Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing


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International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing (87 papers in press)

Special Issue on: Energy Harvesting and Management for Wireless Sensor Networks and the Internet of Things

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessThe research of event-based intelligent prediction with minimum energy consumption of wireless sensor network node state transition strategy
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Jingzhao Li, Dayu Yang, Ping Ren, Zhijun Zhang 
    Abstract: Whether the state transition of wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes that are based on energy-efficient can be carried out is related to the parameters of the subsequent event's occurrence such as time, and a previous estimation of the time for the uncertain events' occurrence is necessary. In this paper, we proposed a grey multistage model with a buffer operator is utilised to get the distance between nodes, and the delivered information is predicted by PSO algorithm and is amended by Kalman filtering, then, the fuzzy reasoning based on vague set is applied to get the time value of sensor networks' uncertain events. The state transition of Wireless Sensor Networks' nodes is controlled by the time values of uncertain events and the input signal. So that the Wireless Sensor Networks' nodes can get into the optimal working mode and achieve the purpose of extending the life cycle by saving the node's energy.
    Keywords: energy-efficient scheduling; event time; node state transition; wireless sensor network; WSN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10001980
  • A performance evaluation approach for MAC protocols of wireless multimedia sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Hicham Touil, Youssef Fakhri, Mounir Ait Kerroum 
    Abstract: The performance evaluation and comparison of any proposed medium access control (MAC) protocol with existing MAC protocol is not always an easy step. Seen that, the re-implementation of existing MAC protocols that will be used in comparison takes significant time. As well, there are points that limit the exploitation of the results of an evaluation in future comparison. In this paper, we propose a performance evaluation approach that resolves these points, and offers other advantages. This approach allows assigning MAC protocol after a predefined evaluation steps to a well-predefined performance class. As well, a performance label is generated for the protocol, which contains information on guaranteed quality of service (QoS) that will allow determining strengths and weakness. The generated label for the evaluated protocol will be used in all future MAC protocols comparison, thing that will eliminate time lost in re-implementation and performance evaluation of the protocol.
    Keywords: MAC protocol; QoS; quality of service; performance evaluation; energy; wireless multimedia sensor networks; MAC; medium access control; label; multimedia traffic; contention based.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10001969
  • Back-end scheduling methods of virtual clusters for energy conservation in event-driven WSNs
    by Haibao Chen, Yuyan Zhao, Shenghui Zhao, Guilin Chen 
    Abstract: As sensor nodes of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are generally battery-powered devices, the critical aspects to face concern how to conserve the energy for nodes, so that the network lifetime can be extended to reasonable times. In this paper, we aim at the energy conservation in event driven WSNs from the perspective of back-end scheduling for virtual clusters in cloud. Taking the Xen Credit scheduler as a baseline, we carry out a comparative study of three representative approaches (i.e., hybrid co-scheduling, balance scheduling, and dynamic switching-frequency scaling (DSS)). Then we discuss challenges in further optimising the energy conservation from the scheduling of virtual clusters. At last, we present and evaluate our proposed approach. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the existing scheduling approaches of virtual clusters in the terms of reducing the energy consumption of WSNs.
    Keywords: event-driven WSNs; virtualisation; energy conservation; scheduling; virtual cluster; cloud.


Regular Issues


  • Efficient Mobile Cloud Service Allocation For Mobile Commerce   Order a copy of this article
    by Li ChunLin 
    Abstract: Mobile systems, such as smart phones, become the primary computing platforms for many users. The mobile cloud computing helps the mobile devices to run the computation intensive applications, which consume a large amount of battery energy. This paper presents efficient mobile cloud service allocation for mobile commerce in mobile cloud. The contributions of this paper have three aspects. 1) Mobile cloud service allocation scheme considers both mobile clients and cloud datacenter providers. 2) The mobile commerce service scenario is taken as an example in mobile cloud environment, and our service allocation approach is applied to mobile cloud environment. 3) The paper proposes a distributed mobile cloud service allocation algorithm for mobile commerce. From the simulation results, the execution success ratio of our service allocation algorithm for mobile commerce (SAAMC) is better than GMCRA (Game-theoretic Mobile Cloud Resource Allocation) [13] and ARAA (Auction based Resource Allocation Algorithm) [17]. The allocation efficiency of SAAMC is better than GMCRA and ARAA. The energy consumption ratio of SAAMC is not good as GMCRA.
    Keywords: mobile cloud; service allocation; mobile commerce.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001743
  • The Diagnosis of Consensus Agreement in a MANET   Order a copy of this article
    by Mao-Lun Chiang 
    Abstract: For achieving the reliability, the fault-tolerance of distributed systems needs to be studied. One of the most important problems of fault-tolerance issues is the Fault Diagnosis Agreement (FDA). The goal of FDA is to make each fault-free processor detect/locate a common set of faulty processors. However, previous works cannot solve the FDA problem in a Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET). Therefore, the FDA problem is revised in this study by an evidence-based fault diagnosis protocol under dual failure characteristics on processors in a MANET. The proposed EMFDA protocol can detect/locate maximum number of faulty processors using minimum number of message exchange in a MANET.
    Keywords: Byzantine Agreement; Fault Diagnosis Agreement; Fault-tolerance; Consensus; Mobile Ad-hoc Network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001744
  • Link Reliable Energy Efficient AOMDV routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Periyasamy P, Karthikeyan E 
    Abstract: Reliable data transmission has been an emerging issue in AOMDV routing protocol since the nodes are prone to link failures and route breaks in highly dynamic ad hoc networks due to the selection of multiple routes between any source and destination pair based on only minimal hop count. For eliminating such problems, we propose a novel node disjoint multipath routing protocol called Link Reliable Energy Efficient AOMDV (LR-EE-AOMDV) routing protocol which is the extension of a well known AOMDV routing protocol. The LR-EE-AOMDV finds multiple link reliable energy efficient paths between any source and destination pair for data transmission using three metrics such as Path Length,Path-Link Quality Estimator (P-LQE) and a novelPath-Node Energy Estimator (P-NEE). We evaluate the performance of LR-EE-AOMDV routing protocol using NS 2.34 with varying network flows and number of nodes under random waypoint mobility model and compare it with AOMDV and OMMRE-AOMDV routing protocols in terms of Quality of Service (QoS) metrics. When there is a hike in network flows, the LR-EE-AOMDV reduces 24% of routing overhead, 38% of packet loss ratio, 26% of normalized routing overhead and 23% of energy consumption. It also increases rather 17% of packet delivery ratio and 16% of throughput than AOMDV routing protocol. When there is a hike in number of nodes, the LR-EE-AOMDV reduces 21% of routing overhead, 20% of packet loss ratio, and 16% of normalized routing overhead. It also increases 13% of packet delivery ratio and 13% of throughput than AOMDV routing protocol. From our simulation results, we show that the LR-EE-AOMDV routing protocol outperforms AOMDV and OMMRE-AOMDV routing protocols.
    Keywords: mobile ad hoc networks; multipath routing; AOMDV; hop count; Link Quality Estimator; Node Energy Estimator; QoS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001745
  • DNAS: A Driver Nighttime Assistance System using Rear-View Smartphone   Order a copy of this article
    by Chunmei Ma, Haigang Gong, Nianbo Liu, Chao Song, Ming Liu 
    Abstract: Due to the poor visibility and improper behavior, driving at nighttime is much more dangerous. It has been pointed out that the overall nighttime crash rate is approximately 1.6 times than the daytime rate. Therefore, it is of great significance to design a driver nighttime assistance system that warns drivers of the imminent danger. An effective solution is monitoring nearby vehicles for potential safety hazards. However, existing driver assistance schemes require the deployment of dedicated sensors on vehicles and/or on the roadside, which limits their implementation in practice. In this paper, we present DNAS, a cost-effective nighttime driver assistance system, as an Android App running on smartphones. DNAS allows drivers to place their phones on the rear windshield, for periodically capturing road condition by the camera sensor, and warning the drivers of dangerous speeding or tailgating event. To achieve this function, we use the bright vehicle headlights and their dimension to determine the following vehicles from the captured images, analyze their temporal and spatial characteristics in the successive frames, and finally find out the safety-critical events to send out warning sounds. We evaluate the effectiveness of our system based on two different real driving routes, the results show that DNAS, on average, is able to detect speeding and tailgating with an accuracy of 87:7% and 83:3% recall, respectively.
    Keywords: DNAS; Nighttime driving; Smartphone.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001746
  • The Bottleneck Problem in Large Scale IEEE 802.15.4 / ZigBee Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Chih-Min Chao, Hsin-Hsiang Wang 
    Abstract: In this paper, we handle the bottleneck problem of ZigBee-based networks. The bottleneck problem occurs at the nodes near the ZigBee coordinator since they have too many data to deliver during the data gathering process. This is a fundamental problem which reduces network throughput and prolongs transmission delay. A possible solution to this problem is to schedule each node's transmission/receiving time properly. Two fundamental problems we have to answer for such scheduling are when and how long a node should keep awake to transmit/receive packets. To achieve efficient scheduling, in this paper, we propose a centralized Top-Down-Maximum-Load-First (TDMLF) scheme which utilizes the contention-free Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS) defined in IEEE 802.15.4. By increasing the number of concurrent transmissions, the proposed scheme achieves high system utilization and thus alleviates the bottleneck problem. Through simulation and real system implementation, we verify that TDMLF successfully reduces the negative effects caused by the bottleneck problem.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks;IEEE 802.15.4;ZigBee;data collection;bottleneck;scheduling.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001747
  • Towards an Observer/Controller and Ontology/Rules-Based Approach for Pervasive Healthcare Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Amina Hameur Laine, Kenza Abdlaziz, Philippe Roose, Mohamed-Khireddine Kholladi 
    Abstract: This paper proposes new design approach for U-Healthcare systems. Our approach consists in combining the generic Observer/Controller architecture of Organic Computing, Ontologies and Rules-based paradigms. This combination brings three significant benefits. First, it allows keeping the system highly supervised and controlled by the Observer/Controller. Second, it enables the system to reason upon useful contextual information gathered from different and heterogeneous entities, and deduce new situations that require adaptation of the systems behavior. Finally, it enables the system to adapt its behavior dynamically to the context change by reasoning about this context and selecting the appropriate service to a specific user.
    Keywords: pervasive computing; U-Healthcare systems; context-awareness; context-aware system; context modeling; context reasoning; ontologies; rules; Observer/Controller architecture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001941
  • Hybrid alternative Receiver-Sender approach with a colored DR/BDR mechanism for the broadcast of safety messages in VANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Amira Benaidja, Samira Moussaoui, Farid Nait Abdesselam 
    Abstract: The most important goal of vehicular networks is to support safety applications, for which multi-hop broadcast represents the key technique to disseminate warning messages. The core problem in multi-hop broadcasting is how to minimize the number of redundantly received messages while maintaining good latency and reachability that are hard to achieve simultaneously due to the vehicles mobility and the lossy wireless channel. Proposed Sender-Oriented approaches delay the rebroadcast and cant ensure reliability. Receiver-Oriented ones which are most suitable for VANETs safety applications have to benefit in an efficient way from the exchanged IEEE802.11P safety beacons. In this paper, we propose an alternative Receiver-Sender approach that combines advantages of the two existing approaches to ensure low latency and high reliability. The proposal can use any sender or receiver oriented protocol but the same selected one is used during all the dissemination process. In order to overcome the unreliability and broadcast overhead generated by periodic rebroadcasts and multiple relays schemes, we introduce a DR (Designated Relay) /BDR (Backup Designated Relay) mechanism where the BDR has to replace the DR when detecting its failure in informing concerned vehicles based on exchanged colored beacons. Simulations are conducted and results are presented to show that combining the two approaches with the DR/BDR mechanism has a better performance than using each approach separately.
    Keywords: VANETs; safety applications; hybrid alternative Receiver-Sender approach; colored DR/BDR mechanism; warning messages.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001748
  • Lossless Compression for Transmitting ECG in SMS with High Quality for Mobile Telecardiology Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Diana M, Deisy C 
    Abstract: This paper presents a novel Lossless Compression for ECG in SMS (LCES) deployable on resource-constrained devices like mobile phones for efficient use in remote health monitoring systems. Even losslessly compressed ECG suffers transmission loss in GSM networks due to use of special character set stated by the GSM Standards. The LCES overcomes these challenges by adopting the ETSI GSM 03.38 character set in the symbol substitution phase to abstain loss in ECG transmission. The LCES was implemented and tested as an Android App using MIT-BIH Arrhythmia and Compression Test Databases. An average compression-ratio (CR) of 7.03, Percentage-Root-mean-square-Distortion (PRD) as low as 0.022 proving superior compression performance and quality for real-time mobile based remote health monitoring systems was obtained.
