# Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing

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International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing (134 papers in press)

Regular Issues

•  Open Access Coherent, automatic address resolution for vehicular ad hoc networks ( Free Full-text Access )
Abstract: The interest in vehicular communications has increased notably. In this paper, the use of the address resolution (AR) procedures is studied for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs).We analyse the poor performance of AR transactions in such networks and we present a new proposal called coherent, automatic address resolution (CAAR). Our approach inhibits the use of AR transactions and instead increases the usefulness of routing signalling to automatically match the IP and MAC addresses. Through extensive simulations in realistic VANET scenarios using the Estinet simulator, we compare our proposal CAAR to classical AR and to another of our proposals that enhances AR for mobile wireless networks, called AR+. In addition, we present a performance evaluation of the behaviour of CAAR, AR and AR+ with unicast traffic of a reporting service for VANETs. Results show that CAAR outperforms the other two solutions in terms of packet losses and furthermore, it does not introduce additional overhead.

• Imprecise-Query Processing in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Fuzzy-based Approach
Abstract: Traditional query processing systems in sensor networks require precise and explicit definition of predicative thresholds to extract data. The acquired data can be imprecise and uncertain due to different reasons like measurement errors or environmental noise. In this paper, we take on a fuzzy based approach to design a flexible query structure with linguistic and semantic predicates in sensor networks. In addition, we introduce a Fuzzy-based Query Correlation Index (FQCI), which quantifies the correlation between a sensor node and a query, based on a priori defined fuzzy membership functions, which are individual to each node. Also, our proposed fuzzy query structure can support queries with multiple predicates. This approach can reduce the rigidity in the declarative structure of query and minimize energy consumption, while providing a flexible service for event monitoring applications. Simulation results demonstrate that our method can achieve high fidelity with reasonable energy efficiency.
Keywords: Fuzzy query processing . Wireless sensor networks . Data acquisition . Correlation

• An Anonymous Authentication Scheme in Data-Link Layer for VANETs
by Lin Yao, Chi Lin, Guowei Wu, Taeyoung Jeong, Kangbin Yim
Abstract: In Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETS), security and privacy are indispensable issues for guaranteeing the soundness of such a technology. In this paper, we focus on designing an efficient and lightweight anonymous authentication scheme. We propose a novel biometrics-based mutual authentication scheme in the data-link layer to protect a vehicles privacy during its authentication phase. Our authentication scheme includes two phases, initialization and anonymous authentication. During the initialization phase, biometric encryption technique is applied to generate Bioscript. During the anonymous authentication phase, a new session key is generated to achieve the traffic confidentiality. Meanwhile, a newly temporary MAC address is negotiated to conceal the real MAC address. Security and privacy analysis show that our scheme can resist various attacks in the data-link layer. Furthermore, simulation results demonstrate that our scheme is a lightweight protocol.
Keywords: Anonymous Authentication, Link Layer, VANET

• Link Connectivity under More Realistic Channel Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications
by Ruifeng Chen, Zhangdui Zhong, Victor Leung, David G. Michelson
Abstract: Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication is commonly used to improve traffic safety. Since the antennas are very low in V2V scenarios, the V2V communication link is easily blocked by other vehicles. This might affect the communication range and system performance significantly. The shadowing effect caused by other vehicles has been ignored in most of the existing V2V channel models, and it is thus neglected in the system performance evaluation. By incorporating channel state transition with a measurement-based dual-slope path loss model, an obstacle-based model is presented in this paper for the V2V highway scenarios to capture the dynamic characteristics of radio channels, in the presence of other vehicles as moving obstacles. The joint effects of the radio environment and traffic flow on link connectivity are mainly investigated. The obstruction probability is represented, and the connectivity-related metrics are evaluated: inter-vehicle connectivity probability and link duration. All the analytical results are validated by extensive simulations under the measurement-based path loss model, and are also compared to the existing models. The results can be used for the system design and development of a channel simulator for vehicular communications.
Keywords: Vehicle-to-Vehicle; connectivity performance; realistic channel model; moving obstacles.

• Localized Querying and Location Update Service in Wireless Sensor and Robot Networks with Arbitrary Topology
by Milan Lukic, Ivan Mezei
Abstract: In a typical Wireless Sensor and Robot Networks setup, sensor nodes detect events which require response from mobile robots. First, a static information structure is established in the network, allowing an event-detecting node to send a request to a nearby robot, to visit its location. The movement of the robots imposes changes in the network structure, which are handled in location update process. These protocols should perform in a localized, distance-sensitive, energy ecient manner. Here we present a new protocol based on localized formation of Voronoi cells (vCell), and compare it with existing protocols (Quorum and iMesh) in dense networks, sparse networks, and networks with holes in topology. We also present location update algorithms which deal with robot mobility. Our simulations show that vCell achieves nearly 100% success rate in nding the nearest robot in dense networks. In sparse networks, it outperforms the other existing solutions by up to 40%.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor and Robot Networks; localized querying; location update; iMesh; Voronoi diagram

• Distance Bounding-based RFID Binding Proof Protocol to Protect Inpatient Medication Safety against Relay Attack
by Abolfazl Falahati, Hoda Jannati
Abstract: RFID binding proof protocols are suggested for the past decade to guard inpatient medication safety and to prevent medication errors in hospitals. In such protocols, the main goal is to authenticate two RFID tags (one for the patient and one for the patients drug) simultaneously using an RFID reader by a nurse. This paper reveals that the existing RFID binding proof protocols are vulnerable to a relay attack. In the relay attack, an attacker is able to change the patients drug without the nurse and the patient noticing the change. Furthermore, to overcome this weakness a paired distance bounding protocol is proposed with two security parameters (N and t) to be deployed for RFID binding proof protocols. In a paired distance bounding protocol, two tags are authenticated simultaneously, and furthermore, an upper bound for the physical distance between these two tags and the reader is established. This implies the presence of both tags in the readers area. The analytic results for the proposed protocol show that, with the appropriate selection of N and t parameters, the proposed protocol achieves a desirable security level against the relay attack.
Keywords: Distance bounding protocol; Mafia fraud attack; Medication errors; Relay attack; RFID binding proof protocol.

• Adaptive RSU Re-routing under Delay Constraint in Multi-hop Vehicular Networks
by Tsan-Pin Wang, Chien-Chao Tseng, Kuo-Lung Wang
Abstract: Vehicular Wireless Networks (VWNs) offer wireless multi-hop communications between vehicles and Roadside Units (RSUs). A multi-hop wireless network with carry-and-forward routing may suffer from longer delay in packet delivery. However, the applications may demand stringent delay requirement in multi-hop VWNs. Therefore, this paper proposes an adaptive RSU re-routing strategy to alter the current associated RSU to the best RSU under delay or throughput constrains for applications in multi-hop VWNs. Performance results show that the proposed strategy is able to adaptively select a suitable packet size for the trade-off between delay and through put to satisfy the diverse requirements of applications in multi-hop VWNs.
Keywords: IEEE 802.11p, vehicular networks, multi-hop, carry-and-forward routing

• Inter-node Relationships in Short-Range Mobile Social Networks
by Zhiting Lin, Xiufang Jiang
Abstract: Empirical studies have provided evidence suggesting that human mobility and the resulting contact opportunities of short-range mobile social networks are not entirely random. Most of these studies claim that power-law characterizes diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. However, is the power-law distribution assumption really reliable? Furthermore, these studies typically focus on aggregated statistics or on models for individual users, and do not capture the inter-node relationships. We empirically studied some statistical properties of inter-node relationships, and proposed a universal scheme, named A-Scheme, to improve existing probabilistic routing approaches. In most of those approaches, decision is made using a static method. However, we claim that judging threshold varies according to activity is more suitable. Simulation results show that A-Scheme improves the performance of existing probabilistic routing approaches in terms of cost, success rate, and delay.
Keywords: inter-node relationships; disconnected networks; short-range mobile social networks; routing approach

• Optimal and Heuristic Algorithms for Constructing Interference-free Multicast trees subject to delay and energy constraints on Wireless Mesh Networks
by Wen-Lin Yang
Abstract: Due to the great concerns of on environmental protection and the high rising of prices in oil,\r\n the energy efficiency has become an important factor for designing network applications.\r\n In this paper, we study an optimization problem which is concerned about how to construct an\r\ninterference-free multicast tree subject to delay and energy constraints on a multi-channel multi-radio \r\nwireless mesh network. The objective of this problem is to maximize the number of mesh clients that \r\ncan be included in the multicast tree. This problem is then referred as the\r\nenergy-delay-constrained and maximum-revenue-based multicast (EDMRM) problem.\r\nIn this article, we first propose an optimal algorithm on the basis of integer linear programming for \r\nthe EDMRM problem. The most important feature of this ILP-based optimal algorithm is that \r\n the following four factors: routing, interference, delay and energy, \r\n can be taken into account simultaneously when a multicast tree is determined.\r\n Since the EDMRM problem is NP-hard, the ILP-based algorithm is only feasible for small-scale networks.\r\n Hence, we also provide a tabu-based heuristic algorithm which can be used to improve the \r\n solution quality of a given channel-allocated multicast tree.\r\nThe experimental results show that the tabu-based algorithm can outperform the other approaches\r\nwhich have been presented in the literature.
Keywords: wireless mesh networks; delay and energy constraints; tabu; integer linear programming; maximum-revenue multicast trees

• Pseudonym-based Privacy-preserving Scheme for Data Collection In Smart Grid
by Xiaobin Tan, Jiangyu Zheng, Cliff Zou, Yukun Niu
Abstract: Smart Grid provides significant enhancement to the reliability and efficiency of the electricity systems, but it also brings up new challenges on consumer's privacy issue. On one hand, for better operation, the Energy Supplier (ES) should know the correct total consumption of all SMs. On the other hand, from the consumers' perspective, ES should not know the consumption of every SM, which exposes consumer's privacy. To tackle this challenging issue, in this paper we present a novel privacy-preserving scheme based on pseudonym. Before SMs join in a network, we require Diffie-Hellman key exchange and SM registration to authenticate SMs. A function of the group key, time and the number of SMs is introduced to generate pseudo IDs for SMs. Then each SM sends data packet with its pseudo ID to ES rather than its original ID. A simple message authentication is designed to defend against false data attack. Security analysis is provided to justify the efficiency of our scheme. We evaluate the privacy-preserving level by introducing an information theoretic metric -- degree of anonymity. Simulations are carried out and results show that our scheme is lightweight comparing to related works.
Keywords: Smart Grid; Smart Meter; Data Collection; Pseudonym; Privacy Preserving; Message Authentication.

• Simulation-Based Performance Comparison of Two Routing Protocols for Aircraft Ad-Hoc Networks
by Ki-Il Kim, Saifullah Khan
Abstract: As a large amount of research for mobile ad-hoc networks has been conducted in recent years, new emerging research challenge, aircraft ad-hoc networks, has attracted considerable attention from the research community. These networks aim to construct self-organizing networks with ying aircrafts in the sky instead of typical aircraft-ground- aircraft communications. However, due to unique properties of aircraft ad-hoc networks, it is infeasible to employ current routing protocols that were developed for pure mobile ad-hoc networks or vehicular ad-hoc networks. To solve above fundamental problem, a few research including GRHAA and AeroRP have been proposed and analyzed through simulation. However, since these protocols were compared with typical routing protocols for ad-hoc networks with simulation scenarios that were con_gured with unrealistic parameters for aircraft ad-hoc networks, more reliable and credible simulation studies are essentially needed. Based on this demand, in this paper, we conduct simulation-based performance evaluation for two mentioned protocols with new relevant parameters. They include mobility model, medium access control protocol and density of nodes. And then, we analyze the impact of each parameter on corresponding protocols in several ways and present the discussion. Based on simulation results, we can identify that two routing protocols are suitable for aircraft ad-hoc networks. Furthermore, GRHAA shows better performance than AeroRP in the aspects of packet delivery ratio and similar delay by the help of hierarchical architecture as well as more accurate position prediction scheme in heterogeneous environments. On the other hand, small performance gap between two protocols is observed where homogenous networks are assumed.
Keywords: Aircraft ad-hoc networks; Performance Evaluation; Routing Protocol; Simulation

• HMMCCN:A Hierarchical Mobility Management Scheme for Content-Centric Networking
by Fei Ren, Huachun Zhou, Li Yi, Yajuan Qin, Zhang Hongke
Abstract: Content-Centric Networking (CCN) has emerged as a promising paradigm in current Internet. Due to the interest-driven, we concern more about the content itself rather than the place it located, and therefore, CCN supports subscriber mobility natively, however, it remains a major challenge in publisher mobility. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical mobility management scheme for CCN (HMMCCN) which contains an overlay mapping structure to store the old-to-new name binding relationship and perform the mobility management for mobile devices. This allows for efficient simultaneous mobility and supports seamless handoff for interactive communication. The main goals of this paper are: (a) to propose a mobility scheme suitable for all mobile nodes in CCN, both the publishers and subscribers; (b) to describe the hierarchical mobility management procedure during intra-domain and inter-domain handoff; (c) to establish an analytical model and formulate the location update signaling cost, handoff delay and (d) to calculate kopt in the Content Router (CR) for decreasing the total overhead during handoff.
Keywords: Content-Centric Networking; hierarchical mobilty management; inter-domain mobility; intra-domain mobility;

• Lifetime optimization for linear wireless sensor networks under retransmission
by Ruiying Li, Haitao Liao, Xiaoxi Liu, Ning Huang
Abstract: The lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is strongly affected by the energy consumption, which is partly attributed to retransmission. In this paper, the energy consumption of a linear WSN is analyzed based on basic energy consumption models and a retransmission model. Optimization models are proposed with the objective of maximizing WSN lifetime under the coverage and success transmission rate constraints. In particular, for traditional uniform and non-uniform sensor deployment problems without considering the sleep/wakeup mechanism, the number of sensors and their distances are optimized. Moreover, for a linear WSN with a sleep/wakeup mechanism, a sensor deployment scheme is developed by optimally assigning sensors to fixed locations. The genetic algorithm and the generalized reduced gradient method are applied to solve these problems. Our case studies illustrate that the lifetime of WSN with and without retransmission are different, and it is important to consider retransmission in WSN lifetime optimization.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; retransmission; lifetime; energy consumption; node deployment.

• Extremal Optimization Approach to Joint Routing and Scheduling for Industrial Wireless Networks
by Zhidong HE
Abstract: Industrial Wireless Networks (IWNs), such as WirelessHART and ISA1001.11A, differ significantly from ad hoc and traditional mesh networks in their use of centralized management architecture and battery powered devices. As the critical problems of network management, routing and link scheduling for IWNs have been studied separately in previous research but may result in optimization performance loss since the synergies of joint optimization cannot be exploited. In this paper, we propose a technique based on the Extremal Optimization (EO) approach to solve the joint routing and link scheduling problem in IWNs. After analyzing the feasibility of cross-layer optimization in IWNs, an integer linear programming (ILP) model, which is in accordance with the characteristics of IWNs, is presented to optimize the real-time performance and the network lifetime. Then, Extremal Optimization is investigated to solve the joint optimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that EO is used for working out optimization problems in wireless environments. The fitness assignment strategy, mutation rules and the operating process of EO method are designed to solve the ILP model. Extensive numerical results show that our algorithm can achieve real-time communication with improved latency and optimal network lifetime with balanced energy consumption among nodes at a fast computation rate. Through analyzing, it is demonstrated that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and path delay, thus making our optimization model flexibly configurable for different application needs.
Keywords: Extremal Optimization Method; Routing; Link Scheduling; Joint Optimization; Industrial Wireless Networks

• Energy-Efficient and Low-Delay scheduling scheme for low power wireless sensor network with real time data flows
by Zheng Zhang, Zhenbo Li, Jiapin Chen
Abstract: In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient and low-delay scheduling scheme for interruptible preamble sampling based MAC protocols (e.g., BoX-MAC-2 and X-MAC) in IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor network (WSN), which considers energy efficiency while reducing delay and contention in the context of real time data gathering and remote monitoring applications. Its built on MAC layer and exploits local information to coordinate the MAC schedules of nodes in a slowly-changing topology, just with light overhead. The scheme also considers the adaptation to data aggregation with real time data flows. Therefore, our scheme allows for much longer network lifetime while satisfying the delay constraints. The implementation and simulation results show the performance of the proposed scheme.
Keywords: Energy-Efficient; Low-Delay; Scheduling; MAC; Wireless Sensor Network;

• A Distributed Joint Topology Control and Forwarding Protocol in MANETs Using Game Theory
by Yaghoub Alizadeh Govarchinghaleh, Masoud Sabaei, Omid Tavallaie
Abstract: In MANETs, each node tries to maximize its utility in the network and saves its limited resources including energy and bandwidth due to different ownerships and selfish behavior which can cause nodes not to cooperate in network tasks such as topology control and packet forwarding and it affects performance of all tasks of the network. Thus, the induced topology lacks favorable specifications including connectivity, optimized energy consumption. Topology control and packet forwarding mutually affect each other. In addition, retrieving complete information about MANETs is challenging because of mobility and high signaling cost. In this paper, the issue of nodes selfishness in topology control and packet forwarding has been addressed by game theory. It is assumed that nodes have local information. Simulation results show that the proposed model decreases the signaling cost of the topology control, increases the network life and dramatically decreases the transmission power variance.
Keywords: Mobile ad-hoc network; MANET; Game theory; Topology control; Packet forwarding; Cooperation; Non-cooperative game; local information; network life time; energy consumption.

• Energy optimized resource scheduling algorithm for private cloud computing
by sudhir goyal, seema bawa, Bhupinder Singh
Abstract: In Universities, IT infrastructure is usually non-centralized. Setting up a private cloud setup in academic institutes has an edge over the traditional approach of IT infrastructure distribution to its various departments, schools and centres etc. This work proposes an energy efficient resource management solution specially designed for small and medium sized Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) cloud in Universities. The proposed algorithm optimizes the energy consumption through efficient resource scheduling, Virtual Machine (VM) consolidation and VM admission control policies. Proposed algorithm has been evaluated by keeping in consideration the number of accepted incoming VM requests and energy consumption of cloud infrastructure. Experimental results reveal that proposed algorithm enhances the acceptance rate of VM requests with the reduction of overall energy consumption of cloud infrastructure.
Keywords: private cloud, energy efficient, resource management, virtual machine.

