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International Journal of Automation and Control

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 International Journal of Automation and Control (37 papers in press)  Regular Issues  Improved Reaching Law Based Sliding Mode Controller for Free Flight Autopilot System   by Devika K B, Susy Thomas Abstract: This paper addresses the suitability of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) as a control strategy for a highly sophisticated aerospace application, viz., free flight autopilot system.When used for any practical application, chattering which is an inherent limitation of SMC have to be mitigated adequately. Reaching law approaches for SMC design are being investigated so as to identify an appropriate strategy that can ensure chattering free operation for free flight autopilot system. It is found that many of the reaching law based SMC methodology leads to shortened sliding mode phase, slow system response and/or unbounded control action. Hence, each of the existing conventional reaching law methods, viz., Constant Rate Reaching Law (CRRL), Constant plus Proportional Rate Reaching Law (CPRRL) and Power Rate Reaching Law (PRRL) are investigated not only for their efficacy in providing chattering free operation but also for sufficient sliding mode motion (hence robustness), fast response and bounded control action. Simultaneous assurance of all these four attributeswould provide confident operation of free flight system. From simulation analysis it is observed that the conventional reaching laws fail in achieving these attributes concurrently. In this context, the authors propose an improved reaching law, viz., Power Rate Exponential Reaching law (PRERL) so as to satisfy all the aforesaid desired properties. The performance of free flight modes of operation when controlled by PRERL based SMC controller is validated through simulation studies. Keywords: Air traffic control; Chattering reduction; Free flight; Reaching Law; Sliding mode control. Non-fragile H Controller for Combustion Process in Rocket Motors   by Yubin Wu, Hexin Zhang Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the problem of robust non-fragile H∞ controller for the combustion process in liquid propellant rocket motors chamber. Based on the delay decomposition approach, the whole delay interval is divided into two equidistant subintervals and a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) which contains some triple-integral terms and augment terms is introduced on each interval. By using L-K stability theorem, integral inequality method together with free weighting matrix approach, a new delay-dependent bounded real lemma (BRL) is formulated. Then, by applying the BRL, non-fragile H∞ controller is formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMI), where no any parameter needs to be turned and apt to realization. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate that the designed controller has good robust and non-fragile performance. Keywords: rocket motors; combustion; Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF); delay-decomposition; non-fragile H∞ controller. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROL STRATEGIES OF A MULTI-WHEELED COMBAT VEHICLE   by Moustafa El-Gindy Abstract: This work develops a vehicle dynamics controller for vehicle stability, maneuverability and turning circle reduction for an 8 x 8 heavy combat vehicle utilising both torque vectoring and third and fourth axle steering. The proposed control scheme is composed of two distinct controllers, each with their own range of operation based on vehicle speed. A feedforward zero side slip (ZSS) controller actuates the third and fourth axle steering angles. It is used for maneuvering at speeds of 30 kph and below and for turning circle reduction. A two degrees of freedom (DOF) linear parameter varying (LPV) H∞ controller that monitors steering wheel angle and yaw rate error and uses both the rear axle steering and torque vectoring to enhance vehicle stability and maneuverability at speeds above 40 kph. Gaussian distribution functions are used to switch from one controller to the other. The proposed control scheme is evaluated by running simulations using a validated computer simulation (TruckSim) full vehicle model in co-simulation with the controller and developed electric powertrain in Simulink. The proposed control system is able to greatly improve vehicle stability and maneuverability. A turning circle reduction of 30% is obtained using the ZSS feedforward method. Keywords: Torque vectoring; rear wheel steering; H∞; linear parameter-varying; vehicle dynamics control; stability control; multi-wheeled combat vehicle; direct yaw moment control. Optimal path planning for an autonomous articulated vehicle with two trailers   by Amr Mohamed, Jing Ren, Haoxiang Lang, Moustafa El-Gindy Abstract: This paper proposed an optimal path planning algorithm for an autonomous vehicle with two trailers in autonomous navigation. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of artificial potential field method (APF) and optimal control theory. A linear two-degree-of-freedom vehicle model with both lateral and yaw motion is derived and simulated in MATLAB environment. The optimal control theory is applied to generate an optimal free-obstacle path of the robotic vehicle from a starting point to the goal location. The obstacle-avoidance technique is mathematically modelled using a potential function based on the proposed sigmoid function. The constructed potential field model can achieve an accurate analytic description of objects in three dimensions. Moreover, the proposed model of potential field requires very modest computation at run time. The APF includes both the attractive (the target) and repulsive (the obstacles) potential fields that will control the steering angle of the vehicle so that it can reach to its target location. Several simulations are carried out to check the fidelity of the proposed technique. The illustrated results demonstrate the generated optimal path of autonomous vehicles with consideration of vehicle dynamics constraints, obstacle