    Keywords: ECG Transmission; ECG in SMS; Lossless ECG Compression; Symbol substitution based Compression; Telecardiology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001749
  • Incorporating Architectural Modeling with State-based Reliability Evaluation   Order a copy of this article
    by Luxi Chen, Linpeng Huang, Chen Li, Xiwen Wu 
    Abstract: In the system development, it is quite important to evaluate non-functional property qualities on the architecture for making early adjustment decisions. However, in current practice, functional architectural modeling and non-functional quality evaluation are often implemented separately. And most architecture description languages fail to specify architecture evolution to implement adjustment. It is essential to propose a mechanism implementing architecture-level evaluation, and supporting architecture evolution. Withrnthese considerations, we present an architectural evaluation and evolution framework, which is based on the architecture description language - Breeze/ADL. First, by using Breeze/ADL, the system architecture is specified with trustworthy properties. Second, Breeze/ADL specifications are turned into a state view Markov Chain model. This model helps to evaluate the reliability and conduct importance analysis to identify the critical module. Third, based on the evaluation result, the evolution mechanism by Breeze/ADL will raise an adjustment solution to improve the reliability.
    Keywords: System Architecture; Breeze/ADL; Markov Chain Model; Reliability Evaluation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001750
  • On the Use of Centrality Measures to Determine Connected Dominating Sets for Mobile Ad hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Natarajan Meghanathan 
    Abstract: We investigate the use of centrality measures to determine connected dominating sets (CDSs) for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) whose topology changes dynamically with time. CDSs are preferred for performing network-wide broadcasts with reduced retransmissions. Though commonly used, degree centrality-based CDS has been observed to be quite unstable in the presence of node mobility. In this paper, we explore the use of other centrality measures (such as eigenvector centrality, betweenness centrality and closeness centrality that are commonly used for complex network analysis) as the underlying criterion for inclusion of nodes in a CDS for MANETs and evaluate the lifetime and node size of such CDSs in comparison to that incurred for the degree centrality-based CDS. We observe the eigenvector centrality-based CDS to be the most stable (but the CDS node size is also the largest); the betweenness centrality-based CDS is the least stable (but incurs the smallest CDS node size).
    Keywords: Centrality; Connected Dominating Set; CDS Lifetime; CDS Node Size; Mobile Ad hoc Networks; Stability; Simulations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001751
  • Joint Channel Assignment and Routing Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Gin-Xian Kok, Chee-Onn Chow, Yi-Han Xu, Hiroshi Ishii 
    Abstract: Conventional single channel wireless ad hoc networks usually suffer from low network throughput due to the higher number of packet transmissions required for multi-hop communication. Using multiple channels within a single network can improve the network throughput. In multi-channel communication networks, the channels must be assigned appropriately to maximize network performance. Existing channel assignment methods are usually based on the approach of interference reduction/minimization, for example, by making a link operates on only one channel and different links operate on different channels. In this paper, we go in the opposite direction and propose to make links operate on more channels. A new distributed joint channel assignment and routing protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks called Cognitive Radio Enhanced AOMDV (CR-EAOMDV) is proposed. Simulation studies showed that our method outperforms other methods.
    Keywords: distributed method; channel assignment; routing; multi-hop wireless networks; wireless mesh networks; cognitive radio ad hoc networks; interference; channel metric; performance evaluation; simulation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001753
  • An Efficient Data Dissemination and Handover Scheme for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Ravi Shankar Shukla, Neeraj Tyagi, Ashutosh Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar Debey 
    Abstract: This paper presents a data dissemination and smooth handover scheme for vehicular ad hoc network. The data dissemination scheme is based on position based routing class protocol and uses optimize forwarding to find forwarding node along the road pattern to deliver the data packets. The proposed routing algorithm ensures that all data packets are received with minimal delay and higher delivery ratio. A heterogeneous network architecture is proposed in this paper to support seamless mobility of mobile network. Each vehicle is provided with mobility through different Internet Server Protocols (ISPs). The Mobile Router (MR) based handover scheme where MRs cooperatively receive packet destined for each other can provide no service disruption and significantly reduce packet loss during handover. It also makes the packet loss independent to handover latency. Simulation study shows the comparative performance of the proposed handover architecture in terms of throughput, handover latency service disruption time, packet loss and signaling overhead.
    Keywords: Ad-Hoc Network; Routing Algorithms; Handover scheme; VANET.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001754
  • VPOD: Virtual Parking Overlay Network based Data Delivery in Urban VANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinqi Zhu, Chunmei Ma, Nianbo Liu, Ming Liu, Weijia Feng 
    Abstract: Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have characteristics of intermittent connectivity, high mobility of vehicle nodes and dynamic topology, which make data delivery in VANETs very challenging. Pervious works that based on history traffic patterns(such as history data delivery delay for each trajectory) to predict the current traffic conditions on the roads are not accurate. Moreover, deploying roadside units (RSUs) is a possible solution to overcome the challenges, but it often requires a large amount of investment. Motivated by the fact that there are large amounts of outside parked vehicles in urban areas, we propose in this paper a virtual parking overlay network based data delivery scheme(VPOD), which does not need any RSUs but leverages a parking overlay network formed by outside parked vehicles to disseminate messages among moving vehicles.VPOD consists of two main parts. Firstly, to each road, parked vehicles both at the roadside and off-street are grouped into a parking cluster as far as possible. An urban overlay network is established based on these parking clusters for effective data transmission. We also investigate the connectivity of the overlay network through theoretic analysis. Secondly, novel message delivery algorithms are designed to efficiently transmit messages to the destination vehicle through the proposed overlay network. Simulation results based on a real city map and realistic traffic situations show that VPOD achieves high performance in data delivery, especially in sparse traffic and multiple requests conditions.
    Keywords: VANETs; parked vehicle; overlay network; data delivery.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001755
  • An Efficient Dynamic Access Control Scheme for Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks.   Order a copy of this article
    by Santanu Chatterjee, Sandip Roy 
    Abstract: In wireless sensor network (WSN) due to resource limitations, node capturernattack and new node deployment, access control is essential. An access control scheme allows neighbouring sensor nodes to authenticate each other and to establish secret key for their future secure communication. Most of the existing WSN related access control protocols are not scalable due to involvement of the base station in broadcasting of new node parameters during the new node deployment phase. Also, many of them are not secure against different active attacks. In this paper, we propose a distributed dynamic access control method for large-scale wireless sensor networks. Our scheme is ecient in respect to communicational and computational overheads. In our scheme, involvementrnof base station is not required during authentication and key establishment processes. Further, our scheme is secure against different attacks and unconditionally secure against node capture attacks, man in middle attack and replay attack. Moreover, we simulate our scheme for formal security analysis using the AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and show that our scheme is secure.
    Keywords: Distributed sensor networks; Access control; Key establishment; Authentication; Security; ECC; AVISPA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001756
  • An Optimization Framework for Monitoring of SDN/OpenFlow Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Ángel Leonardo Valdivieso Caraguay, Jesús Antonio Puente Fernández, Luis Javier García Villalba 
    Abstract: The centralized control of the network and the separation of data and control planes proposed by Software Defined Networking SDN have changed the rigid, static, and complex nature of the networks. The decisions taken by the control plane depends on the accuracy of the monitored information on network performance and detection of network events (link failure, delay, loss, network overhead). However, the monitoring information is typically provided by external network monitoring solutions which require the installation of specialized (and costly) equipment. This work proposes an efficient SDN monitoring framework using the OpenFlow protocol. This framework uses profiling to provide different monitoring levels based on the requirements of the network programmer. Moreover, the pluggable architecture enables the creation, updating and customization of high level metrics as well as the orchestrator balancing the monitoring tasks and offering an adaptive method of polling information requests based on the load of the controller and the size of the network. The implementation of network performance metrics (data rate, loss rate and delay) and the results of experiments using video streaming traffic demonstrate the effectiveness of the framework.
    Keywords: Framework; Quality of Service; Monitoring; Multimedia; OpenFlow; SDN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001757
  • Optimal Channel Allocation for Multi-PU and Multi-SU Pairs in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Long Chen, Liusheng Huang, Hongli Xu 
    Abstract: With the underlay spectrum sharing scheme, SUs are permitted to communicate through the spectrum used by PUs adhering to interference constraints of primary receivers. Under this scheme, both channel assignment and power allocation will affect the network performance such as throughput, etc. This paper thus first defines the joint channel and power allocation problem, which aims to optimize the max-total and max-min throughput of SUs, with the constraints of interference on primary receivers. For the max-total problem, we formulate the problem as a bipartite matching and derive a maximum weighted matching based algorithm STMA to solve this problem. For the max-min problem, on the basis of the ORA algorithm, we derive a polynomial time algorithm OCAA to iteratively as-sign the channels to each SU pair under the power constraint. Simulation results show, the throughput of SU network grows with the maximum transmission power of SUs below the interference power of PUs. STMA algorithm achieves an aver-age of 46.67% performance gain when path loss component is 2 and 13.08% enhancement when path loss component is 3 compared with random algorithm. The OCAA algo-rithm effectively ensures the max-min fairness of the capacity among SU pairs in finite iterations and achieves at least 97% performance gain than the random method under the most cases.
    Keywords: Cognitive Radio;Underlay;Channel Assignment;Power Allocation;Multiple Pairs;Matching;Bipartite Graph;Total Throughput;Max-min Fairness;.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001758
  • Use of Ants Foraging Behavior for Routing in Adhoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Pakanati Chenna Reddy 
    Abstract: The heterogeneous nature of computer networks and widely varying application requirements pose many challenges to the designers of the protocols. This paper classifies the challenging issues of a computer network into expected, demanding and future requirements. Biological solutions can be used to solve the computer networks related problems. This paper maps the challenging issues of computer networks to the corresponding solutions of biological systems. It classifies the biological solutions based on application category. Ad hoc networks are self-organized networks which can be created on the fly without centralized control and without any additional infrastructure. This paper identifies the parallels between self-organization and ad hoc networks giving the justification for using self-organization in ad hoc networks. Routing in ad hoc networks is a non-trivial problem due to inherent characteristics of the network. This paper illustrates how the foraging behavior of ants can be used to solve the routing problem in ad hoc networks, and critically analyzes ants foraging to find the limitations of it in solving the routing problem. It identifies the scope for improvement of the existing methods for routing and also suggests ways of improving based on ants foraging behavior.
    Keywords: self-organization;adhoc network;ants foraging;routing;biological solutions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001759
  • BeeWS: Honeybee-inspired, Large-Scale Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatih Çelik, Ahmet Zengin 
    Abstract: Recently, scalable routing protocols using swarm intelligence (SI), which are designed and evolved for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), have become a research trend in literature. This paper presents an optimal method based on SI inspired by honeybees. This method has minimum energy consumption, self-organisation, and support for a large-scale, autonomous individuals that detect the best route. In this paper, we propose a new energy-aware, scalable, and robust routing algorithm called Bee Wireless Sensor (BeeWS) inspired by honeybee foraging behaviour. This study consists of three parts: 1) honeybee behaviours are modelled and these behaviours are adapted to the structure of WSN, 2) routing protocol criteria are determined using this model, and 3) the developed model is tested in a simulation environment based on Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) in order to simulate and model WSN behaviours and compare to other SI based on WSN routing protocols.
    Keywords: Swarm Intelligence; Routing protocol; Wireless sensor networks; Clustering.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001760
  • Enhancing Lifetime of IPv6-based Wireless Sensor Networks with Addresses Coding   Order a copy of this article
    by Leila Ben Saad, Bernard Tourancheau 
    Abstract: Due to the scarce energy resources of sensor nodes, wireless sensor networks need strategies to optimize the energy consumption of sensors to extend the network lifetime. However, improving the lifetime of wireless sensor networks remains a very challenging problem. Since a sensor device spends most of its energy in transmitting packets, it is important to shorten the length of these packets through data compression. Nevertheless, compression deals only with data while address compression is not considered. In this work, Slepian-Wolf source coding and address allocation are used jointly to reduce the size of the emitted addresses and improve the network lifetime. The proposed approach was studied in both cluster-based and multi-hop networks. In cluster-based networks, the proposed solution was formulated as an optimization problem that maximizes lifetime of network composed of line-powered and battery-powered sensors. The placement of line- powered sensors is optimized to enable the battery-powered ones to exploit the addresses correlation and reduce the size of their emitted packets and thus improve the network lifetime. The simulation results show that a significant network lifetime improvement can be achieved by using this solution in both cluster-based and multi-hop networks.
