Forthcoming articles


International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing


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International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing (80 papers in press)


Regular Issues


  • Enhancing Lifetime of IPv6-based Wireless Sensor Networks with Addresses Coding   Order a copy of this article
    by Leila Ben Saad, Bernard Tourancheau 
    Abstract: Due to the scarce energy resources of sensor nodes, wireless sensor networks need strategies to optimize the energy consumption of sensors to extend the network lifetime. However, improving the lifetime of wireless sensor networks remains a very challenging problem. Since a sensor device spends most of its energy in transmitting packets, it is important to shorten the length of these packets through data compression. Nevertheless, compression deals only with data while address compression is not considered. In this work, Slepian-Wolf source coding and address allocation are used jointly to reduce the size of the emitted addresses and improve the network lifetime. The proposed approach was studied in both cluster-based and multi-hop networks. In cluster-based networks, the proposed solution was formulated as an optimization problem that maximizes lifetime of network composed of line-powered and battery-powered sensors. The placement of line- powered sensors is optimized to enable the battery-powered ones to exploit the addresses correlation and reduce the size of their emitted packets and thus improve the network lifetime. The simulation results show that a significant network lifetime improvement can be achieved by using this solution in both cluster-based and multi-hop networks.
    Keywords: Network lifetime; address correlation; Slepian-wolf coding; Wireless sensor networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001790
  • Applications Nature Aware Virtual Machine Provisioning in Cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by Raghavendra Achar, P. Santhi Thilagam 
    Abstract: Rapid growth of internet technologies and virtualization has made cloud as a new IT delivery mechanism, which is gaining popularity from both industry and academia. Huge demand for a cloud resources, running similar nature applications in the same server results in application degradation whenever there is a sudden rise in workload. In order to minimize the application degradations, there is an urgent need to know the nature of applications running in cloud for efficient VM provisioning. Existing cloud architecture does not provide any mechanism to handle this issue. This paper presents a modified cloud architecture which contains additional component called Application Analyzer to identify the nature of applications running in each VM. Based on applications nature, this paper presents a novel VM provisioning mechanism using genetic algorithm. In order to utilize the resources efficiently, this paper also presents a mechanism for VM provisioning with migration. Experimental study is conducted using CloudSim simulator shows that proposed mechanism is efficiently allocating resources to the virtual machines.
    Keywords: Virtual Machine; Provisioning; Migration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001791
  • Impersonation Attack on CertificateLess Key Agreement Protocol   Order a copy of this article
    by Suman Bala, Gaurav Sharma, Anil K. Verma 
    Abstract: Key agreement is a fundamental activity to establish communication between two parties. Kim et al. (2013) proposed a CertificateLess two-party authenticated key agreement (CTAKA) protocol, which is secure in extended Canetti-Krawczyk (eCK) model. This paper describes the security flaw of Kim et al.s CTAKA protocol, which is found vulnerable against Key-Compromise Impersonation (K-CI) attack. For the resistance of the attack in Kim et al.s CTAKA protocol, a defensive measure has been proposed, which is secure in eCK model.
    Keywords: CertificateLess cryptography; key agreement; cryptanalysis; CTAKA; CertificateLess two-party authenticated key agreement.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001792
  • Trust and Reputation Aware Geographic Routing Method for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Raghu Vamsi Potukuchi, Krishna Kant 
    Abstract: We consider the problem of secure geographic routing in mobile Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (WANETs). In recent years, Trust and Reputation Monitoring Systems (TRMSs) have received significant attention to aid routing security in WANETs. A number of trust and reputation models have been proposed to guard topology based routing protocols. However, trust and reputation models for securing geographic routing in mobile networks are limited. To this end, this paper presents a dependable and pragmatic Trust And Reputation Aware Geographic Routing (TARA-GR) method for mobile WANETs to achieve self-adaptability, scalability, lightweight communication, and efficiency. It supports the geographic routing decisions by the dynamic computation of consolidated trust value of each node in the network by integrating direct and indirect trust values. With the calculated trust value, each source or forwarding node selects the trusted nodes to route the packets from the source to the destination. TARA-GR is integrated with a well known Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) protocol. This integration is termed as TARA-GPSR. The simulation results have shown that TARA-GPSR significantly improved the network performance metrics such as packet delivery fraction, throughput, and energy consumption.
    Keywords: Geographic routing; secure routing; trust models; wireless ad hoc networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001793
  • A novel biometric-based password authentication scheme for client-server environment using ECC and fuzzy extractor   Order a copy of this article
    by S.K. Hafizul Islam, Ashok Kumar Das, Muhammad Khurram Khan 
    Abstract: In this paper, we devise a new and efficient biometric-basedrnpassword authentication scheme (BIO-PWA) for the client-serverrnenvironment. Our scheme uses the elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)rnalong with the fuzzy extractor. Through the rigorous securityrnanalysis, we show that our scheme is secure against various knownrnattacks. We further show that our scheme is secure in the genericrngroup model through the formal security analysis. In addition, thernformal security verification of our scheme using the widely-acceptedrnAutomated Validation of Internet SecurityrnProtocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool is performed against active andrnpassive adversaries and the simulation results clearly demonstraternthat our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks,rnincluding the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Finally, we showrnthat our scheme is also efficient in computation against thernexisting related ECC-based authentication schemes for thernclient-server environment.
    Keywords: Biometric; Fuzzy extractor; Password; Hash function; Smartcard; Elliptic curve cryptography; Remote user authentication; Security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001794
  • Peripheral nodes and their effect in path planning in networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Khaled Almiani, Anastasios Viglas, Young Lee, Reza Abrishambaf 
    Abstract: We consider the problem of designing a path in a network that is as close as possible to most node locations in the network. This is an abstract problem with applications in wireless sensor networks with mobile elements, transportation networks, vehicle routing and facility location problems. We consider specifically the case of designing mobile element tours in sensor networks, used to collect data from the network. The nodes that are not visited by the tour need to transmit their data using wireless multi-hop routing, which is expensive in terms of energy usage, and therefore limits the lifetime of the network. The mobile element tour is designed so that the transmission costs are minimized. In the literature, several heuristics have addressed different variations of this problem. Nodes that happen to be placed in locations that are away from the central areas of the network can result in designing a tour that is skewed towards these out of the way or peripheral nodes. In this work, we quantify the effect of such peripheral nodes in the design of data gathering tours in wireless networks. We propose algorithmic solutions that aim to identify peripheral nodes in the network. We provide experimental evidence that the tour planning algorithms that take into account peripheral nodes can significantly improve the solution. Also, we present an integer linear program (ILP) formulation for this problem, and we compare the performance of our proposed algorithm performance against the optimal solution, as computed by the ILP.
    Keywords: WSNs; Data-gathering; TSP; Path-planning.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001796
  • IDS Modeling and Evaluation in WANETs against Black/Gray-hole Attacks using Stochastic Models   Order a copy of this article
    by Reza Entezari-Maleki, Mohammed Gharib, Maryam Khosravi, Ali Movaghar 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to model and evaluate the performance of intrusion detection systems (IDSs) facing black-hole and gray-hole attacks within wireless ad hoc networks (WANETs). The main performance metric of an IDS in a WANET can be defined as the mean time required for the IDS to detect an attack in the network. To evaluate this measure, two types of stochastic models called continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) and stochastic reward net (SRN) are used in this paper. In the first step, two different CTMCs are proposed to model the black-hole and gray-hole attacks, and then, the method of computing the mean time to attack detection is presented on the proposed CTMCs. Since the numbers of states of the proposed CTMCs grow rapidly with increasing the number of the intermediate nodes and the number of attacks which should be done by a single node to trigger the IDS to detect the attack, SRNs are exploited to automatically generate the proposed CTMCs in the second step. The proposed SRNs for the black-hole and gray-hole attacks can appropriately model the network and the process of sending and receiving the messages. Different scenarios are designed to evaluate and compare IDSs on WANETs which show the applicability and usefulness of the proposed CTMCs and SRNs in real networks.
    Keywords: Intrusion detection system; black-hole attack; gray-hole attack; Markov chain; stochastic reward net.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001797
  • Impulsive noise reduction through OFDM based PLC using a new adaptive recursive noise compensator   Order a copy of this article
    by Yassine Himeur, Abdelkrim Boukabou 
    Abstract: Recently, powerline networks are increasingly employed for broadband data transmission such as internet, image and video delivery. Enhancing the quality of broadband transmission over powerline communication (PLC) channel is of utmost importance, which is an area of current interests. In this paper, we introduce a novel detection and noise reduction method for PLC systems in impulsive noise environments. To reach this goal, a new adaptive recursive noise compensator (ARNC) algorithm is proposed. It is based on an iterative detection and estimation of the impulsive noise using the signal to impulsive noise power ratio (SINR), and the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) in the time domain after channel equalization and demodulation. In fact, a new clipping/blanking function is introduced to estimate and detect the impulsive bursts. By evaluating the bit error rate (BER) and mean square error (MSE), the proposed technique illustrates high performance in an attenuated 15-paths condition. The signal-to-noise (SNR) improvements obtained by the proposed algorithm can achieve 11-18 dB under Eb/No=0 dB and more than 12 dB at a BER = 10-3 for OFDM signal using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation.
    Keywords: Powerline communication; OFDM; impulsive noise; OFDM tones; clipping/blanking.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001798
  • Effects of Vertex Insertion on Local Rescheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Chun Hao Yang, Kuo Feng Ssu, Chao Wang 
    Abstract: Rescheduling has abundant issues yet to be explored. The localrnrescheduling problem in wireless sensor networks have been firstlyrnaddressed and investigated in this paper. The algorithms of localrnrescheduling have been proposed and evaluates the performance ofrnreschedule solutions with different metrics. The solutions have tornbe under the limitation that the network should stay connected afterrnthe process of rescheduling. This paper introduces a theoreticalrnbound of maximum degree after node insertion. Along with empiricalrnresults in real world settings, the results motivate the design ofrnalgorithms and give possible reasons why existing reschedulingrnalgorithms do not work efficiently. Two local link reschedulingrnalgorithms and one local broadcast rescheduling algorithm arerndeveloped as improvements. With different node densities and otherrncritical parameters, simulations show that the developed algorithmsrngreatly improve the ratio of finding proper solutions successfullyrnin both types of scheduling compared with other existing simplernalgorithms.
    Keywords: Local Rescheduling; Wireless Sensor Network;Local Link Scheduling;Local Broadcast Scheduling; Maximum Degree Variation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001799
  • Finding a suitable hop-to-hop busty traffic transmission approach for Underwater Acoustic Networks: handshake-based vs handshake-free MAC protocols   Order a copy of this article
    by Dilara Ireen Swarna, Saiful Azad, Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Arafatur Rahman 
    Abstract: Due to many attractive applications, Underwater Acoustic Networks (UANs) are drawing attention of various audiences. Most of these applications demand a considerable amount of data transmission for apt functioning. A MAC protocol plays the key role in data transmission by regulating the usage of the medium among the contending nodes. In addition to that an efficient MAC protocol must take the characteristics of the network architecture into consideration to attain superlative performance. For instance, a MAC protocol designed for UANs must take the following unique characteristics of underwater channels into consideration: long propagation delay, high bit-error rate, limited bandwidth, and so forth. Many MAC protocols are already designed for UANs, which have fully or partially taken these characteristics into account and could be classified as handshake-free and handshake-based protocols. In this paper, these two classes are investigated through a comprehensive simulation campaign by employing their prominent representative protocols, namely ALOHA, CSMA, and MACA-APT protocol. The contribution of this paper lies as follows: i) unearthing the optimum values of various parameters on which the performance of a protocol relies, ii) investigating the performance of all three protocols through a realistic channel model simulator by varying a couple of network parameters, and iii) discovering their effectiveness on various applications.
    Keywords: Underwater Acoustic Networks; ALOHA; CSMA; MACA-APT; Handshake-based; Handshake-free; MAC protocol; DESERT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001800
  • A Throughput-oriented Reliable Multicast in Multi-rate Wireless Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Asma Ben Hassouna, Hend Koubaa, Leila Azouz Saidene 
    Abstract: As low transmission delays can meet the requirements of many applications, high-throughput is the request of various others. Therefore, with consideration of the multi-user diversity (MUD) and the wireless broadcast advantage (WBA) features, we deal with the problem of maximizing the multicast throughput. Hence, we introduce two new rate-aware multicast metrics: EMTH and XMTH. EMTH helps to choose the transmission rates that estimate the best multicast throughput expected. XMTH can reach extreme throughput values if the high computational needs are satisfied. Both metrics carry out a rate adaptation process and take into consideration the link reliabilities. They can be used to choose multi-rate multicast schemes and to decide reliable multicast paths. Results show that the proposed metrics give the best system performance in terms of throughput. They confirm that, using EMTH and XMTH, it is possible to trade-off a very good throughput improvement for an insignificant delay increase.
    Keywords: routing; multicast throughput; delay; multiuser diversity; reliable access.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001801
  • OFFRP: Optimized Fruit Fly Based Routing Protocol With Congestion Control For UAVs Guided Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Sharma, Ilsun You, Rajesh Kumar, Varun Chauhan 
    Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained a lot of attention from the researchers across the globe. Their autonomous capabilities provide vast range of applications such as disaster management, surveillance, border security and inter-civilian activities, etc. Networking with UAVs has evolved as major frontier in areas of wireless communication. Enhanced utility of these vehicles can lead to the formation of stabilized networks. UAVs can be incorporated as intermediate nodes with the existing ad hoc networks to form a guided ad hoc system. However, these networks have a major issue regarding the data flow and routing. UAVs operate in different band as compared to the ground nodes. Hence, there is a chance of congestion that may fail the whole network. An ideal state with no congestion is difficult to attain. However, prediction of such congestion states can provide continuous connectivity. For this, a new Optimized Fruit Fly Routing Protocol (OFFRP) is proposed which uses the properties of existing fruit fly optimization algorithm for finding appropriate routes. The search of food sources by fruit flies using their smell index forms the basis of the proposed protocol. The protocol not only enhances the network formation between the aerial and ground nodes but also provides congestion free data transmission. The proposed protocol is evaluated using standard network simulations and is compared with all the major routing protocols as well as existing TCP-oriented congestion control algorithms.
    Keywords: UAVs; Congestion; Routing; Delays; Jitters; Throughput.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2015.10001752
  • Information fusion of heterogeneous sensors for enriched personal healthcare activity logging   Order a copy of this article
    by Daeil Seo, Byounghyun Yoo, Heedong Ko 
    Abstract: Despite the proliferation of wearable devices and mobile apps for healthcare activity monitoring, no model that complementarily integrates these monitoring logs making up personal big data has been put forth. In addition, such datasets are too large to yield meaningful information. To deal with data from heterogeneous sources, a common format and information fusion model for the complementary aggregation and abstraction of logs are necessary. We introduce a sensor and activity model that classifies heterogeneous sensors and propose an information fusion method that reorganizes personal healthcare activity logs and visualizes them hierarchically in a harmonized way while providing a meaningful summary.
    Keywords: healthcare; information fusion; activity model; sensor model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001962
  • A cost-effective proposal for an RFID-based system for agri-food traceability   Order a copy of this article
    by Renato Ferrero, Filippo Gandino, Bartolomeo Montrucchio, Maurizio Rebaudengo 
    Abstract: Agri-food companies, operating in the packaging, storage and distribution of fruit and vegetables, need to be provided with information systems able to meet the requirements imposed by the current European regulations in terms of traceability. This paper evaluates the benefits and drawbacks of a semi-automated information management tracking system for a warehouse specialized in the fruit market. It is targeted to small and medium-sized companies, with limited financial means for investments and without technical support in their premises. These requirements are met by using a PDA equipped with an RFID reader: the information collected throughout the production process are locally stored in the PDA and occasionally sent to a server. In this way the proposed system does not rely neither on a widespread wireless network, nor on fixed RFID readers, which can increase automation, but need more investment and assistance.
    Keywords: agri-food; fruit; traceability; tracking; RFID; supply chain automation; information management; warehouse.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001802
  • An Adaptive Trajectory-Based Group Message Delivery Protocol with Detour Support for Vehicular Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Guann-Long Chiou, Shun-Ren Yang 
    Abstract: Infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) communications has become an important research issue in recent years. To realize I2V group message delivery, some previously proposed protocols utilize the future trajectories of vehicles to deploy message delivery routes. In these protocols, when a server is required to deliver a message to specific vehicles, this server investigates future trajectories of the destination vehicles, selects the proper rendezvous points, and forwards the message to the rendezvous points for the last-hop delivery. These protocols have demonstrated high delivery performance. However, we have noticed that none of these protocols consider that the destination vehicles may take unexpected detours. The detour events result in new trajectories for those vehicles that no longer pass the rendezvous points. Thus, those detour vehicles will miss the messages stored on the rendezvous points. To address this issue, this paper designs a novel trajectory-based I2V group message delivery protocol, tc-eTGMD, to resolve the above mentioned problem. The proposed scheme aims to redeploy only the routes for the detour vehicles when the detour events happen. Moreover, this scheme can guarantee the reaction time and can offload the traffic while handling the detour events. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to address the detour issue in the trajectory-based I2V group message delivery problem. The specific contributions of this paper are as follows. 1) We formally formulate the trajectory-based I2V group message delivery with the detour events problem. 2) We give a detailed design of our proposed tc-eTGMD protocol. 3) We conduct extensive simulation experiments to evaluate tc-eTGMD's message delivery performance, compared with that of the previously proposed protocols.
    Keywords: Detour; Group message delivery; Infrastructure-to-Vehicle (I2V) communications; Trajectory; Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001853
  • Alternative Forwarding Strategies for Geographic Routing in Wireless Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jung-Tsung Tsai, Yunghsiang Han 
    Abstract: Greedy forwarding (GF), the fundamental geographic routing scheme, is locally optimal on advancement distance per hop. Instead, we propose a forwarding scheme outperforming GF on total advancement distance to destination through routing decision made from neighbor positions with one-step forward expectation.rnWe then consider that a wireless network topology consists of two subareas of different node densities and that a packet originated in one subarea is destined for the other. Routing over a least hop count path in such a network reflects the Fermat's principle. Like refraction of light at the interface between two media of different refractive indices, we derive our Snell's laws and propose geographic refraction routing schemes. Results show that when network settings and source-destination pairs provide for obvious refraction, refraction operation can slightly shorten mean path hop counts for reliable routing but significantly improve routing success probabilities for best-effort one.
    Keywords: geographic routing; greedy forwarding; refraction routing; Snell's law; Fermat's principle; wireless network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001854
  • Novel Lifetime Routing Metric for IEEE 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Vahid Azhari, Niloofar Afshari, Mohammad Nassiri 
    Abstract: We propose a multi-path routing protocol for improving the lifetime of battery operated 802.11 wireless mesh networks (WMN). Our routing protocol uses a novel expected lifetime metric to identify the most critical node in a path and adjusts the amount of traffic over that path accordingly. Hence, we call our approach the Least Critical Lifetime Routing (LCLR) protocol. In addition, we adopt a very simple route congestion measure to further fine tune the amount of traffic sent over a given path. This makes LCLR one of the few lifetime-aware routing protocols that take interference and congestion into account. Moreover, we use a simple path available bandwidth estimation approach, which is integrated into the routing and traffic assignment process. Furthermore, LCLR periodically swaps traffic between most and least critical paths to prolong network lifetime. We have used NS2 simulations to evaluate various performance metrics of LCLR including, total traffic volume and packet delivery ratio to that of AODV, minimum total energy routing and the optimal solution to the maximum lifetime routing problem. Our results obtained for different network topologies suggest that LCLR performs close to the optimum.
    Keywords: Wireless mesh network; Routing; Least critical path; Lifetime; Traffic volume;.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001856
  • MANTRA: An Ultra lightweight cipher design for ubiquitous computing   Order a copy of this article
    by Gaurav Bansod 
    Abstract: In this paper we are proposing an ultra lightweight cipher MANTRA. MANTRA is a Feistel based network which operates on an 64 bit plain text and supports an 128/80 bit key length. It needs very less footprint area and consumes only 1853 GEs for the 128 bit key length and 1565 for 80 bit key length. The novel design of MANTRA uses a Feistel within a Feistel structure. It helps the cipher design to show good resistance against linear and differential cryptanalysis. MANTRA shows good performance on both hardware and software platform. Its power consumption as compared to other existing ultra lightweight ciphers is competitive. In this paper we have presented the security analysis of MANTRA and its performance as an ultra lightweight cipher. A strong S-box is proposed in this cipher that results in more number of active S-boxes. A strong permutation layer in MANTRA prevents clustering of linear and differential trails when the cipher is attacked. MANTRA shows good resistance against Biclique and zero correlation attacks. MANTRA is a well suited cipher design for the applications where small footprint area and low power dissipation plays a crucial role.
    Keywords: Lightweight Cryptography; Feistel cipher; Block cipher; IoT; Encryption; Embedded security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001153
  • A Novel Approach to improve Power Management in Wireless Local Area Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mario Collotta, Giovanni Pau 
    Abstract: In recent years Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), which generally consist of many Access Points (APs), have been deployed rapidly in corporate offices and universities, in order to satisfy user demands for high bandwidth and mobility. However, as a consequence to the spread of wireless devices, there has been also a substantial increase in energy consumption. For this reason, novel approaches are needed in order to optimize the energy consumption of APs. To cope with this problem, this paper introduces a novel approach for an energy-aware management of access networks that, based on the instantaneous traffic intensity, reduces the number of active access devices when they are underutilized. The devices are switched on and off according to the distance value of client with respect to the AP, calculated by using the Receiving Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). The results of real test-bed scenarios reveal that the proposed approach obtains promising performance.
    Keywords: Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN); Access Point (AP); Energy Efficiency; Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001366
  • An Efficient Data Gathering Algorithm for Large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jumin Zhao, Qingming Tang, Deng-ao Li, Biaokai Zhu, Yikun Li 
    Abstract: Recently, wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks (mWSN) have attracted massive attention attributed to the benefi ts of mobility. The updating of routing, however, will generate a lot of control packets due to the movements of mobile sinks in mWSN, which will consume a lot of energy and easily reduce the life of network. This paper proposed a data gathering algorithm for large-scale mWSN. In the proposed algorithm, the entire network was divided into several Gathering scopes. Each Gathering scope locally updates the routing structure according to the path extension ratio which can e ffectively reduce the control packets generated by the updating of routing. To decrease the frequency of updating and the energy consumption of network, anchor nodes chains are adopted. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can signifi cantly reduce the control packets and prolong the lifetime of network compared with other algorithms.
    Keywords: WSN; Mobility; Routing; Mobile sinks; Data gathering; Data gathering algorithm; Updating of routing; Anchor node; Anchor nodes chain; Energy-efficient; Gathering scope.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001883
  • Assessment of heuristics for self-stabilization in real-time interactive communication overlays   Order a copy of this article
    by Pelayo Nuño, Juan C. Granda, Francisco J. Suárez 
    Abstract: Self-stabilization is an autonomic behavior closely related to self-healing. In multimedia communication overlays, self-stabilization copes with network disruptions by dynamically restoring data links and communication paths. The restoration of links may require reorganizing the overlay by establishing new connections among members or modifying existing ones. Self-stabilization techniques are usually triggered asynchronously, either on use (during reorganizations of the overlay) or on event (as a response to a failure), and several heuristics may be used when selecting link peers. In this work several heuristics to perform on event self-stabilization in multimedia communication overlays are assessed. A real-time communication overlay deployed according to a full-mesh topology interconnecting a set of multicast groups is used as assessment framework to evaluate the heuristics. Intensive tests have been carried out to compare and assess heuristics under several overlay topologies and network conditions.
    Keywords: self-stabilization; overlay networks; multimedia communications; autonomic computing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001909
  • SNR-based relay selection in cooperative wireless ad hoc networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Khalil Afzal, Byung-Seo Kim, Seung Yeob Nam, Sung Won Kim 
    Abstract: Cooperative communications aim to gain spatial diversity from stations cooperating during data transmission without requiring multiple transceiver antennas on the same station. However, performance from cooperative communications highly depends on the relay-selection method. This paper proposes and evaluates a distributed relay-selection method based on the signal-to-noise ratio of the communication links of candidate relay nodes. A node is selected as a relay node based on the signal-to-noise ratio of its communication link. Moreover, data might be delivered through a relay node that can support high transmission rate rather than through a direct link with a low transmission rate. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the collision probability in the proposed method as compared to a conventional random backoff method. Results demonstrate that the proposed relay-selection method reduces collision probability, and hence, enhances system throughput.
    Keywords: Cooperative Communications; Relay Selection; Collision.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001910
  • Qos-Aware Routing Protocol using Adaptive Retransmission of Distorted Descriptions in MDC for MANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Diwakar Bhardwaj, Krishna Kant, Durg Singh Chauhan 
    Abstract: Quality of Service (QoS) of delay sensitive application like video stream is majorly affected by instantaneous channel conditions over noisy Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs). Forward Error Correction (FEC) and Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) are the key mechanisms used to recover the quality of the video in wireless networks, but these mechanisms under perform in dynamic networks like MANETs. FEC and ARQ are impractical in MANETs because of their high overheads and high retransmission delay, respectively. Another method, Multiple Description Coding (MDC), a solution specially designed for lossy wireless networks produces unacceptable video quality at the receiver. The other variant of MDC, MDC with Error Correction (MDC_EC) also fails to fulfill the QoS requirements of the video applications. Both of these techniques use redundancy and do not depend on routing; therefore, there is a need of alternative techniques to establish required QoS preserving the video quality. We have proposed a novel routing protocol suitable for MDC video stream to support QoS and reduce overheads. The proposed work is twofold---- (i) redefine the distortion model to estimate the distortion of the transmitted video, and (ii) proposed a novel routing protocol with the help of this model to mitigate the impact of channel noise on the video quality through selected retransmission of noisy descriptors (MDC_EC_RE). FEC, MDC, MDC_EC, and proposed protocols are simulated in NS2.35 and their performance is compared. Significant improvement is observed in the quality of video for different levels of channel noise.
    Keywords: Signal-to-Noise Ratio; MDC; MANETs; QoS; Distortion; Cross-Layer Design; Noisy Channels; Re-transmissions.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001968
  • A State-of-Art approach to misbehavior detection and revocation in VANET:Survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Dinesh Singh, Ranvijay Ranvijay, Rama Shankar Yadav 