• An Energy-Efficient Mobile Target Detection Scheme with Adjustable Duty Cycles in Wireless Sensor Networks
by Anfeng Liu, Yanling Hu, Zhigang Chen
Keywords: wireless sensor networks, target detection, duty cycles, energy-efficient, delay

• A secure and efficient time-bound hierarchical access control scheme for secure broadcasting
by Vanga Odelu, Ashok Kumar Das, Adrijit Goswami
Abstract: In a time-bound cryptographic key assignment scheme, distinct temporal keys for distinct time periods are assigned to the channels in order to encrypt and decrypt the channels for secure broadcasting. It has numerous applications including the Pay-TV systems. Several time-bound key management schemes for hierarchical access control have been proposed in the literature. The novel schemes proposed by Tzeng, Chien and Bertino et al. are insecure against collusion attacks. Moreover, these time-bound key management schemes do not support the dynamic property \individual channels subscription" to a user associated to a channel group as all the users associated to that channel group use the same user secret key (group secret key). In this paper, we aim to propose a novel time-bound hierarchical access control scheme for secure broadcasting, in which each user needs to store a distinct and unique user's private key, and hence each user in a channel group can subscribe for an individual channel. Our scheme reduces significantly the implementation cost and also improves the computational performance along with extra features. Through the informal and formal security analysis, it is shown that our scheme is secure against various known attacks including the collusion attack. As a result, our scheme is more secure and efficient as compared to other related schemes in the literature.
Keywords: Time-Bound hierarchical access control;Symmetric-key cryptosystem;Hash function; Key management;Secure broadcasting.

• Effective Self-Adjustment Places of Interest Discovery in Public Places
by Chow-Sing Lin, Shang-Hsuan Hsu
Abstract: Existing fingerprint-based places of interest (POIs) finding approaches mainly rely on WiFi signal fingerprints of fixed/static access points. Due to the prevalence of smartphones and 3G networks, the increasing number of smartphones acting as mobile access points in public places have hindered the ability to effectively learn and identify POIs. The effective removal of these casually appearing WiFi beacons generated by mobile access points, which would improve the accuracy of place discovery, has recently become the centre of attention for a lot of research. In this paper, we propose the self-adjustment places of interest discovery system (SAPID) to deal with the aforementioned problem. In addition to entrance and departure detection of POIs, we further classified POIs into hierarchical classes based on their semantic meanings to accelerate POI matching in a POI database with the proposed hierarchical matching as opposed to traditional linear matching. With the proposed weighted merging of the fingerprints of entrance and matched POI, the SAPID is more robust than the state-of-art place discovery algorithms such as BeaconPrint, PlaceSence, and SensLoc, in detecting POIs located in public places where mobile access points are very likely to be present. The experiment results show that compared to state-of-art place discovery algorithms, the SAPID has better precision, recall, and F1 score in POI discovery.
Keywords: Location-Based Service, Place of interest, Place Finding, WiFi Beacon, Fingerprint.

• Service Composition with Quality of Service Management in Environmental Sensor Networks
by Nguyen Cuong, Federico Domínguez, Long Nguyen, Abdellah Touhafi, Kris Steenhaut
Abstract: Environmental sensor networks consist of geographically distributed resource-constrained computers that use sensors to measure environmental parameters. They typically collect and distribute environmental data in near real-time using different types of web services. These services are consumed by users and applications that expect appropriate Quality of Service (QoS) levels. However, acceptable and stable QoS levels are difficult to maintain in environmental sensor networks due to limited computing resources and hostile deployment conditions. We developed a new approach to efficiently manage QoS levels in these networks using two separate tasks: online QoS estimation and QoS-aware service composition. This paper presents our first prototype of a web service composition system that leverages Bayesian classification techniques to perform online QoS estimation by constantly monitoring key environmental and network performance parameters. This system has been tested in a live noise pollution environmental sensor network deployed in the Flanders region in Belgium.
Keywords: environmental assessment, service composition, sensor networks, QoS management, sensor-based systems, service performance, estimation model, Naive Bayesian Networks.

• A reliable and energy-efficient outdoor localization method for smartphones
by Anhua lin
Abstract: Location has become a key service for smartphone applications. Nowadays, GPS and network-based technology have been widely used to provide location service. However, the former suffers its high power consumption and "urban canyons", and the latter has some imperfections in location accuracy. In order to circumvent these problems, we present a reliable and energy-efficient localization system using inertial sensors commonly found on today's smartphone, which make up for the existing technologies. In this paper, we first give an overall view of the localization system, and then describe the key components separately. Further more, reliable algorithms for displacement determination and heading direction have been developed, and Vincenty's formulae are employed to calculate the latitude and longitude of the endpoint. In order to prevent accumulated error, location error correction mechanism based on local map information and A-GPS are introduced. Measurements on Samsung I9100 and evaluation in the real condition confirm anticipated benefits. Results show that ACMG uses 24:7% less power consumption than GPS, and get a mean location accuracy of less than 6:7m in the playground of Nankai University.
Keywords: step detection;step length;heading direction;corner signature; outdoor localization; map tiles

• A Context-Aware Service Framework for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
by Tzung-Shi Chen, Neng-Chung Wang, Gwo-Jong Yu, Hsin-Ju Chen
Abstract: Following the development of wireless technology, a variety of mobile devices are now capable of communicating with each other. To do so, a mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is established by mobile devices without relying on a fixed infrastructure. Due to the characteristics of rapid deployment and flexible construction, MANETs usually have attractive applications with regard to intelligent transportation systems and digital life. In this paper, we propose a service framework for supporting context-aware environments in MANETs. A virtual overlay network and two novel approaches within this framework have been addressed to significantly improve the efficiency of the data delivery. The surrounding context of mobile nodes is used to determine our strategy adopting push-based or pull-based approaches. When a real-time event occurs in a node, a push-based approach is adopted to disseminate urgent messages to neighboring nodes. On the contrary, a pull-based approach is adopted and a virtual backbone, namely a segment-tree virtual network (STVN), is constructed to conduct contextual information. Simulation results show that our proposed approach outperforms the existing publish/subscribe approach.
Keywords: context-aware; mobile ad hoc networks; overlay networks; publish/subscribe; service framework

• EstQoS: establishing QoS in multirate multihop Wireless Mesh Networks through available bandwidth computation and efficient admission control
by Dibakar Chakraborty
Abstract: Establishing QoS provisions in multirate multihop Wireless Mesh Networks is a challenging task. Locating effective admission control is the foremost need to efficiently utilize the scarce network resources and provide QoS guarantees. In this paper, we propose an EstQoS methodology comprising two phases. Phase 1 (EstAB) computes the available bandwidth of a node considering the hidden terminals' presence. We build an analytical model for EstAB phase. Phase 2 (AdmissionControl) consists of an effective admission control algorithm which defines a data rate adaptive scheme for non realtime ows to ensure efficient use of the channel bandwidth. On the other hand in case of realtime ows, the admission control algorithm ensures that the channel is not overloaded and the delay constraint is satisfied.
Keywords: QoS, admission control, available bandwidth, multirate, Wireless Mesh Network.

• Minimum Chunk-Transmission Delay for Active Safe Driving in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks
by Ben-Jye Chang, Ying-Hsin Liang, Cheng-Hsin Liu
Keywords: Multicast VANET networks, P2P-based chunk reloading, real-time video streaming, the least-delay guarantee

• Implementation of a Virtual Switch Monitor System Using OpenFlow on Cloud
by Chao-Tung Yang
Abstract: As a next generation networking protocol, the OpenFlow mechanism speeds up network performance by separating the control plane from the data plane. It can be implemented for QoS functions: users in need of network resources or with higher priorities defined by the system are allocated with adequate resources. In addition to the communication protocol, another two elements are needed to implement a complete OpenFlow system: the switch, either physical or virtual, which supports OpenFlow, and the controller, which sends setting packets of flows to control the switch flow table. With OpenFlow, users are not restricted to functions provided by the specific switch or router, such as RIP, OSPF, EGP routing protocols, firewalls, QoS, Anti-Virus, and NAT, since it provides a standard Application Programming Interface to let users have the freedom to define their wanted functions instead of predefined functions bundled in the manufacturers proprietary operating system. The main goal of this paper is to create an OpenFlow switch monitoring system, which oversees all hosts and traffic pass through switches under the controller, and provides a simple web page by which the network administrator can modify the priority of each flow and manage the whole network with great ease.
Keywords: OpenFlow; Software Defined Network; Cloud Computing; Open vSwitch;

• Dynamic Transmission Power Switch for Fast Data Collection in Duty-cycled Sensor Networks
by Zuzhi Fan
Abstract: Battery-powered sensor networks are often duty-cycled to conserve nodes energy and prolong network lifetime. In such intermittently-connected networks, the waiting time over multi-hop data forwarding dominates delivery latency, which is the main challenge and unacceptable for delay-sensitive applications. In this work, we address the optimization problem for duty-cycled sensor network with transmission power control. In particular, we propose Dynamic Transmission Power Switch (DTPS), a cross-layer approach which jointly considers power control with multi-parent forwarding for the fast data collection. In DTPS, each node dynamically selects a sequence of transmission pairs to deliver data packets. Extensive simulation results show that our scheme can reduce both delivery delay and energy consumption for data collection applications.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; Data Collection; Transmission Dower Switch; Delay Optimization

• Protected pointers in wireless sensor networks
by Lanfranco Lopriore, Gianluca Dini
Abstract: With reference to a distributed architecture consisting of sensor nodes connected by wireless links in an arbitrary network topology, we consider a segment-oriented implementation of the single address space paradigm of memory reference. In our approach, applications consist of active entities called components, which are distributed in the network nodes. A component accesses a given segment by presenting a handle for this segment. A handle is a form of pointer protected cryptographically. Handles allow an effective implementation of communications between components, and key replacement. The number of messages generated by the execution of the communication primitives is independent of the network size. The key replacement mechanism is well suited to reliable application rekeying over an unreliable network.
Keywords: cryptographic key, key replacement, sensor node, single address space, symmetric- key cryptography.

• Security and Performance Analysis of the SEAP Authentication Protocol in MANETs
by Soumyadev Maity, R. C. Hansdah
Abstract: Authentication protocols are essential for ensuring the security of communications in MANETs. However, efficiency is equally important for a MANET authentication protocol. This paper describes and analyzes a secure and efficient authentication protocol (SEAP) designed for MANETs. The SEAP protocol is a server coordination based pairwise symmetric key management protocol which works on a hierarchical network architecture and supports dynamic membership. Besides, the protocol uses a passive external membership granting server (MGS) to provide stronger security. To ensure efficiency, the protocol uses only symmetric key cryptography, and to achieve storage scalability, it makes use of a pseudo random function (PRF). The protocol is also robust against authentication server compromise. We have formally proved the correctness of the security grantees provided by the SEAP protocol using the strand space verification model. The paper includes a qualitative comparison with the other recently proposed protocols and also a comprehensive comparison with other existing protocols based on the results obtained from simulations. To demonstrate the applicability of the protocol in practical scenarios, its performance is also evaluated on a MANET testbed. Both simulation and experimental study demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed protocol.
Keywords: Authentication Protocol, MANET, Pseudo Random Function, Strand Space Model

• Cooperative Topology Control for Low Interference in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
by Xinglong Wang, Liusheng Huang
Abstract: Cooperative communication (CC) can exploit spatial diversity via neighbors antennas, which may cause serious interference as well. The previous works on the cooperative topology control problem mainly constructed the energy-efficient topologies for wireless ad-hoc networks, but could not guarantee the interference performance. Thus, this paper studies the interference-aware cooperative topology control problem. We first introduce a nodal interference model for the CC scheme. Based on this model, two problems are defined according to different criteria. One is to obtain a strongly connected topology with min-max interference (hereafter called CTCMMI), and the other is to construct a strongly connected topology with min-average interference (hereafter called CTC-MAI). Then, we design a binary-search-based algorithm, called DBS, to optimally solve the CTC-MMI problem. As the CTC-MAI problem is shown to be NP-hard, we propose a distributed algorithm DBCT and prove that DBCT can reach the approximate factor of 4 for CTC-MAI. Finally, extensive simulations show the high efficiency of the proposed algorithms compared with previous methods. For example, DBCT can construct the cooperative topology with low-average interference, and reduce the energy consumptions by about 30% compared with traditional methods.
Keywords: Topology Control; Cooperative Communication; Low-Interference; Energy Efficiency;

• A hidden Markov model combined with RFID-based sensors for accurate vehicle route prediction
by Ye Ning, Zhong-qin Wang, Reza Malekian, Ru-chuan Wang, Ting-ting Zhao, Darius Andriukaitis, Algimantas Valinevicius, Dangirutis Navikas, Vytautas Markevicius
Abstract: The road transport of dangerous goods (RTDG) arouses more and more attentions in recent years. Vehicle location devices only based on GPS technology have played an important role on the current market. However, there are obvious shortcomings by using a simple GPS method in the aspect of positioning accuracy and coverage. In the blind area of GPS, a vehicle's route could not be detached in real time, which will lead to manage and follow the tracks of vehicle difficultly. In this paper, we propose an approach based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to provide static predictions on driver routes. Our approach is based on building the probabilistic model through observation of the driver's habits from a map database involving RFID information. Before we predict a vehicle's route, we firstly compute the shortest path from starting point to destination point. Then through this path we could filter some redundant data. Finally, experiments demonstrate that we acquire high prediction accuracy under different periods of traffic conditions by training the HMM.
Keywords: Hidden Markov Model; Vehicle Route Prediction; Route Filtering; RFID

• Threshold-Based Cooperative Communication of Energy Harvesting Active Networked Tags
by Mengistu A. Mulatu, Li-Chung Chang, Yunghsiang S. Han, Fikreselam Gared Mengistu, Der-Feng Tseng
Abstract: Using cooperative transmission allows energy-harvesting active networked tags (EnHANTs) to cooperate regarding information transmission and reception, achieving higher throughput compared with non-cooperative counterparts. In this paper, a battery-threshold-based optimal cooperative transmission strategy is proposed for EnHANTs, allowing EnHANT-equipped objects to communicate with the destination (i.e. the reader) either directly or by cooperating with neighboring objects. A strategy adapted to request states and available energy resources is considered, and an optimal transmission policy for EnHANTs is developed to maximize the long-term average throughput by formulating a Markov decision process (MDP) model. The simulated results indicate that the proposed strategy yields superior performance compared with single-link transmission.
Keywords: Cooperative transmission strategy; energy harvesting tags; Markov decision process; value iteration

• A Context-Sensitive Service Composition Framework for Dependable Service Provision in Cyber-Physical Systems
by Tao Wang
Abstract: Most of the SOA-based mechanisms for web services are insufficient to support dependable service composition with the heterogeneous, dynamic, and numerous physical entities in CPS. Taking into account the contexts of physical entities, this paper presents a context-sensitive service composition framework in CPS with dependability requirements. Firstly, an ontology model for context-sensitive service specification of physical entities is proposed. Then, with a service spanning tree (SST) based hierarchical service management scheme., a service workflow spanning graph (SWSG) is used to map the workflow-based abstract process model of a given task to multiple sets of atomic service instances. Finally, we present a two-phase context-sensitive service composition optimization mechanism, which is able to select out the optimal service providers to implement the task effectively and dependably. The experiment results show that the precision and efficiency of service discovery, the success ratio of workflow execution, as well as the performance of service combination optimization have been greatly improved with our proposed method.
Keywords: Cyber-physical system; service composition; context-sensitive; service spanning tree; service workflow spanning graph; service combination optimization

• The Internet of Things Communication Protocol for Devices with Low Memory Footprint
by Sašo Vinkovič, Milan Ojsteršek
Abstract: This paper describes a new communication protocol, named XMC which is designed for the transmission of messages between an embedded device and a remote system. A new markup language called XMDD has also been developed and is used to describe the functional profile of the embedded device. The main advantage of XMC communication protocol is its flexibility and independence from the device type. It is suitable for communication with devices that have a curtailed amount of working memory (a few kB) and limited computing power, i.e. 8-bit or 16-bit microcontrollers. Messaging between embedded device and remote systems is done without any interference with the basic source code of the embedded device, thus allowing access to all functionalities and features of the connectable embedded device and is based on the functionality dictionary and built-in features of an embedded device. It also maintains a low production price for the embedded device and from the programming point of view provides a transparent and flexible upgrade of the hardware and software without any redundancy input.
Keywords: communication protocol, internet of things, home automation, functional profile, smart appliance, code generation, embedded system, framework

• Sampling Design Schemes for Distributed Parameter Estimation Networks
by Ming-Fong Hsu, Chao-Tang Yu, Tsang-Yi Wang, Tsai-Cheng Wu
Abstract: The present study proposes two sampling schemes for distributed parameter estimation networks. In both cases, the estimation network is assumed to comprise a number of remotely located sensors which process the observed signal locally and then convey the processed data to a data fusion center to make the final estimate of the parameter of interest. In the first sampling scheme, all of the sensors in the estimation network utilize the same number of sampling points, and the aim is to determine the distribution of the sampling points at each sensor which maximizes the estimation accuracy. By contrast, in the second sampling scheme, the sensors are assigned a different number of sampling points, and the objective is to determine the sampling point assignment which maximizes the overall estimation performance given a constraint on the total number of sampling points available. The two sampling design problems are solved by maximizing the Fisher information (or minimizing the Fisher information loss). The validity of the proposed sampling design schemes is demonstrated by means of two numerical examples.
Keywords: distributed estimation; sampling design; optimal allocation; sensor networks; maximum likelihood estimation; person by person optimization.

