Electronic Government, an International Journal (13 papers in press)
Digital Open Government in Africa: A Strategy for Bridging Citizens
by Emeka A. Ndaguba, Edwin Ijeoma
Abstract: This paper extends the scope of open and digital government to include relationships bridging and development. It argues that open and digital government that encourages citizens engagement in Africa is capable of restoring trust lost. The study used thematic review and analysis, quasiquantitative research method. The paper revealed those years of long suffering, slavery, authoritarian, totalitarian, oppressive government, colonialism, and apartheid has made the frontrunners to assume the place of a hunter and the citizens as its prey.
Keywords: open government; digital government; citizens' engagement; transparency; openness; accountability; colonialism; trust; Nigeria; and South Africa.
A Comparison of Perspectives of Kuwaiti and Indonesian Residents Towards E-Government
by Dinesh A. Mirchandani, Yunus A. Kathawala, Julius H. Johnson Jr, John P. Hayes, Sudhir Chawla
Abstract: Kuwait and Indonesia are two Asian countries with similar literacy rates and median ages of residents. An understanding of their residents' perspectives can help the governments of these countries better plan their e-government services and provide useful information to other countries. The current study used a survey to assess the importance of e-government services and website features from the perspective of Kuwaiti and Indonesian residents. Multigroup analysis was used to validate the instrument and research model. Four relationships were found to correspond across datasets, but only one relationship was found to be significantly different between the two datasets, i.e., the relationship of resident feedback services to the websites savings and control feature was significantly stronger (p < 0.01) in the Indonesian dataset as compared to the Kuwaiti dataset. The multigroup analysis demonstrated that residents in both countries interpreted the survey instrument similarly and had comparable expectations for e-government services and website features.
Keywords: e-services; website features; multigroup analysis; e-government; Kuwait; Indonesia.
The use of Facebook by local authorities: A comparative analysis of the United States, United Kingdom and Spain
by Francisco Javier Miranda, Antonio Chamorro, Sergio Rubio
Abstract: The social networks have increased the ways in which public administrations can actively interact with the public. However, these new means of communication are not always used efficiently to create an open and two-way relationship. The purpose of this study is to analyse the presence on and use of the social network Facebook by the large councils in the USA, UK and Spain. This research adapts Facebook assessment index (FAI) to the field of local authorities. This index assesses three dimensions: popularity, content and interactivity. The results show that there is no relationship between the population of the municipality and the degree of use of Facebook by the council, but there are notable differences depending on the country. By creating this ranking, we are helping those responsible for this management to carry out benchmarking activities in order to improve their communication strategy on the social networks.
Keywords: social networks sites; Facebook; e-government; local government;
Local e-Government Services Quality Aspects and Citizen Usage Preferences
by Bernd W. Wirtz, Oliver Tuna Kurtz
Abstract: Due to the extensive global development of Information and Communication Technology, a growing number of public administrations around the world increasingly provide their services electronically rather than in the traditional way. Some countries have already high maturity levels regarding their local e-Government Services. However, efficient e-Government service provision is globally still in its early stages considering a high e-Service quality involving user-oriented e-Services. Despite practical significance, the exploration of quality aspects of e-Government service offers and understanding user preferences is a rarely considered research issue. Therefore, the present explorative investigation carries out a citizen survey interrogating city portal users about their preferences toward the future use of specific e-Government Services, preferences regarding the importance of public service delivery through e-Government, and aspects indicating performance and quality fulfilment. Finally, the study aims at providing implications to public administration officers, so that they can efficiently manage their city portals.
Keywords: citizen preferences; explorative study; local e-government; city portal management; e-government development; public administration; innovative public e-services.
E-Procurement System Success Factors and Their Impact on Transparency Perceptions: Perspectives from the Supplier Side
by Siti Aminah, Yuanisa Ditari, Larastri Kumaralalita, Achmad Nizar Hidayanto, Kongkiti Phusavat, Pornthep Anussornnitisarn
Abstract: In an effort to fight corruption, the Indonesian government has put eprocurement as one of the strategic programs among the seven flagships of the National Information Technology Council (DETIKNAS). One very successful developer of an e-procurement system is the Public Procurement Policy Institution, or Lembaga Kebijakan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah (LKPP), with 731 government agencies and 333,452 suppliers accessing LKPPs system. This study was conducted to analyse the determinants of an e-procurement systems success as well as its impact on perceived transparency from the suppliers perspective. This study answers both questions by applying a covariance-based structural equation modelling approach to analyse the survey data of 157 respondents. This study finds that only system quality, service quality, regulation, trust, user satisfaction, and perceived benefits determine an e-procurement systems success. However, only trust in an e-procurement system predominantly affects perceived transparency.
