Electronic Government, an International Journal (10 papers in press)
Gender and Age Differences in Rural Farmers Intention to Use M-Government Services
by Herman Eliawaha Mandari, Yee-Lee Chong
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine: (1) the direct effect of the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) constructs and government support on rural farmers behavioural intention to use m-government service; and (2) how different categories of age and gender in Tanzania rural areas could moderate the effect generated by IDT constructs and government support on respondents behavioural intention. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to analyse 407 completed questionnaires. Relative advantage, ease-of-use, compatibility; and government support were found to be significant determinants of rural farmers behavioural intention. Age and gender were found to moderate the effects of relative advantage and ease-of-use on behavioural intention while gender could moderate the effect of compatibility on behavioural intention partially. Tactical suggestions to policy makers are given. In general, different strategies and policies could be used to increase different cohorts behavioural intention to use m-government service.
Keywords: m-government; innovation; moderation; government-support; Tanzania.
Secure Online Voting System in Cloud
by Vijayalakshmi Subramani, G.R. Karpagam
Abstract: India is one of the most important democratic and developing countries on earth. A democratic form of government is run by the elected representatives of the common people. Voting is important because the people participate in elections to choose their representatives. Though there are several issues in implementing online voting system, security is one of the most important issues. Our objective is to design and develop a framework for a secure online voting system in a cloud environment by using digital certificate secure hash algorithm (SHA) and ElGamal encryption. The proposed system consists of three managers such as certification authority manager (CAM), Vote manager (VM), and vote tally manager (TM). In registration phase, the elector interacts with CAM to acquire a digital certificate. VM is responsible to authenticate the elector. TM finally tallies the votes. The assessment of the system is verified using properties called authenticity, verifiability, confidentiality, accuracy and non-reputation.
Keywords: cloud; online voting; authentication; digital certificate; ElGamal encryption; secure hash algorithm; SHA.
Vote identification and integrity of ballot in paper-based e-voting system
by Supeno Djanali, Hudan Studiawan, Danang Prawira Nugraha, Baskoro Adi Pratomo
Abstract: The paper-based e-voting system still utilizes ballot and then followed by computer-based voting tabulation. The previous research do not consider the integrity of the ballot paper and the vote on top of it. In this paper, we propose to scan and store the ballot into image file. We run a series of image processing techniques to identify the vote on the ballot image which is subsequently used in the recapitulation. We then design an automatic identification of user's vote in ballot and protecting its integrity using Whirlpool hash algorithm. The vote ballot from an image is recognized by performing the absolute difference between the image and the provided template. The parties participating in the general elections and their candidates are stored in separated files. Based on the intensive experiments, the proposed system successfully recognizes the vote with the highest accuracy at 85.71%.
Keywords: paper-based e-voting; automatic vote identification; ballot hashing; Whirlpool method.
The Acceptance of Electronic Voting Machines in India: A UTAUT approach
by Sumedha Chauhan, Mahadeo Jaiswal, Arpan Kumar Kar
Abstract: Electronic-voting (e-voting) using electronic voting machines (EVMs) is a popular way of voting in select countries, including India. Given their popularity, this research investigates its acceptance using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). This research extends the UTAUT model by integrating the concepts of perceived security (PS) and trust in technology (TR). It further examines the effects of moderating variables of age and gender on the relationships between predictor variables and behavioural intention to use EVMs (BI). The results reveal that performance expectancy (PE), social influence (SI), PS and TR positively impact BI, while effort expectancy (EE) does not impact BI. Age moderates the impact of EE on BI with a stronger relationship for females. Gender moderates the impacts of PE and EE on BI with stronger relationships for males and females, respectively. Unexpectedly, gender moderates the effect of SI on BI with a stronger relationship for males.
Keywords: E-Government; Electronic Voting Machine; E-Voting; UTAUT; Multivariate analysis; Technology Acceptance; India.
Digital open government in Africa: a strategy for bridging citizens' gap
by Emeka Ndaguba, Edwin Ijeoma
Abstract: This paper extends the scope of open and digital government to include relationships bridging and development. It argues that open and digital government that encourages citizens' engagement in Africa is capable of restoring trust lost. The study used thematic review and analysis, quasi-quantitative research method. The paper revealed those years of long suffering, slavery, authoritarian, totalitarian, oppressive government, colonialism, and apartheid has made the frontrunners to assume the place of a hunter and the citizens as its prey.
Keywords: open government; trust; transparency; openness; citizens' engagement; Africa.