    Abstract: With the increased popularity of Internet application and smart cities, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) have become one of the prominent research area and ample of researchers have addressed the many issues in the past decade. Among the many issues involves with e ective VANET, misbehavior detection and revocation is required to address with full attention. It is rst and foremost step towards dealing with safety applications in VANETs. The vehicle misbehavior is responsible for malfunctioning of many network activities (e.g. trac jam, road accidents etc.). The misbehavior detection problem becomes more severe for safety critical applications in VANETs. The misbehaved vehicle must be revoked from the network as early as possible to reduce injuries. Thus, inconjuction of misbehavior detection, revocation problem also needs to be explored. This paper is addressed to provide state-of-art to misbehavior detection and revocation for safety critical VANETs. Here we present a detailed survey on relevant research done in the area of misbehavior detection and revocation with other related issues.
    Keywords: Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANETs); safety applications; misbehavior detection; revocation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001911
  • An Energy Model of 4G Smartphone Oriented Towards Typical Network Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by TunDong Liu, Yun Lin, ZhuoBin Xu, Yi Xie, FuFeng Chen, GuoZhi Xue 
    Abstract: In the wave of wireless technologies, 4G has achieved considerable success because of its high data rate and great potential. But the short battery lifetime of mobile device hinders the development of 4G. The energy scheme in the LTE protocol based on Radio Resource Control (RRC) states in some degree optimizes the energy consumption of 4G smartphone, but it is still far from satisfaction. Therefore, many efforts have been done to study the process of energy consumption in 4G smartphone which is helpful to improve the energy efficiency. Some hardware-based methods using expensive instruments are correct but unhandy. Some software-based methods are flexible but incorrect because they often omit the influences from communication performance. Up to now, most energy models have paid little attention to application layer without considering the quality of wireless communication. This paper proposes an energy model of 4G smartphone where two typical applications (HTTP and FTP) and the data flow of wireless traffic are considered. In order to verify the energy model, an experimental testbed has been set up to capture the data flow and power records during one application. Experiment results have shown that the energy model accurately estimates the energy consumption of 4G smartphone in one operation of the application, whose accuracy rate is higher than 90%. The work described can be considered the first step toward the implementation of a new softwarebased method to accurately estimate the energy consumption of 4G smartphone.
    Keywords: 4G; Energy consumption; Model; State machine; Smartphone.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001912
  • NetBAN, a concept of Network of BANs for Cooperative Communication: energy awareness routing solution   Order a copy of this article
    by Audace Manirabona, Saadi Boudjit, Lamia Chaari Fourati 
    Abstract: In this paper a NetBAN which is a concept of network of BANs (Body Area Networks) or WBANs (Wireless BANs) is introduced and a routing solution intending to help a group of WBANs to cooperate for relaying packets according to the energy consumption rate and the communication link quality is proposed. The main goal is to provide to the sensors a technique that helps them deliver their data even when the coordinators battery is very low or empty or else the connection to the access point is lost, what leads to balancing energy consumption between cooperating coordinators. For this purpose, an energy threshold based technique is used and energy-aware optimized link state routing (EA-OLSR) is defined and used. Simulation results show interesting performances in terms of network lifetime with a gain of about 30% and data delivery about 20%.
    Keywords: Network of BANs; WBAN; Cooperation; Relay; OLSR; Routing; Energy Aware.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001913
  • ADiDA: Adaptive Differential Data Aggregation for Cluster Based Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Rabia Enam, Rehan Qureshi 
    Abstract: In dynamic cluster based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), clusters are formed dynamically and repeatedly to uniformly consume the energy of the nodes. It has been observed in large scale dynamic cluster based WSNs that the size of clusters vary significantly in terms of number of nodes. The data aggregation mechanisms used at the cluster heads do not adapt adequately to such variance in cluster sizes and incur considerable losses specially in clusters with large number of nodes. In this paper we propose a novel and an \emph{Adaptive Differential Data Aggregation} (ADiDA) method that can minimise the complexity of aggregating large amount of data into small sized data packets. The main feature of ADiDA is that in addition to reducing the cost of redundant data transfer in the network, it also optimally utilises the available space in a packet at each cluster head. We have analysed ADiDA on four different types of sensing environments with multiple types of data-values. The results have shown that ADiDA can reduce the payload size requirement to almost one-fourth of the non-compressed payload and the distortion percentage in the aggregated data decreases by 16\% to 41\% when compared with the summary based aggregation of data.
    Keywords: Cluster based WSN; Adaptive Data Aggregation; Spatial Correlation; Variable sized Clusters.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001914
  • MT-SECURER: Multi Factors Trust for Secure and Reliable Routing in MANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Zakir Ullah, Muhammad Hasan Islam, Adnan Ahmed Khan, Imran Shafi 
    Abstract: Routing, having a pivotal role in MANETs successful working, assumes nodes cooperation for its processes. However, this assumption of nodes cooperation makes routing vulnerable to various insider and outsider attackers. Therefore, enforcing nodes cooperation to secure routing from such attackers is stipulated as a challenging research issue in MANETs. In this paper a trust management scheme named MT-SECURER (Multi Factors Trust for SECUre and REliable Routing in MANETs) is proposed to make routing secure and reliable against insider attackers to launch greyhole and blackhole attacks. The proposed scheme develops trust using multiple factors, i.e., nodes cooperation from communication networks and nodes relationship maturity and mutual friends from social networks. These factors are acquired using observer nodes personal observations and neighbors recommendations. Furthermore, neighbors recommendations are passed through a dissimilarity factor based filter to remove false recommendations. As a test case, the proposed scheme is integrated in AODV routing protocol and extensive simulations are conducted to examine the effectiveness and competence of the proposed scheme in presence of insider attackers to launch blackhole and greyhole attacks. Experimental results show significant improvement in packet delivery ratio, throughput and normalized routing load with slightly increased average end-to-end delay when compared to contemporary schemes in presence of attacks asserted.
    Keywords: Attacks; MANETs; Routing; Trust; Trust Management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001915
  • An Energy-Efficient Point-Coverage-Aware Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Tri Gia Nguyen, Chakchai So-In 
    Abstract: Preserving coverage is one of the most essential functions to guarantee quality of service in wireless sensor networks. With this key constraint, the energy consumption of the sensors including their transmission behaviour is a challenging problem in term of how to efficiently use them while achieving good coverage performance. This research proposes a clustering protocol, point-coverage-aware (PCACP), based on point-coverage awareness with energy optimizations that focuses on a holistic view with respect to activation sensors, network clustering, and multi-hop communication, to improve energy efficiency, i.e., network lifetime extension while preserving coverage and maximizing the network coverage. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of PCACP, which strongly improves the performance. Given a diversity of deployments with scalability concerns, PCACP outperformed other competitive protocols i.e., LEACH, CPCP, EADC, and ECDC in terms of conserving energy, sensing point coverage ratios, and overall network lifetime.
    Keywords: coverage-aware; point coverage; sensor activation; clustering; energy-efficient; wireless sensor networks; WSNs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001976
  • An Optimal Algorithm for Small Group Multicast in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Weizhong Luo, Jianxin Wang, Zhaoquan Cai, Gang Peng, Jiong Guo, Shigeng Zhang 
    Abstract: We propose an optimal algorithm to construct a delay-bounded minimum energy routing tree for small group multicast in wireless sensor networks. Finding the minimum energy multicast tree with constrained delay in general case has been proved to be a NP-hard optimization problem. Existing works mainly focus on developing approximation or heuristic algorithms to find approximate solutions. We formally define the Min-power h-Multicast problem - to find a minimum energy multicast tree in which the path from the source to every destination node is less than h hops - and translate it into a minimum Steiner tree problem. We then develop a dynamic programming algorithm to get an optimal solution to the problem in O(3^k(n+m)h+2^k (n+m)^2h) time, where k is the size of the multicast group, n and m denote the numbers of vertices and edges of the graph characterizing the network, respectively. Simulation results show that, compared with existing heuristic or approximation algorithms, our algorithm saves energy consumption by factors between 19% and 42% with comparable running time for small group multicast.
    Keywords: Delay-bounded multicast; energy consumption optimization; fixed parameter tractable; NP-hard.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001916
  • Direction-Based Urban Broadcast Protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Gui-Sen Li, Xu-Hui Chen, Ke-Shou Wu, Ren Chen 
    Abstract: Multi hop broadcast for vehicular ad hoc networks in urban environments is a difficult task for the impact of the intersections. The forward of the next relay will face the problem that some branches of the intersection will not be covered in time. In this paper, we propose a novel broadcast protocol for urban environments. The proposed protocol considers the transmission direction of broadcasting message and the moving direction of forwarding vehicle for delivering the message over the intersection. It delivers the message to all road directions at the intersection by an efficient and fast way. Using the direction information, an agent vehicle mode also has been proposed to cope with the disconnected problem. Performance evaluation results show that the proposed protocol improves the reachability and speeds up the broadcast process.
    Keywords: VANET; urban broadcast; intersection; transmission direction; moving direction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001978
  • Modelling and Mitigating Spectrum Sensing Non-cooperation Attack in Cognitive Radio Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Roshni Rajkumari, Ningrinla Marchang 
    Abstract: Collaborative spectrum sensing (CSS) is known to improve spectrum sensing performance in Cognitive Radio Network. In CSS, secondary users participate by sharing their local sensing results. They participate in the sensing process at their own cost, i.e., they expend some amount of energy and time for sensing and sharing. But, a selfish user may refrain from collaborating in the spectrum sensing process in order to save up energy, which results in improper sensing. While this problem is widely known, we call this as the spectrum sensing non-cooperation (SSNC) attack for easy reference. In this paper, a collective action prisoners dilemma game is used to model the SSNC attack. To handle this attack, repeated game punishment mechanisms, namely Tit-for-Tat and Grim strategies are used. In addition, modified Tit-for-Tat and modified Grim strategies are proposed to handle this attack in the presence of reporting channel error.
    Keywords: Cognitive radio network; collaborative spectrum sensing; spectrum sensing; non-cooperation attack; game theory; fusion rules.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001917
  • Enhanced Identity Privacy in UMTS   Order a copy of this article
    by Hiten Choudhury, Basav Roychoudhury, Dilip Kr. Saikia 
    Abstract: Identity privacy in mobile networks has been an active and exciting research area for quite some time. Earlier, researchers were focused on protecting the subscriber's identity over the radio access link between the mobile device and the visited serving network. Whereas now, they are considering the need for protecting the identity from the serving network itself, due to the security and flexibility that it promises to bring into roaming situations. Towards this, numerous protocols have been proposed for mobile networks in general. In UMTS, one of the most popular and widely deployed mobile networks across the globe, the status of identity privacy is no different. However, a surprising fact is that not much research, that tries to protect the subscriber's identity from the serving network, has been conducted with regards to UMTS in specific. Even recent works in this area seems to ignore this important security aspect. In this paper, we make an effort to fill in this gap by proposing an identity privacy ensuring extension that can be easily adapted in UMTS, without disturbing the current protocol flow. We also establish the security, robustness and correctness of this extension through statistical, security and formal analysis.
    Keywords: UMTS; Identity Privacy; Identity Confidentiality; Anonymity; Security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001918
  • A new hybrid routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Slaheddine Chelbi, Habib Dhahri, Majed Abdouli, Claude Duvallet, Rafik Bouaziz 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) differ from traditional wireless communication networks in several characteristics. One of these characteristics is power awareness, due to the fact that the batteries of sensor nodes have a restricted lifetime and are difficult to be replaced. In order to save the overall energy of the system and to fairly balance the load among nodes, we propose a New Hybrid Routing Protocol, called NHRP, which incorporates two modules: (1) a scheduling mechanism, called Advanced Energy efficient Coverage Control Algorithm (AECCA), based on binary particle swarm optimization (PSO). This approach aims to activate only the necessary number of sensor nodes while preserving full coverage. (2) A cluster based protocol using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) method named Advanced FCM (AFCM). Several works prove that FCM algorithms assists to optimize the clusters based on minimizing the distance between the sensor node and the cluster centre. Yet, in cluster based approach, the cluster head is usually selected amongst the sensor nodes which can die quickly for this extra workload. To mitigate this problem, the second module is based on the use of some special and mobile nodes with controllable trajectories which acts as gateways.\\\\ \r\nFirst, AECCA and AFCM results are compared to ECCA and FCM, respectively. We prove that AECCA and AFCM give better performance than ECCA and FCM respectively in prolonging network lifetime. Second, simulation results show that our new hybrid routing protocol improves the fairness energy consumption among all sensor nodes and achieves an obvious improvement on the network lifetime.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Energy Saving; particle swarm optimization; Fuzzy C-Means; mobile nodes.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001982
  • A Dynamic Trust Evolution Model for MANETs based on Mobility   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijender Busi Reddy, Venkataraman S, Atul Negi 
    Abstract: Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are said to be open, anonymous, dynamic and mobile in nature which makes them vulnerable to several types of attacks. Mobility of a node is a source of vulnerability and raises challenges in setup and maintenance of secure and reliable communication. Present literature does not seem to adequately address these concerns. We propose here a trust computation model that enables a node in a network to assess confidence in its immediate and extended neighbourhood. We derive a trust parameter called as Mobility Factor to assess a nodes mobility without using any extra hardware. Our model improves upon existing schemes when assessing trustworthy behaviour. The effects of mobility are included as an integral parameter in the total trust evaluation. The improved trust assessment allows identification of capricious behaviour of a node using the concept of trust flutter. A formal proof presented here supports the adequacy of the proposed approach. ns-2 simulations with mobility and malicious nodes show better performance of proposed approach as compared to recent work (TSR [1]). Improved resilience against packet-dropping/modification attack and on-off attacks was observed.