Keywords: e-procurement; e-government; information system success; DeLone and McLean; trust; perceived transparency; LKPP; Lembaga Kebijakan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah; structural equation modelling; Indonesia.
Gender and Age Differences in Rural Farmers Intention to Use M-Government Services
by Herman Eliawaha Mandari, Yee-Lee Chong
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine: (1) the direct effect of the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) constructs and government support on rural farmers behavioural intention to use m-government service; and (2) how different categories of age and gender in Tanzania rural areas could moderate the effect generated by IDT constructs and government support on respondents behavioural intention. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to analyse 407 completed questionnaires. Relative advantage, ease-of-use, compatibility; and government support were found to be significant determinants of rural farmers behavioural intention. Age and gender were found to moderate the effects of relative advantage and ease-of-use on behavioural intention while gender could moderate the effect of compatibility on behavioural intention partially. Tactical suggestions to policy makers are given. In general, different strategies and policies could be used to increase different cohorts behavioural intention to use m-government service.
Keywords: m-government; innovation; moderation; government-support; Tanzania.
Secure Online Voting System in Cloud
by Vijayalakshmi Subramani, G.R. Karpagam
Abstract: India is one of the most important democratic and developing countries on earth. A democratic form of government is run by the elected representatives of the common people. Voting is important because the people participate in elections to choose their representatives. Though there are several issues in implementing online voting system, security is one of the most important issues. Our objective is to design and develop a framework for a secure online voting system in a cloud environment by using digital certificate secure hash algorithm (SHA) and ElGamal encryption. The proposed system consists of three managers such as certification authority manager (CAM), Vote manager (VM), and vote tally manager (TM). In registration phase, the elector interacts with CAM to acquire a digital certificate. VM is responsible to authenticate the elector. TM finally tallies the votes. The assessment of the system is verified using properties called authenticity, verifiability, confidentiality, accuracy and non-reputation.
Keywords: cloud; online voting; authentication; digital certificate; ElGamal encryption; secure hash algorithm; SHA.
Special Issue on: Secure data communication and intelligent data processing for Electronic Governance
Shortest Path Establishment Approaches for Static and Dynamic Mobile Nodes with Quality of Service
by S. Sundar, Aritra Basu, Arunava Kar, R. Kumar
Abstract: An ideal routing algorithm is one which finds the best/shortest path(s) for transmitting the data between source and destination in a short time. In this study, we have proposed two approaches; one is based on Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) and the other one is based on Distance Vector Method (DVM).For MST, Genetic Algorithm is used. The chromosomes used are of variable length and their genes are used for encoding. The cross over and mutation operations are used for genetic diversity and improving the convergence rate. The second method is based on DVM to cover the limitations of the first approach as well the traditional DVM. The developed algorithm finds the shortest path for static mesh connected mobile nodes. It is then tested for dynamicity by varying the positions of a few nodes. Extensive simulations are carried out on both the approaches and the results are compared with other popular algorithms.
Keywords: e-governance; shortest path; MST; minimum spanning tree; DVMs;
distance vector methods; genetic algorithm; MANETs; mobile ad hoc
networks; Dijikstra algorithm; Bellman-Ford algorithm; QoS; quality of
Efficient Routing Based on Core Relay Intermediate Nodes in MANET
by P. JAYALAKSHMI, R. Saravanan
Abstract: Efficient routing in MANETs is necessary for effective data communication among nodes. Routing can be done either single-hop or multihop. If source and destination are within the transmission range then single-hop routing is established, else multi-hop routing is required to route the data packets to reach the destination. Selection of next hop based on the speed of movement of nodes and transmission range: reduces overall energy consumption, link failures and delay constraints. The weights of the link quality between the nodes present in the network can be estimated by using cost metrics such as distance and travelling speed of the node since the efficient routing is done with better link quality nodes. To minimize the hop counts and to reduce the packet loss in the network, an efficient route should be established between source and destination. The success of the data transmission via Core Relay Intermediate Nodes (CRIN) can be analysed using NS-2 tool. The efficiency of 0.4% is improved by using the proposed scheme. Network performance can be enhanced through shortest path so that messages may be delivered in a timely manner.