avoidance and collision free criteria in reaching the goal location. Keywords: path planning; autonomous vehicle; vehicle with two trailer; artificial potential field; optimal control theory. Fuzzy Logic-Based PI Controller Design and Implementation of Shape Memory Alloy Actuator   by Yasser Hassan, Ahmed Abouelsoud, Ahmed Fathelbab Abstract: In this paper, a new implementation method is proposed for shape memory alloy (SMA) model which is used to design and control SMA based linear actuator. This implementation method is based on strain-driven approach rather than stress-driven approach found in the literature. This approach removes problems associated with model implementation of SMA actuator. An algorithm reminiscence to the return mapping algorithm is used to implement the strain-driven SMA model. A dynamic system that describes the characteristics of one-way bias force based SMA actuator is simulated using this implementation approach. An adaptive fuzzy logic based PI controller is designed to tune PI controller gains. The proposed controller shows superior response over existing controllers of SMA wire actuators found in the literature in terms of zero steady state error, no overshoot and reduced hysteresis. Keywords: Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators; stress-driven approach; strain-driven approach; and Adaptive Fuzzy logic PI controller. Robust Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Design and Implementation for Connected Vehicles   by Mark Trudgen, Rebecca Miller, Javad Mohammadpour Velni Abstract: Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a developing technology that achieves reduced inter-vehicle distance following in order to increase roadway capacity. CACC provides much lower headway values than adaptive cruise control (ACC) or human drivers can; however, this relies on real-time acceleration data, which inherently has inexact timing. In order to implement a string stable CACC platoon following scheme, meaning that disturbances are attenuated down the stream of the platoon of vehicles, while also overcoming the inherent challenges of wireless communication and uncertain internal model parameters, we design an H1 controller that is robust to all aforementioned uncertainties. We implement this controller on a laboratory-scale test bed with an anti-windup compensation scheme and particularly show that the controller design is able to account for communication shortcomings. Keywords: Cooperative adaptive cruise control; Robust H1 control; antirnwindup; loop shaping; platoon following; wireless communication; cyberrnphysical systems. The Research on Digital and Intelligent Management System for Large Castings Based on Internet+   by Qinglin Chang, Hongyuan Fan, Li Hou, Hongjun Chen, Yang Duan, Peng Cai, Lan Luo Abstract: In this paper the status and demands of casting production for large wind power and nuclear power companies was taken as the background. This paper aimed at problems in large casting companies such as various products but in small batch, low data utilization rate, complex management structure, slow data collection and transmission speed, inconsistent exchange of current software information and so on, to target the integration of equipment, process, software, production, project management, supply chain and customer management. The model using the top-down and taking current software/system into consideration was adopted, and the usage requirement of casting enterprise is analyzed in this paper. A casting system management platform based on Internet+ was obtained, of which the frame for sub function, system and module to realize it was divided. Research on data storage model and interaction pattern was conducted to provide reference for the development and implementation of information and intelligent platform for casting enterprises. Keywords: Casting; Informationization; Management System; Internet+. Two Degree of Freedom PID Controller in Time Delay System using Hybrid Controller Model   by G. Kannan, G. Saravanakumar, M. Saraswathi Abstract: In the paper, a hybrid method based Two Degree of Freedom (2-DOF) PID controller is proposed for tuning the time delay system. The hybrid technique is the combination of Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) and Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA). Here, the GSA is utilized for generating the logic rules of FLC. The 2-DOF Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID) controller ensures highly efficient disturbance rejection and reliable performance. Here, tuning of a 2-DOF PID controller with a time delay system design that achieves a high performance for a wide range. For the automatic tuning process, the parameters of time delays system is predicted and tuned optimally in the short period of time. The first order time delay system is tuned and the stability parameters such as small overshoot, settling time and rising time has been achieved. From the results, it is noted that, proposed controller provides enhanced results for the reference tracking and disturbance rejection operations. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed technique is demonstrated through the MATLAB/simulink platform, and the performance is tested and compared with the existing controller tuning methods such as FLC technique with Genetic algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques. Keywords: FLC; 2-DOF PID controller; GSA; ANN and time delay system.DOI: 10.1504/IJAAC.2018.10006479  A New Approach in Three-Axis Satellite Stabilization Using Redundant Thruster in Elliptical Orbit   by Mahdi Fakoor, Alireza Satterzadeh, Majid Bakhtiari Abstract: Three-axis attitude stabilization of a satellite in a LEO elliptical orbit, with respect to the effects of applied disturbances such as eccentricity, gravity gradient, solar radiation pressure and aerodynamic loads is presented by applying three reaction wheel actuators. A new attitude stabilization method is investigated by considering failure in one or more reaction wheels. In this approach, in the absence of reaction wheels, control torques are generated by employing a two rotational degree of freedom redundant