Electronic Government, an International Journal (14 papers in press)
E-Voting System: The Pathway to Free and Fair Election in Nigeria
by Ayodele Adebiyi, Adesola Falade, Charles Ayo, MARION ADEBIYI, Olatunji Okesola
Abstract: Voting is a critical component of any election. In most developing countries, this process is usually marred with multiple irregularities such as falsification of results, identity theft, stolen of ballot boxes, multiple voting and electoral fraud among others. This research aimed at solving these multifaceted problems associated with manual-based voting processes by using agile development and components-based software engineering (CBSE) principles to evolve a usable electronic voting system that can be used to conduct national election and any other election in the country. This will enhance and guarantee the credibility of the electoral processes and show a true reflection of the wishes of the people. The system was implemented using Visual Studio .Net and Microsoft SQL Server with attendant benefits of increased level of participation by the electorate, drastic cost reduction in organising election, voter's convenience, and faster release of election results.
Keywords: EVM; i-Voting; M-Voting; e-Voting; K-Voting; e-Government; CBSE; INEC.
A multi-criteria decision making model for the selection of open data management systems
by Martin Lnĕnička, Renáta Máchová
Abstract: A selection of advanced open and linked data technologies is very important in improving the impact of open government. This paper seeks to provide a multi-criteria decision model assessing open data management systems that are being deployed to enhance the e-government development. More precisely, it aims to provide a solution to the existing selection problem. The proposed evaluation framework consists of criteria identified through a systematic literature review focusing on selected open data management systems and their various quality dimensions. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process was applied to validate the proposed modelling an illustrative case study. For this purpose, an expert panel was established. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to understand the effects of the chosen priority weights. The results imply that open-source CKAN is the most suitable system (platform) that fulfils the requirements and characteristics of open data.
Keywords: open data management system; data quality; multi-criteria decision making; fuzzy analytic hierarchy process; case study.
Modelling the Effect of Knowledge Management Performance on Organizational Effectiveness: A study of E-Governance in India
by Rama Bhardwaj, Hardeep Singh
Abstract: Knowledge is vital resource for government that feats as foundation stone for streamlining decision making. Role of knowledge management in customisation of knowledge required actually defines its efficiency leading to satisfaction of stakeholders. The study formulates comprehensive model measuring antecedents required in formulation of better managed KM performance, and its consequential affect on beneficiaries of e-governance in India. The credibility of proposed model and causal effect of model was tested by using SEM. Empirical evidences revealed that attributes of KM performance are significant in defining it precisely. The study also revealed increased effect of knowledge sharing on knowledge performance which in turn helped in enhancement of satisfaction thus making the organisations more efficient in terms of KM practices. The study provides an integrated solution explaining the realistic measures to be adopted in the form of sharing and collaborations for achieving overall effectiveness of knowledge management performance.
Keywords: E-Governance; Knowledge Management Performance; Knowledge Satisfaction; Structural Equation Modeling; Effectiveness; Sharing.
E-government Adoption: A Literature Review and A Proposed Citizen-Centric Model
by Abeer M. Ghareeb, Nagy R. Darwish, Hesham A. Hefney
Abstract: The governments around the world have implemented e-government systems due to external pressures from the international organisations or internal pressures because of citizen dissatisfaction with public services. However, supply-demand disconnect is a common problem in e-government. This paper aims to provide a literature review in the area of e-government adoption to put the groundwork for the development of a conceptual model. In addition, it aims to propose a citizen-centric e-government adoption model that reflects the multi-dimensional and multi-stages nature of the acceptance of e-government services. The proposed model assumes that intention to use e-government services does not describe the full spirit of adoption. The inclusion of actual and potential use explains the adoption process from the citizen's point of view. The proposed model expands the theoretical knowledge by identifying the critical factors that are likely to affect citizen adoption and organising them in a manner that clarify the usage behaviour of the citizens regarding e-government services.
Keywords: Keywords: electronic government; e-government; adoption models; application quality; e-service quality; adoption factors.
Evaluation of Accessibility Standards on Ugandan e-Government Websites
by Joyce Nakatumba-Nabende, Florence Kivunike, Benjamin Kanagwa, Michael Tuape
Abstract: In spite of the efforts made by the Government of Uganda through the National IT Authority Uganda (NITA-U) to provide many of the government services online, web accessibility is still not considered as a major factor by the developers of the e-government websites. As a result, people with disabilities cannot use websites as effectively as people without disabilities. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the extent by which Ugandan e-government websites meet the internationally accepted WCAG 2.0 standards. The analysis was done for 63 websites belonging to government ministries, departments and agencies. Website accessibility assessment was carried out using two automatic evaluation tools: TAW and AChecker. The results presented in this paper indicate that all the websites not do not satisfy the level AA accessibility guidelines. Although NITA-U has developed guidelines for building websites, there is still great need to improve accessibility on e-government websites.
