable development.