A comparison of perspectives of Kuwaiti and Indonesian residents towards e-government
by Dinesh A. Mirchandani, Yunus A. Kathawala, Julius H. Johnson Jr., John P. Hayes, Sudhir Chawla
Abstract: Kuwait and Indonesia are two Asian countries with similar literacy rates and median ages of residents. An understanding of their residents' perspectives can help the governments of these countries better plan their e-government services and provide useful information to other countries. The current study used a survey to assess the importance of e-government services and website features from the perspective of Kuwaiti and Indonesian residents. Multigroup analysis was used to validate the instrument and research model. Four relationships were found to correspond across datasets, but only one relationship was found to be significantly different between the two datasets, i.e., the relationship of resident feedback services to the website's savings and control feature was significantly stronger (p < 0.01) in the Indonesian dataset as compared to the Kuwaiti dataset. The multigroup analysis demonstrated that residents in both countries interpreted the survey instrument similarly and had comparable expectations for e-government services and website features.
Keywords: e-services; website features; multigroup analysis; e-government; Kuwait; Indonesia.
Local e-government services: quality aspects and citizen usage preferences
by Bernd W. Wirtz, Oliver Tuna Kurtz
Abstract: Due to the extensive global development of Information and Communication Technology, a growing number of public administrations around the world increasingly provide their services electronically rather than in the traditional way. Some countries have already high maturity levels regarding their local e-Government Services. However, efficient e-Government service provision is globally still in its early stages considering a high e-Service quality involving user-oriented e-Services. Despite practical significance, the exploration of quality aspects of e-Government service offers and understanding user preferences is a rarely considered research issue. Therefore, the present explorative investigation carries out a citizen survey interrogating city portal users about their preferences toward the future use of specific e-Government Services, preferences regarding the importance of public service delivery through e-Government, and aspects indicating performance and quality fulfilment. Finally, the study aims at providing implications to public administration officers, so that they can efficiently manage their city portals.
Keywords: citizen preferences; explorative study; local e-government; city portal management; e-government development; public administration; innovative public e-services.
E-procurement system success factors and their impact on transparency perceptions: perspectives from the supplier side
by Siti Aminah, Yuanisa Ditari, Larastri Kumaralalita, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Kongkiti Phusavat, Pornthep Anussornnitisarn
Abstract: In an effort to fight corruption, the Indonesian government has put e-procurement as one of the strategic programs among the seven flagships of the National Information Technology Council (DETIKNAS). One very successful developer of an e-procurement system is the Public Procurement Policy Institution, or Lembaga Kebijakan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah (LKPP), with 731 government agencies and 333,452 suppliers accessing LKPP's system. This study was conducted to analyse the determinants of an e-procurement system's success as well as its impact on perceived transparency from the supplier's perspective. This study answers both questions by applying a covariance-based structural equation modelling approach to analyse the survey data of 157 respondents. This study finds that only system quality, service quality, regulation, trust, user satisfaction, and perceived benefits determine an e-procurement system's success. However, only trust in an e-procurement system predominantly affects perceived transparency.
Keywords: e-procurement; e-government; information system success; DeLone and McLean; trust; perceived transparency; LKPP; Lembaga Kebijakan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah; structural equation modelling; Indonesia.
The use of Facebook by local authorities: a comparative analysis of the USA, UK and Spain
by F. Javier Miranda, Antonio Chamorro, Sergio Rubio
Abstract: The social networks have increased the ways in which public administrations can actively interact with the public. However, these new means of communication are not always used efficiently to create an open and two-way relationship. The purpose of this study is to analyse the presence on and use of the social network Facebook by the large councils in the USA, UK and Spain. This research adapts Facebook assessment index (FAI) to the field of local authorities. This index assesses three dimensions: popularity, content and interactivity. The results show that there is no relationship between the population of the municipality and the degree of use of Facebook by the council, but there are notable differences depending on the country. By creating this ranking, we are helping those responsible for this management to carry out benchmarking activities in order to improve their communication strategy on the social networks.
Keywords: social networks sites; Facebook; e-government; local government; social networks.
Special Issue on: New Developments in Electronics Cloud and IoT
Performance Analysis of Various Link Estimation Time Methods in Vehicular Ad hoc Network
by Karthikeyan F.A., S. Selva Kumar
Abstract: The primary work of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is to route the packets and to can handle a high mobility of vehicles in the frequently changing topology. The fast dynamic changing topology is the major problem in VANET, so it is necessary to compute the link estimation time (LET) of every relay node in the network. The LET is one of the recent research finding to solve VANET routing issues. This paper depicts the overall survey of different V2V (or) V2I link estimation techniques developed for VANET and also compare the Position based protocol, cross-layer and prediction based protocol. The objective of this paper is to analyse the performance of the different protocols by applying various types of LET in terms of speed, distance and signal and noise rate (SNR) using NS3. The results show that cross-layer protocol has significant performance than comparing to other routing protocols in VANET with the help of plotted graph.
Keywords: VANET; Routing; V2V; V2I; Link Estimation Time.