• Practical and Self-Con gurable Multihop Wireless Infrastructure: A Functional Perspective
Abstract: Multihop wireless networks require self-configurable and reliable communication infrastructure that can quickly adapt itself to the rapidly changing network conditions without manual reconfiguration. The key to developing such a communication infrastructure requires (i) efficient link estimation mechanisms, (ii) reliable routing algorithms, and (iii) stable addressing schemes.In the past decade, a number of practical solutions have been developed for these three main components of multihop wireless infrastructure in inherently similar sensor networks, mesh networks and MANETs. However, we lack a comprehensive review that classifies these solutions and compares them on the basis of a set of properties desired in wireless networks.In this review, we classify different techniques implemented and evaluated by the research community, define a set of properties, and functionally compare representative techniques from each class.Our main departure from the existing literature is that (i) we focus on practical and self-configurable solutions that have widely been used in deployments and contributed to the open-source community, and (ii) we present a funcitonal comparison to elaborate the design philosophy and usability of these protocols and not just their performance.
Keywords: link estimation, routing, addressing, wireless protocols, sensor networks, mesh networks, multihop wireless

• A framework of cloud service selection based on trust mechanism
by Yuli Yang, Xinguang Peng, Donglai Fu
Abstract: Although cloud computing can provide the convenience for customers, customers still face the challenge to choose the appropriate cloud service, which can satisfy their different QoS requirements. Because traditional methods could not quantify the security of cloud services effectively, a novel method was proposed to quantify their security in the paper. In the proposed method, the definition of trust was given in the context of cloud service selection, and the trust mechanism based on cloud model theory was adopted to quantify the security of cloud services. Taking three QoS requirements of trust, cost and time into account, we put forward a multi-QoS-aware cloud service selection strategy, and employed the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to compute the utility value of each cloud service, which can help the cloud customer to select the appropriate cloud service according to his QoS requirements. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is sensitive to the change of the security. The multi-QoSaware cloud service selection strategy can provide a simple and effective decision-making method for cloud customers.
Keywords: cloud computing; cloud service selection; Quality of Service (QoS); cloud model; Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

• Context-aware Framework to Support Situation-awareness for Disaster Management
by Aicha Aid, Idir Rassoul
Abstract: When a crisis event occurs, there is a strong need for any involved decision maker to gather in short time frames relevant situational information from different available data sources, to better understand the caused disruptions. Technological devices proliferation and ICT efficiency in timely information sharing didnt leave a choice to responders only to adopt them, supporting their operations. This article proposes a framework that aims to solve challenges brought by this new paradigm of information sharing. Based on service oriented architecture, our framework relies on Web Service standard for Devices to make pervasive situation-awareness environment that allows seamless integration of heterogeneous devices. It also provides solutions to filter in real time received information by taking into account the decision makers context. This context-aware mechanism plays an important role in making the data source intelligent that delivers personalized and actionable view of the situation, relevant to decision maker current needs.
Keywords: pervasive computing; context-awareness; situation-awareness; disaster management; DPWS; ubiquitous environment; semantic web; information filtering; event extraction; emergency response.

• Can wireless sensor networks be emotional? A survey of computational models of emotions and their applications for wireless sensor networks
by Tahir Emre KALAYCI, Majid Bahrepour, Nirvana Meratnia, Paul J. M. Havinga
Abstract: Advances in psychology have revealed that emotions and rationality are inter- linked and emotions are essential for rational behaviour and decision making. Therefore, integration of emotions with intelligent systems has become an important topic in engineering. The integration of emotions into intelligent systems requires computational models to generate emotions from external and internal sources. This paper first provides a survey of current computational models of emotion and their applications in engineering. Finally, it assesses potential of integrating emotions in wireless sensor networks by listing some use scenarios and by giving one model application. In this model application performance of a neural network for event detection has been improved using Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC).
Keywords: artificial intelligence; BELBIC; emotions; emotional learning; wireless sensor networks.

• Cooperative Routing In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Fuzzy Logic
by Venkanna Udutalapally, Leela Velusamy R
Abstract: Mobile Ad hoc Network, needs an unconditional cooperation among the nodes to communicate. Presence of malicious or selfish nodes in the routing path will affect the routing performance. In this paper, Fuzzy Logic Based Trust-AODV is proposed, which is an enhancement to the existing AODV protocol. The algorithm uses decision factors such as Packet forwarding trust, Energy level, and Time of Availability to decide the dynamic changing behavior of a mobile node. Further, the decision factors are incorporated into Fuzzy logic model to calculate the Final Trust value of a mobile node which is used to establish a cooperative routing path. The simulated results are compared with AODV, DSR, TDSR and AOTDV algorithms with respect to routing parameters such as Packet delivery ratio, Average delay, Routing packet overhead, and Energy consumption. The simulation results indicate that the proposed routing algorithm improves the routing performance.
Keywords: Trust Management, Cooperative routing, Fuzzy Logic, MANET, AODV, DSR, AOTDV, FLBT-AODV.

• Saturation Throughput Analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF with Heterogeneous Node Transmit Powers and Capture Effect
by Lei Lei, Ting Zhang, Liang Zhou, Xiaoqin Song, Shengsuo Cai
Abstract: The transmit power control (TPC) schemes allow the wireless nodes to select a minimum required transmit power from all available power levels to access the medium. Consequently, from the viewpoint of the medium access control (MAC) layer, the nodes with TPC schemes actually transmit signals to their neighbors at randomized and heterogeneous power levels due to the randomness of the network topology and traffic distribution. In this paper, we focus on analyzing the saturation throughput performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF networks with heterogeneous node transmit power levels and the capture effect. We first analyze the capture effect among packets sent at different power levels and derive the analytical expression of the capture probability. Then, we propose a three-dimensional Markov chain to model the backoff procedure performed by a tagged sending node under the condition of heterogeneous transmit power levels, and compute the total saturation throughput of the network with the previously derived capture probability. Finally, we validate the accuracy of our model by comparing the analytical results with the simulation results, and analyze the impact of the capture effect on the saturation throughput performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF networks.
Keywords: IEEE 802.11 DCF networks; Heterogeneous power levels; Capture effects; Saturation throughput; Markov chain

• An M2M gateway-centric architecture for autonomic healing and optimizing of Machine-to-Machine overlay networks
by Amine Dhraief, Abdelfettah Belghith
Abstract: The Machine-to-Machine (M2M) technology, currently under standardization at both the ETSI and 3GPP, is expected to be one of the most promising revenue-generating services. However, to ensure the wide spread of this technology, M2M communications should be secure, fault-tolerant and self-managed. In this work, we add to the M2M gateway (an aggregator node in the M2M architecture) the self-healing and self-optimizing autonomic capabilities. We couple at the M2M gateway level the Host Identity Protocal (HIP) with the Reachability Protocol (REAP). REAP enables a self-healed M2M communication as it detects possible failures and seamlessly rehomes an M2M established session to a new working overlay path. Furthermore, we modify REAP to ensure self-optimized M2M communications. REAP continuously monitors M2M overlay paths and always selects the best available ones in terms of RTT. We implement our solution on the OMNeT++ network simulator. Results show that M2M sessions effectively resume after an outage affecting their currently used M2M overlay paths. Results also highlight that M2M sessions autonomically select the best available M2M overlay paths.
Keywords: Machine-to-Machine; M2M Gateway; Overlay network; Autonomic management; HIP; REAP; OMNeT++

• An Ubiquitous Solution for Advertising and Loyalty Purposes Using NFC Technology
by Gonzalo Cerruela García, Irene Luque Ruiz, Miguel Angel Gómez-Nieto
Abstract: In this paper we present an application based on Near Field Communication technology and oriented to advertising and user loyalty fields. The system combines NFC and in-air hand gestures with the purpose of creating an attractive leisure activity where customers are rewarded by shops with the possibility of obtaining a prize or discount on the purchases made. NFC is used for securing the participation of the user in the activity and for exchanging the prizes obtained. During the activity, users perform a fishing gesture (throwing and catching) with the mobile phone, simulating the capture of a prize that could be located anywhere in the shop. This gesture is recognized by mobile sensors. The tailoring of the system to specific business marketing strategies is also managed by the proposed solution.
Keywords: Near Field Communication, Air-Hand gestures, Advertising, Loyalty

• A Trustworthy Web Service Composition Method for Ubiquitous Computing
by shenghui zhao, Guilin Chen, Huibin Wang, Haibao Chen
Abstract: Mobile users using smart mobile device have a considerable amount of requirements of services from Mobile Cloud or Internet, due to its resource scarcity. It is a big challenge to select the services meeting users' all demands, as the user has both the demands of trust and lower cost. The existing methods [25][26] of trustworthy service composition cant balance the profits between service provider and consumer in mobile situation. Firstly, we design a heuristic algorithm, called FASG, to reduce the complexity of generating feasible allocation sets. Secondly, in order to balance the profits between service providers and consumers, a service composition method, based on the social surplus maximization is put forward and the corresponding heuristic algorithm, called RCA_H, is also designed to find the optimal feasible solution in polynomial time. Experiment results show that the proposed RCA_H algorithm guarantees the profits of both sides, and obtain more trusted service and better facilitate service providers to provide trustworthy services to meet users customized needs compared with another method [27] based on user utility maximization.
Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing; Service Composition; Social Surplus Maximization;Heuristic Algorithm

• Efficient data collection for self-organizing traffic signal systems based on vehicular sensor networks
by Bartłomiej Płaczek
Abstract: The development of traffic signal systems based on vehicular sensor networks (VSNs) requires new methods to enable real-time collection and processing of the data registered by sensor-equipped vehicles. Due to the large amounts of sensor readings, there is a necessity of selecting the data that have to be transferred to control nodes. Moreover, the control nodes need an appropriate algorithm to effectively utilise the information which is delivered from individual vehicles. This paper presents an approach, which enables efficient collection and utilisation of the detailed data from VSN for controlling traffic signals in a road network. A self-organizing control strategy is used in the analysed system. The amount of transmitted data is reduced by taking into account uncertainties estimated at control nodes. Results of simulation experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of data transfers and average vehicle delay.
Keywords: vehicular sensor networks, vehicular ad-hoc networks, traffic signal control, data collection, self-organizing systems, traffic model

• Efficient Mobile Cloud Service Allocation For Mobile Commerce
by Li ChunLin
Abstract: Mobile systems, such as smart phones, become the primary computing platforms for many users. The mobile cloud computing helps the mobile devices to run the computation intensive applications, which consume a large amount of battery energy. This paper presents efficient mobile cloud service allocation for mobile commerce in mobile cloud. The contributions of this paper have three aspects. 1) Mobile cloud service allocation scheme considers both mobile clients and cloud datacenter providers. 2) The mobile commerce service scenario is taken as an example in mobile cloud environment, and our service allocation approach is applied to mobile cloud environment. 3) The paper proposes a distributed mobile cloud service allocation algorithm for mobile commerce. From the simulation results, the execution success ratio of our service allocation algorithm for mobile commerce (SAAMC) is better than GMCRA (Game-theoretic Mobile Cloud Resource Allocation) [13] and ARAA (Auction based Resource Allocation Algorithm) [17]. The allocation efficiency of SAAMC is better than GMCRA and ARAA. The energy consumption ratio of SAAMC is not good as GMCRA.
Keywords: mobile cloud, service allocation, mobile commerce

• The Diagnosis of Consensus Agreement in a MANET
by Mao-Lun Chiang
Abstract: For achieving the reliability, the fault-tolerance of distributed systems needs to be studied. One of the most important problems of fault-tolerance issues is the Fault Diagnosis Agreement (FDA). The goal of FDA is to make each fault-free processor detect/locate a common set of faulty processors. However, previous works cannot solve the FDA problem in a Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET). Therefore, the FDA problem is revised in this study by an evidence-based fault diagnosis protocol under dual failure characteristics on processors in a MANET. The proposed EMFDA protocol can detect/locate maximum number of faulty processors using minimum number of message exchange in a MANET.
Keywords: Byzantine Agreement; Fault Diagnosis Agreement; Fault-tolerance; Consensus; Mobile Ad-hoc Network

• Link Reliable Energy Efficient AOMDV routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks
by Periyasamy P, Karthikeyan E
Abstract: Reliable data transmission has been an emerging issue in AOMDV routing protocol since the nodes are prone to link failures and route breaks in highly dynamic ad hoc networks due to the selection of multiple routes between any source and destination pair based on only minimal hop count. For eliminating such problems, we propose a novel node disjoint multipath routing protocol called Link Reliable Energy Efficient AOMDV (LR-EE-AOMDV) routing protocol which is the extension of a well known AOMDV routing protocol. The LR-EE-AOMDV finds multiple link reliable energy efficient paths between any source and destination pair for data transmission using three metrics such as Path Length,Path-Link Quality Estimator (P-LQE) and a novelPath-Node Energy Estimator (P-NEE). We evaluate the performance of LR-EE-AOMDV routing protocol using NS 2.34 with varying network flows and number of nodes under random waypoint mobility model and compare it with AOMDV and OMMRE-AOMDV routing protocols in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) metrics. When there is a hike in network flows, the LR-EE-AOMDV reduces 24% of routing overhead, 38% of packet loss ratio, 26% of normalized routing overhead and 23% of energy consumption. It also increases rather 17% of packet delivery ratio and 16% of throughput than AOMDV routing protocol. When there is a hike in number of nodes, the LR-EE-AOMDV reduces 21% of routing overhead, 20% of packet loss ratio, and 16% of normalized routing overhead. It also increases 13% of packet delivery ratio and 13% of throughput than AOMDV routing protocol. From our simulation results, we show that the LR-EE-AOMDV routing protocol outperforms AOMDV and OMMRE-AOMDV routing protocols.
Keywords: mobile ad hoc networks; multipath routing; AOMDV; hop count; Link Quality Estimator; Node Energy Estimator; QoS.

• DNAS: A Driver Nighttime Assistance System using Rear-View Smartphone
by Chunmei Ma, Haigang Gong, Nianbo Liu, Chao Song, Ming Liu
Abstract: Due to the poor visibility and improper behavior, driving at nighttime is much more dangerous. It has been pointed out that the overall nighttime crash rate is approximately 1.6 times than the daytime rate. Therefore, it is of great significance to design a driver nighttime assistance system that warns drivers of the imminent danger. An effective solution is monitoring nearby vehicles for potential safety hazards. However, existing driver assistance schemes require the deployment of dedicated sensors on vehicles and/or on the roadside, which limits their implementation in practice. In this paper, we present DNAS, a cost-effective nighttime driver assistance system, as an Android App running on smartphones. DNAS allows drivers to place their phones on the rear windshield, for periodically capturing road condition by the camera sensor, and warning the drivers of dangerous speeding or tailgating event. To achieve this function, we use the bright vehicle headlights and their dimension to determine the following vehicles from the captured images, analyze their temporal and spatial characteristics in the successive frames, and finally find out the safety-critical events to send out warning sounds. We evaluate the effectiveness of our system based on two different real driving routes, the results show that DNAS, on average, is able to detect speeding and tailgating with an accuracy of 87:7% and 83:3% recall, respectively.
Keywords: DNAS; Nighttime driving; Smartphone

• The Bottleneck Problem in Large Scale IEEE 802.15.4 / ZigBee Networks
by Chih-Min Chao, Hsin-Hsiang Wang
Abstract: In this paper, we handle the bottleneck problem of ZigBee-based networks. The bottleneck problem occurs at the nodes near the ZigBee coordinator since they have too many data to deliver during the data gathering process. This is a fundamental problem which reduces network throughput and prolongs transmission delay. A possible solution to this problem is to schedule each node's transmission/receiving time properly. Two fundamental problems we have to answer for such scheduling are when and how long a node should keep awake to transmit/receive packets. To achieve efficient scheduling, in this paper, we propose a centralized Top-Down-Maximum-Load-First (TDMLF) scheme which utilizes the contention-free Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS) defined in IEEE 802.15.4. By increasing the number of concurrent transmissions, the proposed scheme achieves high system utilization and thus alleviates the bottleneck problem. Through simulation and real system implementation, we verify that TDMLF successfully reduces the negative effects caused by the bottleneck problem.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks;IEEE 802.15.4;ZigBee;data collection;bottleneck;scheduling

• Towards an Observer/Controller and Ontology/Rules-Based Approach for Pervasive Healthcare Systems
by Amina Hameur Laine, Kenza Abdlaziz, Philippe Roose, Mohamed-Khireddine Kholladi
Abstract: This paper proposes new design approach for U-Healthcare systems. Our approach consists in combining the generic Observer/Controller architecture of Organic Computing, Ontologies and Rules-based paradigms. This combination brings three significant benefits. First, it allows keeping the system highly supervised and controlled by the Observer/Controller. Second, it enables the system to reason upon useful contextual information gathered from different and heterogeneous entities, and deduce new situations that require adaptation of the systems behavior. Finally, it enables the system to adapt its behavior dynamically to the context change by reasoning about this context and selecting the appropriate service to a specific user.
Keywords: pervasive computing; U-Healthcare systems; context-awareness; context-aware system; context modeling; context reasoning; ontologies; rules; Observer/Controller architecture.

• Hybrid alternative Receiver-Sender approach with a colored DR/BDR mechanism for the broadcast of safety messages in VANETs
by Amira Benaidja, Samira Moussaoui, Farid Nait Abdesselam
Keywords: VANETs; safety applications; hybrid alternative Receiver-Sender approach; colored DR/BDR mechanism; warning messages

• Lossless Compression for Transmitting ECG in SMS with High Quality for Mobile Telecardiology Systems
by Diana M, Deisy C
Abstract: This paper presents a novel Lossless Compression for ECG in SMS (LCES) deployable on resource-constrained devices like mobile phones for efficient use in remote health monitoring systems. Even losslessly compressed ECG suffers transmission loss in GSM networks due to use of special character set stated by the GSM Standards. The LCES overcomes these challenges by adopting the ETSI GSM 03.38 character set in the symbol substitution phase to abstain loss in ECG transmission. The LCES was implemented and tested as an Android App using MIT-BIH Arrhythmia and Compression Test Databases. An average compression-ratio (CR) of 7.03, Percentage-Root-mean-square-Distortion (PRD) as low as 0.022 proving superior compression performance and quality for real-time mobile based remote health monitoring systems was obtained.
Keywords: ECG Transmission; ECG in SMS; Lossless ECG Compression; Symbol substitution based Compression; Telecardiology.