    Keywords: Network lifetime; address correlation; Slepian-wolf coding; Wireless sensor networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001790
  • Applications Nature Aware Virtual Machine Provisioning in Cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by Raghavendra Achar, P. Santhi Thilagam 
    Abstract: Rapid growth of internet technologies and virtualization has made cloud as a new IT delivery mechanism, which is gaining popularity from both industry and academia. Huge demand for a cloud resources, running similar nature applications in the same server results in application degradation whenever there is a sudden rise in workload. In order to minimize the application degradations, there is an urgent need to know the nature of applications running in cloud for efficient VM provisioning. Existing cloud architecture does not provide any mechanism to handle this issue. This paper presents a modified cloud architecture which contains additional component called Application Analyzer to identify the nature of applications running in each VM. Based on applications nature, this paper presents a novel VM provisioning mechanism using genetic algorithm. In order to utilize the resources efficiently, this paper also presents a mechanism for VM provisioning with migration. Experimental study is conducted using CloudSim simulator shows that proposed mechanism is efficiently allocating resources to the virtual machines.
    Keywords: Virtual Machine; Provisioning; Migration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001791
  • Impersonation Attack on CertificateLess Key Agreement Protocol   Order a copy of this article
    by Suman Bala, Gaurav Sharma, Anil K. Verma 
    Abstract: Key agreement is a fundamental activity to establish communication between two parties. Kim et al. (2013) proposed a CertificateLess two-party authenticated key agreement (CTAKA) protocol, which is secure in extended Canetti-Krawczyk (eCK) model. This paper describes the security flaw of Kim et al.s CTAKA protocol, which is found vulnerable against Key-Compromise Impersonation (K-CI) attack. For the resistance of the attack in Kim et al.s CTAKA protocol, a defensive measure has been proposed, which is secure in eCK model.
    Keywords: CertificateLess cryptography; key agreement; cryptanalysis; CTAKA; CertificateLess two-party authenticated key agreement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001792
  • Trust and Reputation Aware Geographic Routing Method for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Raghu Vamsi Potukuchi, Krishna Kant 
    Abstract: We consider the problem of secure geographic routing in mobile Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (WANETs). In recent years, Trust and Reputation Monitoring Systems (TRMSs) have received significant attention to aid routing security in WANETs. A number of trust and reputation models have been proposed to guard topology based routing protocols. However, trust and reputation models for securing geographic routing in mobile networks are limited. To this end, this paper presents a dependable and pragmatic Trust And Reputation Aware Geographic Routing (TARA-GR) method for mobile WANETs to achieve self-adaptability, scalability, lightweight communication, and efficiency. It supports the geographic routing decisions by the dynamic computation of consolidated trust value of each node in the network by integrating direct and indirect trust values. With the calculated trust value, each source or forwarding node selects the trusted nodes to route the packets from the source to the destination. TARA-GR is integrated with a well known Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) protocol. This integration is termed as TARA-GPSR. The simulation results have shown that TARA-GPSR significantly improved the network performance metrics such as packet delivery fraction, throughput, and energy consumption.
    Keywords: Geographic routing; secure routing; trust models; wireless ad hoc networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001793
  • A novel biometric-based password authentication scheme for client-server environment using ECC and fuzzy extractor   Order a copy of this article
    by S.K. Hafizul Islam, Ashok Kumar Das, Muhammad Khurram Khan 
    Abstract: In this paper, we devise a new and efficient biometric-basedrnpassword authentication scheme (BIO-PWA) for the client-serverrnenvironment. Our scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)rnalong with the fuzzy extractor. Through the rigorous securityrnanalysis, we show that our scheme is secure against various knownrnattacks. We further show that our scheme is secure in the genericrngroup model through the formal security analysis. In addition, thernformal security verification of our scheme using the widely-acceptedrnAutomated Validation of Internet SecurityrnProtocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool is performed against active andrnpassive adversaries and the simulation results clearly demonstraternthat our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks,rnincluding the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Finally, we showrnthat our scheme is also efficient in computation against thernexisting related ECC-based authentication schemes for thernclient-server environment.
    Keywords: Biometric; Fuzzy extractor; Password; Hash function; Smartcard; Elliptic curve cryptography; Remote user authentication; Security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001794
  • Complexity Reduction of Throughput Optimal Link Scheduling Algorithm through Topology Control in Wireless Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Ghiasian, Behnaz Omoomi, Hossein Saidi 
    Abstract: In single channel wireless networks, concurrent transmission at different links may interfere with each other. To improve system throughput, a scheduling algorithm is necessary to choose a subset of links at each time slot for data transmission. Throughput optimal link scheduling discipline in such a wireless network is generally an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we utilize the concept of line graph and extend it to line multigraph to cope with the complexity issue of the well know Maximum Weight Scheduling (MWS) algorithm. We propose a low complexity algorithm, termed as eLehot, for detecting whether a graph is line multigraph and output its root graph. The necessary and sufficient conditions for reducing the complexity of MWS in terms of network topology are derived. Indeed, we prove that the complexity of eLehot is polynomial time provided that the network conflict graph does not contain seven derived forbidden graphs as induced subgraphs. The results of this paper introduce a new approach in topology control algorithms in wireless networks where the final target is complexity reduction.
    Keywords: Link scheduling; Wireless network; Line graph; Line multigraph; Root graph; Conflict graph; Topology Control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001795
  • Peripheral nodes and their effect in path planning in networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Khaled Almiani, Anastasios Viglas, Young Lee, Reza Abrishambaf 
    Abstract: We consider the problem of designing a path in a network that is as close as possible to most node locations in the network. This is an abstract problem with applications in wireless sensor networks with mobile elements, transportation networks, vehicle routing and facility location problems. We consider specifically the case of designing mobile element tours in sensor networks, used to collect data from the network. The nodes that are not visited by the tour need to transmit their data using wireless multi-hop routing, which is expensive in terms of energy usage, and therefore limits the lifetime of the network. The mobile element tour is designed so that the transmission costs are minimized. In the literature, several heuristics have addressed different variations of this problem. Nodes that happen to be placed in locations that are away from the central areas of the network can result in designing a tour that is skewed towards these out of the way or peripheral nodes. In this work, we quantify the effect of such peripheral nodes in the design of data gathering tours in wireless networks. We propose algorithmic solutions that aim to identify peripheral nodes in the network. We provide experimental evidence that the tour planning algorithms that take into account peripheral nodes can significantly improve the solution. Also, we present an integer linear program (ILP) formulation for this problem, and we compare the performance of our proposed algorithm performance against the optimal solution, as computed by the ILP.
    Keywords: WSNs; Data-gathering; TSP; Path-planning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001796
  • IDS Modeling and Evaluation in WANETs against Black/Gray-hole Attacks using Stochastic Models   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Entezari-Maleki, Mohammed Gharib, Maryam Khosravi, Ali Movaghar 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to model and evaluate the performance of intrusion detection systems (IDSs) facing black-hole and gray-hole attacks within wireless ad hoc networks (WANETs). The main performance metric of an IDS in a WANET can be defined as the mean time required for the IDS to detect an attack in the network. To evaluate this measure, two types of stochastic models called continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) and stochastic reward net (SRN) are used in this paper. In the first step, two different CTMCs are proposed to model the black-hole and gray-hole attacks, and then, the method of computing the mean time to attack detection is presented on the proposed CTMCs. Since the numbers of states of the proposed CTMCs grow rapidly with increasing the number of the intermediate nodes and the number of attacks which should be done by a single node to trigger the IDS to detect the attack, SRNs are exploited to automatically generate the proposed CTMCs in the second step. The proposed SRNs for the black-hole and gray-hole attacks can appropriately model the network and the process of sending and receiving the messages. Different scenarios are designed to evaluate and compare IDSs on WANETs which show the applicability and usefulness of the proposed CTMCs and SRNs in real networks.
    Keywords: Intrusion detection system; black-hole attack; gray-hole attack; Markov chain; stochastic reward net.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001797
  • Impulsive noise reduction through OFDM based PLC using a new adaptive recursive noise compensator   Order a copy of this article
    by Yassine Himeur, Abdelkrim Boukabou 
    Abstract: Recently, powerline networks are increasingly employed for broadband data transmission such as internet, image and video delivery. Enhancing the quality of broadband transmission over powerline communication (PLC) channel is of utmost importance, which is an area of current interests. In this paper, we introduce a novel detection and noise reduction method for PLC systems in impulsive noise environments. To reach this goal, a new adaptive recursive noise compensator (ARNC) algorithm is proposed. It is based on an iterative detection and estimation of the impulsive noise using the signal to impulsive noise power ratio (SINR), and the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) in the time domain after channel equalization and demodulation. In fact, a new clipping/blanking function is introduced to estimate and detect the impulsive bursts. By evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and mean square error (MSE), the proposed technique illustrates high performance in an attenuated 15-paths condition. The signal-to-noise (SNR) improvements obtained by the proposed algorithm can achieve 11-18 dB under Eb/No=0 dB and more than 12 dB at a BER = 10-3 for OFDM signal using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation.
    Keywords: Powerline communication; OFDM; impulsive noise; OFDM tones; clipping/blanking.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001798
  • Effects of Vertex Insertion on Local Rescheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Chun Hao Yang, Kuo Feng Ssu, Chao Wang 
    Abstract: Rescheduling has abundant issues yet to be explored. The localrnrescheduling problem in wireless sensor networks have been firstlyrnaddressed and investigated in this paper. The algorithms of localrnrescheduling have been proposed and evaluates the performance ofrnreschedule solutions with different metrics. The solutions have tornbe under the limitation that the network should stay connected afterrnthe process of rescheduling. This paper introduces a theoreticalrnbound of maximum degree after node insertion. Along with empiricalrnresults in real world settings, the results motivate the design ofrnalgorithms and give possible reasons why existing reschedulingrnalgorithms do not work efficiently. Two local link reschedulingrnalgorithms and one local broadcast rescheduling algorithm arerndeveloped as improvements. With different node densities and otherrncritical parameters, simulations show that the developed algorithmsrngreatly improve the ratio of finding proper solutions successfullyrnin both types of scheduling compared with other existing simplernalgorithms.
    Keywords: Local Rescheduling; Wireless Sensor Network;Local Link Scheduling;Local Broadcast Scheduling; Maximum Degree Variation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001799
  • Finding a suitable hop-to-hop busty traffic transmission approach for Underwater Acoustic Networks: handshake-based vs handshake-free MAC protocols   Order a copy of this article
    by Dilara Ireen Swarna, Saiful Azad, Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Arafatur Rahman 
    Abstract: Due to many attractive applications, Underwater Acoustic Networks (UANs) are drawing attention of various audiences. Most of these applications demand a considerable amount of data transmission for apt functioning. A MAC protocol plays the key role in data transmission by regulating the usage of the medium among the contending nodes. In addition to that an efficient MAC protocol must take the characteristics of the network architecture into consideration to attain superlative performance. For instance, a MAC protocol designed for UANs must take the following unique characteristics of underwater channels into consideration: long propagation delay, high bit-error rate, limited bandwidth, and so forth. Many MAC protocols are already designed for UANs, which have fully or partially taken these characteristics into account and could be classified as handshake-free and handshake-based protocols. In this paper, these two classes are investigated through a comprehensive simulation campaign by employing their prominent representative protocols, namely ALOHA, CSMA, and MACA-APT protocol. The contribution of this paper lies as follows: i) unearthing the optimum values of various parameters on which the performance of a protocol relies, ii) investigating the performance of all three protocols through a realistic channel model simulator by varying a couple of network parameters, and iii) discovering their effectiveness on various applications.