Keywords: accessibility; e-government; MDAs; developing country; Uganda.
Social Media Strategy Framework Formulation and Implementation: A Case Study of Indonesian Government Organization
by Ave Pinem, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Puspa Sandhyaduhita, Arief Donie Prasetya, Kongkiti Phusavat
Abstract: This study aims to formulate a social media strategy framework that appropriate in government organisation that has a low interaction rate with public through their social media accounts. The research methods used was qualitative and quantitative on a government organisation which has already use social media however the utilisation was still low. The process of data collection was done by interview, observation and documents studies. The social media strategy was formulated using framework developed by Karl Werder combined with SWOT analysis, PEST analysis and 7S model. The strategy priority was determined by using AHP analysis. Three stages of social media framework formulation have been identified and the implementation results suggest that the organisation need to prioritise the strategies that have the objective to improve the complaint handling and then followed by the strategies related to engagement and awareness.
Keywords: Social media strategy; social media framework; SWOT; AHP.
Factors Influencing the Adoption of E-government Services among Jordanian Citizens
by Mohammed Almaiah, Yacoub Nasereddin
Abstract: This work aims to study effective factors that could play an important role in the decision of Jordanian citizens to adopt e-government services. The study employed the UTAUT model with introducing new constructs, namely; website quality, trust of internet, trust of government, to study the adoption of e-government services in Jordan context. The data was collected using online survey from a total of 320 Jordanian citizen who are from both public and private sectors. The research model was evaluated using the structural equation modelling (SEM) technique. Based on the results, website quality, trust of internet, trust of government, performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions factors were shown to have a positive effect on behavioural intention to use e-government services. However, the influence of social influence was found to be insignificant on the participants behavioural intention to use. Additionally, the website quality factor was found to have a positive effect on the performance expectancy of e-government services. The findings of this study will guide researchers, policy makers and professionals towards the Jordanian citizen priorities in improving website design, website functions, website content quality, ease of use and security; thereby increasing the adoption of e-government services.
Keywords: E-government services; UTAUT model; website quality; SEM; Jordan.
Electronic Government and its impact on corruption perceptions in Latin America
by José Carlos Vázquez Parra, Florina Guadalupe Arredondo, Jorge De La Garza
Abstract: Corruption is a serious problem for the Latin American region, which means that governments make great efforts to reduce this malaise afflicting their countries. This article examines if there is a difference in the levels to which electronic government (e-government) and transparency are being implemented in two blocks of Latin American countries through conglomerate analysis and ANOVA analysis. In the results of the study, countries were divided into two groups, making it possible to verify that the first block, which has driven digital government more decisively, has lower levels of perceived corruption than the second block. It is therefore concluded that e-government can become a differentiator of corruption perceptions in this selection of countries.
Keywords: Transparency; corruption; government; governance; participation; citizenship; Latin America; inclusion; technology; good governance.
E-Government in the Public Cloud: Requirements and Opportunities
by Andreas Abraham, Felix Hörandner, Thomas Zefferer, Bernd Zwattendorfer
Abstract: Cloud computing promises various advantages compared to classical provisioning models and is therefore highly interesting for e-government services. For security and data protection reasons, adoption of cloud computing in public sectors has focused on private or community clouds so far, underusing the great potential of public clouds. In this article, we tackle this issue and show opportunities to unleash the full potential of public clouds also to the public sector. First, we perform a thorough literature survey to identify a comprehensive set of requirements for e-government services in public cloud environments. Then, we assess cloud-related technologies and propose strategies to satisfy these identified requirements, providing decision makers from the public sector a comprehensive overview that helps during design, migration, and development of e-government service to be deployed in public clouds.
Keywords: electronic government; e-government services; public cloud; cloud computing; e-government service requirements; implementation opportunities.