• Incorporating Architectural Modeling with State-based Reliability Evaluation
by Luxi Chen, Linpeng Huang, Chen Li, Xiwen Wu
Abstract: In the system development, it is quite important to evaluate non-functional property qualities on the architecture for making early adjustment decisions. However, in current practice, functional architectural modeling and non-functional quality evaluation are often implemented separately. And most architecture description languages fail to specify architecture evolution to implement adjustment. It is essential to propose a mechanism implementing architecture-level evaluation, and supporting architecture evolution. Withrnthese considerations, we present an architectural evaluation and evolution framework, which is based on the architecture description language - Breeze/ADL. First, by using Breeze/ADL, the system architecture is specified with trustworthy properties. Second, Breeze/ADL specifications are turned into a state view Markov Chain model. This model helps to evaluate the reliability and conduct importance analysis to identify the critical module. Third, based on the evaluation result, the evolution mechanism by Breeze/ADL will raise an adjustment solution to improve the reliability.
Keywords: System Architecture; Breeze/ADL; Markov Chain Model; Reliability Evaluation

• Improving the QoS of IEEE 802.11e networks through imprecise computation
by Anna Lina Ruscelli, Gabriele Cecchetti
Abstract: IEEE 802.11e HCCA reference scheduler is based on fixed value parameters that do not adapt to traffic changes, thus Quality of Service for multimedia applications is a challenge, especially in the case of Variable Bit Rate streams, that require dynamic resource assignment. This paper is focused on Immediate Dynamic TXOP HCCA (IDTH) scheduling algorithm and its new evolution Immediate Dynamic TXOP HCCA plus (IDTH+). Their reclaiming mechanisms, refined by the monitoring of transmission duration, aim at overcoming the limits of fixed preallocation of resources by varying the stations transmission time and avoiding waste of resources. Simulations and theoretical analysis based on the imprecise computation model show that the integration of IDTH and IDTH+ can achieve improved network performance in terms of transmission queues length, mean access delay and packets drop rate and to efficiently manage bursty traffic. Moreover the performance improvements of IDTH+ with respect to IDTH are highlighted.
Keywords: Quality of Service; scheduling algorithms; WLAN

• On the Use of Centrality Measures to Determine Connected Dominating Sets for Mobile Ad hoc Networks
by Natarajan Meghanathan
Abstract: We investigate the use of centrality measures to determine connected dominating sets (CDSs) for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) whose topology changes dynamically with time. CDSs are preferred for performing network-wide broadcasts with reduced retransmissions. Though commonly used, degree centrality-based CDS has been observed to be quite unstable in the presence of node mobility. In this paper, we explore the use of other centrality measures (such as eigenvector centrality, betweenness centrality and closeness centrality that are commonly used for complex network analysis) as the underlying criterion for inclusion of nodes in a CDS for MANETs and evaluate the lifetime and node size of such CDSs in comparison to that incurred for the degree centrality-based CDS. We observe the eigenvector centrality-based CDS to be the most stable (but the CDS node size is also the largest); the betweenness centrality-based CDS is the least stable (but incurs the smallest CDS node size).
Keywords: Centrality, Connected Dominating Set, CDS Lifetime, CDS Node Size, Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Stability, Simulations

• CG-Fuzzing: A Comprehensive Fuzzy Algorithm for ZigBee
by Baojiang Cui, Ziyue Wang
Abstract: ZigBee defines several security services on the MAC layer, including sequential freshness, frame integrity, data encryption and access control. Unfortunately, there are still security vulnerabilities due to design defects of ZigBee that could result in serious network meltdown. Therefore, it is necessary to detect these defects of ZigBee by using a fuzzing test. However, fuzzing tests have usually been inefficient because test cases are either too numerous or invalid. In this paper, a novel comprehensive fuzzing test algorithm, CG-Fuzzing (Comprehensive Genetic-Based-Fuzzing) is proposed. The CG- Fuzzing algorithm contains three parts: structure-based, boundary-based and genetic algorithms. This paper establishes an evolutionary model for test cases that helps them achieve high rates of passing filtering rules and vulnerability triggering. Compared with the traditional fuzzing methods, the number of test cases is reduced and they are more efficient. Experimental results prove that the synthesized performance of CG-Fuzzing is outstanding. The fuzzing test with the algorithm takes only 4 minutes to exploit a previously known vulnerability of ZigBee.
Keywords: CG-Fuzzing, Fuzzing Test, ZigBee, IoT

• Joint Channel Assignment and Routing Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks
by Gin-Xian Kok, Chee-Onn Chow, Yi-Han Xu, Hiroshi Ishii
Abstract: Conventional single channel wireless ad hoc networks usually suffer from low network throughput due to the higher number of packet transmissions required for multi-hop communication. Using multiple channels within a single network can improve the network throughput. In multi-channel communication networks, the channels must be assigned appropriately to maximize network performance. Existing channel assignment methods are usually based on the approach of interference reduction/minimization, for example, by making a link operates on only one channel and different links operate on different channels. In this paper, we go in the opposite direction and propose to make links operate on more channels. A new distributed joint channel assignment and routing protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks called Cognitive Radio Enhanced AOMDV (CR-EAOMDV) is proposed. Simulation studies showed that our method outperforms other methods.
Keywords: distributed method; channel assignment; routing; multi-hop wireless networks; wireless mesh networks; cognitive radio ad hoc networks; interference; channel metric; performance evaluation; simulation

• An Efficient Data Dissemination and Handover Scheme for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks
by Ravi Shankar Shukla, Neeraj Tyagi, Ashutosh Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar Debey
Abstract: This paper presents a data dissemination and smooth handover scheme for vehicular ad hoc network. The data dissemination scheme is based on position based routing class protocol and uses optimize forwarding to find forwarding node along the road pattern to deliver the data packets. The proposed routing algorithm ensures that all data packets are received with minimal delay and higher delivery ratio. A heterogeneous network architecture is proposed in this paper to support seamless mobility of mobile network. Each vehicle is provided with mobility through different Internet Server Protocols (ISPs). The Mobile Router (MR) based handover scheme where MRs cooperatively receive packet destined for each other can provide no service disruption and significantly reduce packet loss during handover. It also makes the packet loss independent to handover latency. Simulation study shows the comparative performance of the proposed handover architecture in terms of throughput, handover latency service disruption time, packet loss and signaling overhead.
Keywords: Ad-Hoc Network; Routing Algorithms; Handover scheme; VANET.

• VPOD: Virtual Parking Overlay Network based Data Delivery in Urban VANETs
by Jinqi Zhu, Chunmei Ma, Nianbo Liu, Ming Liu, Weijia Feng
Abstract: Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have characteristics of intermittent connectivity, high mobility of vehicle nodes and dynamic topology, which make data delivery in VANETs very challenging. Pervious works that based on history traffic patterns(such as history data delivery delay for each trajectory) to predict the current traffic conditions on the roads are not accurate. Moreover, deploying roadside units (RSUs) is a possible solution to overcome the challenges, but it often requires a large amount of investment. Motivated by the fact that there are large amounts of outside parked vehicles in urban areas, we propose in this paper a virtual parking overlay network based data delivery scheme(VPOD), which does not need any RSUs but leverages a parking overlay network formed by outside parked vehicles to disseminate messages among moving vehicles.VPOD consists of two main parts. Firstly, to each road, parked vehicles both at the roadside and off-street are grouped into a parking cluster as far as possible. An urban overlay network is established based on these parking clusters for effective data transmission. We also investigate the connectivity of the overlay network through theoretic analysis. Secondly, novel message delivery algorithms are designed to efficiently transmit messages to the destination vehicle through the proposed overlay network. Simulation results based on a real city map and realistic traffic situations show that VPOD achieves high performance in data delivery, especially in sparse traffic and multiple requests conditions.
Keywords: VANETs; parked vehicle; overlay network; data delivery

• An Efficient Dynamic Access Control Scheme for Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks.
by Santanu Chatterjee, Sandip Roy
Abstract: In wireless sensor network (WSN) due to resource limitations, node capturernattack and new node deployment, access control is essential. An access control scheme allows neighbouring sensor nodes to authenticate each other and to establish secret key for their future secure communication. Most of the existing WSN related access control protocols are not scalable due to involvement of the base station in broadcasting of new node parameters during the new node deployment phase. Also, many of them are not secure against different active attacks. In this paper, we propose a distributed dynamic access control method for large-scale wireless sensor networks. Our scheme is ecient in respect to communicational and computational overheads. In our scheme, involvementrnof base station is not required during authentication and key establishment processes. Further, our scheme is secure against different attacks and unconditionally secure against node capture attacks, man in middle attack and replay attack. Moreover, we simulate our scheme for formal security analysis using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and show that our scheme is secure.
Keywords: Distributed sensor networks; Access control; Key establishment; Authentication; Security; ECC; AVISPA.

• An Optimization Framework for Monitoring of SDN/OpenFlow Networks
by Ángel Leonardo Valdivieso Caraguay, Jesús Antonio Puente Fernández, Luis Javier García Villalba
Abstract: The centralized control of the network and the separation of data and control planes proposed by Software Defined Networking SDN have changed the rigid, static, and complex nature of the networks. The decisions taken by the control plane depends on the accuracy of the monitored information on network performance and detection of network events (link failure, delay, loss, network overhead). However, the monitoring information is typically provided by external network monitoring solutions which require the installation of specialized (and costly) equipment. This work proposes an efficient SDN monitoring framework using the OpenFlow protocol. This framework uses profiling to provide different monitoring levels based on the requirements of the network programmer. Moreover, the pluggable architecture enables the creation, updating and customization of high level metrics as well as the orchestrator balancing the monitoring tasks and offering an adaptive method of polling information requests based on the load of the controller and the size of the network. The implementation of network performance metrics (data rate, loss rate and delay) and the results of experiments using video streaming traffic demonstrate the effectiveness of the framework.
Keywords: Framework; Quality of Service; Monitoring; Multimedia; OpenFlow; SDN.

• Optimal Channel Allocation for Multi-PU and Multi-SU Pairs in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks
by Long Chen, Liusheng Huang, Hongli Xu
Abstract: With the underlay spectrum sharing scheme, SUs are permitted to communicate through the spectrum used by PUs adhering to interference constraints of primary receivers. Under this scheme, both channel assignment and power allocation will affect the network performance such as throughput, etc. This paper thus first defines the joint channel and power allocation problem, which aims to optimize the max-total and max-min throughput of SUs, with the constraints of interference on primary receivers. For the max-total problem, we formulate the problem as a bipartite matching and derive a maximum weighted matching based algorithm STMA to solve this problem. For the max-min problem, on the basis of the ORA algorithm, we derive a polynomial time algorithm OCAA to iteratively as-sign the channels to each SU pair under the power constraint. Simulation results show, the throughput of SU network grows with the maximum transmission power of SUs below the interference power of PUs. STMA algorithm achieves an aver-age of 46.67% performance gain when path loss component is 2 and 13.08% enhancement when path loss component is 3 compared with random algorithm. The OCAA algo-rithm effectively ensures the max-min fairness of the capacity among SU pairs in finite iterations and achieves at least 97% performance gain than the random method under the most cases.
Keywords: Cognitive Radio;Underlay;Channel Assignment;Power Allocation;Multiple Pairs;Matching;Bipartite Graph;Total Throughput;Max-min Fairness;

• Use of Ants Foraging Behavior for Routing in Adhoc Networks
by Pakanati Chenna Reddy
Abstract: The heterogeneous nature of computer networks and widely varying application requirements pose many challenges to the designers of the protocols. This paper classifies the challenging issues of a computer network into expected, demanding and future requirements. Biological solutions can be used to solve the computer networks related problems. This paper maps the challenging issues of computer networks to the corresponding solutions of biological systems. It classifies the biological solutions based on application category. Ad hoc networks are self-organized networks which can be created on the fly without centralized control and without any additional infrastructure. This paper identifies the parallels between self-organization and ad hoc networks giving the justification for using self-organization in ad hoc networks. Routing in ad hoc networks is a non-trivial problem due to inherent characteristics of the network. This paper illustrates how the foraging behavior of ants can be used to solve the routing problem in ad hoc networks, and critically analyzes ants foraging to find the limitations of it in solving the routing problem. It identifies the scope for improvement of the existing methods for routing and also suggests ways of improving based on ants foraging behavior.

by Leila Ben Saad, Bernard Tourancheau
Abstract: Due to the scarce energy resources of sensor nodes, wireless sensor networks need strategies to optimize the energy consumption of sensors to extend the network lifetime. However, improving the lifetime of wireless sensor networks remains a very challenging problem. Since a sensor device spends most of its energy in transmitting packets, it is important to shorten the length of these packets through data compression. Nevertheless, compression deals only with data while address compression is not considered. In this work, Slepian-Wolf source coding and address allocation are used jointly to reduce the size of the emitted addresses and improve the network lifetime. The proposed approach was studied in both cluster-based and multi-hop networks. In cluster-based networks, the proposed solution was formulated as an optimization problem that maximizes lifetime of network composed of line-powered and battery-powered sensors. The placement of line- powered sensors is optimized to enable the battery-powered ones to exploit the addresses correlation and reduce the size of their emitted packets and thus improve the network lifetime. The simulation results show that a significant network lifetime improvement can be achieved by using this solution in both cluster-based and multi-hop networks.

• Applications Nature Aware Virtual Machine Provisioning in Cloud
by Raghavendra Achar, P. Santhi Thilagam
Abstract: Rapid growth of internet technologies and virtualization has made cloud as a new IT delivery mechanism, which is gaining popularity from both industry and academia. Huge demand for a cloud resources, running similar nature applications in the same server results in application degradation whenever there is a sudden rise in workload. In order to minimize the application degradations, there is an urgent need to know the nature of applications running in cloud for efficient VM provisioning. Existing cloud architecture does not provide any mechanism to handle this issue. This paper presents a modified cloud architecture which contains additional component called Application Analyzer to identify the nature of applications running in each VM. Based on applications nature, this paper presents a novel VM provisioning mechanism using genetic algorithm. In order to utilize the resources efficiently, this paper also presents a mechanism for VM provisioning with migration. Experimental study is conducted using CloudSim simulator shows that proposed mechanism is efficiently allocating resources to the virtual machines.
Keywords: Virtual Machine; Provisioning; Migration

• Impersonation Attack on CertificateLess Key Agreement Protocol
by Suman Bala, Anil Verma
Abstract: Key agreement is a fundamental activity to establish communication between two parties. In 2013, Kim et al. proposed a Certificateless Two-party Authenticated Key Agreement (CTAKA) protocol, secure in extended Canetti-Krawczyk (eCK) model. This paper describes the security flaw of Kim et al.s CTAKA protocol, which is found vulnerable against Public Key replacement attack. Also, for the resistance of the attack in Kim et al.s CTAKA protocol, a defensive measure has been proposed.
Keywords: Certificateless cryptography; Key Agreement; Cryptanalysis; CTAKA.

• Trust and Reputation Aware Geographic Routing Method for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
by Raghu Vamsi Potukuchi, Krishna Kant
Abstract: We consider the problem of secure geographic routing in mobile Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (WANETs). In recent years, Trust and Reputation Monitoring Systems (TRMSs) have received significant attention to aid routing security in WANETs. A number of trust and reputation models have been proposed to guard topology based routing protocols. However, trust and reputation models for securing geographic routing in mobile networks are limited. To this end, this paper presents a dependable and pragmatic Trust And Reputation Aware Geographic Routing (TARA-GR) method for mobile WANETs to achieve self-adaptability, scalability, lightweight communication, and efficiency. It supports the geographic routing decisions by the dynamic computation of consolidated trust value of each node in the network by integrating direct and indirect trust values. With the calculated trust value, each source or forwarding node selects the trusted nodes to route the packets from the source to the destination. TARA-GR is integrated with a well known Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) protocol. This integration is termed as TARA-GPSR. The simulation results have shown that TARA-GPSR significantly improved the network performance metrics such as packet delivery fraction, throughput, and energy consumption.
Keywords: Geographic routing; secure routing; trust models; wireless ad hoc networks

• A novel biometric-based password authentication scheme for client-server environment using ECC and fuzzy extractor
by SK Hafizul Islam, Ashok Kumar Das, Muhammad Khurram Khan
Abstract: In this paper, we devise a new and efficient biometric-basedrnpassword authentication scheme (BIO-PWA) for the client-serverrnenvironment. Our scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)rnalong with the fuzzy extractor. Through the rigorous securityrnanalysis, we show that our scheme is secure against various knownrnattacks. We further show that our scheme is secure in the genericrngroup model through the formal security analysis. In addition, thernformal security verification of our scheme using the widely-acceptedrnAutomated Validation of Internet SecurityrnProtocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool is performed against active andrnpassive adversaries and the simulation results clearly demonstraternthat our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks,rnincluding the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Finally, we showrnthat our scheme is also efficient in computation against thernexisting related ECC-based authentication schemes for thernclient-server environment.
Keywords: Biometric; Fuzzy extractor; Password; Hash function; Smartcard; Elliptic curve cryptography; Remote user authentication; Security.