thruster which is mounted on a gimbal mechanism. If any failure happens in reaction wheels, redundant thruster will be added to the system by gimbal mechanism as an input controlling actuator. Controller algorithm based on dynamic and kinematic equations of the satellites motion is developed in the presence of mentioned disturbances. Considering the variable satellite model in different situations, neuro-fuzzy controller is employed. For training the intelligent neuro-fuzzy controller, PID controller is utilized. Numerical simulations show that, the recommend control method have acceptable results in the presence of disturbances, and supplementing of a thruster actuator as redundancy, could increase the space mission reliability. In the proposed scenario any fault in the operation of reaction wheels, will be compensated by redundant gimbal mounted thruster. So, satellite stabilization can be accomplished at desirable attitude. Keywords: Satellite; Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS); Neuro-Fuzzy; PID Controller; Reaction Wheel; Elliptical Orbit. Complete Synchronization of Non-Identical Fractional Order Hyperchaotic Systems Using Active Control   by Shikha Singh, Muzaffar Ahmad Bhat Abstract: This manuscript investigates the complete synchronization of non-identical fractionalorder hyperchaotic system via active control technique. The hyperchaotic fractional order Chen system is taken as master system and a new fractional order hyperchaotic system is taken as a slave system. The controllers are constructed using active control technique to ensure the complete synchronization between master and slave system. Simulations results show that our scheme can not make the two systems synchronized, but also let them remain chaotic states. Keywords: Fractional order hyperchaotic system; active control; stability; synchronization. Extension of operating air-gap in Electromagnetic Levitation System by using Intelligent Controllers   by Subrata Banerjee Abstract: Electromagnetic levitation system (EMLS) is inherently unstable and strongly non-linear in nature. The parameters of EMLS undergo considerable variation with change in air-gap. This makes the design and implementation of robust controllers is difficult. This paper deals with intelligent controllers utilizing Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) based piecewise linear control and GSA based fuzzy control scheme to extend the range of operating air-gap for an EMLS. Extensive simulation has been carried out for the tuning of controller parameters and it is found the GSA based technique produces improved performance. Robust design of controllers for different zones is confirmed by Kharitonov/Nyquist enclosure. The controllers are tested in a small-scale system in the laboratory confirming the usefulness of the proposed technique. Such systems are useful for magnetic levitation (maglev) based applications those need to operate in a large operating air-gap. Keywords: Electromagnetic levitation; DC-DC power converters; PWM; Fuzzy control; GSA; Piecewise linear control; Robust Control. Literature Survey for Autonomous Vehicles: Sensor Fusion, Computer Vision, System Identification and Fault Tolerance   by Amr Mohamed, Jing Ren, Moustafa El-Gindy, Haoxiang Lang, A.N. Ouda Abstract: Autonomous vehicle technologies are receiving more and more attention with increasing demands for autonomy and performance for both civilian and military purposes. In our previous paper Mohamed et al (2016), the recent developments in autonomous vehicles in the fields of advanced control, perception and motion planning techniques is surveyed. In this paper, the state of research with respect to autonomous vehicles from a number of different perspectives will be described. Among the many factors that affect the performance of these autonomous systems is the capability to integrate data and knowledge from different sensors, both of which are essential. In addition, advanced perception techniques, within the environment, and the capability to locate obstacles and targets are necessary in order to properly operate these systems. Moreover, autonomous vehicles can achieve reliable levels of performance by determining the faults and enabling the system to operate with these faults in mind. In order to achieve fault tolerance, often it is required to determine the mathematical model of the dynamic system by analysing the measured input and output signals of the system. This paper will briefly survey the recent developments in the field of autonomous vehicles from the perspectives of sensor fusion, computer vision, system identification and fault tolerance. Keywords: Autonomous vehicles; sensor fusion; computer vision; system identification; fault tolerance. A Mixed-method for order reduction of linear time invariant systems using Big Bang-Big Crunch and Eigen spectrum Algorithm   by Akhilesh Gupta, Deepak Kumar, Paulson Samuel Abstract: In this article, a novel mixed approach is presented for order reduction of complex higher order linear time invariant systems by merging the attributes of Big bang-Big crunch (BB-BC) optimization and Eigen spectrum algorithm. The cosmological theory based BB-BC optimization has the advantage of numerical simplicity with relatively fewer control parameters which makes this algorithm easier to implement.BB-BC optimization technique is based on the generation of random points in first step and contraction of these to a typical point in following step by the center of mass or minimal cost approach. On the other hand, Eigen permutation is based on the retention of dominant poles with simultaneous cluster formation of remaining real and complex poles which guarantee the stability of resulting reduced order model for a stable original model. In the proposed approach, denominator polynomial of the reduced order model (ROM) is determined by the Eigen permutation approach whereas the minimization of the fitness function,i.e.integral square error (ISE) by the BB-BC algorithm approach is adopted for the computation of numerator polynomial coefficients. The effectiveness of the proposed approach over well-known methods is validated with the help of