    Keywords: Ad-hoc; Trust; Mobility; MANETs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001919
  • An Efficient Mobile Grid Scheme for Service Tracking in VANETs   Order a copy of this article
    by Chyi-Ren Dow, Yu-Hong Lee, Shiow-Fen Hwang 
    Abstract: The majority of modern vehicles are equipped with various sensors to enhance the driving experience. With these sensors, a vehicles can be considered as an integrated sensor system that can sense data in intelligent transportation systems. However, compared with legacy networks, information cannot be easily exchanged through a vehicular ad hoc network. Intelligent transportation systems deployed on a vehicular ad hoc network are usually highly distributed and depend on metadata exchanging, data sharing, and service tracking mechanisms. This study focused on the mobile grid scheme and service tracking protocol. In the conventional scheme, the geo grid scheme is used to divide a map into grids. Each grid elects its grid leader to manage the information of the grid. However, the initial design has a fixed grid size and therefore network maintenance may be expensive. We designed the mobile grid sequence scheme as follows. Mobile grid structures use the characteristic of group mobility to increase grid structure flexibility and reduce maintenance costs. In a mobile environment, the location of a service provider is not fixed. When the service provider moves to another location of the road, users may need to re-perform the discovery process. The tracking protocol is used to manage the service footprint information and continuously track the target service. Indicators manage the footprint of the service providers in their branches. Users can simply rely on the footprint information to locate target services. According to the experimental results, the mobile grid sequences effectively extended the service time and information was reliably shared in the mobile grid sequences. Our service tracking scheme is more efficient than other schemes in terms of success rate and service tracking time.
    Keywords: Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks; Mobile Grid; Service Tracking.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001948
  • Routing Problems for Vehicle Ad-Hoc Networks using the Virtual Message Ferry Routing Scheme   Order a copy of this article
    by Chu-Fu Wang, Yang-Chih Chiu 
    Abstract: The communication links between vehicles in Vehicle Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) suffer from the intermittent connection problem due to node mobility, and consequently the routing design is very challenging. The virtual message ferry routing scheme is one of the efficient approaches for aiding the routing decisions in VANETs to cope with the routing problem. The role of the Virtual Message Ferry (VMF) can be played by any vehicle on the road, and the current VMF role-playing vehicle will be switched to another vehicle when it drives away from the preplanned VMF trajectory. The considered VMF routing scheme will not alter the driving behavior of any chosen vehicle, which includes its driving speed, the original relocating plan, etc. This paper considers routing problems in the VMF backbone network that are formed by trajectories of multiple VMFs. A network optimization problem formulation and transformation are given. Heuristic algorithms to find near optimal solutions are also proposed.
    Keywords: VANET; routing; multiple virtual message ferry; backbone network; intermittent connected routing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001983
  • An Efficient Fine-grained Access Control Scheme for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Santanu Chatterjee, Sandip Roy 
    Abstract: Fine-grained access control is used to assign unique access privilege to a particular user for accessing the real-time and mission critical data directly from the nodes inside wireless sensor network (WSN) and protecting sensitive sensor information from unauthorized access in WSN. In this paper, we propose a new fine-grained access control scheme based on Key policy attribute-based encryption (KP-ABE) suitable for hierarchical wireless sensor networks. The strengths of the proposed protocol are that it provides fine-grained access control with authentication and achieves some good properties such as efficient user revocation and new node deployment at any time without incurring large overheads. Our proposed scheme takes significantly low computational, communication, storage and energy cost compared to other related fine-grained access control schemes. In addition, the proposed scheme provides unconditional security against privileged-insider key abuse attack, node capture attack, forward and backward secrecy and also prevents other attacks such as denial-of-service attack, replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack. We also simulate this proposed scheme for formal security verification using the widely-accepted Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. Using the AVISPA model checkers, we show that our scheme is secure against possible passive and active attacks.
    Keywords: Attribute-based encryption; Fine-grained access control; Bilinear maps; Hierarchical WSNs; AVISPA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001987
  • Joint Time Synchronization and Localization of Multiple Source Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Yan Changhong 
    Abstract: In an asynchronous network, the local clock of sensor node has clock drift with respect to the real clock for imperfectrnhardware. So time synchronization and localization shouldrnbe jointly conducted for time-based source location estimates. Inrnthis paper semidefinite programming (SDP), complexity-reducedrnSDP and linear least square (LLS) estimator are proposed forrntime synchronization and localization of multiple source nodes.rnThe proposed algorithms provide joint estimates for the sourcernlocations and clock parameters and avoid the shortcoming ofrnmaximum likelihood (ML) estimator which requires an initialrnsolution. Then a location refinement (LR) technique is introducedrnto refine the estimated parameters for the estimators.rnThe simulations show that the original SDP algorithm providesrnbetter accuracy performance than the complexity-reduced SDP.rnHowever the complexity-reduced SDP runs faster than SDP.rnAlthough the complexity of LLS estimator is lowest amongrnthree proposed algorithms, the convex optimization algorithmsrnincluding the original SDP and complexity-reduced SDP havernmore robust performance compared with the LLS estimator.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; localization; time synchronization; convex optimization; semidefinite programming.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001988
  • Cloud-based Mobile Service Provisioning For System Performance Optimization   Order a copy of this article
    by ChunLin Li, Jing Zhang 
    Abstract: Currently, the mobile applications require intensive computational resources, particularly CPUs, RAMs, storage, and battery to successfully complete the expected computing operation. Although distant clouds feature high availability and elastic scalability, and performance gain of utilizing such resources is decreased by high communication latency due to large number of intermediate hops between the mobile device and the distant public clouds. Therefore, local cloud is suitable choice for some mobile devices. In this paper, hybrid cloud-assisted mobile service optimization model is proposed to tackle limited resources of mobile devices and enhance the overall system performance. The aim of hybrid cloud-assisted mobile service optimization is that mobile cloud system utility is optimized while satisfying huge number of mobile requests and improving individual user's QoS and reducing system overheads. The hybrid cloud-assisted mobile service scheduling algorithm enables mobile applications conducted on mobile devices to complete all tasks by leveraging computing resources of public cloud and local cloud. The proposed algorithm is validated through a series of experiments.
    Keywords: cloud-assisted; mobile service optimization; context awareness.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001991
  • Congestion Control and Fairness with Dynamic Priority for Ad hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Tapas Mishra, Sachin Tripathi 
    Abstract: Ad hoc sensor network is a compilation of ad hoc nodes with sensing capability. Recently, the network structure has changed rapidly in modern applications and has imposed priority for heterogeneous applications. In some scenarios, the priorities of the flows need to change in the middle of the communication. However, the major problem is that the packets of different applications are not served at the destination by their expected priority ratio even if the priority does not change. Considering the above problem, this paper presents a fair packet scheduling policy which collects information from each individual flow according to its priority and auto-updates the priorities of flows when required. Moreover, a hybrid congestion control technique based on queue occupancy and channel utilization is framed to control congestion. The presented work focuses on the prioritized packet scheduling policy with the help of multiple queues, whose lengths are determined with the help of priority of each application. The proposed model has been simulated using NS2 for two applications, where each application carries multiple flows. The simulation result shows, the internal buffer is occupied by their respective packets and transmitted according to their priority ratio. Moreover, it reduces overall packet loss which leads to serve more packets at destination than the existing fairness protocols and the packet service rate reflects instantly soon after the priority changes.
    Keywords: Active queue monitoring; Ad hoc networks; Fair queuing; Packet scheduling; Congestion control; Transmission control protocol.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001992
  • UAVs Assisted Queue Scheduling in Ground Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Sharma, Rajesh Kumar 
    Abstract: Hybrid networks provide a vast range of applications in areas of military and civilian activities. A combined operation of two or more networks can provide reliable connectivity and guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to end users. One of the examples of hybrid network formations is Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) assisted ground ad hoc networks. These networks comprise of two variedly operating network units comprising of aerial and ground nodes. Efficient coordination between these networks can resolve complex issues such as coverage, proper connectivity, scalability, and QoS. However, reliable data transmission with enhanced QoS is one of the key challenges in these type of hybrid ad hoc formations. Efficient QoS provisioning provides transmission at higher data rate, low jitters, and enhanced connectivity. Considering this as a problem, an efficient queue scheduling approach is proposed that allows improved QoS to end users. The proposed queue scheduling approach is developed in two parts. The first part utilizes the Quaternion based Kalman Filter to find the appropriate locations for placement of each UAV. This allows proper connectivity between the ground nodes and the UAVs using a scheduling cost function. In the second part, Satisfied Importance Analysis (SIA) is used to find the governing rules for the selection of appropriate queue to be transmitted. The proposed approach allows enhanced connectivity between ground nodes and UAVs that act as aerial relays. Enhanced connectivity and efficient transmission are attained using the proposed approach. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated using simulations.
    Keywords: UAVs; Positioning; Quality of Service; Delays; Throughput.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10001993
  • Rendezvous in Cognitive Radio Ad hoc Networks: A Survey   Order a copy of this article
    by Aishwarya Ukey, Meenu Chawla 
    Abstract: Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) in conjunction with dynamic spectrum access cope with spectrum scarcity and underutilization problem through the opportunistic sharing of spectrum, and provide dynamic access to the free portions of spectrum allotted to licensed users. The functionality of CRN relies on the cognitive capability and reconfigurability of cognitive radios (CRs) that enable secondary users (SUs) to sense and figure out unused spectrum and allow dynamic access between different spectrum bands. Fundamental process in the formation of CRN is the neighbor discovery process, also referred as the rendezvous of SUs where SUs meet on commonly available channels and establish communication links for information exchange, spectrum management, and data communication. Rendezvous on a common channel is non-trivial as SUs do not have any network related information and are unaware of the presence of other SUs before the rendezvous. Also, due to the dynamics in licensed users activity and diversities in the temporal and geographical location of SUs, free available channels sensed by SUs usually differs. Thus, it is quite difficult to figure out a channel commonly available to all SUs. Absence of central authority, multi-hop architecture and mobility of nodes further complicates the rendezvous process. This paper focuses on the taxonomy and challenges relevant to rendezvous phenomena of SUs and provides a brief overview and comparative qualitative analysis of state-of-art rendezvous algorithms designed for cognitive radio networks.
    Keywords: CRN; cognitive radio network; ad hoc network; neighbor discovery; rendezvous phenomena; survey of rendezvous algorithm; synchronous and asynchronous rendezvous algorithm; channel hopping; rendezvous algorithm taxonomy and challenges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10002293
  • A Service Oriented Adaptive Trust Evaluation Model for Ubiquitous Computing Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Jagadamba Gurappa 
    Abstract: The increased participation of various devices and networks in the Ubiquitous Computing Environment exposed a bigger challenge in running the high-end cryptographic algorithms with larger key sizes when resources are varying by time. These cryptographic algorithms make the application highly platform dependent, susceptible to confidentiality attacks and unreliable services for the applications. The involvement of heterogeneous system, devices, and context-awareness raises a significance of trust and trust evaluation in the computing environment. Thus, the trust evaluation based on the context and service requirements can be adapted to decide the applicable level of services and the corresponding security. Hence, this paper presents a service-oriented adaptive trust evaluation model in the ubiquitous network according to the security requirement of the services. The proposed trust evaluation model computes direct trust based on various interaction properties and recommendation trust by filtering the dishonest recommenders on the time context. A fine tuning of trust is done by evaluating the adaptive trust base on the service request made by an entity. A balanced blending of direct and recommendation trust are done with trust weights to make them relevant to current application scenarios. The results are compared with some of the available schemes and found to be a consistently good in performance for the todays ubiquitous network.
    Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing Environment; Service-oriented; Context-aware; Trust; Direct trust; Recommendation trust; Adaptive trust; Adaptive security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10002303
  • High performance target tracking scheme with low prediction precision requirement in WSNs   Order a copy of this article
    by Anfeng Liu, Shaona Zhao 
    Abstract: Tracking mobile target is one of the most important applications in wireless sensor networks for surveillance system. Researchers heavily believe that: selecting proactive nodes in the region where the target may arrive in the next moment can obtain good performances in terms of energy efficiency, tracking probability and tracking precision. However, it is a great challenge that how to predict the movement of a mobile target accurately. This paper proposed a high-performance tracking scheme with a low requirement of prediction accuracy (low prediction precision requirement target tracking, LPPT), which can work with a pre-existing target prediction algorithm. In LPPT scheme, the residual energy is employed to select more proactive nodes in the non-hotspots area, while less proactive nodes are selected in the hotspots area. Both theoretical and numerical simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly improved the probability of target detection and energy efficiency, decreased the detection delay, meanwhile guaranteed the network lifetime.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; target prediction; sleep scheduling; network lifetime; energy efficient.