• Complexity Reduction of Throughput Optimal Link Scheduling Algorithm through Topology Control in Wireless Networks
by Ali Ghiasian, Behnaz Omoomi, Hossein Saidi
Abstract: In single channel wireless networks, concurrent transmission at different links may interfere with each other. To improve system throughput, a scheduling algorithm is necessary to choose a subset of links at each time slot for data transmission. Throughput optimal link scheduling discipline in such a wireless network is generally an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we utilize the concept of line graph and extend it to line multigraph to cope with the complexity issue of the well know Maximum Weight Scheduling (MWS) algorithm. We propose a low complexity algorithm, termed as eLehot, for detecting whether a graph is line multigraph and output its root graph. The necessary and sufficient conditions for reducing the complexity of MWS in terms of network topology are derived. Indeed, we prove that the complexity of eLehot is polynomial time provided that the network conflict graph does not contain seven derived forbidden graphs as induced subgraphs. The results of this paper introduce a new approach in topology control algorithms in wireless networks where the final target is complexity reduction.
Keywords: Link scheduling; Wireless network; Line graph; Line multigraph; Root graph; Conflict graph; Topology Control

• Peripheral nodes and their effect in path planning in networks
by Khaled Almiani, Anastasios Viglas, Young Lee, reza abrishambaf
Abstract: We consider the problem of designing a path in a network that is as close as possible to most node locations in the network. This is an abstract problem with applications in wireless sensor networks with mobile elements, transportation networks, vehicle routing and facility location problems. We consider specifically the case of designing mobile element tours in sensor networks, used to collect data from the network. The nodes that are not visited by the tour need to transmit their data using wireless multi-hop routing, which is expensive in terms of energy usage, and therefore limits the lifetime of the network. The mobile element tour is designed so that the transmission costs are minimized. In the literature, several heuristics have addressed different variations of this problem. Nodes that happen to be placed in locations that are away from the central areas of the network can result in designing a tour that is skewed towards these out of the way or peripheral nodes. In this work, we quantify the effect of such peripheral nodes in the design of data gathering tours in wireless networks. We propose algorithmic solutions that aim to identify peripheral nodes in the network. We provide experimental evidence that the tour planning algorithms that take into account peripheral nodes can significantly improve the solution. Also, we present an integer linear program (ILP) formulation for this problem, and we compare the performance of our proposed algorithm performance against the optimal solution, as computed by the ILP.
Keywords: WSNs; Data-gathering; TSP; Path-planning

• IDS Modeling and Evaluation in WANETs against Black/Gray-hole Attacks using Stochastic Models
by Reza Entezari-Maleki, Mohammed Gharib, Maryam Khosravi, Ali Movaghar
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to model and evaluate the performance of intrusion detection systems (IDSs) facing black-hole and gray-hole attacks within wireless ad hoc networks (WANETs). The main performance metric of an IDS in a WANET can be defined as the mean time required for the IDS to detect an attack in the network. To evaluate this measure, two types of stochastic models called continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) and stochastic reward net (SRN) are used in this paper. In the first step, two different CTMCs are proposed to model the black-hole and gray-hole attacks, and then, the method of computing the mean time to attack detection is presented on the proposed CTMCs. Since the numbers of states of the proposed CTMCs grow rapidly with increasing the number of the intermediate nodes and the number of attacks which should be done by a single node to trigger the IDS to detect the attack, SRNs are exploited to automatically generate the proposed CTMCs in the second step. The proposed SRNs for the black-hole and gray-hole attacks can appropriately model the network and the process of sending and receiving the messages. Different scenarios are designed to evaluate and compare IDSs on WANETs which show the applicability and usefulness of the proposed CTMCs and SRNs in real networks.
Keywords: Intrusion detection system; black-hole attack; gray-hole attack; Markov chain; stochastic reward net.

• Impulsive noise reduction through OFDM based PLC using a new adaptive recursive noise compensator
by Yassine Himeur, Abdelkrim Boukabou
Abstract: Recently, powerline networks are increasingly employed for broadband data transmission such as internet, image and video delivery. Enhancing the quality of broadband transmission over powerline communication (PLC) channel is of utmost importance, which is an area of current interests. In this paper, we introduce a novel detection and noise reduction method for PLC systems in impulsive noise environments. To reach this goal, a new adaptive recursive noise compensator (ARNC) algorithm is proposed. It is based on an iterative detection and estimation of the impulsive noise using the signal to impulsive noise power ratio (SINR), and the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) in the time domain after channel equalization and demodulation. In fact, a new clipping/blanking function is introduced to estimate and detect the impulsive bursts. By evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and mean square error (MSE), the proposed technique illustrates high performance in an attenuated 15-paths condition. The signal-to-noise (SNR) improvements obtained by the proposed algorithm can achieve 11-18 dB under Eb/No=0 dB and more than 12 dB at a BER = 10-3 for OFDM signal using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation.
Keywords: Powerline communication; OFDM; impulsive noise; OFDM tones; clipping/blanking.

• Effects of Vertex Insertion on Local Rescheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks
by Chun Hao Yang, Kuo Feng Ssu, Chao Wang
Abstract: Rescheduling has abundant issues yet to be explored. The localrnrescheduling problem in wireless sensor networks have been firstlyrnaddressed and investigated in this paper. The algorithms of localrnrescheduling have been proposed and evaluates the performance ofrnreschedule solutions with different metrics. The solutions have tornbe under the limitation that the network should stay connected afterrnthe process of rescheduling. This paper introduces a theoreticalrnbound of maximum degree after node insertion. Along with empiricalrnresults in real world settings, the results motivate the design ofrnalgorithms and give possible reasons why existing reschedulingrnalgorithms do not work efficiently. Two local link reschedulingrnalgorithms and one local broadcast rescheduling algorithm arerndeveloped as improvements. With different node densities and otherrncritical parameters, simulations show that the developed algorithmsrngreatly improve the ratio of finding proper solutions successfullyrnin both types of scheduling compared with other existing simplernalgorithms.
Keywords: Local Rescheduling; Wireless Sensor Network;Local Link Scheduling;Local Broadcast Scheduling; Maximum Degree Variation.

• Finding a suitable hop-to-hop busty traffic transmission approach for Underwater Acoustic Networks: handshake-based vs handshake-free MAC protocols
by Dilara Ireen Swarna, Saiful Azad, Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Arafatur Rahman
Abstract: Due to many attractive applications, Underwater Acoustic Networks (UANs) are drawing attention of various audiences. Most of these applications demand a considerable amount of data transmission for apt functioning. A MAC protocol plays the key role in data transmission by regulating the usage of the medium among the contending nodes. In addition to that an efficient MAC protocol must take the characteristics of the network architecture into consideration to attain superlative performance. For instance, a MAC protocol designed for UANs must take the following unique characteristics of underwater channels into consideration: long propagation delay, high bit-error rate, limited bandwidth, and so forth. Many MAC protocols are already designed for UANs, which have fully or partially taken these characteristics into account and could be classified as handshake-free and handshake-based protocols. In this paper, these two classes are investigated through a comprehensive simulation campaign by employing their prominent representative protocols, namely ALOHA, CSMA, and MACA-APT protocol. The contribution of this paper lies as follows: i) unearthing the optimum values of various parameters on which the performance of a protocol relies, ii) investigating the performance of all three protocols through a realistic channel model simulator by varying a couple of network parameters, and iii) discovering their effectiveness on various applications.
Keywords: Underwater Acoustic Networks, ALOHA, CSMA, MACA-APT, Handshake-based, Handshake-free, MAC protocol, DESERT

• A Throughput-oriented Reliable Multicast in Multi-rate Wireless Networks
by Asma Ben Hassouna, Hend Koubaa, Leila Azouz Saidene
Abstract: As low transmission delays can meet the requirements of many applications, high-throughput is the request of various others. Therefore, with consideration of the multi-user diversity (MUD) and the wireless broadcast advantage (WBA) features, we deal with the problem of maximizing the multicast throughput. Hence, we introduce two new rate-aware multicast metrics: EMTH and XMTH. EMTH helps to choose the transmission rates that estimate the best multicast throughput expected. XMTH can reach extreme throughput values if the high computational needs are satisfied. Both metrics carry out a rate adaptation process and take into consideration the link reliabilities. They can be used to choose multi-rate multicast schemes and to decide reliable multicast paths. Results show that the proposed metrics give the best system performance in terms of throughput. They confirm that, using EMTH and XMTH, it is possible to trade-off a very good throughput improvement for an insignificant delay increase.
Keywords: routing; multicast throughput; delay; multiuser diversity; reliable access

• OFFRP: Optimized Fruit Fly Based Routing Protocol With Congestion Control For UAVs Guided Ad Hoc Networks
by Vishal Sharma, Ilsun You, Rajesh Kumar, Varun Chauhan
Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained a lot of attention from the researchers across the globe. Their autonomous capabilities provide vast range of applications such as disaster management, surveillance, border security and inter-civilian activities, etc. Networking with UAVs has evolved as major frontier in areas of wireless communication. Enhanced utility of these vehicles can lead to the formation of stabilized networks. UAVs can be incorporated as intermediate nodes with the existing ad hoc networks to form a guided ad hoc system. However, these networks have a major issue regarding the data ﬂow and routing. UAVs operate in diﬀerent band as compared to the ground nodes. Hence, there is a chance of congestion that may fail the whole network. An ideal state with no congestion is diﬃcult to attain. However, prediction of such congestion states can provide continuous connectivity. For this, a new Optimized Fruit Fly Routing Protocol (OFFRP) is proposed which uses the properties of existing fruit ﬂy optimization algorithm for ﬁnding appropriate routes. The search of food sources by fruit ﬂies using their smell index forms the basis of the proposed protocol. The protocol not only enhances the network formation between the aerial and ground nodes but also provides congestion free data transmission. The proposed protocol is evaluated using standard network simulations and is compared with all the major routing protocols as well as existing TCP-oriented congestion control algorithms.
Keywords: UAVs, Congestion, Routing, Delays, Jitters, Throughput

• Information fusion of heterogeneous sensors for enriched personal healthcare activity logging
by Daeil Seo, Byounghyun Yoo, Heedong Ko
Abstract: Despite the proliferation of wearable devices and mobile apps for healthcare activity monitoring, no model that complementarily integrates these monitoring logs making up personal big data has been put forth. In addition, such datasets are too large to yield meaningful information. To deal with data from heterogeneous sources, a common format and information fusion model for the complementary aggregation and abstraction of logs are necessary. We introduce a sensor and activity model that classifies heterogeneous sensors and propose an information fusion method that reorganizes personal healthcare activity logs and visualizes them hierarchically in a harmonized way while providing a meaningful summary.
Keywords: healthcare; information fusion; activity model; sensor model

• A cost-effective proposal for an RFID-based system for agri-food traceability
by Renato Ferrero, Filippo Gandino, Bartolomeo Montrucchio, Maurizio Rebaudengo
Abstract: Agri-food companies, operating in the packaging, storage and distribution of fruit and vegetables, need to be provided with information systems able to meet the requirements imposed by the current European regulations in terms of traceability. This paper evaluates the benefits and drawbacks of a semi-automated information management tracking system for a warehouse specialized in the fruit market. It is targeted to small and medium-sized companies, with limited financial means for investments and without technical support in their premises. These requirements are met by using a PDA equipped with an RFID reader: the information collected throughout the production process are locally stored in the PDA and occasionally sent to a server. In this way the proposed system does not rely neither on a widespread wireless network, nor on fixed RFID readers, which can increase automation, but need more investment and assistance.
Keywords: agri-food; fruit; traceability; tracking; RFID; supply chain automation; information management; warehouse

• An Adaptive Trajectory-Based Group Message Delivery Protocol with Detour Support for Vehicular Networks
by Guann-Long Chiou, Shun-Ren Yang
Abstract: Infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) communications has become an important research issue in recent years. To realize I2V group message delivery, some previously proposed protocols utilize the future trajectories of vehicles to deploy message delivery routes. In these protocols, when a server is required to deliver a message to specific vehicles, this server investigates future trajectories of the destination vehicles, selects the proper rendezvous points, and forwards the message to the rendezvous points for the last-hop delivery. These protocols have demonstrated high delivery performance. However, we have noticed that none of these protocols consider that the destination vehicles may take unexpected detours. The detour events result in new trajectories for those vehicles that no longer pass the rendezvous points. Thus, those detour vehicles will miss the messages stored on the rendezvous points. To address this issue, this paper designs a novel trajectory-based I2V group message delivery protocol, tc-eTGMD, to resolve the above mentioned problem. The proposed scheme aims to redeploy only the routes for the detour vehicles when the detour events happen. Moreover, this scheme can guarantee the reaction time and can offload the traffic while handling the detour events. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to address the detour issue in the trajectory-based I2V group message delivery problem. The specific contributions of this paper are as follows. 1) We formally formulate the trajectory-based I2V group message delivery with the detour events problem. 2) We give a detailed design of our proposed tc-eTGMD protocol. 3) We conduct extensive simulation experiments to evaluate tc-eTGMD's message delivery performance, compared with that of the previously proposed protocols.
Keywords: Detour; Group message delivery; Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (I2V) communications; Trajectory; Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs)

• SmaCH: an infrastructure for Smart Cultural Heritage environments
by Francesco Piccialli, Angelo Chianese
Abstract: Cultural Heritage represents a worldwide resource of inestimable value, attracting millions of visitors every year to monuments, museums and art exhibitions. Fundamental aspects of this resource to be investigated are its promotion and people enjoyment. Indeed, to achieve an enjoyment of a cultural space that is attractive and sustainable, it is necessary to realize ubiquitous and multimedia solutions for users' interaction to enrich their visiting experience and improve the knowledge transmission process of a cultural site. Thanks to ICT technologies, it is possible to shorten the distance between a cultural site and its visitors, and re-establish to them the truly educational role which provides the opportunity to produce and be part of new experiences of knowledge transmission, especially for young people who are familiar with such technologies. In this paper we present a service-oriented infrastructure aimed to transform Cultural Heritage sites into smart environments; it enforces a set of multimedia and location-based services to support the changing of such spaces in an indispensable dynamic instrument for knowledge communication and people enjoyment. Following the Internet of Things paradigm, the proposed infrastructure relies on the integration of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies to identify, locate and support users.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Cultural Heritage; Ubiquitous Computing; Mobile systems; Location-based services.

• Alternative Forwarding Strategies for Geographic Routing in Wireless Networks
by Jung-Tsung Tsai, Yunghsiang Han
Abstract: Greedy forwarding (GF), the fundamental geographic routing scheme, is locally optimal on advancement distance per hop. Instead, we propose a forwarding scheme outperforming GF on total advancement distance to destination through routing decision made from neighbor positions with one-step forward expectation.rnWe then consider that a wireless network topology consists of two subareas of different node densities and that a packet originated in one subarea is destined for the other. Routing over a least hop count path in such a network reflects the Fermat's principle. Like refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, we derive our Snell's laws and propose geographic refraction routing schemes. Results show that when network settings and source-destination pairs provide for obvious refraction, refraction operation can slightly shorten mean path hop counts for reliable routing but significantly improve routing success probabilities for best-effort one.
Keywords: geographic routing; greedy forwarding; refraction routing; Snell's law; Fermat's principle; wireless network.

• Novel Lifetime Routing Metric for IEEE 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks
by Seyed Vahid Azhari, Niloofar Afshari, Mohammad Nassiri
Abstract: We propose a multi-path routing protocol for improving the lifetime of battery operated 802.11 wireless mesh networks (WMN). Our routing protocol uses a novel expected lifetime metric to identify the most critical node in a path and adjusts the amount of traffic over that path accordingly. Hence, we call our approach the Least Critical Lifetime Routing (LCLR) protocol. In addition, we adopt a very simple route congestion measure to further fine tune the amount of traffic sent over a given path. This makes LCLR one of the few lifetime-aware routing protocols that take interference and congestion into account. Moreover, we use a simple path available bandwidth estimation approach, which is integrated into the routing and traffic assignment process. Furthermore, LCLR periodically swaps traffic between most and least critical paths to prolong network lifetime. We have used NS2 simulations to evaluate various performance metrics of LCLR including, total traffic volume and packet delivery ratio to that of AODV, minimum total energy routing and the optimal solution to the maximum lifetime routing problem. Our results obtained for different network topologies suggest that LCLR performs close to the optimum.
Keywords: Wireless mesh network; Routing; Least critical path; Lifetime; Traffic volume;

• MANTRA: An Ultra lightweight cipher design for ubiquitous computing
by Gaurav Bansod
Abstract: In this paper we are proposing an ultra lightweight cipher MANTRA. MANTRA is a Feistel based network which operates on an 64 bit plain text and supports an 128/80 bit key length. It needs very less footprint area and consumes only 1853 GEs for the 128 bit key length and 1565 for 80 bit key length. The novel design of MANTRA uses a Feistel within a Feistel structure. It helps the cipher design to show good resistance against linear and differential cryptanalysis. MANTRA shows good performance on both hardware and software platform. Its power consumption as compared to other existing ultra lightweight ciphers is competitive. In this paper we have presented the security analysis of MANTRA and its performance as an ultra lightweight cipher. A strong S-box is proposed in this cipher that results in more number of active S-boxes. A strong permutation layer in MANTRA prevents clustering of linear and differential trails when the cipher is attacked. MANTRA shows good resistance against Biclique and zero correlation attacks. MANTRA is a well suited cipher design for the applications where small footprint area and low power dissipation plays a crucial role.
Keywords: Lightweight Cryptography, Feistel cipher, Block cipher, IoT, Encryption, Embedded security

• A Novel Approach to improve Power Management in Wireless Local Area Networks
by Mario Collotta, Giovanni Pau
Abstract: In recent years Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), which generally consist of many Access Points (APs), have been deployed rapidly in corporate offices and universities, in order to satisfy user demands for high bandwidth and mobility. However, as a consequence to the spread of wireless devices, there has been also a substantial increase in energy consumption. For this reason, novel approaches are needed in order to optimize the energy consumption of APs. To cope with this problem, this paper introduces a novel approach for an energy-aware management of access networks that, based on the instantaneous traffic intensity, reduces the number of active access devices when they are underutilized. The devices are switched on and off according to the distance value of client with respect to the AP, calculated by using the Receiving Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). The results of real test-bed scenarios reveal that the proposed approach obtains promising performance.
Keywords: Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Access Point (AP), Energy Efficiency, Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI)

• An Efficient Data Gathering Algorithm for Large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks
by Jumin Zhao, Qingming Tang, Deng-ao Li, Biaokai Zhu, Yikun Li
Abstract: Recently, wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks (mWSN) have attracted massive attention attributed to the benefi ts of mobility. The updating of routing, however, will generate a lot of control packets due to the movements of mobile sinks in mWSN, which will consume a lot of energy and easily reduce the life of network. This paper proposed a data gathering algorithm for large-scale mWSN. In the proposed algorithm, the entire network was divided into several Gathering scopes. Each Gathering scope locally updates the routing structure according to the path extension ratio which can e ffectively reduce the control packets generated by the updating of routing. To decrease the frequency of updating and the energy consumption of network, anchor nodes chains are adopted. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can signifi cantly reduce the control packets and prolong the lifetime of network compared with other algorithms.
Keywords: WSN; Mobility; Routing; Mobile sinks; Data gathering; Data gathering algorithm; Updating of routing; Anchor node; Anchor nodes chain; Energy-efficient; Gathering scope.