    Keywords: Underwater Acoustic Networks; ALOHA; CSMA; MACA-APT; Handshake-based; Handshake-free; MAC protocol; DESERT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001800
  • A Throughput-oriented Reliable Multicast in Multi-rate Wireless Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Asma Ben Hassouna, Hend Koubaa, Leila Azouz Saidene 
    Abstract: As low transmission delays can meet the requirements of many applications, high-throughput is the request of various others. Therefore, with consideration of the multi-user diversity (MUD) and the wireless broadcast advantage (WBA) features, we deal with the problem of maximizing the multicast throughput. Hence, we introduce two new rate-aware multicast metrics: EMTH and XMTH. EMTH helps to choose the transmission rates that estimate the best multicast throughput expected. XMTH can reach extreme throughput values if the high computational needs are satisfied. Both metrics carry out a rate adaptation process and take into consideration the link reliabilities. They can be used to choose multi-rate multicast schemes and to decide reliable multicast paths. Results show that the proposed metrics give the best system performance in terms of throughput. They confirm that, using EMTH and XMTH, it is possible to trade-off a very good throughput improvement for an insignificant delay increase.
    Keywords: routing; multicast throughput; delay; multiuser diversity; reliable access.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001801
  • OFFRP: Optimized Fruit Fly Based Routing Protocol With Congestion Control For UAVs Guided Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Sharma, Ilsun You, Rajesh Kumar, Varun Chauhan 
    Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained a lot of attention from the researchers across the globe. Their autonomous capabilities provide vast range of applications such as disaster management, surveillance, border security and inter-civilian activities, etc. Networking with UAVs has evolved as major frontier in areas of wireless communication. Enhanced utility of these vehicles can lead to the formation of stabilized networks. UAVs can be incorporated as intermediate nodes with the existing ad hoc networks to form a guided ad hoc system. However, these networks have a major issue regarding the data flow and routing. UAVs operate in different band as compared to the ground nodes. Hence, there is a chance of congestion that may fail the whole network. An ideal state with no congestion is difficult to attain. However, prediction of such congestion states can provide continuous connectivity. For this, a new Optimized Fruit Fly Routing Protocol (OFFRP) is proposed which uses the properties of existing fruit fly optimization algorithm for finding appropriate routes. The search of food sources by fruit flies using their smell index forms the basis of the proposed protocol. The protocol not only enhances the network formation between the aerial and ground nodes but also provides congestion free data transmission. The proposed protocol is evaluated using standard network simulations and is compared with all the major routing protocols as well as existing TCP-oriented congestion control algorithms.
    Keywords: UAVs; Congestion; Routing; Delays; Jitters; Throughput.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001752
  • Information fusion of heterogeneous sensors for enriched personal healthcare activity logging   Order a copy of this article
    by Daeil Seo, Byounghyun Yoo, Heedong Ko 
    Abstract: Despite the proliferation of wearable devices and mobile apps for healthcare activity monitoring, no model that complementarily integrates these monitoring logs making up personal big data has been put forth. In addition, such datasets are too large to yield meaningful information. To deal with data from heterogeneous sources, a common format and information fusion model for the complementary aggregation and abstraction of logs are necessary. We introduce a sensor and activity model that classifies heterogeneous sensors and propose an information fusion method that reorganizes personal healthcare activity logs and visualizes them hierarchically in a harmonized way while providing a meaningful summary.
    Keywords: healthcare; information fusion; activity model; sensor model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001962
  • A cost-effective proposal for an RFID-based system for agri-food traceability   Order a copy of this article
    by Renato Ferrero, Filippo Gandino, Bartolomeo Montrucchio, Maurizio Rebaudengo 
    Abstract: Agri-food companies, operating in the packaging, storage and distribution of fruit and vegetables, need to be provided with information systems able to meet the requirements imposed by the current European regulations in terms of traceability. This paper evaluates the benefits and drawbacks of a semi-automated information management tracking system for a warehouse specialized in the fruit market. It is targeted to small and medium-sized companies, with limited financial means for investments and without technical support in their premises. These requirements are met by using a PDA equipped with an RFID reader: the information collected throughout the production process are locally stored in the PDA and occasionally sent to a server. In this way the proposed system does not rely neither on a widespread wireless network, nor on fixed RFID readers, which can increase automation, but need more investment and assistance.
    Keywords: agri-food; fruit; traceability; tracking; RFID; supply chain automation; information management; warehouse.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001802
  • An Adaptive Trajectory-Based Group Message Delivery Protocol with Detour Support for Vehicular Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Guann-Long Chiou, Shun-Ren Yang 
    Abstract: Infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) communications has become an important research issue in recent years. To realize I2V group message delivery, some previously proposed protocols utilize the future trajectories of vehicles to deploy message delivery routes. In these protocols, when a server is required to deliver a message to specific vehicles, this server investigates future trajectories of the destination vehicles, selects the proper rendezvous points, and forwards the message to the rendezvous points for the last-hop delivery. These protocols have demonstrated high delivery performance. However, we have noticed that none of these protocols consider that the destination vehicles may take unexpected detours. The detour events result in new trajectories for those vehicles that no longer pass the rendezvous points. Thus, those detour vehicles will miss the messages stored on the rendezvous points. To address this issue, this paper designs a novel trajectory-based I2V group message delivery protocol, tc-eTGMD, to resolve the above mentioned problem. The proposed scheme aims to redeploy only the routes for the detour vehicles when the detour events happen. Moreover, this scheme can guarantee the reaction time and can offload the traffic while handling the detour events. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to address the detour issue in the trajectory-based I2V group message delivery problem. The specific contributions of this paper are as follows. 1) We formally formulate the trajectory-based I2V group message delivery with the detour events problem. 2) We give a detailed design of our proposed tc-eTGMD protocol. 3) We conduct extensive simulation experiments to evaluate tc-eTGMD's message delivery performance, compared with that of the previously proposed protocols.
    Keywords: Detour; Group message delivery; Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (I2V) communications; Trajectory; Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001853
  • SmaCH: an infrastructure for Smart Cultural Heritage environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Francesco Piccialli, Angelo Chianese 
    Abstract: Cultural Heritage represents a worldwide resource of inestimable value, attracting millions of visitors every year to monuments, museums and art exhibitions. Fundamental aspects of this resource to be investigated are its promotion and people enjoyment. Indeed, to achieve an enjoyment of a cultural space that is attractive and sustainable, it is necessary to realize ubiquitous and multimedia solutions for users' interaction to enrich their visiting experience and improve the knowledge transmission process of a cultural site. Thanks to ICT technologies, it is possible to shorten the distance between a cultural site and its visitors, and re-establish to them the truly educational role which provides the opportunity to produce and be part of new experiences of knowledge transmission, especially for young people who are familiar with such technologies. In this paper we present a service-oriented infrastructure aimed to transform Cultural Heritage sites into smart environments; it enforces a set of multimedia and location-based services to support the changing of such spaces in an indispensable dynamic instrument for knowledge communication and people enjoyment. Following the Internet of Things paradigm, the proposed infrastructure relies on the integration of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies to identify, locate and support users.
    Keywords: Internet of Things; Cultural Heritage; Ubiquitous Computing; Mobile systems; Location-based services.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001070
  • Alternative Forwarding Strategies for Geographic Routing in Wireless Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jung-Tsung Tsai, Yunghsiang Han 
    Abstract: Greedy forwarding (GF), the fundamental geographic routing scheme, is locally optimal on advancement distance per hop. Instead, we propose a forwarding scheme outperforming GF on total advancement distance to destination through routing decision made from neighbor positions with one-step forward expectation.rnWe then consider that a wireless network topology consists of two subareas of different node densities and that a packet originated in one subarea is destined for the other. Routing over a least hop count path in such a network reflects the Fermat's principle. Like refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, we derive our Snell's laws and propose geographic refraction routing schemes. Results show that when network settings and source-destination pairs provide for obvious refraction, refraction operation can slightly shorten mean path hop counts for reliable routing but significantly improve routing success probabilities for best-effort one.
    Keywords: geographic routing; greedy forwarding; refraction routing; Snell's law; Fermat's principle; wireless network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001854
  • Novel Lifetime Routing Metric for IEEE 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Vahid Azhari, Niloofar Afshari, Mohammad Nassiri 
    Abstract: We propose a multi-path routing protocol for improving the lifetime of battery operated 802.11 wireless mesh networks (WMN). Our routing protocol uses a novel expected lifetime metric to identify the most critical node in a path and adjusts the amount of traffic over that path accordingly. Hence, we call our approach the Least Critical Lifetime Routing (LCLR) protocol. In addition, we adopt a very simple route congestion measure to further fine tune the amount of traffic sent over a given path. This makes LCLR one of the few lifetime-aware routing protocols that take interference and congestion into account. Moreover, we use a simple path available bandwidth estimation approach, which is integrated into the routing and traffic assignment process. Furthermore, LCLR periodically swaps traffic between most and least critical paths to prolong network lifetime. We have used NS2 simulations to evaluate various performance metrics of LCLR including, total traffic volume and packet delivery ratio to that of AODV, minimum total energy routing and the optimal solution to the maximum lifetime routing problem. Our results obtained for different network topologies suggest that LCLR performs close to the optimum.
    Keywords: Wireless mesh network; Routing; Least critical path; Lifetime; Traffic volume;.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001856
  • MANTRA: An Ultra lightweight cipher design for ubiquitous computing   Order a copy of this article
    by Gaurav Bansod 
    Abstract: In this paper we are proposing an ultra lightweight cipher MANTRA. MANTRA is a Feistel based network which operates on an 64 bit plain text and supports an 128/80 bit key length. It needs very less footprint area and consumes only 1853 GEs for the 128 bit key length and 1565 for 80 bit key length. The novel design of MANTRA uses a Feistel within a Feistel structure. It helps the cipher design to show good resistance against linear and differential cryptanalysis. MANTRA shows good performance on both hardware and software platform. Its power consumption as compared to other existing ultra lightweight ciphers is competitive. In this paper we have presented the security analysis of MANTRA and its performance as an ultra lightweight cipher. A strong S-box is proposed in this cipher that results in more number of active S-boxes. A strong permutation layer in MANTRA prevents clustering of linear and differential trails when the cipher is attacked. MANTRA shows good resistance against Biclique and zero correlation attacks. MANTRA is a well suited cipher design for the applications where small footprint area and low power dissipation plays a crucial role.
    Keywords: Lightweight Cryptography; Feistel cipher; Block cipher; IoT; Encryption; Embedded security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001153
  • A Novel Approach to improve Power Management in Wireless Local Area Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mario Collotta, Giovanni Pau 
    Abstract: In recent years Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), which generally consist of many Access Points (APs), have been deployed rapidly in corporate offices and universities, in order to satisfy user demands for high bandwidth and mobility. However, as a consequence to the spread of wireless devices, there has been also a substantial increase in energy consumption. For this reason, novel approaches are needed in order to optimize the energy consumption of APs. To cope with this problem, this paper introduces a novel approach for an energy-aware management of access networks that, based on the instantaneous traffic intensity, reduces the number of active access devices when they are underutilized. The devices are switched on and off according to the distance value of client with respect to the AP, calculated by using the Receiving Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). The results of real test-bed scenarios reveal that the proposed approach obtains promising performance.
    Keywords: Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN); Access Point (AP); Energy Efficiency; Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001366
  • An Efficient Data Gathering Algorithm for Large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jumin Zhao, Qingming Tang, Deng-ao Li, Biaokai Zhu, Yikun Li 
    Abstract: Recently, wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks (mWSN) have attracted massive attention attributed to the benefi ts of mobility. The updating of routing, however, will generate a lot of control packets due to the movements of mobile sinks in mWSN, which will consume a lot of energy and easily reduce the life of network. This paper proposed a data gathering algorithm for large-scale mWSN. In the proposed algorithm, the entire network was divided into several Gathering scopes. Each Gathering scope locally updates the routing structure according to the path extension ratio which can e ffectively reduce the control packets generated by the updating of routing. To decrease the frequency of updating and the energy consumption of network, anchor nodes chains are adopted. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can signifi cantly reduce the control packets and prolong the lifetime of network compared with other algorithms.