  • A Cross-Layer Interference and Delay-aware Routing Metric for Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Narayan D G, Uma Mudenagudi 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer interference and delay aware routing metric for multi-radio infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). WMNs are an emerging technology and are used as a backbone networks to connect various types of networks to the Internet. These networks use Multi-Channel Multiple Radio (MCMR) capabilities of mesh routers to achieve high performance. However, the MCMR nodes introduce inter-flow and intra-flow interference in the multi-hop mesh networks and can degrade QoS. Thus the design of routing protocols combined with routing metrics to improve the QoS has become an important research issue. Towards this, several cross-layer routing metrics have been proposed by considering types of interferences and other link quality parameters. However, most of these metrics have their own disadvantages and lack the analytical model in their design. To address this, we analytically derive our routing metric by using 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) basic access mechanism. Using this model, we design and implement a routing metric called Cross-layer Interference and Delay Aware (CL-IDA) by estimating delay, inter-flow and intra-flow interference. We implement this metric in well known routing protocol Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) using NS2. The results reveal that proposed routing metric performs better in terms of throughput, average end-to-end delay, routing overhead and route stability compared to well known routing metrics.
    Keywords: Wireless mesh networks; Multi-radio; Routing metrics; Cross-layer; CL-IDA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2016.10002304
  • History Based Multi-Node Collaborative Localization in Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Wenyuan Chen, Songtao Guo, Fei Wang 
    Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in the study of localization algorithm for wireless ad hoc networks. In most localization algorithms, increasing the density of anchor nodes is one of the main strategies to improve the localization accuracy in dense networks. In this paper, based on the number of reference nodes, we propose a distributed localization algorithm, i.e., history based multi-node collaborative localization algorithm (HMCL), which provides a potential approach for localization in sparse ad hoc wireless networks. In the proposed HMCL algorithm, we exploit a new motion model to filter the imprecise estimation values based on the historical position information of nodes, which can improve the localization accuracy and reduce the computation overhead and energy consumption. Moreover, we utilize different strategies to achieve the localization of nodes with different priorities measured by the distance information between neighbor nodes.We verify through experiment that the proposed algorithm provides better performance in terms of localization precision and energy consumption. Besides, we also analyze the effect of the number of neighbor nodes, node density and moving speed of nodes on localization precision.
    Keywords: Wireless ad hoc networks; Collaborative Localization; Historical constraints; Neighbor information.