• Assessment of heuristics for self-stabilization in real-time interactive communication overlays
by Pelayo Nuño, Juan C. Granda, Francisco J. Suárez
Abstract: Self-stabilization is an autonomic behavior closely related to self-healing. In multimedia communication overlays, self-stabilization copes with network disruptions by dynamically restoring data links and communication paths. The restoration of links may require reorganizing the overlay by establishing new connections among members or modifying existing ones. Self-stabilization techniques are usually triggered asynchronously, either on use (during reorganizations of the overlay) or on event (as a response to a failure), and several heuristics may be used when selecting link peers. In this work several heuristics to perform on event self-stabilization in multimedia communication overlays are assessed. A real-time communication overlay deployed according to a full-mesh topology interconnecting a set of multicast groups is used as assessment framework to evaluate the heuristics. Intensive tests have been carried out to compare and assess heuristics under several overlay topologies and network conditions.
Keywords: self-stabilization; overlay networks; multimedia communications; autonomic computing

• SNR-based relay selection in cooperative wireless ad hoc networks
by Muhammad Khalil Afzal, Byung-Seo Kim, Seung Yeob Nam, Sung Won Kim
Abstract: Cooperative communications aim to gain spatial diversity from stations cooperating during data transmission without requiring multiple transceiver antennas on the same station. However, performance from cooperative communications highly depends on the relay-selection method. This paper proposes and evaluates a distributed relay-selection method based on the signal-to-noise ratio of the communication links of candidate relay nodes. A node is selected as a relay node based on the signal-to-noise ratio of its communication link. Moreover, data might be delivered through a relay node that can support high transmission rate rather than through a direct link with a low transmission rate. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the collision probability in the proposed method as compared to a conventional random backoff method. Results demonstrate that the proposed relay-selection method reduces collision probability, and hence, enhances system throughput.
Keywords: Cooperative Communications; Relay Selection; Collision.

• Qos-Aware Routing Protocol using Adaptive Retransmission of Distorted Descriptions in MDC for MANETs
by Diwakar Bhardwaj, Krishna Kant, Durg Singh Chauhan
Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) of delay sensitive application like video stream is majorly affected by instantaneous channel conditions over noisy Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs). Forward Error Correction (FEC) and Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) are the key mechanisms used to recover the quality of the video in wireless networks, but these mechanisms under perform in dynamic networks like MANETs. FEC and ARQ are impractical in MANETs because of their high overheads and high retransmission delay, respectively. Another method, Multiple Description Coding (MDC), a solution specially designed for lossy wireless networks produces unacceptable video quality at the receiver. The other variant of MDC, MDC with Error Correction (MDC_EC) also fails to fulfill the QoS requirements of the video applications. Both of these techniques use redundancy and do not depend on routing; therefore, there is a need of alternative techniques to establish required QoS preserving the video quality. We have proposed a novel routing protocol suitable for MDC video stream to support QoS and reduce overheads. The proposed work is twofold---- (i) redefine the distortion model to estimate the distortion of the transmitted video, and (ii) proposed a novel routing protocol with the help of this model to mitigate the impact of channel noise on the video quality through selected retransmission of noisy descriptors (MDC_EC_RE). FEC, MDC, MDC_EC, and proposed protocols are simulated in NS2.35 and their performance is compared. Significant improvement is observed in the quality of video for different levels of channel noise.
Keywords: Signal-to-Noise Ratio, MDC, MANETs, QoS, Distortion, Cross-Layer Design, Noisy Channels, Re-transmissions

• A State-of-Art approach to misbehavior detection and revocation in VANET:Survey
by Dinesh Singh, Ranvijay Ranvijay, Rama Shankar yadav
Abstract: With the increased popularity of Internet application and smart cities, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) have become one of the prominent research area and ample of researchers have addressed the many issues in the past decade. Among the many issues involves with e ective VANET, misbehavior detection and revocation is required to address with full attention. It is rst and foremost step towards dealing with safety applications in VANETs. The vehicle misbehavior is responsible for malfunctioning of many network activities (e.g. trac jam, road accidents etc.). The misbehavior detection problem becomes more severe for safety critical applications in VANETs. The misbehaved vehicle must be revoked from the network as early as possible to reduce injuries. Thus, inconjuction of misbehavior detection, revocation problem also needs to be explored. This paper is addressed to provide state-of-art to misbehavior detection and revocation for safety critical VANETs. Here we present a detailed survey on relevant research done in the area of misbehavior detection and revocation with other related issues.
Keywords: Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANETs); safety applications; misbehavior detection; revocation.

• An Energy Model of 4G Smartphone Oriented Towards Typical Network Applications
by TunDong Liu, Yun Lin, ZhuoBin Xu, Yi Xie, FuFeng Chen, GuoZhi Xue
Abstract: In the wave of wireless technologies, 4G has achieved considerable success because of its high data rate and great potential. But the short battery lifetime of mobile device hinders the development of 4G. The energy scheme in the LTE protocol based on Radio Resource Control (RRC) states in some degree optimizes the energy consumption of 4G smartphone, but it is still far from satisfaction. Therefore, many efforts have been done to study the process of energy consumption in 4G smartphone which is helpful to improve the energy efficiency. Some hardware-based methods using expensive instruments are correct but unhandy. Some software-based methods are flexible but incorrect because they often omit the influences from communication performance. Up to now, most energy models have paid little attention to application layer without considering the quality of wireless communication. This paper proposes an energy model of 4G smartphone where two typical applications (HTTP and FTP) and the data flow of wireless traffic are considered. In order to verify the energy model, an experimental testbed has been set up to capture the data flow and power records during one application. Experiment results have shown that the energy model accurately estimates the energy consumption of 4G smartphone in one operation of the application, whose accuracy rate is higher than 90%. The work described can be considered the first step toward the implementation of a new softwarebased method to accurately estimate the energy consumption of 4G smartphone.
Keywords: 4G; Energy consumption; Model; State machine; Smartphone.

• NetBAN, a concept of Network of BANs for Cooperative Communication: energy awareness routing solution
by Audace Manirabona, Saadi Boudjit, Lamia Chaari Fourati
Abstract: In this paper a NetBAN which is a concept of network of BANs (Body Area Networks) or WBANs (Wireless BANs) is introduced and a routing solution intending to help a group of WBANs to cooperate for relaying packets according to the energy consumption rate and the communication link quality is proposed. The main goal is to provide to the sensors a technique that helps them deliver their data even when the coordinators battery is very low or empty or else the connection to the access point is lost, what leads to balancing energy consumption between cooperating coordinators. For this purpose, an energy threshold based technique is used and energy-aware optimized link state routing (EA-OLSR) is defined and used. Simulation results show interesting performances in terms of network lifetime with a gain of about 30% and data delivery about 20%.
Keywords: Network of BANs; WBAN; Cooperation; Relay; OLSR; Routing; Energy Aware

• ADiDA: Adaptive Differential Data Aggregation for Cluster Based Wireless Sensor Networks
by Rabia Enam, Rehan Qureshi
Keywords: Cluster based WSN; Adaptive Data Aggregation; Spatial Correlation; Variable sized Clusters

• MT-SECURER: Multi Factors Trust for Secure and Reliable Routing in MANETs
Abstract: Routing, having a pivotal role in MANETs successful working, assumes nodes cooperation for its processes. However, this assumption of nodes cooperation makes routing vulnerable to various insider and outsider attackers. Therefore, enforcing nodes cooperation to secure routing from such attackers is stipulated as a challenging research issue in MANETs. In this paper a trust management scheme named MT-SECURER (Multi Factors Trust for SECUre and REliable Routing in MANETs) is proposed to make routing secure and reliable against insider attackers to launch greyhole and blackhole attacks. The proposed scheme develops trust using multiple factors, i.e., nodes cooperation from communication networks and nodes relationship maturity and mutual friends from social networks. These factors are acquired using observer nodes personal observations and neighbors recommendations. Furthermore, neighbors recommendations are passed through a dissimilarity factor based filter to remove false recommendations. As a test case, the proposed scheme is integrated in AODV routing protocol and extensive simulations are conducted to examine the effectiveness and competence of the proposed scheme in presence of insider attackers to launch blackhole and greyhole attacks. Experimental results show significant improvement in packet delivery ratio, throughput and normalized routing load with slightly increased average end-to-end delay when compared to contemporary schemes in presence of attacks asserted.
Keywords: Attacks; MANETs; Routing; Trust; Trust Management

Special Issue on: "Application-oriented Protocol Design for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,"

• BeeWS: Honeybee-inspired, Large-Scale Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
by Fatih Çelik, Ahmet Zengin
Abstract: Recently, scalable routing protocols using swarm intelligence (SI), which are designed and evolved for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), have become a research trend in literature. This paper presents an optimal method based on SI inspired by honeybees. This method has minimum energy consumption, self-organisation, and support for a large-scale, autonomous individuals that detect the best route. In this paper, we propose a new energy-aware, scalable, and robust routing algorithm called Bee Wireless Sensor (BeeWS) inspired by honeybee foraging behaviour. This study consists of three parts: 1) honeybee behaviours are modelled and these behaviours are adapted to the structure of WSN, 2) routing protocol criteria are determined using this model, and 3) the developed model is tested in a simulation environment based on Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) in order to simulate and model WSN behaviours and compare to other SI based on WSN routing protocols.
Keywords: Swarm Intelligence, Routing protocol, Wireless sensor networks, Clustering

Special Issue on: "Advances in Vehicular and Underwater Communication Networks,"

• Green Wave-based Virtual Traffic Light Management Scheme with VANETs
by Li-Der Chou, Tsung-Yi Shen, Chia-Wei Tseng, Yao-Jen Chang, Yen-Wei Kuo
Abstract: Green intelligent transportation systems (GITS) have received significant attention in recent years. Traffic congestion, which is an important research topic on intelligent transportation systems (ITS), is rapidly becoming one of the most serious problems affecting urban areas. As traffic congestion worsens, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions also increase. Moreover, traffic congestion has an immense effect on energy consumption. Consequently, urban traffic control systems, such as green wave, are designed to address the traffic congestion and vehicle emission problems in urban areas. This study utilizes the vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) technology to build a virtual traffic light (VTL) environment to reduce traffic congestion. The number of vehicles and traffic conditions involved in such environment are discussed in this study. The objective of this study is to adjust the traffic light signal time length on-demand to enable vehicles to pass through numerous intersections rapidly, thereby saving energy and reducing fuel consumption. The traffic phase combination algorithm and VTL operation mechanism are also addressed to improve the traffic congestion situation in urban areas. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme can increase the percentage of traffic flow and the average speed of all vehicles in all intersections, thereby saving energy.
Keywords: VANETs, virtual traffic light, green wave, green ITS, speed guidance

• Deployment of Vehicular Networks in Highways Using 802.11p and IPv6 Technologies
by José Santa, Pedro J. Fernández, Fernando Pereñiguez, Antonio F. Skarmeta
Abstract: Most of the previous and current vehicular communication deployments, testbeds and, in general, experimental efforts come from research contributions evaluating particular solutions in the area. We have had to wait until recent days to see great testing campaigns in vehicular cooperative systems, coming from research projects supported by national or international funding. This paper reviews the deployment and operation of communication infrastructures in one of the major European projects in this area, i.e. FOTsis (European Field Operational Test on Safe, Intelligent and Sustainable Road Operation). A key advance of FOTsis has been the integration of IEEE 802.11p and IPv6 technologies following the ISO/ETSI guidelines in cooperative systems for vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications. This work reports our main findings providing an interoperable IPv6 access to vehicular services, describes the main test-sites, provides vehicular network performance tests, and summarizes our experience in these deployments. Our recommendations pave the way for future large-scale vehicular communication deployments in the V2I segment, which is expected to be the most relevant in the short and medium term.
Keywords: V2I; vehicular networks; testbeds; real deployments; IPv6; 802.11p; Intelligent Transportation Systems

• Hybridization of Genetic Algorithm with Simulated Annealing for Vertical-Handover in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
by shidrokh goudarzi
Abstract: Simulated annealing (SA) and Genetic algorithms (GAs) have emerged as significant methods for search and optimization problems in heterogeneous wireless networks. In this paradigm, various access technologies need to be interconnected; thus, vertical handovers are necessary for seamless mobility. In this paper, the hybrid algorithm for real-time vertical handover using different objective functions has been presented to find the optimal network to connect with a good quality of service in accordance with the users preferences. As it is, the characteristics of the current mobile devices recommend using fast and efficient algorithms to provide solutions near to real-time. These constraints have moved us to develop intelligent algorithms that avoid slow and considerable computations. This was to, exactly, solve two major problems in GA optimization, i.e. premature convergence and slow convergence rate, and the simplification of simulated annealing in the merging populations phase of the search. The hybrid algorithm was expected to develop on the pure GA in two ways, i.e., improved solutions for a given number of evaluations, and more stability over many runs. Moreover, a cost function is used to sustain the chosen QoS during transition between networks, which is measured in terms of the bandwidth, BER, ABR, SNR and monetary cost. Simulation results indicated that choosing the SA rules would minimize the cost function, and the GA-SA algorithm could reduce the number of unnecessary handovers, and thereby avoid the Ping-Pong effect.
Keywords: Simulated annealing, Genetic algorithms, vertical handovers, heterogeneous wireless networks.

• Utilization and Energy Consumption of Fair-Access in Sensor Networks with Selected Grid Topologies
by Yang Xiao, Peng Miao
Abstract: In a typical wireless sensor network, the primary task of sensor nodes is to gather data and give accurate measurements of the sensing environment. In some scenarios, obtaining a fair amount of data from each sensor node is essential. A key aspect of this study is the modeling of a fair-access criterion that requires sensors to have an equal rate of frame delivery to the base station. This paper is continuation effort of our previous work. e In previous work, we derive tight upper bounds on network utilization for linear and two rows grid topology. This paper extends the research to 3-4rows grid topologies which are more complicate. The significance of these bounds is two-fold: First, they hold for any MAC protocol under both single-channel and half-duplex radios; second, they are provably tight. Furthermore, we investigate energy consumption of medium access control for multi-hop sensor networks. Based on the tight upper bounds on network utilization, we derive tight lower bounds on network energy consumption in a cycle for linear and 2-4 rows grid topology.
Keywords: MAC protocol; time division multiple access, energy Consumptions, Fair access, Limits , underwater

• Context aware spectrum handoff scheme in cognitive radio vehicular networks
by Krishan Kumar, Arun Prakash, Rajeev Tripathi
Abstract: In future cognitive radio (CR) vehicular networks deployment, multiple radio access networks may coexist in overlapping areas with largely different characteristics in terms of multiple attributes. Hence, it becomes difficult for CR vehicular node to select preferred network for spectrum handoff decision. This can be done by a context aware spectrum handoff which takes multiple attributes into account for spectrum handoff decision for preferred network selection. This paper proposes a context aware spectrum handoff scheme with multiple attributes decision making (MADM) methods such as simple additive weighting and grey relational analysis for preferred network selection in CR vehicular networks. The paper also proposes a cost based spectrum handoff scheme with MADM which outperforms other MADM methods. The spectrum handoff with MADM provides wider and optimum choice with quality of service. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme is effective for spectrum handoff decision for preferred network selection.
Keywords: cognitive radio; cost based; GRA; MADM; multiple attributes; network selection ranking; preferred network; SAW; spectrum handoff; vehicular networks.

• Dynamic Resource Allocation for multimedia services delivery in Cellular/Infostation Integrated HSR Networks
by Yan Lei, Gang Zhu, Shengfeng Xu, Jianwen Ding, Zhangdui Zhong
Abstract: With the rapid development of high-speed railway (HSR) system, the resource allocation problem in HSR wireless network becomes one of the key issues to improve the efficiency of resource utilization. In this paper, we investigate the downlink resource allocation problem for multimedia services delivery in HSR MIMO-OFDM system with a cellular/infostation integrated network architecture. Taking the train trajectory and network stability into account, we formulate the problem as a stochastic network optimization programming, which aims at maximizing the overall system utility while keeping the system stable under the total transmission power constraint. To address the NP-hard mixed integer programming, the original problem is firstly transformed into a queue stability problem, and then decomposed into two separate subproblems by the drift-plus-penalty approach. Finally, based on the stochastic optimization technique, a dynamic resource allocation algorithm is proposed and its efficient is illustrated by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations.
Keywords: Cellular/infostation integrated network; high-speed railway; resource allocation; stochastic network optimization

• A Density-Based Contention Window Control Scheme for Unicast Communications in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
by Ali Balador, Carlos T. Calafate, Juan-Carlos Cano, Pietro Manzoni
Abstract: Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have attractive potential in order to reduce traffic jams and avoid transportation disasters. They are also able to provide infotainment services like web browsing, e-mail, or using social networks on the road. Achieving a well-designed Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is a challenging issue to improve communications efficiency due to the dynamic nature of VANETs. The CSMA-based MAC protocol adopted by the IEEE 802.11p standard was selected as the best choice for the current generation of vehicular ad hoc networks considering its availability, maturity, and cost. Despite these benefits, the common problem in all IEEE 802.11 based protocols is scalability, exhibiting performance degradation in highly variable network scenarios. Experimental results for the IEEE 802.11-based MAC protocol show the importance of contention window adjustment on communications performance; However the vehicular communications community has not yet addressed this issue in unicast communication environments. This paper proposes DBM-ACW, a novel contention window control scheme for VANET environments based on estimating the network density, which is then used to dynamically adapt the CW size. Analysis and simulation results using OMNeT++ in vehicular scenarios, including highway and urban scenarios, show that DBM-ACW provides better overall performance compared with previous proposals, even in high network density scenarios.
Keywords: IEEE 802.11p; Contention Window; Density Estimation; Unicast Communication; Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

• Urban Pseudonym Changing Strategy for Location Privacy in VANETs
by Abdelwahab Boualouache, Samira Moussaoui
Abstract: The development of an effective pseudonym changing strategy to protect the location privacy of the VANETs users is still an open problem in the literature. In this paper, we first propose a comparison between the existing pseudonym changing strategies. This comparison is based on their effectiveness to prevent the pseudonyms linking attacks and based on the costs involved in changing a pseudonym. We also propose a new pseudonym changing strategy adapted for the urban environment, called Urban Pseudonym Changing Strategy (UPCS). UPCS is based on the construction of Silent Mix zones (SMs) at signalized intersections. UPCS can be configured to use either pseudonyms changing technique or pseudonyms exchanging technique inside these SMs. The analyses show a good level of prevention against the pseudonyms linking attacks. The performances are evaluated in various vehicular scenarios. The obtained results show high levels of location privacy protection can be achieved using UPCS with pseudonyms changing configuration.
Keywords: VANETs; Location Privacy; Security; Pseudonym Changing; Pseudonym Exchanging; Public Key Infrastructure.