    Keywords: WSN; Mobility; Routing; Mobile sinks; Data gathering; Data gathering algorithm; Updating of routing; Anchor node; Anchor nodes chain; Energy-efficient; Gathering scope.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001883
  • Assessment of heuristics for self-stabilization in real-time interactive communication overlays   Order a copy of this article
    by Pelayo Nuño, Juan C. Granda, Francisco J. Suárez 
    Abstract: Self-stabilization is an autonomic behavior closely related to self-healing. In multimedia communication overlays, self-stabilization copes with network disruptions by dynamically restoring data links and communication paths. The restoration of links may require reorganizing the overlay by establishing new connections among members or modifying existing ones. Self-stabilization techniques are usually triggered asynchronously, either on use (during reorganizations of the overlay) or on event (as a response to a failure), and several heuristics may be used when selecting link peers. In this work several heuristics to perform on event self-stabilization in multimedia communication overlays are assessed. A real-time communication overlay deployed according to a full-mesh topology interconnecting a set of multicast groups is used as assessment framework to evaluate the heuristics. Intensive tests have been carried out to compare and assess heuristics under several overlay topologies and network conditions.
    Keywords: self-stabilization; overlay networks; multimedia communications; autonomic computing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001909
  • SNR-based relay selection in cooperative wireless ad hoc networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Khalil Afzal, Byung-Seo Kim, Seung Yeob Nam, Sung Won Kim 
    Abstract: Cooperative communications aim to gain spatial diversity from stations cooperating during data transmission without requiring multiple transceiver antennas on the same station. However, performance from cooperative communications highly depends on the relay-selection method. This paper proposes and evaluates a distributed relay-selection method based on the signal-to-noise ratio of the communication links of candidate relay nodes. A node is selected as a relay node based on the signal-to-noise ratio of its communication link. Moreover, data might be delivered through a relay node that can support high transmission rate rather than through a direct link with a low transmission rate. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the collision probability in the proposed method as compared to a conventional random backoff method. Results demonstrate that the proposed relay-selection method reduces collision probability, and hence, enhances system throughput.
    Keywords: Cooperative Communications; Relay Selection; Collision.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001910
  • Qos-Aware Routing Protocol using Adaptive Retransmission of Distorted Descriptions in MDC for MANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Diwakar Bhardwaj, Krishna Kant, Durg Singh Chauhan 
    Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) of delay sensitive application like video stream is majorly affected by instantaneous channel conditions over noisy Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs). Forward Error Correction (FEC) and Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) are the key mechanisms used to recover the quality of the video in wireless networks, but these mechanisms under perform in dynamic networks like MANETs. FEC and ARQ are impractical in MANETs because of their high overheads and high retransmission delay, respectively. Another method, Multiple Description Coding (MDC), a solution specially designed for lossy wireless networks produces unacceptable video quality at the receiver. The other variant of MDC, MDC with Error Correction (MDC_EC) also fails to fulfill the QoS requirements of the video applications. Both of these techniques use redundancy and do not depend on routing; therefore, there is a need of alternative techniques to establish required QoS preserving the video quality. We have proposed a novel routing protocol suitable for MDC video stream to support QoS and reduce overheads. The proposed work is twofold---- (i) redefine the distortion model to estimate the distortion of the transmitted video, and (ii) proposed a novel routing protocol with the help of this model to mitigate the impact of channel noise on the video quality through selected retransmission of noisy descriptors (MDC_EC_RE). FEC, MDC, MDC_EC, and proposed protocols are simulated in NS2.35 and their performance is compared. Significant improvement is observed in the quality of video for different levels of channel noise.
    Keywords: Signal-to-Noise Ratio; MDC; MANETs; QoS; Distortion; Cross-Layer Design; Noisy Channels; Re-transmissions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001968
  • A State-of-Art approach to misbehavior detection and revocation in VANET:Survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Dinesh Singh, Ranvijay Ranvijay, Rama Shankar Yadav 
    Abstract: With the increased popularity of Internet application and smart cities, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) have become one of the prominent research area and ample of researchers have addressed the many issues in the past decade. Among the many issues involves with e ective VANET, misbehavior detection and revocation is required to address with full attention. It is rst and foremost step towards dealing with safety applications in VANETs. The vehicle misbehavior is responsible for malfunctioning of many network activities (e.g. trac jam, road accidents etc.). The misbehavior detection problem becomes more severe for safety critical applications in VANETs. The misbehaved vehicle must be revoked from the network as early as possible to reduce injuries. Thus, inconjuction of misbehavior detection, revocation problem also needs to be explored. This paper is addressed to provide state-of-art to misbehavior detection and revocation for safety critical VANETs. Here we present a detailed survey on relevant research done in the area of misbehavior detection and revocation with other related issues.
    Keywords: Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANETs); safety applications; misbehavior detection; revocation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001911
  • An Energy Model of 4G Smartphone Oriented Towards Typical Network Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by TunDong Liu, Yun Lin, ZhuoBin Xu, Yi Xie, FuFeng Chen, GuoZhi Xue 
    Abstract: In the wave of wireless technologies, 4G has achieved considerable success because of its high data rate and great potential. But the short battery lifetime of mobile device hinders the development of 4G. The energy scheme in the LTE protocol based on Radio Resource Control (RRC) states in some degree optimizes the energy consumption of 4G smartphone, but it is still far from satisfaction. Therefore, many efforts have been done to study the process of energy consumption in 4G smartphone which is helpful to improve the energy efficiency. Some hardware-based methods using expensive instruments are correct but unhandy. Some software-based methods are flexible but incorrect because they often omit the influences from communication performance. Up to now, most energy models have paid little attention to application layer without considering the quality of wireless communication. This paper proposes an energy model of 4G smartphone where two typical applications (HTTP and FTP) and the data flow of wireless traffic are considered. In order to verify the energy model, an experimental testbed has been set up to capture the data flow and power records during one application. Experiment results have shown that the energy model accurately estimates the energy consumption of 4G smartphone in one operation of the application, whose accuracy rate is higher than 90%. The work described can be considered the first step toward the implementation of a new softwarebased method to accurately estimate the energy consumption of 4G smartphone.
    Keywords: 4G; Energy consumption; Model; State machine; Smartphone.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001912
  • NetBAN, a concept of Network of BANs for Cooperative Communication: energy awareness routing solution   Order a copy of this article
    by Audace Manirabona, Saadi Boudjit, Lamia Chaari Fourati 
    Abstract: In this paper a NetBAN which is a concept of network of BANs (Body Area Networks) or WBANs (Wireless BANs) is introduced and a routing solution intending to help a group of WBANs to cooperate for relaying packets according to the energy consumption rate and the communication link quality is proposed. The main goal is to provide to the sensors a technique that helps them deliver their data even when the coordinators battery is very low or empty or else the connection to the access point is lost, what leads to balancing energy consumption between cooperating coordinators. For this purpose, an energy threshold based technique is used and energy-aware optimized link state routing (EA-OLSR) is defined and used. Simulation results show interesting performances in terms of network lifetime with a gain of about 30% and data delivery about 20%.
    Keywords: Network of BANs; WBAN; Cooperation; Relay; OLSR; Routing; Energy Aware.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001913
  • ADiDA: Adaptive Differential Data Aggregation for Cluster Based Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Rabia Enam, Rehan Qureshi 
    Abstract: In dynamic cluster based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), clusters are formed dynamically and repeatedly to uniformly consume the energy of the nodes. It has been observed in large scale dynamic cluster based WSNs that the size of clusters vary significantly in terms of number of nodes. The data aggregation mechanisms used at the cluster heads do not adapt adequately to such variance in cluster sizes and incur considerable losses specially in clusters with large number of nodes. In this paper we propose a novel and an \emph{Adaptive Differential Data Aggregation} (ADiDA) method that can minimise the complexity of aggregating large amount of data into small sized data packets. The main feature of ADiDA is that in addition to reducing the cost of redundant data transfer in the network, it also optimally utilises the available space in a packet at each cluster head. We have analysed ADiDA on four different types of sensing environments with multiple types of data-values. The results have shown that ADiDA can reduce the payload size requirement to almost one-fourth of the non-compressed payload and the distortion percentage in the aggregated data decreases by 16\% to 41\% when compared with the summary based aggregation of data.
    Keywords: Cluster based WSN; Adaptive Data Aggregation; Spatial Correlation; Variable sized Clusters.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001914
  • MT-SECURER: Multi Factors Trust for Secure and Reliable Routing in MANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Zakir Ullah, Muhammad Hasan Islam, Adnan Ahmed Khan, Imran Shafi 
    Abstract: Routing, having a pivotal role in MANETs successful working, assumes nodes cooperation for its processes. However, this assumption of nodes cooperation makes routing vulnerable to various insider and outsider attackers. Therefore, enforcing nodes cooperation to secure routing from such attackers is stipulated as a challenging research issue in MANETs. In this paper a trust management scheme named MT-SECURER (Multi Factors Trust for SECUre and REliable Routing in MANETs) is proposed to make routing secure and reliable against insider attackers to launch greyhole and blackhole attacks. The proposed scheme develops trust using multiple factors, i.e., nodes cooperation from communication networks and nodes relationship maturity and mutual friends from social networks. These factors are acquired using observer nodes personal observations and neighbors recommendations. Furthermore, neighbors recommendations are passed through a dissimilarity factor based filter to remove false recommendations. As a test case, the proposed scheme is integrated in AODV routing protocol and extensive simulations are conducted to examine the effectiveness and competence of the proposed scheme in presence of insider attackers to launch blackhole and greyhole attacks. Experimental results show significant improvement in packet delivery ratio, throughput and normalized routing load with slightly increased average end-to-end delay when compared to contemporary schemes in presence of attacks asserted.
    Keywords: Attacks; MANETs; Routing; Trust; Trust Management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001915
  • An Energy-Efficient Point-Coverage-Aware Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Tri Gia Nguyen, Chakchai So-In 
    Abstract: Preserving coverage is one of the most essential functions to guarantee quality of service in wireless sensor networks. With this key constraint, the energy consumption of the sensors including their transmission behaviour is a challenging problem in term of how to efficiently use them while achieving good coverage performance. This research proposes a clustering protocol, point-coverage-aware (PCACP), based on point-coverage awareness with energy optimizations that focuses on a holistic view with respect to activation sensors, network clustering, and multi-hop communication, to improve energy efficiency, i.e., network lifetime extension while preserving coverage and maximizing the network coverage. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of PCACP, which strongly improves the performance. Given a diversity of deployments with scalability concerns, PCACP outperformed other competitive protocols i.e., LEACH, CPCP, EADC, and ECDC in terms of conserving energy, sensing point coverage ratios, and overall network lifetime.
    Keywords: coverage-aware; point coverage; sensor activation; clustering; energy-efficient; wireless sensor networks; WSNs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001976
  • An Optimal Algorithm for Small Group Multicast in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Weizhong Luo, Jianxin Wang, Zhaoquan Cai, Gang Peng, Jiong Guo, Shigeng Zhang 
    Abstract: We propose an optimal algorithm to construct a delay-bounded minimum energy routing tree for small group multicast in wireless sensor networks. Finding the minimum energy multicast tree with constrained delay in general case has been proved to be a NP-hard optimization problem. Existing works mainly focus on developing approximation or heuristic algorithms to find approximate solutions. We formally define the Min-power h-Multicast problem - to find a minimum energy multicast tree in which the path from the source to every destination node is less than h hops - and translate it into a minimum Steiner tree problem. We then develop a dynamic programming algorithm to get an optimal solution to the problem in O(3^k(n+m)h+2^k (n+m)^2h) time, where k is the size of the multicast group, n and m denote the numbers of vertices and edges of the graph characterizing the network, respectively. Simulation results show that, compared with existing heuristic or approximation algorithms, our algorithm saves energy consumption by factors between 19% and 42% with comparable running time for small group multicast.
    Keywords: Delay-bounded multicast; energy consumption optimization; fixed parameter tractable; NP-hard.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001916
  • Direction-Based Urban Broadcast Protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Gui-Sen Li, Xu-Hui Chen, Ke-Shou Wu, Ren Chen 
    Abstract: Multi hop broadcast for vehicular ad hoc networks in urban environments is a difficult task for the impact of the intersections. The forward of the next relay will face the problem that some branches of the intersection will not be covered in time. In this paper, we propose a novel broadcast protocol for urban environments. The proposed protocol considers the transmission direction of broadcasting message and the moving direction of forwarding vehicle for delivering the message over the intersection. It delivers the message to all road directions at the intersection by an efficient and fast way. Using the direction information, an agent vehicle mode also has been proposed to cope with the disconnected problem. Performance evaluation results show that the proposed protocol improves the reachability and speeds up the broadcast process.
