International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (6 papers in press)
Bringing Collaborative Inclusiveness to Indonesian Agribusiness in West Java through Online Platform
by Mustika Sufiati Purwanegara, Wan Khairruzaman Wan Ismail, Atik Aprianingsih, Jeremy Joseph Hanniel
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to propose an inclusive agribusiness model that can improve the economic conditions of farmers in Indonesia, especially in West Java. The researchers used multiple cases for investigating the business model for different commodities in the West Java area. For each case, the data were collected from farmers focus groups, interviews with stakeholders in each commodity, and through obtaining secondary data. It was discovered that farmers are constrained by various problems concerning lack of tangible and intangible resources. As the main agribusiness actor, farmers also have low welfare. To improve farmers welfare, a purpose-driven inclusive agribusiness ecosystem (PDIAE) model is proposed in which participation of regulators, investors, infrastructure, knowledge empowerment, market and research information, and financial incentives are mandatory. These findings may enhance knowledge of how inclusive business models can increase the welfare of the bottom of the pyramid segment.
Keywords: agribusiness; agriculture; bottom of the pyramid; business ecosystem; inclusive business; West Java; Indonesia; online platform.
Making rapid strides: sources and drivers of agricultural growth in Uttar Pradesh, India
by Reena Kumari
Abstract: Uttar Pradesh is the largest state of India in terms of population where 59 per cent workforce and their livelihoods dependent on agriculture. In this state, around 80 per cent of farmers have landholdings of less than one hectare and 30.4 per cent rural population is living below the poverty line, importance of agriculture is simply not overstated. This paper aims to identify key sources and determinants of agriculture production in Uttar Pradesh, a largest state of India over a period. To see the relationship among the variables Karl Pearson correlation matrix has been presented and further to examine the determinants of agricultural growth we employ Simple Least Square Method (p≤05). Although, the volatility of agriculture represented in terms of coefficient of variation is low in Uttar Pradesh in comparison to national average, yet the growth of agriculture Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been low. Agricultural economy of Uttar Pradesh continues to be dominated by cereals with around 60 per cent of its Gross Cropped Area under cereal crops. Regression result shows that irrigation ratio, terms of trade and road development played an important role in agriculture development in the state. The paper draws the main sources of agriculture growth in Uttar Pradesh and also highlighted the key drivers which can enhance the agri-growth in the state. The paper offers a perspective for policy formulation which may be of interest to development scholars and policy makers.
Keywords: India; Agricultural sector; source of agricultural production; key drivers,rnGovernment policy; developmentrn.
Detecting Buyers Role Effects to Achieve Collaborative Business Relationships in The Agriculture Business, Using Electroencephalogram (EEG)
by Fitri Aprilianty, Mustika Sufiati Purwanegara, Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail
Abstract: The relationships between suppliers and buyers are crucial to the acquisition of resources that are essential for achieving competitive advantage. The agriculture sector contains several types of buyers, each of which has a different trading pattern. This paper examines agricultural buyer (cooperative, farmers group, collector/tengkulak, and rural market) and supplier (farmer) relationships by testing the effects of different types of agriculture buyers on farmers perceived value, trust, performance, and commitment. The field experiment was conducted using neuroscience methods (electroencephalogram (EEG)). This provided objective information about farmers sensory, cognitive and emotional reactions based on cortical brain activity (EEG signals) in different brain regions while they were being exposed to several pieces of framed information related to the particular trading patterns of different types of buyers as stimuli. The suppliers cortical brain activity and emotional states were collected using the commercial EMOTIV EPOC wireless neuroheadset according to the International 1020 system. To measure the suppliers perceived value, trust, commitment, and performance, the pattern of brain activity was obtained in the Alpha (812 Hz) and Beta (1330 Hz) frequency bands of the frontal (AF3&AF4), parietal (Pz), and temporal (T7&T8) brain areas to test the impact of several message framings consisting of the trading patterns of different buyer types to elicit suppliers perceptions of value, trust, commitment, and performance. There are differences in farmers emotional responses towards each buyer type. Most farmers demonstrated the highest interest response in relation to perceived value, and demonstrated an engagement response indicating trust towards the farmers group, while the highest excitement response arose in relation to tengkulak performance.
Keywords: Perceived Value; Trust; Commitment; Performance; Agriculture;Electroencephalogram (EEG).