  • A Low Complexity DWT module and CRS Minimal Instruction Set Computer Architecture for Wireless Visual Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jia Jan Ong, Li-Minn Ang 
    Abstract: Transmitting cost, processing complexity and data security are three important elements in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). This paper presents a complete low complexity processing system that performs data compression, data correction and data encryption. In this system, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) first decomposes the original image into DWT coefficients to ensure low transmitting cost, then the coefficients are encrypted using the Cauchy Reed Solomon CRS(20,16) coding scheme to ensure data security. A CRS Minimal Instruction Set Computer architecture with a DWT filtering module is proposed to perform the compression, encryption and error correction encoding in a low complexity processing system. The proposed system is then implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system for implementation in WVSNs. Results on a Xilinx Spartan FPGA show that the proposed system requires a lower implementation complexity of 2536 slices as compared to other existing systems such as Crypto-Processor (4828 slices) and SPIHT CRS MISC (5017 slices)
    Keywords: Wireless Visual Sensor Networks; Discrete Wavelet Transform; Cauchy Reed Solomon; Minimal Instruction Set Computer.

  • TLS: Traffic Load Based Scheduling Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Prasan Kumar Sahoo, Hiren Kumar Thakkar 
    Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), nodes are usually deployed over the monitoring region randomly and densely and are supposed tornmonitor the region for longer duration. These sensors are normally powered by battery and therefore it is essential to regulate the power utilization of the nodes efficiently. Although most of the current protocols reduce the power utilization by regulating the sleep and wake up schedules, they fail to make an adaptive sleep or wake up schedule for the nodes based on their traffic load. This article proposes a traffic load based adaptive node scheduling protocol to determine the active and sleep schedules of the nodes. The entire network is partitioned into set of virtual zones and a routing path selection algorithm is proposed considering the residual power of the next hop nodes. Simulation results show that the energy consumption and packet overhead of our protocol are considerably less as compared to similar quorum-based medium access control (MAC) protocols.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; MAC protocol; scheduling.

  • EFF-FAS: Enhanced Fruit Fly Optimization Based Search and Tracking By Flying Ad Hoc Swarm   Order a copy of this article
    by Vishal Sharma, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy, Kathiravan Srinivasan, Rajesh Kumar 
    Abstract: Flying an ad hoc swarm configuration refers to a network formed by autonomously operated robots. These robots can be simple aerial nodes or specifically configured Unmanned Aircraft (UA). The network formation between the aerial nodes allows for realizing a number of civil and military applications. Such networks are autonomous, temporary, and mission dependent, and are configured based on the specifications of the mission and safety-critical tasks. One of the major applications of these ad hoc swarm formations is the efficient search and tracking of an area without any redundancy and overlapping. Non-redundant cell tracking is a computationally expensive task, which requires optimization strategies to be adopted during a search process. Incorporating Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm (FOA) to a strategic search and track operation simplifies the complexity of the overall system. In the proposed approach, FOA is extended in terms of its applicability by modifying the procedure and features of the algorithm to allow its applicability to an aerial swarm for performing a non-redundant search over a predefined area with lower complexity. Modeling and simulation activities presented demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach towards search and track operations.
    Keywords: Ad Hoc Swarm; Searching; Tracking; Fruit Fly Optimization.

  • Friend Circle Identification in Ego Network based on Hybrid Method   Order a copy of this article
    by Ma TingHuai, Fan Xing, Meili Tang, Donghai Guan 
    Abstract: The ego network, which is a network of a user with his/her friends, is large-scale and tanglesome, and nowadays it is imperative to find a suitable method to automatically administrate it. The social network analysis method has provided some methods to help users classify their friends, including manually categorizing friends into social circles or system classification. Whereas, categorizing friends manually is time consuming for users and the results are not accurate enough. In this paper, we will discuss how to realize community identification automatically and accurately. To achieve this, we propose a method which utilizes not only the similarity of user attributes but also the features of network structure and friends contact frequency. On the basis of the users' profile, we identify the relationship between them firstly. Second, we solve the problem of community identification using of the structure features while profiles losing. Third, we introduce a concept, contact frequency, which will help us identify the relationship between users and their friends more accurately. Extensive experiments on real-world data show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art technique, in terms of balance error rate and F1 score.
    Keywords: ego networks; communities; user attribute; network structure; contact frequency.

  • Delay-Tolerant Forwarding Strategy for Named Data Networking in Vehicular Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Meng Kuai, Xiaoyan Hong, Qiangyuan Yu 
    Abstract: Named Data Networking (NDN) has been considered as a promising networking architecture for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). However, Interest forwarding in NDN suffers severe issues in vehicular environment. Broadcast storms result in much packet loss and huge transmission overhead. Also, link disconnection caused by highly dynamic topology leads to low packet delivery ratio and extreme long delay in data retrieval. Thus, an efficient NDN forwarding strategy to retrieve data is urgently required. In this paper, we propose the Density-Aware Delay-Tolerant (DADT) Interest forwarding strategy to retrieve traffic data in vehicular NDN. DADT specifically addresses data retrieval during network disruptions using Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN). It makes retransmission decisions based on directional network density. Also, DADT mitigates broadcast storms by using a rebroadcast deferring timer. We compared DADT against other strategies through simulation and the results show that it can achieve a higher satisfaction ratio while maintaining low transmission overhead.
    Keywords: Density-Aware; Delay-Tolerant; Interest Forwarding; Named Data Networking; Vehicular Networks.

  • Link-Preserving Channel Assignment Game for Wireless Mesh Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Li-Hsing Yen, Bo-Rong Ye 
    Abstract: To deliver user traffic in a wireless mesh network, mesh stations equipped with multiple interfaces communicate with one another utilizing multiple orthogonal channels. Channel assignment is to assign one channel to each interface to minimize co-channel interference among wireless links while preserving link connectivity. The interference and connectivity objectives are generally conflicting. This paper first analyzes the probability of link connectivity when channels are randomly assigned to interfaces. We then propose a game-theoretic approach that jointly considers the two objectives with a unified payoff function. We prove that the proposed approach is an exact potential game, which guarantees stability in a finite time. We also prove the link-preserving property of the approach. Simulation results show that the proposed approach generally outperforms counterparts in terms of network interference when a moderate number of channels are available. For fairness of link interference, both the proposed approach and its variant outperform the counterparts.
    Keywords: channel assignment; wireless mesh network; interference; connectivity; game theory.

  • Performance Analysis of truncated ARQ and HARQ I protocols for cooperative networks using Smart Amplify and Forward Relaying   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadhir Ben Halima, Hatem Boujemaa 
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the theoretical performance of truncated Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) and Hybrid ARQ I protocols with and without packet combining in cooperative networks using smart amplify and forward relaying. In cooperative networks, the retransmission can be done by the source or by a selected relay. The selected relay is the one which offers the best instantaneous Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the relaying link. We provide a theoretical framework when there is a combination of source and relays transmission for a destination using a Maximum Ratio Combining of the received packets from the source and the relays. Smart relays are studied in this paper. These relays selected the best packet from the source. We will show that the performance is better for smart relays that continuously supervise the transmissions from the source compared to conventional relays overhearing only the first source transmission. We also suggest smart relays listening to each other.
    Keywords: HARQ; Cooperative Systems; Amplify and Forward.