numerical examples by the comparison of transient parameters and performance indices. Keywords: Big bang-big crunch; Eigen spectrum; ISE; ITSE; IAE; ITAE; MOR; Reduced order model. PSO Based Parameter Estimation and PID Controller Tuning For 2-DOF Non-linear Twin Rotor MIMO System   by Roshni Maiti, Kaushik Das Sharma, Gautam Sarkar Abstract: The present paper proposes a control methodology for a non-linear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system that combines a stochastic optimization and proportional-integral-differential (PID) control scheme. This methodology is demonstrated through a laboratory scale helicopter setup commonly known as the twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS). The objective is to design a stochastically optimal / near optimal control law that can simultaneously stabilize the TRMS with considerable cross-couplings and provide satisfactory tracking performance to reach a desired position. The proposed control methodology utilizes two PID controllers independently employed for the two rotors of TRMS. A PSO based parameter estimation technique has been utilized in this paper to estimate the parameters of the nonlinear TRMS laboratory setup. The nonlinear TRMS model with estimated parameters is employed to tune the PID gains by means of PSO in an off-line manner and then implemented in real-life experimentations. The proposed realization of PID control strategy is implemented for both simulation and real-life experimentations and their results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed methodology. Keywords: Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system; twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS); proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller; parameter estimation. A linear algebra controller based on reduced order models applied to trajectory tracking for mobile robots: An experimental validation   by Leonardo Guevara Guevara, Oscar Camacho, Andres Rosales, Javier Guevara, Gustavo Scaglia Abstract: A Linear Algebra Controller (LACr) based on an empirical linear model of the system is presented in this paper. The controller design is based on a First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPDT) model and can be tuned using the characteristic parameters obtained from the reaction curve. In previous studies, the versatility of this proposed controller was tested by simulations, proving be an alternative to control many kinds of processes. In this paper, the proposed controller is implemented for trajectory tracking using a real mobile robot platform. The performance results are compared against a PI controller using the ISE performance index to measure it. Keywords: numerical method controller; linear algebra; reduced order models; characteristic parameters; pioneer 3-DX; mobile robot; trajectory tracking. Control of Continuous-Time Chaotic (Hyperchaotic) Systems: F-M Synchronization   by Adel Ouannas, Ahmad Taher Azar, Toufik Ziar Abstract: In this paper, a new type of chaos synchronization between differentrndimensional chaotic systems is proposed. The novel scheme is called F-Mrnsynchronization, since it combines the inverse generalized synchronization withrnthe matrix projective synchronization. In particular, the proposed approachrnenables F-M synchronization to be achieved between n-dimensional masterrnsystem and m-dimensional slave system in different dimensions. The technique,rnwhich exploits nonlinear controllers, stability property of integer-order linearrncontinuous-time dynamical systems and Lyapunov stability theory, proves to berneffective in achieving the F-M synchronization. Finally, simulation results arernreported, with the aim to illustrate the capabilities of the novel scheme proposed Keywords: Chaotic systems; Different dimensions; Matrix projectivernsynchronization; nonlinear controllers; Inverse generalized synchronization. Derivative Adaptive Predictive Control for a Tempering Process   by DANIEL VIUDEZ-MOREIRAS Abstract: The modeling threshold problem made hard the Adaptive Predictive (AP/ADEX) controllers implementation in processes that, due to their dynamics behavior, require a control period below a certain value. However, a new concept named Guidance System for derivative control (GS), originally developed for the aerospace sector, overcomes this problem. This paper presents the first industrial application from this new concept, applied to an illustrative industrial tempering process, characterized by a multivariable, highly non-linear and time-varying dynamics. Thus, the new design is based on Adaptive Predictive Expert (ADEX) control, and extended with a new concept, the Guidance Block, required to overcome the ADEX methodology restrictions when it has to be applied with reduced control periods in order to deal satisfactorily with high disturbances and non-linear dynamics. This paper also presents a comparison between the new control system and the conventional control system (LCS), previously implemented in this industry and based on PID methodology, showing the benefits of implementing the new system. Keywords: Optimized Adaptive Control; Predictive Control; Adaptive Predictive Control; Derivative Control; Guidance System; Process Control; Tempering Process. CDM Based Two Degree of Freedom PI Controller Tuning Rules for Stable and Unstable FOPTD Processes and Pure Integrating Processes with Time Delay   by Somasundaram S, Benjanarasuth T Abstract: This work proposes the Coefficient Diagram Method (CDM) based two degree of freedom Proportional Integral (CDM-PI) controller tuning rules for stable and unstable First Order Plus Time Delay (FOPTD) processes and Pure Integrating Processes with Time Delay (PIPTD). To derive the tuning rules, a general First Order Plus Time Delay (FOPTD) model, the first order Taylor denominator approximation technique and the pole allocation strategy named CDM is used. The tuning rules derived here are novel and they relate the controller parameters to the process model parameters directly. The performance of the CDM-PI controller utilizing the proposed tuning rules is tested with numerical examples of stable, unstable and pure