• Clustering based Enhanced Safety message Dissemination Medium Access Control Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Network
by Nishu Gupta, Arun Prakash, Rajeev Tripathi
Abstract: Wireless access in vehicular environment employs the IEEE 802.11p/1609.4 standard wherein a multichannel architecture is envisioned to concurrently support both time-sensitive safety-related applications and value-added entertainment services. Although a standard now, the IEEE 802.11p protocol has known shortcomings of not being capable of providing reliable broadcast services. To address this issue, Clustering based Enhanced Safety message Dissemination MAC protocol (CESD-MAC) is proposed in this paper which is an enhancement over the existing IEEE 802.11p/1609.4 protocol. CESD-MAC adopts mobility aware clustering and channel access scheduling. It rules out the concept of switching between the control channel and the service channel as implemented in the legacy standard. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed protocol and comparisons are made with the existing IEEE 802.11p MAC. The results demonstrate the superiority of CESD-MAC in terms of reduction of end-to-end delay, and increased throughput, channel utilisation and packet delivery ratio.
Keywords: channel switching; clustering; contention window; DSRC; IEEE WAVE 1609.4; IEEE 802.11p; MAC; safety; scheduling; V2V; VANET

• QSLB: Queue size based single path load balancing routing protocol for MANETs
by Mohd Naseem, Chiranjeev Kumar
Abstract: A Mobile ad hoc Networks (MANETs) is a collection of independent mobilernnodes, which are able to communicate in the wireless medium without the assistance of any infrastructure. Because of the dynamic nature of MANETs and resources constraints of wireless medium, load must be distributed based on some parameters to all the nodes throughout the network. Otherwise, resources of the heavily loaded nodes deplete soon and that node can not participate further in the communication. So, network performance decreases due to the congestion and larger end-end delay. Load at the nodes situated in the center of the network is higher as compared to the other part of the network. In thisrnpaper, we propose a load balancing technique that distribute the traffic throughout the network in such a way that load at the center of the network decreases. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol distributes the load efficiently and improve the network performance significantly in terms of packet delivery ratio, end-end delay andrnnormalized routing overhead.
Keywords: Load balancing; Congestion; Routing Protocols; Queue Size; Centrality; MANETs.

Special Issue on: "Emergence of Large-scale Ubiquitous Contexts Analysis,"

• Energy Efficient Data Gathering for WSN-based Context-aware Applications
by Meng-Shiuan Pan, Lei Jing
Abstract: To save power, many previous works propose to use wake-up scheduling to support energy efficient data gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, these works can only work well for regular data patterns. In many WSN-based context-aware applications, the network may randomly have some events, which may be urgent alarms or instant signals. Assume that the time is divided into fixed-length slots, and n consecutive slots are grouped as a frame. We propose a new wake up and sleep model for nodes such that nodes only wake up in some slot periodically. In this work, we design a two-phase scheme to support both regular and event data reporting, and the goal is to minimize regular report, event detection, and event reporting latencies. In the designed scheme, the first phase assigns each node one regular slot and several event slots by considering how to reduce above three kinds of latencies. In the second phase, nodes operate in a distributed manner to sense and report regular or event data. Simulation results show that our designs can indeed achieve our goal.
Keywords: data reporting; graph theory; scheduling; context-aware application; wireless sensor network

• Development of A MCNP Assisted Modeling Software Based On OpenCasCade
by Qingguo Zhou, Hongyu Sun, Shuan He, Jiaming Yang, Yanshan Tian
Abstract: MCNP, developed by the US Los Alamos laboratory, is used to calculate the large multi-particle transport in complex three-dimensional geometry. INP file, as the MCNP input data was created by the user in order to solve calculation problems. However, the creation of INP file by hand to describe the MCNP geometry model is a huge task and mistakes are easily made during this process. MAMS (MCNP ASSISTED MODELING SOFTWARE) proposed in this paper is developed on OpenCasCade geometry engine. It not only achieves the general function of 3D modeling software, but also performs the conversion from CAD models into MCNP model directly. Furthermore, through deep research and further developing on OpenCasCade, MAMS implements some advanced functions required by specific users, such as auxiliary plane decomposition, setting the scope of surfaces number in INP file according to user input. MAMS has the STEP database as the native storage. It contains two main parts, 3D modeling software and data conversion.

• Design of a hybrid model for dynamic engagement behavior analysis in a cloud-based environment
by You-Shyang Chen, Chien-Ku Lin, Huan-Ming Chuang
Abstract: Facebook has become the worlds largest social networking site. The rapid growth of cloud computing and ubiquitous computing in Taiwan have also contributed to the rise of many virtual communities. Taiwan Plurkers on Education and Technology @Facebook (TPET) is Taiwans largest and most popular Facebook-based virtual community and aims to provide a platform for teachers to exchange, discuss and share knowledge. Therefore, it is essential to investigate ways to facilitate active engagement behavior of members to obtain benefits with the greatest potential. This study identifies information system (IS) characteristics as triggers to explore the dynamic and iterative nature of engagement behavior by multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) analysis. Under the principle of a theoretical saturation, 14 active TPET members were interviewed in depth to investigate the dynamic relationship among dimensions and factors related to IS characteristics and engagement behavior. The main findings can provide helpful guidance for TPET managers decision-making regarding the enhancement of members engagement behavior and promotion of the sustainable development of the community, and ultimately improve the quality of teaching to create more innovative educational value for students.
Keywords: cloud computing; ubiquitous computing; virtual customer environment; customer engagement; service-dominant logic

• Spatial query processing for skewed access patterns in nonuniform wireless data broadcast environments
by Jun-Hong Shen, Ming-Shen Jian
Abstract: Location-based services (LBSs) via wireless data broadcast can provide a huge number of mobile clients for simultaneously accessing spatial data according to their current locations. Under nonuniform wireless data broadcast, more popular data appear more times than regular ones, resulting in the decrease of the average client waiting time. In this paper, to efficiently support the processing of continuous window queries for LBSs, we propose a skewed spatial index considering clients skewed access patterns in the nonuniform wireless broadcast environments. The index information considering the nonuniform broadcast is interleaved with the spatial objects on the wireless channel to support efficient access. From our experimental study, we have shown that our proposed method outperforms the multi-leveled air index scheme.
Keywords: Continuous window queries; skewed access patterns; spatial index; ubiquitous computing; wireless data broadcast

• Optimal Deployment and Traffic Flows in Mobile Mesh Network after a Disaster
by Junbo Wang
Abstract: It is a critical research problem to quickly reconstruct a communication system for safety confirmation and information transfer after a disaster. One resolution is to deploy mobile mesh routers (MMR) or mobile base stations in the disaster area to guarantee the connection of users. However, it is still a challenge to find an optimal deployment of MMRs to maximally satisfy users while ensuring a fluent and reliable communication network. In this paper, we focus on the above problems and propose a communication-demand-oriented deployment method (CDODM) and a global-data-traffic routing optimization method (GTFROM) for a disaster. Our main contributions are (1) formalization and optimization of computation transmission cost in a Voronoi area in CDODM, (2) formalization and optimization traffic flows in GTFROM, and (3) implementation and evaluation in Matlab and NS3. Through the evaluation, we have shown the feasibility, performance and scalability of the proposed methods. More specifically, user satisfaction calculated based on recorded throughput in NS3 can be enhanced clearly in the proposed solutions. In scalability study, the proposed methods works well, with changing range of disaster areas, number of MMRs and user communication demands.
Keywords: Mobile mesh network; Anti-disaster network; Optimizations; Voronoi diagram; User demand; Congestion

• Local Fitness Landscape from Paired Comparison-Based Memetic Search in Interactive Differential Evolution and Differential Evolution
by Yan Pei, Hideyuki Takagi
Abstract: We propose a triple comparison-based interactive differential evolution (IDE) algorithm and differential evolution (DE) algorithm. The comparison of target vector and trial vector supports a local fitness landscape for IDE and DE algorithms to conduct a memetic search. In addition to the target vector and trial vector used in canonical IDE and DE algorithm frameworks, we conduct a memetic search around whichever vector has better fitness. We use a random number from a normal distribution generator or a uniform distribution generator to perturb the vector, thereby generating a third vector. By comparing the target vector, the trial vector, and the third vector, we implement a triple comparison mechanism in IDE and DE algorithms. A Gaussian mixture model is used as a pseudo-IDE user for evaluating the IDE and 25 benchmark functions from the CEC2005 test suite are employed to evaluate the DE. We compare our proposals with canonical IDE and triple comparison-based IDE implemented by opposite-based learning and apply several statistical tests to investigate the significance of our proposed algorithms. We also compare our proposals with several evaluation metrics, such as number of function calls, success rate and acceleration rate. Our proposed triple comparison-based IDE and DE algorithms show significantly better optimization performance arising from the evaluation results. We also investigate potential issues arising from our proposal and discuss some open topics and future opportunities.
Keywords: evolutionary computation, interactive evolutionary computation, interactive differential evolution, paired comparison, triple comparison

• Social Computing for Internet Addiction Disorder Analysis from a Psychological Perspective
by Mu-Jung Huang, Mu-Yen Chen, Chin-Chun Cheng
Abstract: This study adopts needs theory and affective ambivalence to explore how people obtain psychological satisfaction through Internet usage, and to explore how such usage behavior can lead to the development of a sense of dependence. Few previous studies have incorporated these four perspectives. Data mining techniques are used to identify association rules between needs theory, affective ambivalence, Internet use behavior and Internet addiction. This study distributed paper-based and electronic questionnaires, receiving a total of 502 valid responses for a valid response rate of about 88%. From the affective ambivalence perspective, we found that emotional state varies with behavior and age, leading to different patterns of personal expression and creativity. In addition, empirical results show our findings are consistent with Maslows heirarchy of needs in that people only seek to address their higher-order needs once their lower-order needs are satisfied. Thus, once Internet users have satisfied their needs for security, their attention then turns to demands for social interaction and self-esteem.
Keywords: Internet addiction; affective ambivalence; needs theory; Internet use behavior; association rules

• Crowdsourcing based Timeline Description of Urban Emergency Events using Social Media
by Zheng Xu
Abstract: Crowdsourcing is a newly emerging service platform and business model in rnthe internet. Urban computing is a process of acquisition, integration, and analysis of big rnand heterogeneous data generated by a diversity of sources in urban spaces, such as rnsensors, devices, vehicles, buildings, and human. Especially, nowadays, no countries, no rncommunities, and no person are immune to urban emergency events. Analysis and rndescription about urban emergency events, e.g., fires, storms, traffic jams are of great rnimportance to protect the security of humans. Recently, social media feeds are rapidly rnemerging as a novel platform for providing and dissemination of information that is often rngeographic. The content from social media often includes references to urban emergency rnevents occurring at, or affecting specific locations. In this paper, in order to describe the rntimeline of real time urban emergency events, the new web mining task timeline rndescription is proposed. Firstly, the related information of an urban emergency event is rnextracted from Weibo messages. Secondly, the valid message including the semantic or rnspatial information is detected in this step. Thirdly, detected valid messages are used to rnbuilding the timeline description. Case studies on real data sets show the proposed model rnhas good performance and high effectiveness in the analysis and description of urban rnemergency events.
Keywords: crowdsourcing; event description; urban emergency events; urban computing

• A Rapid Mining Model for Extracting Sparse Distribution Association Semantic Link from Large-scale Web Resources
by Shunxiang Zhang
Abstract: Association Semantic Link (ASL) can provide theoretical support for many web intelligent activities. However, when we extract the keywords-level Association Semantic Link (k-ASL), some sparse distribution k-ASL are easily discarded. Actually, this kind of k-ASL not only has important meaning in representing some topic but also improving the integrity of k-ASL network. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a rapid mining model for extracting sparse distribution k-ASL from Large-scale Web Resources. First, the time validity for three types of k-ASL is analyzed to clear and define their semantic characteristic. Second, three existing problems for mining sparse distribution k-ASL are presented, which aim to analyze why this kind of k-ASL are easily discarded. After that, we present the theoretical foundation including two hypothesis and some corollaries for mining sparse distribution k-ASL. Further, the rapid mining model for extracting sparse distribution k-ASL is proposed, which is based on the presented theory and set computation such as Difference computation, Union computation. At last, the evaluation method is presented and the correctness of the proposed model is validated by experiments.
Keywords: Association Semantic Link(ASL), sparse distribution, time validity, mining model, splitting time window

Special Issue on: "Energy Harvesting and Management for Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things,"

• A Performance Evaluation Approach for MAC Protocols of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
by Hicham Touil, Mounir AIT KERROUM
Abstract: The performance evaluation and comparison of any proposed MAC protocol with the existing MAC protocol is not always an easy step. Seen that, the re-implementation of existing MAC protocols that will be used in the comparison takes significant time, which can be considerable in some cases. As well, there are points that limit the exploitation of the results of an evaluation in future performance evaluations (e.g. different evaluation parameter values). For these reasons, we propose in this paper a performance evaluation approach that resolves these points, and in addition offers other advantages. This approach allows assigning the MAC protocol after a predefined evaluation steps to a well-predefined performance class. As well, a performance label is generated for the protocol, which contains information on the guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS). The generated label for the evaluated protocol will be used in all future MAC protocols comparison, thing that will eliminate the time lost in the re-implementation and performance evaluation of the protocol. This evaluation approach measures all essential QoS metrics (delay, throughput, jitter, energy, etc.), in order to show the strengths and as well the weakness of the MAC protocol of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks.
Keywords: MAC protocol; Quality of Service; QoS; Energy-efficiency; Performance; Evaluation; Energy; WMSN; Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks; Medium Access Control; label; WSN; Multimedia Traffic; Contention Based.

Special Issue on: "Advances in Mobile Computing and Applications,"

• Hybrid Cluster based Geographical Routing Protocol to Mitigate Malicious Nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
by Sudhakar Sengan, S.Chenthur Pandian
Abstract: A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) consists of assorted mobile devices in a network without centralized administration and infrastructure. Routing processes in MANETs rely on cooperation of independent nodes constituting the network. A number of efficient Geographic routing protocols are suggested for MANETs in the literature where most assume a trusted and cooperative environment. MANETs are highly susceptible to attacks both internally and externally, because of the cooperative nature of the network. In this paper, a three stage method has been proposed to address the performance degradation of Geographical Routing Protocol (GRP) due to the malicious nodes. The proposed method based on GRP creates clusters in the initial stage. In the second stage, malicious nodes are identified using modified hello message and secure keys are used to mitigate the effect of the maliciousness. It was observed that the delay for the proposed clustered GRP was less than the GRP. It was also apparent from the results that even when the size of the network increased, the end-to-end delay was significantly less for the proposed GRP. Cluster Heads (CHs) distribute public keys whose size is determined using fuzzy logic in the final stage. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed cluster GRP compared to the GRP
Keywords: Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs); Geographic Routing Protocol (GRP); Malicious Node; Clustering; Cluster Head (CH) and Fuzzy Logic.

• A method of cleaning RFID data streams based on Naive Bayes Classifier
by Qiaomin Lin
Abstract: Recently, the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in many kinds of applications. However, RFID data streams contain false negative reads and false positive reads leading to the location uncertainty of RFID tags. So they have to be cleaned, or it cannot be used directly by applications. In view of these problems, we propose a method of cleaning RFID data streams based on Naive Bayes classifier, which could detect effectively tags of false negative reads and false positive reads in RFID data streams. Firstly, we construct a model of a RFID data stream as the basis of our method. Then we divide the method into three phases, i.e. preparation phase, training classifier phase and application phase. At last, the result of experiments illustrates that our method based on Naive Bayes classifier could get the lower percentage of false negative reads and the higher percentage of false positive reads than SMURF algorithm with the increase of the size of sliding window.
Keywords: Data stream cleaning, Naive Bayes Classifier, False negative reads, False positive reads, RFID

• Leakage Resilient CCA Secure IBE with All-but-one Lossy Filter
by Zhiwei Wang
Abstract: Research on \emph{leakage resilient cryptography} is motivated by the side channel attacks in the real world, e.g., in mobile computing, a mobile device that is using \emph{Near Field Communication} (NFC) for payments or physical access could be attacked by someone who places a small coil of wire near the NFC reader. The goal of this paper is to design an ID-based encryption (IBE) scheme that can flexibly tolerate leakage bounds, by only increasing the size of secret key proportionally, and the security level can be achieved to be against chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCA). As our main technical tool for CCA security, we introduce an initiation of all-but-one lossy filter, which is a simple version of all-but-many lossy filter to the leakage resilient settings. As our main result, we use the all-but-one lossy filter to construct an IBE scheme that is secure against leakage resilient chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCA), and the leakage rate is $1/2-o(1)$.
Keywords: CCA secure, IBE, leakage rate, leakage resilient, ABO lossy function

• Routing and CDMA-MAC based Cross-Layering for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
by Shweta R Malwe, G. P. Biswas
Abstract: Recently, cross-layered technique is getting more popularity, and static centralized code assignment for CDMA networks appears lesser efficient over dynamic and/or distributed ones. This paper proposed a cross-layered design for establishing source-destination routing along with route-based code assignment for CDMA MAC simultaneously. Since routing in wireless networks is dynamic and route based code assignment is proposed, it resulted in a distributed dynamic code assignment for efficient deployment of the said cross-layer implementation. In addition, we also improve some other related parameters like code assignment complexity, code requirement, control overhead, etc. The Pairwise Code Assignment (PCA) scheme for the assignment of codes is followed, where three different approaches such as route-based, source-based and source-destination based PCA are proposed. However, an assumption of periodic mobility of nodes, topology formation, routing and code assignment including data transmission through a cycle as a new wireless communication model is considered for its efficient implementation. The scheme is simulated on both traditional and proposed network model, and it is found that better performance in terms of code-requirement and confliction is achieved. It also shows that the routing, implemented on the proposed network model, performs better over standalone DSR (for instance) and other existing cross-layer routing protocols.
Keywords: CDMA; code division multiple access; MAC; medium access protocol; PCA; pairwise code assignment; cross-layer; periodic mobility; communication model; DSR; dynamic source routing.