    Keywords: VANET; urban broadcast; intersection; transmission direction; moving direction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001978
  • Modelling and Mitigating Spectrum Sensing Non-cooperation Attack in Cognitive Radio Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Roshni Rajkumari, Ningrinla Marchang 
    Abstract: Collaborative spectrum sensing (CSS) is known to improve spectrum sensing performance in Cognitive Radio Network. In CSS, secondary users participate by sharing their local sensing results. They participate in the sensing process at their own cost, i.e., they expend some amount of energy and time for sensing and sharing. But, a selfish user may refrain from collaborating in the spectrum sensing process in order to save up energy, which results in improper sensing. While this problem is widely known, we call this as the spectrum sensing non-cooperation (SSNC) attack for easy reference. In this paper, a collective action prisoners dilemma game is used to model the SSNC attack. To handle this attack, repeated game punishment mechanisms, namely Tit-for-Tat and Grim strategies are used. In addition, modified Tit-for-Tat and modified Grim strategies are proposed to handle this attack in the presence of reporting channel error.
    Keywords: Cognitive radio network; collaborative spectrum sensing; spectrum sensing; non-cooperation attack; game theory; fusion rules.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001917
  • Enhanced Identity Privacy in UMTS   Order a copy of this article
    by Hiten Choudhury, Basav Roychoudhury, Dilip Kr. Saikia 
    Abstract: Identity privacy in mobile networks has been an active and exciting research area for quite some time. Earlier, researchers were focused on protecting the subscriber's identity over the radio access link between the mobile device and the visited serving network. Whereas now, they are considering the need for protecting the identity from the serving network itself, due to the security and flexibility that it promises to bring into roaming situations. Towards this, numerous protocols have been proposed for mobile networks in general. In UMTS, one of the most popular and widely deployed mobile networks across the globe, the status of identity privacy is no different. However, a surprising fact is that not much research, that tries to protect the subscriber's identity from the serving network, has been conducted with regards to UMTS in specific. Even recent works in this area seems to ignore this important security aspect. In this paper, we make an effort to fill in this gap by proposing an identity privacy ensuring extension that can be easily adapted in UMTS, without disturbing the current protocol flow. We also establish the security, robustness and correctness of this extension through statistical, security and formal analysis.
    Keywords: UMTS; Identity Privacy; Identity Confidentiality; Anonymity; Security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001918
  • A new hybrid routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Slaheddine Chelbi, Habib Dhahri, Majed Abdouli, Claude Duvallet, Rafik Bouaziz 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) differ from traditional wireless communication networks in several characteristics. One of these characteristics is power awareness, due to the fact that the batteries of sensor nodes have a restricted lifetime and are difficult to be replaced. In order to save the overall energy of the system and to fairly balance the load among nodes, we propose a New Hybrid Routing Protocol, called NHRP, which incorporates two modules: (1) a scheduling mechanism, called Advanced Energy efficient Coverage Control Algorithm (AECCA), based on binary particle swarm optimization (PSO). This approach aims to activate only the necessary number of sensor nodes while preserving full coverage. (2) A cluster based protocol using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) method named Advanced FCM (AFCM). Several works prove that FCM algorithms assists to optimize the clusters based on minimizing the distance between the sensor node and the cluster centre. Yet, in cluster based approach, the cluster head is usually selected amongst the sensor nodes which can die quickly for this extra workload. To mitigate this problem, the second module is based on the use of some special and mobile nodes with controllable trajectories which acts as gateways.\\\\ \r\nFirst, AECCA and AFCM results are compared to ECCA and FCM, respectively. We prove that AECCA and AFCM give better performance than ECCA and FCM respectively in prolonging network lifetime. Second, simulation results show that our new hybrid routing protocol improves the fairness energy consumption among all sensor nodes and achieves an obvious improvement on the network lifetime.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Energy Saving; particle swarm optimization; Fuzzy C-Means; mobile nodes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001982
  • A Dynamic Trust Evolution Model for MANETs based on Mobility   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijender Busi Reddy, Venkataraman S, Atul Negi 
    Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are said to be open, anonymous, dynamic and mobile in nature which makes them vulnerable to several types of attacks. Mobility of a node is a source of vulnerability and raises challenges in setup and maintenance of secure and reliable communication. Present literature does not seem to adequately address these concerns. We propose here a trust computation model that enables a node in a network to assess confidence in its immediate and extended neighbourhood. We derive a trust parameter called as Mobility Factor to assess a nodes mobility without using any extra hardware. Our model improves upon existing schemes when assessing trustworthy behaviour. The effects of mobility are included as an integral parameter in the total trust evaluation. The improved trust assessment allows identification of capricious behaviour of a node using the concept of trust flutter. A formal proof presented here supports the adequacy of the proposed approach. ns-2 simulations with mobility and malicious nodes show better performance of proposed approach as compared to recent work (TSR [1]). Improved resilience against packet-dropping/modification attack and on-off attacks was observed.
    Keywords: Ad-hoc; Trust; Mobility; MANETs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001919
  • An Efficient Mobile Grid Scheme for Service Tracking in VANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Chyi-Ren Dow, Yu-Hong Lee, Shiow-Fen Hwang 
    Abstract: The majority of modern vehicles are equipped with various sensors to enhance the driving experience. With these sensors, a vehicles can be considered as an integrated sensor system that can sense data in intelligent transportation systems. However, compared with legacy networks, information cannot be easily exchanged through a vehicular ad hoc network. Intelligent transportation systems deployed on a vehicular ad hoc network are usually highly distributed and depend on metadata exchanging, data sharing, and service tracking mechanisms. This study focused on the mobile grid scheme and service tracking protocol. In the conventional scheme, the geo grid scheme is used to divide a map into grids. Each grid elects its grid leader to manage the information of the grid. However, the initial design has a fixed grid size and therefore network maintenance may be expensive. We designed the mobile grid sequence scheme as follows. Mobile grid structures use the characteristic of group mobility to increase grid structure flexibility and reduce maintenance costs. In a mobile environment, the location of a service provider is not fixed. When the service provider moves to another location of the road, users may need to re-perform the discovery process. The tracking protocol is used to manage the service footprint information and continuously track the target service. Indicators manage the footprint of the service providers in their branches. Users can simply rely on the footprint information to locate target services. According to the experimental results, the mobile grid sequences effectively extended the service time and information was reliably shared in the mobile grid sequences. Our service tracking scheme is more efficient than other schemes in terms of success rate and service tracking time.
    Keywords: Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks; Mobile Grid; Service Tracking.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001948
  • Routing Problems for Vehicle Ad-Hoc Networks using the Virtual Message Ferry Routing Scheme   Order a copy of this article
    by Chu-Fu Wang, Yang-Chih Chiu 
    Abstract: The communication links between vehicles in Vehicle Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) suffer from the intermittent connection problem due to node mobility, and consequently the routing design is very challenging. The virtual message ferry routing scheme is one of the efficient approaches for aiding the routing decisions in VANETs to cope with the routing problem. The role of the Virtual Message Ferry (VMF) can be played by any vehicle on the road, and the current VMF role-playing vehicle will be switched to another vehicle when it drives away from the preplanned VMF trajectory. The considered VMF routing scheme will not alter the driving behavior of any chosen vehicle, which includes its driving speed, the original relocating plan, etc. This paper considers routing problems in the VMF backbone network that are formed by trajectories of multiple VMFs. A network optimization problem formulation and transformation are given. Heuristic algorithms to find near optimal solutions are also proposed.
    Keywords: VANET; routing; multiple virtual message ferry; backbone network; intermittent connected routing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001983
  • An Efficient Fine-grained Access Control Scheme for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Santanu Chatterjee, Sandip Roy 
    Abstract: Fine-grained access control is used to assign unique access privilege to a particular user for accessing the real-time and mission critical data directly from the nodes inside wireless sensor network (WSN) and protecting sensitive sensor information from unauthorized access in WSN. In this paper, we propose a new fine-grained access control scheme based on Key policy attribute-based encryption (KP-ABE) suitable for hierarchical wireless sensor networks. The strengths of the proposed protocol are that it provides fine-grained access control with authentication and achieves some good properties such as efficient user revocation and new node deployment at any time without incurring large overheads. Our proposed scheme takes significantly low computational, communication, storage and energy cost compared to other related fine-grained access control schemes. In addition, the proposed scheme provides unconditional security against privileged-insider key abuse attack, node capture attack, forward and backward secrecy and also prevents other attacks such as denial-of-service attack, replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack. We also simulate this proposed scheme for formal security verification using the widely-accepted Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. Using the AVISPA model checkers, we show that our scheme is secure against possible passive and active attacks.
    Keywords: Attribute-based encryption; Fine-grained access control; Bilinear maps; Hierarchical WSNs; AVISPA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001987
  • Joint Time Synchronization and Localization of Multiple Source Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Yan Changhong 
    Abstract: In an asynchronous network, the local clock of sensor node has clock drift with respect to the real clock for imperfectrnhardware. So time synchronization and localization shouldrnbe jointly conducted for time-based source location estimates. Inrnthis paper semidefinite programming (SDP), complexity-reducedrnSDP and linear least square (LLS) estimator are proposed forrntime synchronization and localization of multiple source nodes.rnThe proposed algorithms provide joint estimates for the sourcernlocations and clock parameters and avoid the shortcoming ofrnmaximum likelihood (ML) estimator which requires an initialrnsolution. Then a location refinement (LR) technique is introducedrnto refine the estimated parameters for the estimators.rnThe simulations show that the original SDP algorithm providesrnbetter accuracy performance than the complexity-reduced SDP.rnHowever the complexity-reduced SDP runs faster than SDP.rnAlthough the complexity of LLS estimator is lowest amongrnthree proposed algorithms, the convex optimization algorithmsrnincluding the original SDP and complexity-reduced SDP havernmore robust performance compared with the LLS estimator.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; localization; time synchronization; convex optimization; semidefinite programming.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001988
  • Cloud-based Mobile Service Provisioning For System Performance Optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by ChunLin Li, Jing Zhang 
    Abstract: Currently, the mobile applications require intensive computational resources, particularly CPUs, RAMs, storage, and battery to successfully complete the expected computing operation. Although distant clouds feature high availability and elastic scalability, and performance gain of utilizing such resources is decreased by high communication latency due to large number of intermediate hops between the mobile device and the distant public clouds. Therefore, local cloud is suitable choice for some mobile devices. In this paper, hybrid cloud-assisted mobile service optimization model is proposed to tackle limited resources of mobile devices and enhance the overall system performance. The aim of hybrid cloud-assisted mobile service optimization is that mobile cloud system utility is optimized while satisfying huge number of mobile requests and improving individual user's QoS and reducing system overheads. The hybrid cloud-assisted mobile service scheduling algorithm enables mobile applications conducted on mobile devices to complete all tasks by leveraging computing resources of public cloud and local cloud. The proposed algorithm is validated through a series of experiments.
    Keywords: cloud-assisted; mobile service optimization; context awareness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001991
  • Congestion Control and Fairness with Dynamic Priority for Ad hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Tapas Mishra, Sachin Tripathi 
    Abstract: Ad hoc sensor network is a compilation of ad hoc nodes with sensing capability. Recently, the network structure has changed rapidly in modern applications and has imposed priority for heterogeneous applications. In some scenarios, the priorities of the flows need to change in the middle of the communication. However, the major problem is that the packets of different applications are not served at the destination by their expected priority ratio even if the priority does not change. Considering the above problem, this paper presents a fair packet scheduling policy which collects information from each individual flow according to its priority and auto-updates the priorities of flows when required. Moreover, a hybrid congestion control technique based on queue occupancy and channel utilization is framed to control congestion. The presented work focuses on the prioritized packet scheduling policy with the help of multiple queues, whose lengths are determined with the help of priority of each application. The proposed model has been simulated using NS2 for two applications, where each application carries multiple flows. The simulation result shows, the internal buffer is occupied by their respective packets and transmitted according to their priority ratio. Moreover, it reduces overall packet loss which leads to serve more packets at destination than the existing fairness protocols and the packet service rate reflects instantly soon after the priority changes.