integrating processes with time delay models. The test results indicate that the proposed tuning rules yield promising results over the other PI controllers. Performance measures confirm the effectiveness of the proposed tuning method. Keywords: CDM-PI; Two degree of freedom; Tuning rules; Process models; Performance measures. Modified PSO based Non-Linear Controllers Applied to a DC-DC Converter   by Hadjer Abderrezek, Ameur Aissa, M.N. Harmas Abstract: Control of dc/dc Buck converter is a complex task due to the nonlinearity inherent in the converter and introduced by the external changes. A robust synergetic controller for the control of dc/dc Buck converter is described in this study. An adaptive terminal synergetic control is developed based on robust synergetic control theory and terminal attractor techniques. The method estimates the boundary of parameter uncertainty and external disturbance by adaptive law. The idea behind this strategy is to use the terminal synergetic control (TSYC) approach to assure finite time convergence of the output voltage error to the equilibrium point, and integrate an adaptive law to handle uncertainties is provided resulting in enhancing robustness as well as a better transient performance compared to the conventional control. In addition, Modified PSO algorithms will be used to optimize controllers parameters using an ITAE criterion. The results show and demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed approach. Keywords: synergetic control; terminal; TSYC; Adaptive; ATSYC; particle swarm optimization; PSO; Lyapunov; finite time; MPSO. Parabolic Angle-based Anti-sway Control for Container Cranes with Limited Dynamic Loads   by Kamal Khandakji, Victor Busher, Lubov Melnikova Abstract: A novel anti-sway control system for cranes is proposed. The proposed method is based on the formation of a predetermined angle of deviation as a piecewise-continuous parabolic function, the second derivative of which does not experience discontinuity, and its third derivative is a rectangular pulse of certain variable-sign amplitude, which eliminates the mechanical stress in the crane construction and kinematic gears. The proposed method provides damping of the oscillations of the suspended load during its horizontal motion (in two orthogonal coordinates) and hoisting/lowering. The control method is invariant to the mechanism/payload mass ratio, lift height and hoisting speed. Keywords: Anti-sway system; motion control; oscillations damping; container crane. An algorithm to diagnose manufacturing hybrid systems   by Omaima BENATIA, Fouad BELMAJDOUB Abstract: We propose in this paper a new method for diagnosing manufacturing hybrid systems. We are inspired by two methods: one is based on continuous Petri nets and the other is based on discrete Petri nets. The combination of these two methods will be based on hybrid Petri nets. Our approach is proposed in the form of an algorithm that treats the different steps to diagnose a manufacturing hybrid system whose discrete part controls the continuous part. We consider that the set of fault classes is partitioned into two subsets: continuous fault classes and discrete fault classes. Keywords: Diagnosis; manufacturing hybrid systems; discrete Petri nets; continuous Petri nets; hybrid Petri nets; fault classes; continuous fault classes; discrete fault classes. Resonance Compensation in Dual-stage Hard Disk Drive Servo System   by Md. Arifur Rahman, Alamgir Hossain, Md. Raju Ahmed Abstract: This paper presents a simulation analysis of resonance compensation in dual-stage actuator system. To enhance the speed and precision, piezoelectric micro-actuator made form PZT (Lead-Zirconium-Titanium) is used as the secondary actuator in dual-stage hard disk drive (HDD) where a voice coil motor (VCM) is used as the primary actuator. Both VCM actuator and PZT micro-actuator (MA) have the problem of mechanical resonance. Conventional approach is to use a pre-compensator notch filter for each actuator to suppress the resonance. Since this method is based on inversion technique, it needs a very accurately identified plant model which is always difficult to obtain. On the other hand, a simple controller in the feedback path is a good solution for suppressing the resonance which does not require a very precise plant model. With the proper design of dual-stage controller, it is possible to bypass VCM actuator's resonance uncertainty by PZT micro-actuator in the high-frequency band. However, the resonance of the micro-actuator is detrimental to the stability of the dual-stage servo control loop. Therefore, proper design of resonance compensator of PZT loop is needed with the consideration of PZT actuator's resonance uncertainty. This paper presents a feedback resonant controller designed in simple way to suppress the resonant modes of PZT micro-actuator actuator in a dual-stage HDD servo system. The design is based on an integrated approach where M-norm minimization and mixed passivity, negative-imaginary, small-gain theorem are used. This approach results in a robust stable controller which provides better performance over the conventional notch filter. Simulation results substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Keywords: Dual-stage HDD; VCM actuator; PZT micro-actuator; Resonant controller. Special Issue on: Observer-based Fuzzy, Neural and Adaptive Control Advances and Applications Fuzzy Fractional Sliding Mode Observer Design for a Class of Nonlinear Dyanamics of the Cancer disease   by Reza Ghasemi Abstract: The purpose of this paper is designing to optimize controller parameters for improvement of the performances of cancer dynamic by combining both TS fuzzy sliding mode method and fractional variable structure control. The fractional fuzzy controller matched is formulated here. This paper is proven the stability conditions based on linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) where the fractional-order a belongs to 0 Keywords: fractional TS observer; fractional system; Cancer; sector nonlinearity approach ,sliding mode theory.DOI: 10.1504/IJAAC.2018.10005623  Adaptive fuzzy control strategy for greenhouse micro-climate   by