Electronic Government, an International Journal (15 papers in press)
Semantic Analysis- Internet of Things, Study of Past, Present and Future of IoT
by Snigdha Gharami, Praba Devi, Anupama Narhari Bhimnath
Abstract: Internet of things is a telecommunication market with a variety of significant and affirmative approach of connecting everything into one single dimension. Going through the need to connect these objects to one another RFIDs are being considered for unique identification on a self-proposed gain CoAP is used as a protocol submit a wide range. Here, we are providing the application variance, areas where IoT has gained its importance and self-proposed ideas to implement them in some axis. It also speaks of travelling the importance of 'IoT' in present scenario and future experiences. IoT forms easy and efficient implementation at the cost of time specific and device compatibility. To apply effective semantic analysed technology on the physical data, the dynamic and resource-constrained nature of the IoT requires a special design to be considered. The basic drawback behind IOT implementation at greater extent is the absence of compatible devices, user privacy and security issues. This paper constitutes all the semantic study of real-world examples of present scenario in IoT and future presences that can be taken into play for a better and digitalised environment.
Keywords: Iot- Internet of Things; RFID (radio frequency identity; CoAP(Constrained Application Protocol).
Predicting Trust in E-government: Two Competing Models
by Emad Abu-Shanab
Abstract: The efficiency of public sector in addressing e-government requirements depends on the number of constructs they focus on. The adoption process depends on many factors that governments cannot handle in an efficient fashion. This study focuses on two models to predict the level of trust in e-government, the personal model and the technical model. The personal model included social influence, internet experience, and ease of use as predictor variables. The technical model included perceived usefulness, security and privacy concerns, and information quality as predictor variables. Both models used trust in e-government as their dependent variable. Both models include variables previously proposed by research, but never been compared in this context. A sample of 690 surveys were analysed to test our proposed models. Results supported both models, but yielded stronger prediction by the technical model.
Keywords: Trust; e-government; ease of use; usefulness; social influence; security; privacy; experience; information quality; competing models.
Digitizing Government Payments in Bangladesh: A Mobile Banking Approach
by Md. Jahir Uddin Palas, Ramiz Uddin, Mahmudul Islam
Abstract: In the era of digitalisation, process simplification and automation are the calls of the day. The Government of Bangladesh has also been prioritising the digitalisation factor in each sector of public administration. Taxes and utility bills contribute to the public revenue, which has a great role in infrastructural and other development goals of government. However, citizens have to undergo many a difficulty in paying the municipal tax and water bill through the longstanding manual system of document distribution and payment process. In this case, the widely accepted and globally proven financial model of mobile banking can eliminate quite a number of hassles in the citizens' tax and bill payment in the contemporary system. This study examines the concurrent payment mechanism of municipality tax and water bill in Bangladesh. The study results confirm the citizens' manifold inconveniences in prevalent tax and bill payment process. The study respondents also supported the replacement of the manual system with the mobile banking process as it ensures more convenience in payment of taxes and utility bills.
Keywords: Mobile banking; government payments; digitization; access to information (a2i); Bangladesh.
Qualitative System Dynamics Modelling of the Impacts of Maintenance, Effort, Competence and Collaboration on e-Government Website Availability
by Gunadi Gunadi
Abstract: E-government websites have become the main gateways for accessing government services. To be constantly or highly available, these websites require ongoing quality maintenance. E-government websites are complex; its maintenance necessitates a complex undertaking. Further understanding about e-government website maintenance remains necessary, especially relating to the required effort and competence of government staff and organisations, as well as collaboration. This research aims to propose a qualitative system dynamics model which conceptualises the feedback relationships of website maintenance, staff and organisational effort as well as competence, and the collaborative factors in influencing e-government website availability. As part of the broader context of system dynamics study, the conceptual model needs to be validated with actual data and will be used as a basis for developing a system dynamic simulation model.
Keywords: e-government; website availability; website maintenance; staff and organisation effort; staff and organisation competence; collaboration; qualitative system dynamics.
What can enterprise architecture do for healthcare? A framework of antecedents and benefits
by Mikael Gebre-Mariam, Bendik Bygstad
Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide a consolidated knowledge of the organisational impact of enterprise architecture (EA) healthcare and the factors affecting its adoption and maturity. In this paper, we provide a synthesis based on a systematic review of the EA literature which has implication for both research and practice. First, we provide an overview framework of the antecedents and benefits of EA in healthcare. Second, we present a conceptualisation of four EA activity streams: 1) negotiation; 2) coordination; 3) descriptive; 4) prescriptive activity streams. For researchers, the healthcare EA framework, benefits, factors and lessons described in this review provide the necessary components to make sense of EA adoption and maturity in healthcare. For practitioners, we highlight the need to concurrently build EA capabilities of the four activity streams in order to adequately engage with the techno-organisational change in healthcare.