• Information Dissemination in Mobile Social Networks with Gossip Algorithms
by Bo Yang, Demin Liu, Wenfeng Zhang
Abstract: This paper studies the information dissemination problem in the mobile social network, which comprises a set of smart phones and works in a distributed manner. Gossip algorithms are used to spread information over the mobile social network with simplicity and robustness. Two typical scenarios of information dissemination are analyzed. The corresponding upper bounds on the convergence time are derived, which show the relationship between mobility of users and convergence rate of gossip algorithms. The performances of gossip algorithms are examined in both scenarios. Simulation results indicate that the growth of communication cost is almost linear when the scale of mobile social networks becomes larger, which is a quite encouraging result for application.
Keywords: distributed information dissemination; mobile social network; gossip algorithms; random walk.

• Design and Performance Analysis of a Cost-Effective Proxy-LMA Mobility Management Scheme in IP-based Mobile Networks with Global Mobility Support
by Jongpil Jeong, Chulhee Cho, Jun-dong Cho, Jae-young Choi
Abstract: Interlocking with a heterogeneous network is important because mobile users (MUs) who navigate on next-generation (NG) wireless networks want to be provided with undisrupted network services. Unfortunately, there have been few only studies on methods of guaranteeing global mobility. To enhance global mobility and interoperability within the next-generation network environment, in this paper, we propose a proxy-local mobility anchor (Proxy-LMA) system, a mobile IP-based global inter-networking system. The purpose of the proposed Proxy-LMA system is to expand the boundary of mobility with respect to the existing mobility management protocols (PMIPv6 and MIPv6), in order to guarantee global mobility and interoperability within a heterogeneous network environment. The results revealed that the proposed Proxy-LMA system was more efficient than the other methods in terms of the signal cost and delay in a heterogeneous network environment such as wireless sensor networks.
Keywords: Next-Generation Wireless Networks; Proxy Mobile IPv6; Global Mobility Support; Mobility Management; Proxy-LMA

Special Issue on: "Efficient and Secure Algorithms for Ubiquitous Computing,"

• Rational Secure Two-party Computation Based on Social Network
by Yilei Wang, Yaqin Liu, Tao Li, Wei Gao, Qiuliang Xu
Abstract: The seminal notion of rational parties can lead to some positive results for secure two-party computation such as fairness, which is often neglected in traditional secure two-party computation. Previous works of rational computation protocol dedicate to improve its efficiency and applicability. However, little works study the incentives of rational parties in a realistic background. That is, how parties define the utility and choose proper strategies in reality. In this paper, we consider rational parties belonging to a social network, which is an ad hoc network presenting the social structure of parties or organizations. Here parties in social networks define their utilities and dynamically change their strategies according to conformity mechanism (CM). We propose a CM model and the simulation results show that the new model boost cooperation in social network. Then we build a RSTPC protocol, where parties abide by CM. Finally, we also propose a new paradigm between PD game and RSTPC trying to set up a generalized relationship in order to prove that fairness can be achieved whenever there is a Nash equilibrium.
Keywords: Game theory; Social network; Conformity mechanism; Nash equilibrium

• Improved Algorithm for Secure Outsourcing of Modular Exponentiations with High Checkability
by Jun Ye, Xiaofeng Chen
Abstract: With the development of cloud computing, outsourcing computation becomes a hot issue recently. Outsourcing computation allows a resource-constrained client to outsource the complicated computing tasks to a cloud server which is powerful but not honest. Modular exponentiation with a large modulus, which is considered as the most expensive operation in discrete logarithm based cryptographic protocols, has been widely used in public key cryptosystems for secure data communications. In this paper we put forth a new improved outsourcing algorithm for secure outsourcing of modular exponentiations. In the proposed algorithm, the modular exponentiations need to be computed are hidden to the malicious server. In the computation procedure, the server cannot obain any information with respect to the input and output while the client can verify the returned result efficiently. Compared with the algorithms of Hohenberger and Lysyanskaya (2005) and Chen et al. (2012), ours are superior in checkability. In addition, the proposed algorithm can promote the efficiency of all security protocols based on discrete logarithm.
Keywords: Cloud Computing; Modular Exponentiations; Outsourcing Computation; Security

• Effective Algorithms for Vertical Mining Probabilistic Frequent Patterns In Uncertain Mobile Environments
by Yu Xiaomei
Abstract: Data uncertainty is inherent in mobile applications such as location-based services, wireless sensor monitoring systems and data integration. The traditional methods of mining frequent patterns are confronted with enormous challenges in uncertain mobile environments. The present achievements in this field have shown that vertical mining algorithms are promising approaches that are experimentally proved in effective mining expected support-based frequent pattern from uncertain data, while they have not captured much attention in mining probabilistic frequent patterns over mobile probabilistic databases. In this paper, we propose two Eclat-based vertical mining algorithms (UBEclat and NDUEclat) for probabilistic frequent patterns mining in uncertain mobile environments. With a kind of bidirectional process strategy, the UBEclat algorithm is applied to mine exact probabilistic frequent patterns in uncertain mobile environments efficiently. Furthermore, with the Normal distribution-based approach, the NDUEclat algorithm is suitable for mining probabilistic frequent patterns approximately in mobile environments with huge uncertain data. We test the two novel algorithms on a number of uncertain data sets, and compare them with well-known frequent patterns mining algorithms. The extensive evaluations on real and synthetic datasets show that the novel Eclat-based algorithms outperform the comparative ones in performance of efficiency and precision.
Keywords: Patter Mining; Uncertain Environment; Mobile Environment; Algorithm; Probabilistic Database.

• A Novel Key Pre-distribution Approach for High Security and Efficiency using LU-Decomposition of Matrix
by Sung Jin Choi, Kyung Tae Kim, Hee Yong Youn
Abstract: Wide-spread deployment of wireless sensor network (WSN) is emerging, which allows an economical solution for numerous applications. Most WSN applications require secure operation since serious consequences are encountered if the network is compromised or disrupted. For the security of communication network, asymmetric cryptography is usually employed. This approach is, however, often unsuitable to WSN due to limited computational and energy power of the sensor nodes. To address this issue, various approaches have been developed, and the random key pre-distribution approach is regarded as the most effective one. Here one shortcoming is that a common key is not guaranteed to be found between any two nodes wanting to communicate with each other. This paper proposes a new key pre-distribution scheme solving this problem, with which highly secure WSN is available. This is achieved by the keys obtained using LU-decomposition of a symmetric matrix. Mathematical analysis and computer simulation reveal that the proposed scheme significantly reduces the overhead required for secure connectivity and energy efficiency of the sensor nodes compared to the existing approaches. The superiority of the proposed scheme becomes more substantial when the memory size of the sensor nodes is small.
Keywords: Energy efficiency; key pre-distribution; LU decomposition; secure connectivity; wireless sensor network.

• Collaborative "Many to Many" DDoS Detection in Cloud
by Siqi Ma, David Lo, Ning Xi
Abstract: Cloud computing is a popular way to manage large amount of data. It providesrna scalable and cost-effective environment for users to store and process data through the Internet. However, the usage of Internet also causes lots of security issues, such as DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-Service) attacks. DDoS attacks are common threats to current networks or systems. Such attacks risk systems outages and intend to disable the service to legitimate users. In this paper, due to the nature of its large-scale and coordinated attacks, we propose a collaborative prediction approach for detecting DDoS in advance. Different from many state-of-the-art methods that mainly focus on packet level analysis and require much audit and monitoring information, our approach provides a clean and direct solution to attack defence.We believe that the DDoS attacks follow certain patterns when employing a large number of compromised machines (attackers) to request for service from the servers in the victim system. So we construct an attacker-server utility matrix by the number of packets and adopt matrix factorization to detect potential attackers collaboratively. We derive the latent attacker vectors and latent server vectors to predict the unknown entries in the matrix. Experimental results on the NS-2 simulation networks demonstrate the superiority of our approach.
Keywords: Cloud Computing; DDoS Detection; Collaborative detection; Matrix Factorization

Special Issue on: "Localisation and Positioning for Healthcare Applications,"

• Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack Detection Using Data Mining Approach in Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Networks
by Rabia Latif, Haider Abbas, Seemab Latif
Abstract: Nowadays, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is emerging as a promising technology with a considerable potential in improving patients health care services. The integration of WBAN and cloud computing technology provides a platform to create a new digital paradigm with leading features called cloud-assisted WBAN. The foremost concern of cloud-assisted WBAN is the security and privacy of data either collected and stored by WBAN sensors or transmitted to cloud over an insecure network. Among these, data availability is the most nagging security issue. The major threat to data availability is distributed denial of service attack (DDoS). In order to assure the all time availability of patients data, we propose a distributed victim based DDoS attack detection mechanism based on Very Fast Decision Tree (VFDT) learning model in cloud-assisted WBAN. The evaluation and performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism could detect DDoS attack with high accuracy, and reduced false positive and false negative ratio.
Keywords: Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Network, Data Mining, Distributed Denial of Service Attack, Sensor Localisation

• iPil: Improving Passive Indoor Localization via Link-based CSI Features
by Liangyi Gong
Abstract: Passive indoor localization acts as a key enabler for various emerging applications such as secured region monitoring, smart homes, intelligent nursing, etc. Despite of years of research, their accuracy of localization still remains unsatisfactory for practical uses. The main hurdle lies in the coarse measurement of wireless channels, e.g., Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), employed in most existing schemes. In this work, we explore the potential of using Channel State Information (CSI) for fine-grained passive indoor localization on a single communication link. To achieve high accuracy, we propose a solution based CSI fingerprint and devise two novel localization estimator approaches suited to different conditions:Weighted Bayesian and the Maximum Similarity Metric. Compared with RSSI, CSI has demonstrated itself with a high accuracy of location distinction. Experimental results show that our schemes can achieve a higher accuracy.
Keywords: Passive Indoor Localization, Channel State Information (CSI), Physical Layer, Localization Estimator

• Consumer Health Information Organizing and Mobile Acquiring Based on Topic Maps
by Junsheng Zhang, Yunchuan Sun, Yingying Li, Huilin Wang
Abstract: It is difficult for consumers to find, understand and share health information due to the limitations of the current health information systems. Major problems include the missing of connections between multilingual medical terms and the gap between obscure medical terminologies used by experts and common vocabularies used by consumers. This paper utilizes the Topic Maps model to organize consumer health information by linking professional medical terminologies in different languages and the corresponding common vocabularies. The proposed approach is applied into organizing bilingual (Chinese and English) consumer health information resources in the diabetes domain. Topic Maps tools designed by the Ontopia corporation are used to organize the consumer health information resources about diabetes mellitus. Experiment results show that Topic Maps of health information are suitable for bilingual health information organizing and mobile information acquiring on mobile devices.
Keywords: Consumer Health Information; Multilingual; Mobile Device; Topic Maps; Diabetes

• Patient localization with Smart Phones using Public Cloud
by Vaithianathan Geetha
Abstract: Todays world scenario has made evolution in healthcare domain as inevitable. Large number of people expires due to sudden medical emergencies like heart attacks and accidents. However, many of them could have survived if they could have reached medical care quickly. It is very difficult to extend immediate medical care at all places and at all times. Research is going on to improve the delivery time of medical care. It is found that usage of technology for healthcare is beneficial. Nowadays, electronic medical records are stored in cloud for real time access. However, ubiquitous patient localization poses a major problem. In this paper, a solution is proposed for patient localization with smart phones using public clouds. Here GPS tracking is used to locate the patients. As the current cloud infrastructure does not support sensing requests, a Smart Sensing as a Service (S2aaS) Framework is proposed to be added to the cloud infrastructure. The proposed system has the advantages of minimal interaction and high reliability. The patients need not remember the contact details of nearby hospitals. This system can be used anywhere in the world. The performance results of the proposed system are also evaluated.
Keywords: Smart phones; Public cloud; Emergency healthcare; Healthcare applications; Global Positioning System(GPS);patient localization

• A Range-free Localization Algorithm Based on Connectivity in Wireless Sensor Networks
by Liping Liu, Chunliang Chu, Feng Xia
Abstract: Sensor nodes position is very important in many Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) applications. In this paper, a novel range-free localization algorithm based on connectivity (LAC) is proposed. By exploiting the probabilistic regulation in cluster-based deployment, the theoretical number of a sensors neighbors from certain cluster is determined by distance between the sensor and the corresponding cluster head. So distances between sensors and cluster heads can be derived by minimizing the deviation between the theoretical number of neighbor sensors and the measurement. Using the optimal distance to each cluster head, the position of each sensor can be estimated with maximum likelihood (ML) multilateration. Compared with some existing range-free algorithms, LAC performs better in terms of localization accuracy, especially in beacon-less scenarios and reduces communication overhead and computation complexity to some extent. Extensive simulations are performed and the results are observed to be in good consistence with theoretical analysis.
Keywords: range-free localization; probabilistic distribution; connectivity; wireless sensor networks.

• Multi Sensor System for Pedestrian Tracking and Activity Recognition in Indoor Environments
by Juan Jose Marron, Miguel Labrador, Adrian Menendez-Valle, Daniel Fernandez-Lanvin, Martin Gonzalez-Rodriguez
Abstract: The widespread use of mobile devices and the rise of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have allowed mobile tracking applications to become very popular and valuable in outdoor environments. However, tracking pedestrians in indoor environments with Global Positioning System (GPS)-based schemes is still very challenging. Along with indoor tracking, the ability to recognize pedestrian behavior and activities can lead to considerable growth in location-based applications including pervasive healthcare, leisure and guide services (such as, hospitals, museums, airports, etc.), and emergency services, among the most important ones. This paper presents a system for pedestrian tracking and activity recognition in indoor environments using exclusively common off-the-shelf sensors embedded in smartphones (accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer and barometer). The proposed system combines the knowledge found in biomechanical patterns of the human body while accomplishing basic activities, such as walking or climbing stairs up and down, along with identifiable signatures that certain indoor locations (such as turns or elevators) introduce on sensing data. The system was implemented and tested on Android-based mobile phones. The system detects and counts steps with an accuracy of 97% and 96:67% in flat floor and stairs, respectively; detects user changes of direction and altitude with 98:88% and 96:66% accuracy, respectively; and recognizes the proposed human activities with a 95% accuracy. All modules combined lead to a total tracking accuracy of 91:06% in common human motion indoor displacements.
Keywords: Smartphones, Sensor Fusion, Pervasive Computing, Inertial Navigation, Ubiquitous Localization

• Robust Localization Algorithm for Large Scale 3D Wireless Sensor Networks
by Nasir Saeed, Biljana Risteska Stojkoska
Abstract: Nodes positioning has recently been of great interest in wireless networks due to its crucial role in many applications. In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), the task of localizing sensor nodes with unknown position is important for efficient network configuration and operation. This challenge has stimulated research of various localization algorithms. In this paper we propose robust localization algorithm for large scale three-dimensional (3D) wireless sensor networks based on multidimensional scaling (MDS). Our approach has two main improvements over classical MDS algorithm. Firstly, it uses heuristic approach for distance matrix calculation, and secondly, it applies Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for absolute map refinement using received signal strength measurements (RSS). Furthermore, the performance of the proposed approach is compared to other 3D Wireless Sensor Network localization techniques and it is shown that the proposed approach outperforms other techniques for 3D localization.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; 3D Localization; Node Positioning; Multidimensional Scaling; Levenberg-Marquardt

• Comparability of RF-based indoor localization solutions in heterogeneous environments: an experimental study
by Tom Van Haute, Eli De Poorter, Ingrid Moerman, Filip Lemic, Vlado Handziski, Niklas Wirström
Abstract: The growing popularity of indoor localization research has resulted in a significant amount of research papers describing and evaluating innovative localization solutions. Unfortunately, the results from most of these research papers can not easily be compared since they are evaluated in different environments, use different evaluation criteria and typically tailor their solutions towards a single testbed environment. To evaluate how these different conditions influence the localization performance, in this paper an exhaustive set of experiments has been set up in which three different localization solutions have been evaluated using multiple metrics in three different test environments: two types of office environments and an industry-like factory environment. None of the used localization solutions was previously optimized for any of these test environments and they were all evaluated under similar conditions, e.g. similar interference conditions and using the same evaluation points. The results reveal several weaknesses in the evaluation methods used in the majority of existing scientific nature of indoor localization solutions. More specifically, it is shown that (i) papers that use self-selected evaluation points can significantly influence their reported accuracy by artificially selecting those evaluation points that outperform other locations, (ii) the reported accuracy can decrease significantly, up to a factor 10, when evaluating an environment for which the localization solution is not specifically tweaked and (iii) many inherent trade-offs between different metrics, such as accuracy, energy consumption and response delay, are hidden by reporting only on the accuracy of the solutions.
Keywords: Indoor localization; Experimental comparison; Benchmarking methodology; Performance metrics; Fingerprinting; Time-of-arrival, RSSI-based localization; IEEE 802.11; IEEE 802.15.4; w-iLab.t testbed; TWIST testbed; Particle filter; Spray