Mouna Boughamsa Abstract: This paper describes a model predictive controller design to regulate the greenhouse micro-climate, where the controller outputs are computed to optimize the future behaviour of the greenhouse's environment, concerning the set-point accuracy of the internal temperature and humidity described by Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) model. Modelling procedure is based on two steps. First, the identification of the antecedent part where local linear models are valid using the well-known Fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm. Then, Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm is used for consequent part parameters adaptation. An adaptive T-S fuzzy model is considered within the control scheme for prediction of the future greenhouse behaviour. The main way of controlling the greenhouse micro-climate is to use heating and ventilation to regulate both internal temperature and humidity. The simulation results show that the proposed approach maintains successfully both temperature and humidity within the greenhouse around the desired set-points in the presence of disturbances. The simulation results are compared between MPC controller based on T-S fuzzy model and MPC based on a single linear model. Keywords: Adaptive fuzzy modelling; Greenhouse; Predictive control; Adaptive metric FCM; Kalman filter.DOI: 10.1504/IJAAC.2018.10007843  Load Frequency Control of Multi-Area Interconnected Thermal Power System: Artificial Intelligence Based Approach   by Jagatheesan Kaliannan, Anand B., Nilanjan Dey, Amira Ashour, Valentina E. Balas Abstract: This work proposed an Artificial Intelligence (AI) based optimization technique for load frequency control issue for oscillations suppression in the power system response, namely frequency, tie-line power exchange and area control error. Proper control mechanism in the system during sudden load changes affects the quality represented by the consistency and the adequacy of the generating unit power. The investigated system consists of three equal thermal generating units. Each unit equipped with ProportionalIntegralDerivative (PID) controller, reheater unit and appropriate non-linearity. The PID controller gain values are obtained by using three different cost functions including the Integral Square Error (ISE), Integral Time Absolute Error (ITAE) and Integral Absolute Error (IAE). Load perturbation of 1% and 2% is considered in thermal area 1 for the performance analysis of the AI optimization technique. Additionally, time domain specifications of the settling time and overshoot are considered in the system response analysis. The experimental results established that the proposed optimization based ACO algorithm achieved tuning performance for the PID controller gain values, which depends on the cost functions. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Cost function; Load Frequency Control (LFC);Optimization; Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller; Time domain Specification. Adaptive Nonlinear Observer Augmented By Radial Basis Neural Network For A Nonlinear Sensorless Control of An Induction Machine   by Boufadene Mourad Abstract: This paper presents adaptive neural network nonlinear observer associated with a sensor less nonlinear feedback linearization controller for induction machine. The proposed observer is used to estimate the mechanical speed using the stator currents measurements and the supplied input voltages; whereas the load torque (unknown disturbance) is estimated using online radial basis neural network function approximation. The stability of the proposed controller-observer is achieved using Lyapunov function. Hence Simulation results have been performed under Matlab/Simulink shows clearly the performance of the proposed algorithm. Keywords: Sensorless control; Neural Network Observer; Adaptive Observer; Load torque Estimation; Induction Machine; Feedback linearization control. SLIDING SURFACE BASED OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE FOR SECOND ORDER MULTI AGENT SYSTEMS   by Asma Essghaier, Lotfi Beji, Azgal Abichou Abstract: This paper studies formation keeping along with obstacle avoidance for second-order multi-agent systems. First, the flexible virtual structure (FVS) approach, used to model the communication topology between the agents of the formation, is recalled and relationship with graph theory based communication exchange to achieve consensus is established. Second, using the regulation function (RF) which permits to change the behavior of the systems solution without affecting convergence, obstacle avoidance is investigated for one agent (leader/co-leader) of the formation. Particularly (RF) was used to ensure obstacle avoidance for first order agents and is extended in this work for second order agents. Relationship between the dynamic agent and a sliding surface with first order kinematics is established and condition on the sliding surface parameter is developed to ensure obstacle avoidance. Also new shapes of the obstacle are considered namely square and rhombus. Finally, in order to performa coordinated obstacle avoidance of a multi agent system when only a subset of agents namely co-leaders , selected from the boarder, has obstacle information, one defines control laws which permit to control motions of the remaining formation agents. Keywords: Obstacle Avoidance; Second Order Multi Agent Systems; Flexible Virtual Structure; Regulation Function; Consensus; Graph Theory. Synchronization Control for Ships in Underway Replenishment Based on Dynamic Surface Control   by Yongchao Liu, Jialu Du, Xin Hu Abstract: In order to ensure safe underway replenishment operation between two ships, it is necessary to keep the distance and avoid collision between the supply and the supplied ships. A virtual trajectory locating on one side of the supplied ship with a relatively fixed distance from the trajectory of the main ship is introduced. A nonlinear synchronization control law is developed for the supply ship in the underway replenishment under environmental disturbances incorporating a robust term based on signum function into