Keywords: Healthcare enterprise architecture; eHealth architecture; Healthcare IT governance.
Does Trust have an impact on system and operational effectiveness? The implementation of e-government in Colombia
by Thomas Tegethoff, Ricardo Santa, Diego F. Morante, Juan C. Valencia
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate whether trust plays a relevant role in the alignment between system effectiveness and operational effectiveness after the implementation of e-government systems as these are becoming essential in integrating government operations with organisations in Colombia. The findings, after the application of structural equation modelling (SEM), suggest that there is a predictive relationship of trust with operational effectiveness, and with quality of the system, quality of the information, and quality of the service. Trust is built through the effectiveness of the operations that e-government systems bring to organisations, and trust has a relevant role in the effectiveness of the e-government systems. Quality of the information showed the most significant impact on operational effectiveness, but quality of the system and quality of the service had no impact on operational effectiveness; consequently, in order to build up effective operations, the government needs to improve these two factors.
Keywords: e-government system; trust and user satisfaction; operational effectiveness.
The Institutionalization of Social Media in Politics: Dynamics, Applications, Critiques, and Challenges
by Dedy Permadi, Umar Abdul Aziz, Fidya Shabrina
Abstract: Nowadays, the role of social media in politics becomes more crucial due to the increasing importance of political communication and network technologies. Some scholars have confirmed that social media can be applied as an effective and efficient political communication instrument. However, many criticisms and challenges should be considered in social media use, particularly in regards to its informality and irregularity in the political system. This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the dynamics of social media in politics, surrounding its applications in the policy process, critiques of its existence, as well as various challenges that might be encountered in the future. By adopting the term of 'three development stages' which are intrapreneurship, order from chaos, and the institutionalisation stage; and by reviewing various researches that have been done before, this paper argues that the 'institutionalisation' of social media becomes the main issue for the future of social media in politics.
Keywords: social media; politics; technology; interaction; democracy; instrument.
Challenges in Implementing Citizen-centric e-Government Services in Rwanda
by Solange Mukamurenzi, Ake Gronlund, Sirajul Islam
Abstract: Electronic government (e-government) faces challenges impeding its successful implementation. In the least developed countries, where e-government initiatives are developing but little research is done, it is difficult to know how to move forward with the development. As a contribution to increased knowledge, this study identifies e-government challenges in Rwanda. To this end, the study takes an interpretive approach and, from interviews and document analysis, identifies key e-government challenges. Those challenges include lack of a change management strategy, limited cooperation, language and literacy barriers, incomplete automation, difficulties with system integration, and a lack of intermediaries' management mechanisms. This paper analyses the challenges service providers would have to manage for e-government to improve and informs policymakers of the areas that need their attention for Rwanda to evolve towards the desired e-government. The study contributes to the yet scarce literature of e-government in Rwanda.
Keywords: challenges; citizen-centric e-government; developing country; digital government; East Africa; electronic government; e-government development; e-government services; Rwanda.
Systems Analysis of Implementing an Electronic City in Bojnord, Iran
by Omid Ali Kharazmi, Lia Shaddel
Abstract: This article performs a systems analysis of implementing an electronic city in Bojnord, Iran. Based on a review of the literature, related indicators were extracted, classifying them into five sub-systems including individual, social, institutional, technological, and political. The interaction of these sub-systems formed a primary conceptual systems model. To identify the challenges using quantitative method, questionnaire was designed and inferential chi-square test was utilised. Furthermore, to explore the cause and effect relationships of these factors using qualitative method, interviews with urban managers were conducted to complement the relevant subsystems. This research used Vensim software for modelling. Results indicated that in the final systems model based on the conditions of Bojnord, there is a relationship between subsystems, forming an integrative system. Based on this system, most influential variables were identified and the current condition of electronic city in Bojnord was evaluated as not favourable.
Keywords: Bojnord City; Challenges; Electronic City; Systems Thinking; indivisual subsystem; social subsystem; organizational subsystem; technological subsystem; political subsystem; Vensim® software.
The influence of utilising Facebook on e-government adoption
by Sara Sawalha, Maryam Al-Jamal, Emad Abu-Shanab
Abstract: E-government is becoming a major channel for citizens' communication, interaction and collaboration with their government. Utilising the increased use of social media, individuals, businesses and governments recognised the opportunity to benefit from these sites to open channels of communication and empowerment. In this paper, we measure the influence of social networks represented by Facebook on e-government in Jordan. We extended UTAUT2 with personal innovativeness and yielded a full support of all hypotheses assumed. Performance expectancy, social influence, effort expectancy, personal innovativeness and enjoyment significantly predicted the continuous use of e-government pages on Facebook. The estimated coefficient of determination R2 was 0.48. Conclusions are stated at the end.