  • Convex Hull Based Trajectory Design for Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Kumar Nitesh 
    Abstract: Data collection through mobile sink (MS) is an efficient solution to solve hotspot/sinkhole problem which is usually caused by data collection using a static sink In this paper, we propose an algorithm for designing a delay bound path for MS which is based on convex hull and therefore we refer it a concentric convex hull (CCH) algorithm For a given set of sensor nodes, the CCH generates a set of convex hull as the potential paths and selects one of them as the nal path for MS fulfilling certain optimizing criteria Unlike other existing techniques, the proposed technique does not use traveling sales person (TSP) tour This, in turn, reduces hop count and restricts the time complexity of the proposed technique to O(n^2) for n sensor nodes We simulate the proposed algorithm, compare and analyze the results with some of the existing algorithms over diverse network performance metrics.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks;  convex hull;  rendezvous points;  mobile sink;  delay bound path;  computational geometry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006693
  • Efficient two-party certificateless authenticated key agreement protocol under GDH assumption   Order a copy of this article
    by Xie Yong 
    Abstract: Security and Efficiency are two key requirements for most of authentication protocol, especially for mobile wireless network. However, Security and efficiency are a contradiction for the design of authentication protocol, it is hard to meet the two requirements simultaneously. Since certificateless public key cryptography (CL-PKC) has an advantage in wiping off key escrow problem, many certificateless authentication key agreement (CL_AKA) protocols have been proposed. The existing CL_AKA protocols may meets security requirement well or efficiency requirement well, but cannot meet the two well. In this paper, we propose an efficient two-party CL_AKA protocol with strong security. we perform an in-depth security analysis in extended Canetti-Krawczyk (eCK) model to show the proposed CL_AKA protocol is provably secure. The performance analysis shows that the proposed protocol can meet the strong security and efficiency requirements simultaneously.
    Keywords: Authentication key agreement,CL-PKC,pairing-free,GDH,eCK model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006694
  • Resource-Constrained Task Assignment for Event-Driven Sensing Using Public Bicycles in Smart Cities   Order a copy of this article
    by Chiu-Ping Chang 
    Abstract: Many cities have provided public bicycle services to reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. Mobility of public bicycles makes them very suitable for event-driven sensing for smart cities, i.e. collecting data relevant to special events such as car accidents or street parades. The problem is how to assign a set of bicycles to best fulfill the sensing mission, considering the constrained storage, battery energy, and communication capability of bicycles. The problem is referred to as the resource-constrained task assignment for event-driven sensing (ReConTAES). The goal is to minimize the number of bicycles used, while balancing the energy consumption of the selected bicycles. We first formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming and then propose a set of greedy heuristics to solve the problem. We evaluate the proposed algorithms by using real trajectories to show their feasibility.
    Keywords: smart city; urban sensing; data collection; Public Bicycle System(PBS)  .
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006695
  • MAP: Ef?cient Cooperation Induced Routing Scheme for a Delay Tolerant Multi-hop Mobile Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Oladayo Olakanmi 
    Abstract: In multi-hop network the efficiency of the transmission depends solely on the cooperation of all nodes in the network in relaying neighbouring nodes data packets. Some nodes may be selfish, mischievous by dropping received packets or refuse to accept packet from other nodes whereas using other nodes resources to transmit their packets. This drastically affects the performance of the network. In this paper, a fair and effective incentive mechanism, which induces cooperation among nodes in the network is proposed. The mechanism applies auction scheme by initiating auction between the node and its immediate neighbouring nodes. The neighbouring node(s) competitively purchase packet transmission liability from the source and re-auctions it to the neighbouring node. The scheme uses hash operations to secure the payment transaction made in each auction session. The performance characterisation and evaluation against fairness and some possible attacks demonstrated that the scheme strongly stimulates fairness and competitiveness in message relaying among the intermediary nodes unlike other routing based schemes. The simulation results showed that there are some other performance metrics which are needed to be considered in order to have an optimum performance.
    Keywords: Multi-hop; auction policy; competitve backpressure;; wireless network;routing;protocol;  network; wireless.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006696
  • Dynamic Utility-Based Buffer Management Strategy for Delay-tolerant Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Ababou Mohamed 
    Abstract: Delay tolerant network is a new networking concept characterized by intermittent connections between nodes communicating through the store-carry-and-forward mechanism. Indeed, the nodes may keep a message in its buffer for long periods until a communication opportunity occurs and then to transmit it to other relays or to its final destination. Accordingly, the use of many messages can induce buffer congestion of some nodes due to the limited capacity of the storage space. To manage properly the use of network resources, particularly bandwidth and buffer space of nodes, we propose in this paper a new buffer management strategy which consists of messages scheduling and dropping policies based on a multi-criteria utility function. The simulations results under the ONE simulator have shown that the proposed buffer management strategy achieves a higher delivery ratio, reduces the average delivery delay and generates minimal overhead when compared to the Random, MOFO and FIFO usual strategies.
    Keywords: DTN; Buffer Management; Delivery; Scheduling Policy; Dropping Policy; Utility.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006697
  • On the Performance Analysis of Wireless Communication Systems over ???/??? Composite Fading Channels   Order a copy of this article
    by Osamah Badarneh 
    Abstract: The ???/??? fading channel model is the result of the product of two independent and nonidentically distributed (i.n.i.d.) ??? variates. As such, in order to study the performance of wireless communication systems in such fading model, the envelopes of the probability density function (pdf) and cumulative distribution function (cdf) must be obtained. To this end, simple and general closed-form expressions for the pdf and cdf of the product of two independent and non-identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) ??? variates are obtained. Then based on these expressions, we derive closed-form expressions for the outage probability, the average symbol error probability (SEP) and the nth moment of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the ergodic channel capacity. The derived expressions are then used to analyze the performance of a wireless communication system. Analytical results are sustained through Monte-Carlo simulations, and a perfect match is reported over a wide range of SNR values and for several values of fading parameters.
    Keywords: Composite fading channels; multi-path fading; shadowing; ??? distribution.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006698
  • Dynamic Group-based Scheduling of Machine-to-Machine Communication for Uplink Traffic in LTE Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Yen-Yin Chu 
    Abstract: In wireless machine-to-machine communication, the signaling load and radio resource allocation are critical to successful service because the technology features a large number of connected devices that introduce significant connection- and resource-related signaling overheads to eNodeB. This paper proposes an uplink scheduling scheme to minimize signaling overhead and maximize system throughput in machine-type communication devices in long-term evolution networks. The proposed scheme dynamically adjusts group members by considering channel conditions and quality of service and applies the allocation-before-request concept to allocate the residual bandwidth and realize the above objectives. Exhaustive simulations were conducted to examine the performance of the proposed scheme. The simulation results showed that the proposed scheme achieves not only better system throughput but also decreased buffer status report signaling when compared with the static group-based scheme.
    Keywords: buffer status report; channel conditions; long-term evolution; machine-to-machine; resource allocation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006699
  • On the Parallel Programmability of JavaSymphony for Multi-cores and Clusters   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Aleem 
    Abstract: This paper explains the programming aspects of a promising Java-based programming and execution framework called JavaSymphony. JavaSymphony provides unified high-level programming constructs for applications related to shared, distributed, hybrid memory parallel computers, and co-processors accelerators. JavaSymphony applications can be executed on a variety of multi-/many-core conventional and data-parallel architectures. JavaSymphony is based on the concept of dynamic virtual architectures, which allows programmers to define a hierarchical structure of the underlying computing resources and to control load-balancing and task-locality. In addition to GPU support, JavaSymphony provides a multi-core aware scheduling mechanism capable of mapping parallel applications on large multi-core machines and heterogeneous clusters. Several real applications and benchmarks (on modern multi-core computers, heterogeneous clusters, and machines consisting of a combination of different multi-core CPU and GPU devices) have been used to evaluate the performance. The results demonstrate that the JavaSymphony outperforms the Java implementations, as well as other modern alternative solutions.
    Keywords: Parallel programming; Java; Multi-core Scheduler; GPU computing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006700
  • An Efficient Node Deployment Method for Indoor Passive Localization   Order a copy of this article
    by Jinjun Liu 
    Abstract: Most existing studies on device-free indoor localization aim to improve localization performance by deploying a large number of sensor nodes in indoor environments, thereby resulting in high hardware cost, more energy consumption and other drawbacks. This paper proposes a wrapper, heuristic and sensor-based node deployment method, which reduces the number of deployed sensors while achieving a high localization accuracy by selecting the fittest link feature subset in localization datasets. The performance results reveal that the proposed method outperforms existing work in terms of the number of deployed nodes, consequently can greatly thins out the extra nodes, shortens the localization response time and saves energy. Furthermore, the method can easily adjust the number of specific nodes by flipping the coefficient ratio of transmitters and receivers in fitness function.
    Keywords: Indoor passive localization; Node deployment; Localization response time; Energy consumption.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006701
  • Acoustic Energy-based Sensor Localization With Unknown Transmit Energy Levels   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiaoping Wu 
    Abstract: When the transmit energy levels are unavailable, semidefinite programming (SDP), mixed second order cone programming and semidefinite programming (SOC/SDP) and the linear least square estimator with source-anchor measurements (LLS-SA) are proposed to estimate the source locations in the wireless sensor networks. The proposed three algorithms avoid the shortcoming of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator which requires the initial solution guess to ensure the global convergence. By relaxing the acoustic energy-based localization model into convex optimization, the SDP, SOC/SDP algorithms provide the robust solutions to the source location estimates for the cooperative localization. The non-cooperative LLS-SA represents the source location estimates as algebraic closedform solutions which are further improved by using location refinement (LR) technique. The simulations show that the convex optimization algorithms including the SDP and SOC/SDP provide more robust solutions to the source location estimates compared with the linear estimator of LLS-SA. However the proposed LLS-SA runs faster than the SDP and SOC/SDP. The accuracy performance of the designed SOC/SDP is similar to that of the SDP, but the complexity of the SOC/SDP is greatly lower than that of the SDP for the same network configuration.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; sensor localization; acoustic energy-based; convex optimization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006702
  • Amazon Cloud Computing Platform EC2 and VANET Simulations   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Aleem 
    Abstract: Network simulations are resource and time intensive tasks due to the involvement of a number of factors attributable to scalability with respect to computation time, cost, and energy.
    Keywords: Academic Clouds; VANET Simulations; Amazon EC2; Large-scale Simulations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006703
  • A Hybrid Intelligent Control based Cyber-Physical System for Thermal Comfort in Smart Homes   Order a copy of this article
    by Jiawei ZHU 
    Abstract: With the fast development of human society, as environmental issues have drawn incomparable attention, energy efficiency is playing a significant role in residential buildings. Meanwhile, spending more time in homes leads people to constantly improve comfort there. Considering the fact that space heating makes a great contribution to residential energy consumption and thermal comfort, this paper presents a novel hybrid intelligent control system to manage space heating devices in a smart home with advanced technologies to save energy while to increase thermal comfort level. The approach combines a meta-heuristic algorithm used to compute a setpoint from the Predicted Mean Vote model with a Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller for indoor temperature regulation. In order to validate the system, computer simulations are conducted and analyzed. The results indicate the proposed control system can provide better thermal comfort comparing with other conventional and intelligent control methods, and consume less energy when demand response is considered.
    Keywords: thermal comfort; demand response; smart home; cyber-physical system; particle swarm optimization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10006704
  • A Smart Proactive Routing Protocol in Cognitive Radio Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahsa Soheil Shamaee, Mohammad Ebrahim Shiri, Masoud Sabaei 
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a smart proactive routing protocol based on Q-learning to find the most stable routes which impose minimum interference on the primary users. Unlike the traditional proactive routing protocols, in our proposed method, control packets are not broadcast whenever the network topology changes. Indeed, we apply a generalized version of Q-learning to predict the model of the routes stability. This model is used to prevent the floods of state information that is ineffective for routing decisions. The frequency of changes in the model is much less than that in the network topology. In our protocol, secondary users broadcast control packets with any changes in the model which reduces the routing overhead. The simulation results show that our routing protocol outperforms the existing ones in terms of throughput and the imposed interference on the primary users' spectrum as well as overhead.
    Keywords: Proactive Routing; Routes Stability; Control Overhead; Q-learning; Reinforcement Learning; Cognitive Radio; Primary Users; Secondary Users; Opportunistically Access; Channel Availability.

  • Farmland Multiparameter Wireless Sensor Network Data Compression Strategy   Order a copy of this article
    by Feifei Li 
    Abstract: A certain correlation exists among farmland wireless sensor network(WSN) monitored parameter data. Analyzing and utilizing parameter correlation can improve data compression efficiency and reduce network communication power. A data compression algorithm for multi-parameter farmland WSN is proposed. Firstly, a compression matrix of each cluster is built up based on clustering analysis among parameters and internal correlation analysis between categories. Then the parameter sorting scheme is determined based on the structured matrix which had strong correlation among rows and columns. It conducted characteristic analysis of parameter sequences. Operators between parameters are built in order to enhance the correlation and reduce high-frequency component of the matrix. By doing these the information loss during compression process could be reduced, and realized the goals of elevating compression ratio and reducing compression errors. Compression test shows that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce network data redundancy and energy consumption.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; data compression; correlation between parameters; wavelet transform.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10007545
  • A Scalable Middleware for Context-aware Mobile Applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Loris Belcastro, Fabrizio Marozzo, Paolo Trunfio 
    Abstract: A core functionality of context-aware mobile applications is storing, indexing, and retrieving information about users, places, events and other resources. The goal of this work is to design and provide a service-oriented middleware, called Geocon, which can be used by mobile developers to implement such functionality. To represent information about users, places, events and resources of context-aware applications, Geocon defines a metadata model that can be extended to match specific application requirements. The middleware includes a geocon-service for storing, searching and selecting metadata about users, resources, events and places of interest, and a geocon-client library that allows mobile applications to interact with the service through the invocation of local methods. The paper describes the Geocon middleware and presents an experimental evaluation of its scalability on a cloud platform with a real-world mobile application.
    Keywords: Context-aware; Mobile applications; Middleware; Scalability; Cloud computing.