Enhancing Sustainability amongst Oil Palm Smallholders in Malaysia
by Halima Begum, Chamhuri Siwar, A. S. A. Ferdous Alam, Er A. C., Suraiya Ishak, Lubna Alam
Abstract: Oil palm research is performed to develop new and upgraded products to face the global challenges and competition of the international marketplace and thus the industry is emerging as a dependable source of economic profits and empowerment of the country; however, it also poses a serious threat towards ecological and social balance due to the unawareness of the sustainability issues by the oil palm smallholders. The aim of the study is to assess the benefits and the actions oil palm smallholders in a sustainable manner from the environment, economic and social perspectives. In this study, the primary data are collected through a questionnaire survey via interviews with 50 supported smallholders in the Terengganu state under the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) scheme of Malaysia. The data has been analysed using the spider diagram where the study reveals that per capita income has been increasing until 2013 with the schemed smallholders but they have been neglected by the authorities performance awards and the lack of quality education for their children. The result includes that the primary goers dependent smallholders are also creating pollution in the environment due to wrong agricultural practices. The study suggests that there is room for improvements in the social, environmental, and economic aspects of sustainability through intensive and quality training by scholars, depending on the role played by the authorities and the dependent smallholder cooperatives.
Keywords: Sustainability; Oil Palm; Palm Oil Industry; Smallholders; FELDA; Malaysia.
PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF USING JATROPHA CAKE AS ORGANIC FERTILIZER AMONG CROP FARMERS IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA.
by Adebayo Olowoake, Grace Abolaji, Olayinka Yusuf, Ibrahim Ayanda, Felicia Olooto
Abstract: Low agricultural productivity in Nigeria arose from low application of fertilizers by farmers. Jatropha species show a high potential for processing of organic fertilizer. The study therefore investigated prospects and problems of using jatropha cake as organic fertilizer, determined quantity of Jatropha seed produced, processed into cake and applied on the farm, ascertained prospects for continuous utilization of Jatropha cake as fertilizer. All members of Jatropha Farmers Group in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria totaled 106 were purposively selected for the study. Interview schedule was used for data collection while frequency counts and percentage were used for data analysis. The result showed that the mean age of farmers was 50.4 years. The average yield of jatropha was 2.94 kilograms per hectare while the quantity of jatropha cake processed per farmer was 11.9 kilograms, adjudged as low to meet the fertilizer need of farmers. More than half (67%) of farmers were aware of the potentials of jatropha cake as an organic fertilizer. Most farmers (76.5%) revealed that jatropha cake supported high yield, consequently, 79.3% of the farmers were favourably disposed to continuous use of Jatropha cake, indicating acceptability of the cake and prospects for market availability. Availability of jatropha seeds was ranked highest as the most important constraints followed closely by inadequate processing technologies. Therefore, jatropha cake can conveniently fill the gap of fertilizer requirements not satisfied by other forms of fertilizers. Awareness on the potentials of jatropha cake should be intensified.
Keywords: Low fertilizer application; Organic fertilizer; Mechanized processing; Improving jatropha seed yield. rnrn.
Agricultural products fumigation poses risk of food contamination in Abakaliki, Southeastern, Nigeria.
by PAUL IGBOJI, Nnenna Okey, Andrea Udeh
Abstract: Pesticides abuse has been a major problem in world agriculture, especially in developing countries where regulations on their use is very poor. In Nigeria, farmers use pesticides without knowledge on their health and environmental effects. More worrisome is their use in agricultural produce storage, where the residues are implicated in food poisoning and long term health challenges like cancer, birth defects and endocrine disrupters. Hence the residue effects of pesticide in stored agricultural products was studied at the teaching and research centre, Department of Soil Science and Environmental Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory storage room with Dichlorvos (DD-Force) organophosphate pesticide containing chloride and phosphate as active ingredients. Fumigated and unfumigated agricultural products were studied namely: cereal crops (rice and maize) and pulse crop (groundnut). The presence of active ingredient residue in the products was examined at 30 and 60 days after storage (DAS). The results show that cereals (rice and maize) chloride residue reduced from 1.255 and 1.085 mg kg-1 to 0.538 and 0.625 mg kg-1 while untreated recorded 0.335 and 0.385 mg kg-1 for rice paddy and maize respectively. The cereals passed the maximum residue limit of 5 mg kg-1 set for chloride residue in Dichlorvos (DDForce) pesticide. On the other hand the chloride residue of groundnut at 30 days after storage was 2.150 mg kg-1 which reduced to 0.815 mg kg-1 at 60 days after storage, with control recording 0.410 mg kg-1. Similarly, phosphate residue was 0.950mg kg-1 in rice paddy at 30 days after storage declining to 0.728 mg kg-1 at 60 days after storage, with untreated rice paddy giving 0.615 mg kg-1. The treated maize gave 1.325 mg kg-1 phosphate at 30 DAS declining to 0.900 mg kg-1 at 60 DAS, with control at 0.485 mg kg-1. That of groundnut phosphate residue was 1.255 mg kg-1 at 30 DAS, declining to 0.695 mg kg-1 at 60 DAS; with control at 0.550 mg kg-1. The phosphate level set for cereals and legumes are 5 and 2 mg kg-1 respectively. All the stored agricultural produce passed the chloride and phosphate maximum residue limit. Further test and confirmations of similar and other agricultural products stored with different pesticides was recommended.
Keywords: Pesticide residue; agricultural products; fumigation; food contamination.