    Keywords: Active queue monitoring; Ad hoc networks; Fair queuing; Packet scheduling; Congestion control; Transmission control protocol.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001992
  • UAVs Assisted Queue Scheduling in Ground Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Sharma, Rajesh Kumar 
    Abstract: Hybrid networks provide a vast range of applications in areas of military and civilian activities. A combined operation of two or more networks can provide reliable connectivity and guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to end users. One of the examples of hybrid network formations is Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) assisted ground ad hoc networks. These networks comprise of two variedly operating network units comprising of aerial and ground nodes. Efficient coordination between these networks can resolve complex issues such as coverage, proper connectivity, scalability, and QoS. However, reliable data transmission with enhanced QoS is one of the key challenges in these type of hybrid ad hoc formations. Efficient QoS provisioning provides transmission at higher data rate, low jitters, and enhanced connectivity. Considering this as a problem, an efficient queue scheduling approach is proposed that allows improved QoS to end users. The proposed queue scheduling approach is developed in two parts. The first part utilizes the Quaternion based Kalman Filter to find the appropriate locations for placement of each UAV. This allows proper connectivity between the ground nodes and the UAVs using a scheduling cost function. In the second part, Satisfied Importance Analysis (SIA) is used to find the governing rules for the selection of appropriate queue to be transmitted. The proposed approach allows enhanced connectivity between ground nodes and UAVs that act as aerial relays. Enhanced connectivity and efficient transmission are attained using the proposed approach. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated using simulations.
    Keywords: UAVs; Positioning; Quality of Service; Delays; Throughput.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001993
  • Rendezvous in Cognitive Radio Ad hoc Networks: A Survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Aishwarya Ukey, Meenu Chawla 
    Abstract: Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) in conjunction with dynamic spectrum access cope with spectrum scarcity and underutilization problem through the opportunistic sharing of spectrum, and provide dynamic access to the free portions of spectrum allotted to licensed users. The functionality of CRN relies on the cognitive capability and reconfigurability of cognitive radios (CRs) that enable secondary users (SUs) to sense and figure out unused spectrum and allow dynamic access between different spectrum bands. Fundamental process in the formation of CRN is the neighbor discovery process, also referred as the rendezvous of SUs where SUs meet on commonly available channels and establish communication links for information exchange, spectrum management, and data communication. Rendezvous on a common channel is non-trivial as SUs do not have any network related information and are unaware of the presence of other SUs before the rendezvous. Also, due to the dynamics in licensed users activity and diversities in the temporal and geographical location of SUs, free available channels sensed by SUs usually differs. Thus, it is quite difficult to figure out a channel commonly available to all SUs. Absence of central authority, multi-hop architecture and mobility of nodes further complicates the rendezvous process. This paper focuses on the taxonomy and challenges relevant to rendezvous phenomena of SUs and provides a brief overview and comparative qualitative analysis of state-of-art rendezvous algorithms designed for cognitive radio networks.
    Keywords: CRN; cognitive radio network; ad hoc network; neighbor discovery; rendezvous phenomena; survey of rendezvous algorithm; synchronous and asynchronous rendezvous algorithm; channel hopping; rendezvous algorithm taxonomy and challenges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10002293
  • A Service Oriented Adaptive Trust Evaluation Model for Ubiquitous Computing Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Jagadamba Gurappa 
    Abstract: The increased participation of various devices and networks in the Ubiquitous Computing Environment exposed a bigger challenge in running the high-end cryptographic algorithms with larger key sizes when resources are varying by time. These cryptographic algorithms make the application highly platform dependent, susceptible to confidentiality attacks and unreliable services for the applications. The involvement of heterogeneous system, devices, and context-awareness raises a significance of trust and trust evaluation in the computing environment. Thus, the trust evaluation based on the context and service requirements can be adapted to decide the applicable level of services and the corresponding security. Hence, this paper presents a service-oriented adaptive trust evaluation model in the ubiquitous network according to the security requirement of the services. The proposed trust evaluation model computes direct trust based on various interaction properties and recommendation trust by filtering the dishonest recommenders on the time context. A fine tuning of trust is done by evaluating the adaptive trust base on the service request made by an entity. A balanced blending of direct and recommendation trust are done with trust weights to make them relevant to current application scenarios. The results are compared with some of the available schemes and found to be a consistently good in performance for the todays ubiquitous network.
    Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing Environment; Service-oriented; Context-aware; Trust; Direct trust; Recommendation trust; Adaptive trust; Adaptive security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10002303
  • High performance target tracking scheme with low prediction precision requirement in WSNs   Order a copy of this article
    by Anfeng Liu, Shaona Zhao 
    Abstract: Tracking mobile target is one of the most important applications in wireless sensor networks for surveillance system. Researchers heavily believe that: selecting proactive nodes in the region where the target may arrive in the next moment can obtain good performances in terms of energy efficiency, tracking probability and tracking precision. However, it is a great challenge that how to predict the movement of a mobile target accurately. This paper proposed a high-performance tracking scheme with a low requirement of prediction accuracy (low prediction precision requirement target tracking, LPPT), which can work with a pre-existing target prediction algorithm. In LPPT scheme, the residual energy is employed to select more proactive nodes in the non-hotspots area, while less proactive nodes are selected in the hotspots area. Both theoretical and numerical simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly improved the probability of target detection and energy efficiency, decreased the detection delay, meanwhile guaranteed the network lifetime.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; target prediction; sleep scheduling; network lifetime; energy efficient.

  • A Cross-Layer Interference and Delay-aware Routing Metric for Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Narayan D G, Uma Mudenagudi 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer interference and delay aware routing metric for multi-radio infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). WMNs are an emerging technology and are used as a backbone networks to connect various types of networks to the Internet. These networks use Multi-Channel Multiple Radio (MCMR) capabilities of mesh routers to achieve high performance. However, the MCMR nodes introduce inter-flow and intra-flow interference in the multi-hop mesh networks and can degrade QoS. Thus the design of routing protocols combined with routing metrics to improve the QoS has become an important research issue. Towards this, several cross-layer routing metrics have been proposed by considering types of interferences and other link quality parameters. However, most of these metrics have their own disadvantages and lack the analytical model in their design. To address this, we analytically derive our routing metric by using 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) basic access mechanism. Using this model, we design and implement a routing metric called Cross-layer Interference and Delay Aware (CL-IDA) by estimating delay, inter-flow and intra-flow interference. We implement this metric in well known routing protocol Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) using NS2. The results reveal that proposed routing metric performs better in terms of throughput, average end-to-end delay, routing overhead and route stability compared to well known routing metrics.
    Keywords: Wireless mesh networks; Multi-radio; Routing metrics; Cross-layer; CL-IDA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10002304
  • History Based Multi-Node Collaborative Localization in Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Wenyuan Chen, Songtao Guo, Fei Wang 
    Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in the study of localization algorithm for wireless ad hoc networks. In most localization algorithms, increasing the density of anchor nodes is one of the main strategies to improve the localization accuracy in dense networks. In this paper, based on the number of reference nodes, we propose a distributed localization algorithm, i.e., history based multi-node collaborative localization algorithm (HMCL), which provides a potential approach for localization in sparse ad hoc wireless networks. In the proposed HMCL algorithm, we exploit a new motion model to filter the imprecise estimation values based on the historical position information of nodes, which can improve the localization accuracy and reduce the computation overhead and energy consumption. Moreover, we utilize different strategies to achieve the localization of nodes with different priorities measured by the distance information between neighbor nodes.We verify through experiment that the proposed algorithm provides better performance in terms of localization precision and energy consumption. Besides, we also analyze the effect of the number of neighbor nodes, node density and moving speed of nodes on localization precision.
    Keywords: Wireless ad hoc networks; Collaborative Localization; Historical constraints; Neighbor information.

  • A Low Complexity DWT module and CRS Minimal Instruction Set Computer Architecture for Wireless Visual Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jia Jan Ong, Li-Minn Ang 
    Abstract: Transmitting cost, processing complexity and data security are three important elements in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). This paper presents a complete low complexity processing system that performs data compression, data correction and data encryption. In this system, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) first decomposes the original image into DWT coefficients to ensure low transmitting cost, then the coefficients are encrypted using the Cauchy Reed Solomon CRS(20,16) coding scheme to ensure data security. A CRS Minimal Instruction Set Computer architecture with a DWT filtering module is proposed to perform the compression, encryption and error correction encoding in a low complexity processing system. The proposed system is then implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system for implementation in WVSNs. Results on a Xilinx Spartan FPGA show that the proposed system requires a lower implementation complexity of 2536 slices as compared to other existing systems such as Crypto-Processor (4828 slices) and SPIHT CRS MISC (5017 slices)
    Keywords: Wireless Visual Sensor Networks; Discrete Wavelet Transform; Cauchy Reed Solomon; Minimal Instruction Set Computer.

  • TLS: Traffic Load Based Scheduling Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Prasan Kumar Sahoo, Hiren Kumar Thakkar 
    Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), nodes are usually deployed over the monitoring region randomly and densely and are supposed tornmonitor the region for longer duration. These sensors are normally powered by battery and therefore it is essential to regulate the power utilization of the nodes efficiently. Although most of the current protocols reduce the power utilization by regulating the sleep and wake up schedules, they fail to make an adaptive sleep or wake up schedule for the nodes based on their traffic load. This article proposes a traffic load based adaptive node scheduling protocol to determine the active and sleep schedules of the nodes. The entire network is partitioned into set of virtual zones and a routing path selection algorithm is proposed considering the residual power of the next hop nodes. Simulation results show that the energy consumption and packet overhead of our protocol are considerably less as compared to similar quorum-based medium access control (MAC) protocols.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; MAC protocol; scheduling.

  • EFF-FAS: Enhanced Fruit Fly Optimization Based Search and Tracking By Flying Ad Hoc Swarm   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Sharma, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy, Kathiravan Srinivasan, Rajesh Kumar 
    Abstract: Flying an ad hoc swarm configuration refers to a network formed by autonomously operated robots. These robots can be simple aerial nodes or specifically configured Unmanned Aircraft (UA). The network formation between the aerial nodes allows for realizing a number of civil and military applications. Such networks are autonomous, temporary, and mission dependent, and are configured based on the specifications of the mission and safety-critical tasks. One of the major applications of these ad hoc swarm formations is the efficient search and tracking of an area without any redundancy and overlapping. Non-redundant cell tracking is a computationally expensive task, which requires optimization strategies to be adopted during a search process. Incorporating Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm (FOA) to a strategic search and track operation simplifies the complexity of the overall system. In the proposed approach, FOA is extended in terms of its applicability by modifying the procedure and features of the algorithm to allow its applicability to an aerial swarm for performing a non-redundant search over a predefined area with lower complexity. Modeling and simulation activities presented demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach towards search and track operations.
    Keywords: Ad Hoc Swarm; Searching; Tracking; Fruit Fly Optimization.

  • Friend Circle Identification in Ego Network based on Hybrid Method   Order a copy of this article
    by Ma TingHuai, Fan Xing, Meili Tang, Donghai Guan 
    Abstract: The ego network, which is a network of a user with his/her friends, is large-scale and tanglesome, and nowadays it is imperative to find a suitable method to automatically administrate it. The social network analysis method has provided some methods to help users classify their friends, including manually categorizing friends into social circles or system classification. Whereas, categorizing friends manually is time consuming for users and the results are not accurate enough. In this paper, we will discuss how to realize community identification automatically and accurately. To achieve this, we propose a method which utilizes not only the similarity of user attributes but also the features of network structure and friends contact frequency. On the basis of the users' profile, we identify the relationship between them firstly. Second, we solve the problem of community identification using of the structure features while profiles losing. Third, we introduce a concept, contact frequency, which will help us identify the relationship between users and their friends more accurately. Extensive experiments on real-world data show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art technique, in terms of balance error rate and F1 score.
    Keywords: ego networks; communities; user attribute; network structure; contact frequency.

  • Delay-Tolerant Forwarding Strategy for Named Data Networking in Vehicular Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Meng Kuai, Xiaoyan Hong, Qiangyuan Yu 
    Abstract: Named Data Networking (NDN) has been considered as a promising networking architecture for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). However, Interest forwarding in NDN suffers severe issues in vehicular environment. Broadcast storms result in much packet loss and huge transmission overhead. Also, link disconnection caused by highly dynamic topology leads to low packet delivery ratio and extreme long delay in data retrieval. Thus, an efficient NDN forwarding strategy to retrieve data is urgently required. In this paper, we propose the Density-Aware Delay-Tolerant (DADT) Interest forwarding strategy to retrieve traffic data in vehicular NDN. DADT specifically addresses data retrieval during network disruptions using Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN). It makes retransmission decisions based on directional network density. Also, DADT mitigates broadcast storms by using a rebroadcast deferring timer. We compared DADT against other strategies through simulation and the results show that it can achieve a higher satisfaction ratio while maintaining low transmission overhead.