Keywords: e-government; electronic government; Web 2.0; Facebook; ICT; social media; social networks; Jordan; Government 2.0; UTAUT2.
Development and test of an energetic management package for industrial process efficiency
by Ines Ben Salem, Lotfi Taghouti, Lilia El Amraoui Ouni
Abstract: Besides the development of future energy concepts, energy efficiency today offers a powerful and cost-effective tool for achieving a sustainable energy. Successful reduction of energy consumption and pollutant emissions requires an energy management system that helps to insure this goal. In the present work, an intelligent package for energy efficiency management is developed and is labelled Manager50001. It allows a detailed measurement and tracking of energy efficiency in contrast to measuring mere energy consumption. This package provides full transparency about the energy potential consumed and the improvement process of the installation. This work shows how the difficult task to measure and improve energy efficiency in industrial process can be mastered. For a real implementation, the results are presented and show the benefit of such a transparent visualisation of energy efficiency.
Keywords: energetic management system; energy efficiency; software hardware development.
How robust is the UTAUT theory in explaining the usage intention of e-government services in an unstable security context?: A study in Iraq
by Abdullah Kaid Al-Swidi, Munadil K. Faaeq
Abstract: This study aimed to examine the robustness of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) theory in explaining the usage of electronic government services in an unstable security context. In addition, it attempts to investigate the extent to which usage behaviour could create continued usage intention among the citizen's. The data were collected from employees in public universities in Iraq employing a survey questionnaire. Out of 700 questionnaires distributed, 436 usable questionnaires were returned. The partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed to test the validity and reliability of the model and to examine the hypothesised relationships. The findings of the study confirmed the robustness of UTAUT theory and its validity in explaining behaviour in an unstable security context. In addition to examine how robust is the UTAUT theory in examining the behaviour in using electronic government eG services, it also extends the UTAUT model to examine future continued usage of the eG services and how UTAUT variables could shape this behavioural intention.
Keywords: electronic government; eG; effort expectancy; performance expectancy; social influence; facilitating conditions; perceived instability.
Requirements for developing interoperable e-government systems in developing countries - a case of Uganda
by Agnes Nakakawa, Flavia Namagembe
Abstract: E-government initiatives in developing countries still suffer from lack of interoperability, despite the existence of e-government interoperability frameworks in literature. For example, Uganda's e-government landscape is fragmented within and across agencies. To provide preliminary insights into addressing this, exploratory interviews were conducted to investigate why the e-government interoperability challenge prevails in Uganda, and findings were used with respect to existing literature to specify required strategic interventions. These strategic interventions point to the need for three intertwined capabilities, i.e., a regulatory and governance framework, a capacity building and sustainability framework, and an adaptation and customisation framework for e-government implementations. Therefore, the relevance of this paper is two-fold. First, to give insight into strategic interventions that developing economies (that share Uganda's context) can explore to address e-government interoperability. Second, to stimulate researchers in countries that have attained e-government interoperability to publish detailed technical guidelines on implementing the strategic interventions proposed herein.
Keywords: electronic government; e-government interoperability; developing countries; Uganda; interoperable e-government systems.
Extracting social networks from e-government by sentiment analysis of users' comments
by Rasim M. Alguliyev, Ramiz M. Aliguliyev, Gunay Y. Niftaliyeva
Abstract: Nowadays, the improvement of governance, ensurance the security and the timely detection of propaganda against the government are major problems of e-government. Extraction of hidden social networks is one of the most actual problems in the term of government security. The extraction of hidden social networks operating against the state in e-government is one of the key factors to ensure the security in e-government. In the paper, a method has been proposed for extracting hidden social networks to improve management in e-government, prevent promotion against the government and ensure the security. In this approach, hidden social networks are extracted through the analysis of user's comments via opinion and text mining technologies.
Keywords: e-government; social network extraction; SONEX; social network analysis; text mining; opinion mining; sentiment analysis.
Applying efficient crowdsourcing techniques for increasing quality and transparency of election processes
by Blerim Rexha, Ilir Murturi
Abstract: Recently crowdsourcing is being established as the new platform for capturing ideas from multiple users, i.e., the crowd. Many companies have already shifted their approach towards utilising the power of the crowd. Transparency and quality of election process is the main factor for acknowledging the general election results. Voters, crowd feedback can be utilised to maintain a desired election process transparency and quality. This paper presents an efficient solution using crowdsourcing techniques for increasing transparency and the quality of election processes through a simple feedback web form in polling stations. These polling stations are securely connected to central election commission monitoring room, where the overall transparency and quality in national scale can be monitored. The survey conducted with more than 600 respondents shows that this approach will be acceptable from citizens and will increase the overall transparency, quality, and acceptance of election results.
Keywords: crowdsourcing; crowd voting; privacy; security.