the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique. It is proved that the designed synchronization control law can force the supply ship to track the virtual trajectory with arbitrarily small errors, while guaranteeing that all signals in the synchronization closed-loop control system are uniformly ultimately bounded so that synchronization motion control is realized between two ships. Simulation results on a supply ship illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization control law. Keywords: underway replenishment; synchronization control; virtual trajectory; dynamic surface control. Modeling, Stability Analysis and Computational Aspects of Nonlinear Fuzzy PID Controllers using Mamdani Minimum Inference   by Arun N K, Mohan B M Abstract: This paper presents two new mathematical models of the simplest fuzzy PID controller which employ two fuzzy sets (negative and positive) on each of the three input variables (error, change in error and double change in error) and four fuzzy sets ($-2$, $-1$, $+1$, $+2$) on the output variable (incremental control). \emph L - type, \emph{$\Gamma$} - type and \emph{$\Pi$} - type membership functions are considered in fuzzification process of input and output variables. Controller modeling is done via algebraic product AND operation, maximum / bounded sum OR operation, Mamdani minimum inference method, and Centre of Sums (CoS) defuzzification. The new models obtained in this manner turn out to be nonlinear, and their properties are studied. Since digital controllers are implemented on the digital processors, the computational and memory requirements of the fuzzy controllers and conventional (nonfuzzy) controller are compared. Stability analysis of closed loop systems containing the fuzzy controller models is done using the small gain theorem. Keywords: Fuzzy control; PID controller; Mamdani type controller; Variable gain control; Nonlinear control; Variable structure control; Mathematical modeling. Adaptive iterative learning control of nonlinearly parameterised strict feedback systems with input saturation   by Hocine Benslimane, Abdesselem Boulkroune, Hachemi Chekireb Abstract: In this paper, a new adaptive iterative learning control scheme is proposed to deal with nonlinearly parameterised strict feedback systems under alignment condition in the presence of input saturation constraint. The learning controller is designed by using the command filtered adaptive backstepping design procedure. The nonlinearly connected parameters are separated from the local Lipschitz continuous nonlinear functions and then learning laws are designed in iteration domain. To overcome the problem of input saturation, an auxiliary system is constructed with the same order as that of the systems under consideration. It is proved that the proposed control scheme can guarantee that all signals of the resulting closed-loop system remain bounded, and the tracking error converges to zero as the iteration number goes to infinity. A simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Keywords: adaptive iterative learning control; Lyapunov functional; nonlinearly parameterised functions; input saturation constraint; backstepping method; strict feedback systems. Design and Analysis of BFOA optimized PID controller with derivative filter for frequency regulation in Distributed Generation System   by Tulasichandra Sekhar Gorripotu, Darapureddi Vijaya Kumar, Manmadha Kumar Boddepalli Abstract: In this article, a Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) based Proportional Integral Derivative controller with derivative filter (PIDF) is proposed for frequency regulation of multi source hybrid power system. Initially, a two area unequal area power system with PIDF controllers are considered. The area-1 comprises of reheat thermal power system incorporated with Distributed Generation (DG) system comprising of wind turbine generators (WTGs), diesel engine generators (DEGs), fuel cells (FCs), aqua-electrolyser (AE), ultra capacitor (UC) and battery energy storage system (BESS). The area-2 comprises of hydro-thermal power system. The gains of the PID controller with derivative filter are optimized by using Integral Time multiply Absolute Error (ITAE) criterion. The superiority of PIDF controller is demonstrated by comparing the dynamic responses with Integral Derivative (ID) and Proportional Integral (PI) controllers. The simulation results shows that the performance of dynamic responses with PIDF controller are superior to others. Further, robustness analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and wind power variations. It is observed from the simulation results that the optimum gains of the proposed controller need not be reset even if the system is subjected to wide variation in loading condition and system parameters. Keywords: Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA); Distributed Generation (DG); Frequency regulation; Proportional Integral Derivative controller with derivative filter (PIDF); Robustness analysis. Design of a proportional integral observer based on sliding mode principle for uncertain Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems. Applications to a Turbo-Reactor   by Elleuch Ilyes, Khedher Atef, Ben Othman Kamel Abstract: In this work, a proportional integral observer based on the sliding mode principle is used for the state and the sensor fault estimation. The state and the fault estimations are made using a particulate mathematical transformation. The application of this mathematical transformation to the initial system output let to conceive an augmented system where the initial sensor fault appears as an unknown input. An adaptive mathematical form is used for the sign function to facilitate the determination of the proportional gains of the conceived observer. The observer convergence conditions are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMI) allowing computing the observer gains and the Lyapunov theory is used to guarantied the system stability with injected faults. The proposed proportional integral sliding mode observer is applied to turbo-reactor showing the efficiency of the fault and state estimation. Keywords: state estimation; Takagi-Sugeno; unknown input; sensor faults; multiple model. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for Three Tank System based on Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI)   by El Mehdi Mellouli, Mohammed Alfidi, Ismail Boumhidi Abstract: A novel method based Fuzzy Sliding Mode (FSM) and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) approach is presented in this paper to design a new robust adaptive controller for a perturbed Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) Three Tank System with unknown dynamics and without chattering problem. The proposed method uses the adaptive fuzzy system Takagi-Sugeno (TS) to approximate the unknown dynamics model of the three tank system. Moreover, to overcome the fuzzy approximation errors and the external disturbance, an auxiliary control term based sliding mode is incorporated in the control law. Linear matrix inequality is used to determine the parameters of the dynamic compensator which is added to improve more performance of the closed-loop system in the sliding mode. The stability and robustness of the proposed method are proved and the simulation is given to demonstrate the tracking performance of the proposed approach. Keywords: Indirect adaptive fuzzy technique; Sliding mode control; Linear Matrix Inequality; Lyapunov stability. Discrete-Time sliding mode control of a class of linear uncertain saturated systems   by Borhen Torchani, Chaker Zaafouri, Anis Sellami, Germain Garcia Abstract: Abstract: This paper proposes a new design approach of discrete-time sliding mode control of a class of linear uncertain systems in presence of saturation constraint. The saturation constraint is reported on inputs vector and it is subject to constant limitations in amplitude. The uncertainty is being norm bounded reported on both dynamic and control matrices. In general, sliding mode control strategy consists on two essential phases. The design of the quasi-sliding surface is the first phase which is formulated as a pole assignment of linear uncertain and saturated system in a specific region through convex optimization. The solution to this problem is therefore numerically tractable via linear matrix inequalities optimization. The controller design is the second phase of the sliding mode control design, which leads to the development of a continuous and non-linear control law. An approximation on the trajectory deviation of the uncertain saturated system compared to the ideal behavior is proposed to provide robustness of the nonlinear control. Finally, the validity and the applicability of this approach are illustrated by a multivariable numerical example of a robot pick and place. Keywords: Time Control; Sliding Mode Control; Norm Bounded Uncertainty; Saturation constraint. Robust Fuzzy Fault Tolerant Control For Induction Motor subject to Sensor Fault   by Habib Ben Zina Abstract: This study presents a strategy of fault tolerant control (FTC) to keep the vector controlled induction motor (IM) faultrntolerant control against sensor fault and parametric uncertainties. Firstly, A fuzzy proportional multiple integral observer (PMIO) is used tornestimate simultaneously the system state and the sensor fault. Secondly, a feedback robust state tracking control is synthesized to guarantee therncontrol performances. The aim is to minimize the effect of the sensor fault and the uncertainties. The proposed controller is based onrna T-S reference model to specify the desired trajectory. The performances of the trajectory tracking are analyzed using the Lyapunovrntheory and the $L_2$ optimization. The gains of the observer and controller are obtained by solving a set of LMIs constraint. Finally,rnsimulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme Keywords: Induction motor; Fault tolerant control; $H_infty$ theory; Lyapunov theory; $L_2$ performance; Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI); Sensor faults. A Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control of induction motor drive: experimental results   by Habib Ben Zina Abstract: This paper studies an observer based $H_infty$ tracking control problem for induction motor in order to guarantee the Field Oriented Control (FOC) performances. Firstly, the physical model of the induction motor is approximated by the (T-S) fuzzy technique in the synchronous d-q frame rotating. Then a fuzzy observer based feedback control is synthesized to guarantee the control performances. The proposed controller is based on a T-S reference model in which a desired trajectory has been specified. The performances of the trajectory tracking are analyzed using the Lyapunov theory and the $L_2$ optimization. The gains of the observer and the controller are obtained by solving a set of LMIs constraint in a single step. To highlight the effectiveness of the proposed strategy experimental results are presented for a 1.5 KW induction motor. Keywords: Induction motor; Takagi-Sugeno (T-S); Lyapunov theory; LMIs constraints. A novel 4-D hyperchaotic system with two quadratic nonlinearities and its adaptive synchronisation   by Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan, Ahmad Taher Azar, Abdesselem Boulkroune Abstract: This work announces an eleven-term novel 4-D hyperchaotic system withrntwo quadratic nonlinearities. A qualitative analysis of the properties of the novel 4-D hyperchaotic system is presented. A special feature of our novel hyperchaotic system is that it has three equilibrium points of which two are unstable and one is locally asymptotically stable. The Lyapunov exponents of the novel hyperchaotic system are obtained as L1 = 1.5146, L2 = 0.2527, L3 = 0 and L4 = -12.7626. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel hyperchaotic system is derived as DKY = 3.1385. Next, this work describes an adaptive controller design for the global hyperchaos synchronisation of identical novel hyperchaotic systems with unknown parameters. The main result is established using Lyapunov stability theory. MATLAB simulations are shown to describe all the main results derived in this work. Keywords: Chaos; hyperchaos; chaos control; chaos synchronization; adaptive control.