    Keywords: Density-Aware; Delay-Tolerant; Interest Forwarding; Named Data Networking; Vehicular Networks.

  • Link-Preserving Channel Assignment Game for Wireless Mesh Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Li-Hsing Yen, Bo-Rong Ye 
    Abstract: To deliver user traffic in a wireless mesh network, mesh stations equipped with multiple interfaces communicate with one another utilizing multiple orthogonal channels. Channel assignment is to assign one channel to each interface to minimize co-channel interference among wireless links while preserving link connectivity. The interference and connectivity objectives are generally conflicting. This paper first analyzes the probability of link connectivity when channels are randomly assigned to interfaces. We then propose a game-theoretic approach that jointly considers the two objectives with a unified payoff function. We prove that the proposed approach is an exact potential game, which guarantees stability in a finite time. We also prove the link-preserving property of the approach. Simulation results show that the proposed approach generally outperforms counterparts in terms of network interference when a moderate number of channels are available. For fairness of link interference, both the proposed approach and its variant outperform the counterparts.
    Keywords: channel assignment; wireless mesh network; interference; connectivity; game theory.

  • Saturation throughput analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF with heterogeneous node transmit powers and capture effect   Order a copy of this article
    by Lei Lei, Ting Zhang, Liang Zhou, Xiaoqin Song, Shengsuo Cai 
    Abstract: The transmit power control schemes allow the wireless nodes to select a minimum required transmit power from all available power levels to access the medium. In this paper, we focus on analysing the saturation throughput performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF networks with heterogeneous node transmit power levels and the capture effect. We first analyse the capture effect among packets sent at different power levels and derive the analytical expression of the capture probability. Then, we propose a three-dimensional Markov chain to model the backoff procedure performed by a tagged sending node under the condition of heterogeneous transmit power levels, and compute the total saturation throughput of the network with the previously derived capture probability. Finally, we validate the accuracy of our model by comparing the analytical results with the simulation results, and analyse the impact of the capture effect on the saturation throughput performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF networks.
    Keywords: IEEE 802.11 DCF networks; heterogeneous power levels; capture effects; saturation throughput; Markov chain.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001738
  • An M2M gateway-centric architecture for autonomic healing and optimising of machine-to-machine overlay networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Amine Dhraief, Abdelfettah Belghith, Hassan Mathkour, Khalil Drira 
    Abstract: The machine-to-machine (M2M) technology, is expected to be one of the most promising revenue-generating services. However, to ensure the wide spread of this technology, M2M communications should be secure, fault-tolerant and self-managed. In this work, we add to the M2M gateway the self-healing and self-optimising autonomic capabilities. We couple at the M2M gateway level the host identity protocol (HIP) with the reachability protocol (REAP). REAP enables a selfhealed M2M communication as it detects possible failures and rehomes an M2M session to a new overlay path. We modify REAP to ensure self-optimised M2M communications. REAP continuously monitors M2M overlay paths and always selects the best available ones. We implement our solution on the OMNeT++ simulator. Results show that M2M sessions effectively resume after an outage. Results also highlight that M2M sessions autonomically select the best available M2M overlay paths.
    Keywords: M2M; machine-to-machine; M2M gateway; overlay network; autonomic management; HIP; host identity protocal; REAP; reachability protocol; OMNeT++.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001739
  • An ubiquitous solution for advertising and loyalty purposes using NFC technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Gonzalo Cerruela García, Irene Luque Ruiz, Miguel Ángel Gómez-Nieto 
    Abstract: In this paper, we present an application based on near field communication (NFC) technology and oriented to advertising and user loyalty fields. The system combines NFC and in-air hand gestures with the purpose of creating an attractive leisure activity where customers are rewarded by shops with the possibility of obtaining a prize or discount on the purchases made. NFC is used for securing the participation of the user in the activity and for exchanging the prizes obtained. During the activity, users perform a fishing gesture (throwing and catching) with the mobile phone, simulating the capture of a prize that could be located anywhere in the shop. This gesture is recognised by mobile sensors. The tailoring of the system to specific business marketing strategies is also managed by the proposed solution.
    Keywords: NFC; near field communication; air-hand gestures; advertising; loyalty.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001740
  • A trustworthy web service composition method for ubiquitous computing   Order a copy of this article
    by Shenghui Zhao, Guilin Chen, Huibin Wang, Haibao Chen 
    Abstract: Mobile users using smart mobile device have a considerable amount of requirements of services from mobile cloud or internet, due to its resource scarcity. It is a big challenge to select the services meeting users' all demands, as the user has both the demands of trust and lower cost. The existing methods (Hang and Singh, 2011; Wu et al., 2014) of trustworthy service composition cannot balance the profits between the service provider and consumer in mobile situation. First, we design a heuristic algorithm, called feasible allocation set generation (FASG), to reduce the complexity of generating feasible allocation sets. Second, to balance the profits between service providers and consumers, a service composition method, based on the social surplus maximisation, is put forward and the corresponding heuristic algorithm, called RCA_H, is also designed to find the optimal feasible solution in polynomial time. Experiment results show that the proposed RCA_H algorithm guarantees the profits of both sides, and obtains more trusted service and better facilitates service providers to provide trustworthy services to meet users' customised needs compared with another method (Oh et al., 2008) based on user utility maximisation.
    Keywords: ubiquitous computing; service composition; social surplus maximisation; heuristic algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001741
  • Efficient data collection for self-organising traffic signal systems based on vehicular sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Bartłomiej Płaczek 
    Abstract: The development of traffic signal systems based on vehicular sensor networks (VSNs) requires new methods to enable real-time collection and processing of the data registered by sensor-equipped vehicles. Owing to the large amounts of sensor readings, there is a necessity of selecting the data that have to be transferred to control nodes. Moreover, the control nodes need an appropriate algorithm to effectively utilise the information which is delivered from individual vehicles. This paper presents an approach, which enables efficient collection and utilisation of the detailed data from VSN for controlling traffic signals in a road network. A self-organising control strategy is used in the analysed system. The amount of transmitted data is reduced by taking into account uncertainties estimated at control nodes. Results of simulation experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of data transfers and average vehicle delay.
    Keywords: VSNs; vehicular sensor networks; vehicular ad hoc networks; traffic signal control; data collection; self-organising systems; traffic model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001742
  • Supporting energy efficient broadcast with unreliable links for wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Chih-Min Chao, Chao-Ying Huang 
    Abstract: Broadcast is an essential network operation. Designing an energy efficient broadcast becomes an important issue in a wireless sensor network (WSN) because sensor nodes are battery powered. In a low-duty-cycled WSN with unreliable links, the broadcast problem is challenging because 1) nodes may not be active simultaneously and 2) a transmission may fail to reach all the active nodes. In this paper, we define the least energy consumption broadcast problem, prove it to be NP-hard, and propose a Least-Wake-up-First broadcast scheme (LWF). By reducing the number of forwarders and the number of transmissions, LWF greatly reduces energy consumption while achieving broadcasting. Simulation results verify that LWF improves energy efficiency in duty-cycled WSNs.
    Keywords: WSN; wireless sensor network; energy efficient; duty cycle; broadcast.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10005523
  • Improving transmission delay with sink location in low-duty-cycle wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Yu-Yuan Lin, Kuo-Feng Ssu 
    Abstract: A low-duty-cycle approach can significantly reduce the energy consumption in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Sensors stay dormant most of the time and wake up only when performing tasks. However, such a technique, while prolonging the network lifetime, sets excessive challenges for reducing the transmission delay. The dissemination at different locations of the sink node results in various E2E delays because of the different transmission sequences corresponding to the working schedules of relay nodes. Thus, determining a suitable location for the sink node can efficiently improve the E2E delay. In this paper, a geographic cluster-based sink location determining (GCSLD) algorithm is introduced to reduce the transmission latency in low-duty-cycle WSNs by searching for an appropriate location for the sink node. The GCSLD algorithm is implemented and evaluated successfully. The simulation results confirm that the GCSLD determines suitable locations with lower execution overhead.
    Keywords: duty cycle; latency; end-to-end delay; transmission delay; sink; WSNs; wireless sensor networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10005520
  • Hybrid communication for energy-efficient data aggregation in wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Gopikrishnan, P. Priakanth 
    Abstract: Energy-efficient data aggregation is a critical issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) given that sensor nodes are battery-powered and deployed in remote environments. This work explores the reduction in total energy consumption of WSNs using two-hop data aggregation by constructing an energy-efficient data aggregation tree. An adaptive and hybrid routing algorithm for simultaneous data aggregation and exploitation of the data correlation between nodes using a binary search tree framework is proposed. Routes are chosen to minimise the total energy expended by the network based on the shortest response time to the broadcasting request. In this work, a highly secure asymmetric key cryptography algorithm is developed to provide secure data aggregation among the network. The proposed data aggregation approach is used to resolve the relevant energy, delay, collision and security issues. Simulation results show that data aggregation based on the hybrid tree can appreciably reduce the total energy consumption and resolve maximum data aggregation issues in WSNs.
    Keywords: collision; data aggregation; delay; energy efficiency; security; WSN; wireless sensor network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10005518
  • Routing-Gi: routing technique to enhance energy efficiency in WSNs   Order a copy of this article
    by Hassan El Alami, Abdellah Najid 
    Abstract: Wireless sensors networks (WSNs) are realised as one of the most promising networking types that bridge the gap between the cyber and the things. Designing of routing protocols for WSNs is a challenging issue since sensors are mostly limited in energy and data processing. In this paper, we present a new routing technique for hierarchical routing protocols to enhance energy efficiency in WSNs, namely Routing-Gi. This technique divides network area into the inner grid and clustered grids. In an inner grid, the nodes transmit directly data to the base station (BS), whereas, in clustered grid, the nodes are organised into micro-grids and thus each node transmits data to the BS through it respective cluster head. in this case, the micro-grids help to avoid unbalanced energy consumption in WSNs. Thus, the workload is evenly distributed on nodes causing the efficient energy of network to enhance. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of our technique.
    Keywords: WSN; wireless sensor networks; hierarchical routing protocols; network lifetime; cluster head; residual energy; energy efficiency.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10005521
  • Energy balance movement schemes for maximising network lifetime in WSRNs   Order a copy of this article
    by Chao-Tsun Chang, Chin-Hwa Kuo, Chih-Yao Hsiao 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor and robot network (WSRN) is composed of a set of sensors and robots. The mobility of robots has been proved to be quite useful in prolonging the network lifetime. However, mobility is the major energy consumption of robot. Thus, the mobility of robots requires intelligent control in order to efficiently complete appointed tasks. Compared with lightweight sensors, using robots to transmit heavy data (such as audio or video data) is more appropriate. Therefore, a communication path, which is composed of robots between the base station (BS) and the event point, should be maintained. In this paper, three movement schemes called greedy back-up (GB), stretched back-up path (SBP) and back-up path regression (BPR) approaches, are proposed, aiming to construct the data delivery path while maximising the network lifetime. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes outperform the compared MH-MDRM-CP approach in terms of network lifetime and moving distance.
    Keywords: energy balance; network lifetime; WSNs; wireless sensor networks; WSRNs; wireless sensor and robot networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10005519
  • Towards a pervasive information system for patient triage and referral in emergency departments   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelhadi Bouain, Abdelaziz El Fazziki, Mohammed Sadgal, Mohamed Nezar Abourraja 
    Abstract: Every day, many people come to emergency departments; the orientation and placement of these patients in a waiting list according to the seriousness of their health conditions is an important task that requires a lot of skilled human resources and time. In addition, some people abuse the system by seeking care for minor problems, which significantly increases the emergency department overcrowding. To facilitate and accelerate the process of triage and referral in emergency departments, we propose to create a pervasive environment with a set of sensors. The information system (IS) of this space must exactly determine the patient's state of health and whether he or she must be presented urgently to a specialist, or may be queued according to a given order of priorities; in some cases, he or she must be referred to specialised emergency (maternity, psychiatry, cardiology, etc.). In this document, we present the architecture, implementation and simulation of our system for triage and referral in emergency departments.
    Keywords: pervasive computing; context information; health sensors; triage and referral; emergency department; pervasive healthcare.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10005522