  • A new Scheme for RPL to handle Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Leila Ben Saad 
    Abstract: Mobile wireless sensor networks are characterized by dynamic changes in the network topology leading to route breaks and disconnections. The IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and lossy networks (RPL), which has become a standard, uses the Trickle timer algorithm to handle changes in the network topology. However, neither RPL nor Trickle timer are well adapted to mobility. This paper investigates the problem of supporting mobility when using RPL. It enhances RPL to t with sensors' mobility by studying two cases. Firstly, it proposes to modify RPL in order to t with a dynamic and hybrid topology in the context of medical applications. Secondly, it investigates a more general case and introduces a new adaptive timer for RPL. The proposed approach is validated through extensive simulations and compared with existing protocols in the literature. Results show that our proposal signi cantly reduces disconnections and increases packet delivery ratio while maintaining low overhead.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; RPL protocol; Node mobility; Trickle timer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10008392
  • Automatic String Deobfuscation Scheme for Mobile Applications Based on Platform-level Code Extraction   Order a copy of this article
    by WooJong Yoo, Minkoo Kang, Myeongju Ji, Jeong Hyun Yi 
    Abstract: The Android operating system is vulnerable to various security threats owing to structural problems in Android applications. String obfuscation is one of the required protection schemes developed to protect Android application code. However, string obfuscation is being thwarted by malware makers and malware analysis is becoming more difficult and time-consuming. This paper proposes an automatic string deobfuscation and application programming interface (API) hiding neutralisation scheme that requires no encryption algorithm analysis or encryption key information. The proposed scheme has its own independent obfuscation tool. Further, it extracts and analyses code from the Android platform while the application is being executed and inserts only a return string value from the extracted code into the DEX file. The results of experiments conducted, in which commercial obfuscation tools Allatori, DexGuard, and DexProtector were applied to sample applications, verify the efficacy of the proposed method.
    Keywords: Reverse Engineering; Deobfuscation; Mobile Malware; Android;.

  • ACFC: Ant Colony with Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm for Community Detection in Social Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Marjan Naderan, Marjan Naderan, Seyed Enayatollah Alavi 
    Abstract: In this paper, we suggest a bipartite algorithm, namely ACFC, for finding communities in social networks. First, we use artificial ants to traverse the network modeled by a graph based on a set of rules to find a "good region" of edges. Next, we construct the communities after which local optimization methods are used to further improve the solution quality. Finally, we use the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm to fine tune the result. In our method ants are only used to identify good regions of the search space and construction methods are used to build the final solution. Experimental results on several synthetic graphs and four real world social networks compared to six other well-known methods show that our ACFC algorithm is very competitive against current state-of-the-art techniques for community detection and it is more accurate than existing algorithms as it performs well across many different types of networks.
    Keywords: Community Detection; Social Networks; Ant Colony; Q modularity; Fuzzy Clustering.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10008798
  • An Adaptable CS-Based Transmission Scheme in Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Hao Yang, Keming Tang 
    Abstract: As the essential requirement of wireless sensor network, energy-efficient data transmission has been paying a lot attention. Compressive Sensing(CS) has been currently utilized to save consumption of sensors. However, a vital problem still remains unclear that whether the execution costs of sensors employing CS is not worth being considered, motivating us to explore the answer from a point of real deployment platform view. Presenting observations from our operating sensor network, we verify two important facts: 1) The power costs of measure processing of sensors cannot be negligible as the increasing of samplings. 2) Measurements will constantly change along the routing and force relay sensors to consume more. Based on our findings, we propose an adaptable CS-based transmission scheme, ACS. With our experiments, energy is economized at least 15%. Our work gives a potential guideline for future designs of WSN in practice.
    Keywords: Compressive sensing; Data transmission; Adaptable transmission; Wireless sensor network.

  • Energy Aware Optimal Slot Allocation Scheme for Wearable Sensors in First Responder Monitoring System
    by Mahin K. Atiq, Kashif Mehmood, Muhammad Tabish Niaz, Hyung Seok Kim 
    Abstract: In recent advances in first response techniques, the uniform of each first responder working at the emergency field may be equipped with sensors and a gateway. These wearable sensors in conjunction with the gateway constitute a first responder monitoring system (FRMS). FRMS gathers data about the first responders's vitals and the surrounding environment, which is then transmitted to the incident commander. For the energy-constrained nature of the FRMS, an energy-ecient slot allocation scheme is proposed. The energy-ecient scheme involves the design of an optimal slot allocation scheme based on Hungarian algorithm for sensor data collection and an energy-aware sensing and transmission scheme for sensor nodes. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of proposed scheme in terms of lifetime, residual energy, and energy delay product as compared to greedy and first-in-first-out (FIFO) slot allocation schemes.
    Keywords: Slot allocation; Hungarian algorithm; Sensing and transmission scheme; Wearable sensor systems; First responder monitoring.

  • A Statistical Detection Mechanism for Node Misbehaviors in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs)   Order a copy of this article
    by Rida Khatoun 
    Abstract: Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have become an increasingly popular wireless networking technology for establishing the last-mile connectivity for home and neighbourhood networkings. In such networks, packet dropping may be due to either an attack, or normal loss events such as bad channel quality. Furthermore, in the route discovery phase, path stability is not always considered. We consider a special case of denial of service (DoS) attack in WMNs known as the greyhole attack. In this attack, a node selectively drops some packets which it has to forward along the path. To mitigate this attack, we propose a dropping detection mechanism allowing a mobile node to select a most reliable route to the destination. Our detection module detects misbehaving nodes by comparing the observed packet loss distribution of nodes to the expected ones when they are well-behaved. We validate the proposed approach via extensive simulations through R software and Matlab.
    Keywords: Wireless Mesh Networks; Misbehavior; Detection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10009416
  • Malicious User Detection with Local Outlier Factor during Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Suchismita Bhattacharjee 
    Abstract: In collaborative sensing, multiple secondary users (SUs) cooperate for a more accurate sensing decision to detect spectrum holes in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). This technique, however, can be adversely affected by malicious users (MUs) who route falsified spectrum sensing data to the fusion centre (FC). This attack is known as the spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack. The task of the FC is to aggregate local sensing reports and is thereby responsible for making the final sensing decision. In this paper, we propose a detection and isolation scheme based on local outlier factor (LOF) to detect and reduce the unfavourable effects of SSDF attack. The key feature of this scheme is that for each SU a metric is calculated, which is called the LOF. Based on the LOF, a decision is made about whether an SU is an attacker or not. We support the validity of the proposed scheme through extensive simulation results.
    Keywords: Cognitive Radio Networks; Local Outlier Factor; Collaborative Spectrum Sensing; SSDF Attack; Independent Attack; Colluding Attack; Fusion Center.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10009417
  • A Critical Review of Quality of Service Models in Mobile Ad hoc Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadir Bouchama, Djamil Aïssani, Natalia Djellab, Nadia Nouali-Taboudjemat 
    Abstract: Quality of service (QoS) provisioning in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) consists of providing a complex functionality in a harsh environment where resources are scarce. Thus, it is very challenging to build an efficient solution to address this issue. The proposed solutions in the literature are broadly classified into four categories, namely: QoS routing protocols, QoS signalling, QoS-aware MAC protocols and QoS models, which are the main concern of our study. The contribution of this paper is threefold: Firstly,wepropose a set of guidelines to deal with the challenges facing QoS models design in ad hoc networks. Secondly, we propose a new taxonomy for QoS models in ad hoc networks. Finally, we provide an in-depth survey and discussion of the most relevant proposed frameworks.
    Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks; Quality of service; IntServ; DiffServ; QoS models; QoS routing; Hard QoS; Soft QoS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJAHUC.2017.10009418
  • Detection of Malicious Packet Dropping Attacks in RPL-based Internet of Things   Order a copy of this article
    by Sooyeon Shin, Kyounghoon Kim, Taekyoung Kwon 
    Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) may involve a large number of devices highly constrained in their resources in terms of power, memory, computation, and communication. To cover an increasing number of IoT devices, the IPv6 paradigm is essentially required. RPL (Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) is an IPv6-based routing protocol optimized for IoT environments and it supports a powerful and flexible routing framework for a variety of application scenarios of IoT. However, it is susceptible to various security threats including a malicious packet dropping attack, which uses internal compromised nodes to threaten the operation of network. If a node with a lower rank closer to the root node attempts a malicious packet dropping, it may disrupt basic data transmission, or even the entire IoT application service. In this paper, we present a novel detection method for malicious packet dropping attacks against RPL-based networks. The proposed method is based on the anomaly IDS approach and detects a malicious packet dropping in the presence of normal packet losses caused by collisions or channel errors. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method on Contiki's network simulator, Cooja. The evaluation results show that it has good performance to detect malicious packet dropping attacks in the RPL-based networks. In every case, the successful detection rate is more than 94% and the false alarm rate is less than 3%.
    Keywords: Internet of Things; IPv6; RPL; 6LowPAN; Packet Dropping; Detection; ContikiOS; Cooja simulator.

  • GPU-based distributed bee swarm optimization for dynamic vehicle routing problem   Order a copy of this article
    by Maroua Grid, Noureddine Djedi, Salim Bitam 
    Abstract: Nowadays, there is still a large gap between the requirements and the performance of decision support systems for many problems such as the vehicle routing problem, consists in conceiving a set of optimal routes for a fleet of vehicles, aiming at serving a given number of customers. Nevertheless, new customer orders could be introduced while a prior plan is in progress. Therefore, routes should be recalculated in a dynamic way. In this paper, we propose a new parallel combinatorial optimization method based on Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) called Parallel Bees Life Algorithm (P-BLA) to solve efficiency the Dynamic Capacitated vehicle routing problem (DCVRP) in terms of execution time, and to reduce computational complexity often considered as the major drawback of conventional optimization methods. P-BLA is developed using CUDA framework performed on island-based GPU. After a set of comparisons against conventional methods namely; genetic algorithm, ant system, Tabu search and sequential BLA, P-BLA has provided efficient results reached from the most tested DCVRP benchmarks.
    Keywords: DCVRP; k-means; P-BLA; Parallel optimization; GPGPU.

  • Linear Closed-Form Estimator for Sensor Localization Using RSS and AOA Measurements   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian Zhang 
    Abstract: Using the hybrid received signal strength (RSS) and angle of arrival (AOA) measurements, a position estimation model is proposed for senor localization in three-dimensional plane. Then the unconstraint linear least square (ULLS) estimator is designed to obtain a closed-form solution to the positions of source nodes by considering the known transmit power. To improve the accuracy performance of the ULLS estimator, the constraint linear least square (CLLS) estimator is introduced by utilizing the constraint condition. When the transmit power is unavailable, a global linear least square (GLLS) estimator is also put forward to estimate the positions of source nodes along with the transmit power. The simulations show that the computational complexity of the proposed linear estimators is greatly lower than that of the convex semidefinite programming (SDP) method. When the measurement noises are small, the linear ULLS, CLLS and GLLS estimators perform better than that of the SDP method. Due to the exploiting of constraint condition, the accuracy performance of the CLLS estimator can approach the Cram'{e}r-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) of position estimation.
    Keywords: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs); localization; received signal strength (RSS); angle of arrival (AOA); linear least square.