Keywords: Link Quality; Link weight; Node Speed; MANET; Routing.
Special Issue on: Secure Data Communication and Intelligent Data Processing for Electronic Governance
Analysis of performance measures to improve the quality of service in cloud based e-government web portal
by V. Priya, S. Subha, Balusamy Balamurugan
Abstract: Online registration system (ORS) is an Indian government digital initiative under the policy of e-Kranti. This sector needs high quality of service (QoS) as it is crowded with numerous patients for various requisitions. In this paper, a stochastic queueing model is proposed to study a single virtual machine queue with batch arrivals and two types of different services (registration and appointment) one after the other in series. After getting this service, a certain batch of patients may need an additional service from the ORS portal or they may quit. We also considered patients impatient behaviour wherein batch of patients decide not to take any service in the ORS portal. We attain steady-state results and probability generating functions and the properties of several parameters on the virtual machine performance are analysed numerically. These results can help the management to calculate the service level of the web portal and to improve the performance.
Keywords: e-Governance; web portal; Cloud; Quality-of-Service; queueing; virtual machine.
A risk-centric defensive architecture for threat modeling in e-government application
by Maheshwari Venkat, Prasanna Mani
Abstract: To improve the security of an e-government, software engineering plays a vital role. During the application development for an e-government, there exist several risks. To analyse those risks, threat modelling methodology which is defined as the process to understand and address the threats of an application. Threat modelling is used to determine security controls and countermeasures for the targeting attacks. This paper describes an approach to identify how far the attack penetrates in risk layers and how the model defends from an attacker in e-government systems. The relevant attacks are retrieved from the attack pattern information is gathered from MITREMITRE's common attack pattern enumeration and classification (CAPEC) security source. This architecture dynamically identifies the risk severity and prioritises the risk in a single step. An attack pattern applied to a risk-centric defensive architecture model to identify threat severity and also it is prioritised based on its impact. We validate risk-centric defensive architecture model by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams (DFDs), from the Microsoft security development methodology.
Keywords: Microsoft STRIDE; attack pattern; CAPEC; common attack pattern enumeration and classification; SDLC; software development life cycle; e-government.
A personalized travel recommender system utilizing social network profile and accurate GPS data
by R. Logesh, V. Subramaniyaswamy, V. Vijayakumar
Abstract: Recent developments in internet technologies have created a massive demand for online services with the rapidly growing users. Travel recommender systems have been embraced by many researchers due to recent developments and significant requirements in the e-tourism domain. Generating personalised recommendations with minimal interactions is a key challenge and predicting personalised list of locations with the available ratings alone cannot achieve effective recommendations. To address this issue, we develop an intelligent real-time user-specific travel recommender system (IRTUSTRS) through incorporating users social network profile and current location by exploiting global positioning system (GPS) data for travel recommendation generation. The proposed IRTUSTRS approach helps end users through enhanced travel recommendations with improved accuracy. The experimental evaluation portrays the improved performance of IRTUSTRS over baseline approaches. The presented work helps to understand the performance of recommender systems by utilising online social network profile of users with the current location through the GPS data.
Keywords: recommender systems; location-based social networks; social networks; travel recommendation; user-location prediction; GPS.
Organizational Structure for the e-Government Coordination and Interoperability Framework: Case Study of Tunisia
by Hatem Ben Sta
Abstract: A clearly defined institutional framework for e-government planning and implementation is the main precondition for the development of e-services. Usually one of the main tasks of this coordination is to set up an organisational framework enabling planning and implementation of e-government development. The main risks regarding developments of the e-government architecture for e-services in Tunisia are that different technology projects managed by different organisations and regulated by different laws are creating a set of incompatible components of the state information system, which might need extra efforts of system development in the future. This is why the establishment of a clearly defined institutional framework and coordination mechanisms are of utmost importance. Sustainable and interoperable e-service development and data exchange are based on a clear organisational setup for developing and running the systems. The following description intends to provide a framework for the organisational setup in e-government services development and implementation.
Keywords: Interoperability Framework; Interoperability; Organisational Structure; e-Government; e-GIF; NIF.