Does trust have an impact on system and operational effectiveness? The implementation of e-government in Colombia
by Thomas M. Tegethoff, Ricardo Santa, Diego Fernando Morante Granobles, Juan Camilo Valencia Hoyos
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate whether trust plays a relevant role in the alignment between system effectiveness and operational effectiveness after the implementation of e-government systems as these are becoming essential in integrating government operations with organisations in Colombia. The findings, after the application of structural equation modelling (SEM), suggest that there is a predictive relationship of trust with operational effectiveness, and with quality of the system, quality of the information, and quality of the service. Trust is built through the effectiveness of the operations that e-government systems bring to organisations, and trust has a relevant role in the effectiveness of the e-government systems. Quality of the information showed the most significant impact on operational effectiveness, but quality of the system and quality of the service had no impact on operational effectiveness; consequently, in order to build up effective operations, the government needs to improve these two factors.
Keywords: e-government system; trust and user satisfaction; operational effectiveness; OE; Colombia.
The institutionalisation of social media in politics: dynamics, applications, critiques, and challenges
by Dedy Permadi, Fidya Shabrina, Umar Abdul Aziz
Abstract: Nowadays, the role of social media in politics becomes more crucial due to the increasing importance of political communication and network technologies. Some scholars have confirmed that social media can be applied as an effective and efficient political communication instrument. However, many criticisms and challenges should be considered in social media use, particularly in regards to its informality and irregularity in the political system. This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the dynamics of social media in politics, surrounding its applications in the policy process, critiques of its existence, as well as various challenges that might be encountered in the future. By adopting the term of 'three development stages' which are intrapreneurship, order from chaos, and the institutionalisation stage; and by reviewing various researches that have been done before, this paper argues that the 'institutionalisation' of social media becomes the main issue for the future of social media in politics.
Keywords: social media; politics; technology; interaction; democracy; instrument.
Challenges in implementing citizen-centric e-government services in Rwanda
by Solange Mukamurenzi, Åke Grönlund, M. Sirajul Islam
Abstract: Electronic government (e-government) faces challenges impeding its successful implementation. In the least developed countries, where e-government initiatives are developing but little research is done, it is difficult to know how to move forward with the development. As a contribution to increased knowledge, this study identifies e-government challenges in Rwanda. To this end, the study takes an interpretive approach and, from interviews and document analysis, identifies key e-government challenges. Those challenges include lack of a change management strategy, limited cooperation, language and literacy barriers, incomplete automation, difficulties with system integration, and a lack of intermediaries' management mechanisms. This paper analyses the challenges service providers would have to manage for e-government to improve and informs policymakers of the areas that need their attention for Rwanda to evolve towards the desired e-government. The study contributes to the yet scarce literature of e-government in Rwanda.
Keywords: challenges; citizen-centric e-government; developing country; digital government; East Africa; electronic government; e-government development; e-government services; Rwanda.
Systems analysis of implementing an electronic city in Bojnord, Iran
by Lia Shaddel, Omid Ali Kharazmi
Abstract: This article performs a systems analysis of implementing an electronic city in Bojnord, Iran. Based on a review of the literature, related indicators were extracted, classifying them into five sub-systems including individual, social, institutional, technological, and political. The interaction of these sub-systems formed a primary conceptual systems model. To identify the challenges using quantitative method, questionnaire was designed and inferential chi-square test was utilised. Furthermore, to explore the cause and effect relationships of these factors using qualitative method, interviews with urban managers were conducted to complement the relevant subsystems. This research used Vensim software for modelling. Results indicated that in the final systems model based on the conditions of Bojnord, there is a relationship between subsystems, forming an integrative system. Based on this system, most influential variables were identified and the current condition of electronic city in Bojnord was evaluated as not favourable.
Keywords: Bojnord City; challenges; electronic city; systems thinking; individual subsystem; social subsystem; institutional subsystem; technological subsystem; political subsystem; Vensim software; Iran.
Modelling the cloud adoption factors for the government organisations in India
by Kshitij Kushagra, Sanjay Dhingra
Abstract: Cloud computing is the major tectonic shift in the IT dimension. The cloud computing is doing good for the private sector and a similar corollary can be drawn for the government too. It is believed that the cloud will prove to be beneficiary to the government as the internet was in the 20th century. The growth of private sector, start-ups in Indian ecosystem together with the IT savvy Indian Government has created the perfect climate for government adoption of cloud computing. This paper discovers and models the critical factors responsible for the cloud computing adoption in the government organisations of India by using interpretive structural modelling (ISM). This will assist in establishing the relationship among the critical factors thus identified, and also to establish the factor having the higher impact on the cloud computing adoption (CCA) in the government organisations of India. The results of the ISM methodology and analysis highlighted three critical factors namely security, data protection, and awareness as the top significant factors for the CCA in the government organisations of India.
Keywords: cloud computing; CC; cloud computing adoption; CCA; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; cloud service provider; CSP; MICMAC.