International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development (13 papers in press)
Intellectual capital reporting: a knowledge tool to coordinate a group of regional non-profit organizations
by Stefania Veltri, Giovanni Bronzetti, John Dumay
Abstract: Whilst many organizations worldwide have stopped disclosing Intellectual Capital (IC), to the best of our knowledge, the only longstanding NPO still measuring, managing and reporting its IC is a large Italian non-profit organization (NPO), ANPAS Piemonte. The main aim of the article is thus to investigate the reasons why ANPAS Piemonte continues to deal with IC, to examine the determinants of this choice, the costs and the benefits management gets from IC measurement, management and reporting. In other words, the paper aims to explore the intellectual capital (IC) reporting process from an internal, managerial point of view. The paper employ a case study methodology to address its aim, and the main investigation tool on the IC reporting process was semi-structured interviews to the management of ANPAS Piemonte that launched and continues to carry on the IC project within the investigated NPO.
Keywords: Intellectual capital; intellectual capital report; knowledge tool; managerial tool; internal perspective; non-profit organizations (NPOs); case study; Italy.
Measuring the capital systems categories: The perspective of an integrated value system of social life as perceived by young citizens
by Ana Cristina Fachinelli, Cintia Paese Giacomello, Fabiano Larentis, Fernanda Darrigo
Abstract: The generic capital system is a value-based third generation knowledge management formal system structured by categories in a complete and consistent taxonomy. The generic capital system was presented by Carrillo (2002) as a categorization structure which allows to identify the relationships between the set of elements that create value when interacts as a system. In this study, we aimed to advance towards the social dimension of the generic capital system according to the young citizenship perspective. The objective of this study is to construct and validate a scale to measure the perception that the younger part of the citizenry has about the inherent concepts of each individual capital system category. The methodology of the study includes a deep literature review to identify the theoretical constructs underlying the capital system categories for subsequent construction of a scale to measure the perception of the younger citizenry of these constructs. The data was collected with a sample of 300 University students distributed over 26 cities located in the south of Brazil. The results indicate that the identification of an integrated value perspective of the social life from the point of view of young citizens is possible. Statistical analysis showed that the scale succeeded in measuring the constructs as the study attempted to show.
Keywords: Capital System taxonomy; Knowledge-Based Development; Knowledge Cities; Citizenship.
RESIDENTIAL CHOICE IN POLYCENTRIC BORDER-CROSSING AGGLOMERATION AREAS: THE EXAMPLE OF THE LAKE CONSTANCE-ALPINE RHINE VALLEY
by Stefan Gueldenberg, Laura Hecker, Adrian Klammer, Stefan Wilhelm, Francesco A. Schurr, Peter A. Staub
Abstract: This paper is one of the first studies that outlines and deals with differences and similarities arising in polycentric border-crossing agglomerations in knowledge-based economies. We examine the multi-country border-crossing polycentric agglomeration in the Lake Constance-Alpine Rhine Valley region, comprised of Liechtenstein, and parts of Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. We specifically try to identify factors influencing the residential choice within a polycentric border-crossing agglomerations in a knowledge-based economy. Although the results and outcomes are limited to the case-study region, the implications could be tested in other polycentric border-crossing agglomerations characterized by knowledge-based econo-mies across the globe. The most important factors for residential choice are proximity to fami-ly and friends, safety, career opportunities, and a high standard of living.
Keywords: individual preferences; knowledge worker; border-crossing agglomerations; residential choice factors; knowledge regions; polycentric areas.
Knowledge-based development from the citizen's perspective: a study from Southern Brazil
by Daniele Nespolo, Ana Cristina Fachinelli, Valter Marcos Monteiro Fortes, Gabriel Sperandio Milan, Maria Emilia Camargo
Abstract: The objective of this study is to analyze the relation between the personality of cities and the knowledge citizenship in the region of the Associação dos Municípios da Encosta Superior do Nordeste - a Southern Brazil association of municipalities. Personal knowledge-based development identifies and explores the competence of citizens in the development of their ability, as knowledge citizens, to better use community assets aiming local development. This perspective may be directly related to the personality of the cities. A survey was carried-out with a sample population of 504 young citizens. A statistical techniques such as descriptive statistical analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and correlation were used for data analysis. The results indicate the positive correlation between the personality of the cities and the knowledge citizenship among the following dimensions: performance based on political and civil values and attitude of the citizens.
Keywords: Knowledge Citizenship; Personality of the Cities; Personal Knowledge-Based Development.
A New European Story? - The rise of the knowledge-based economy, 1870-1913
by Yaman Kouli
Abstract: The rise of the science-based knowledge-based economy took place during the last third of the long 19th century. And although this era is known for the rise of the European nation-state, most European countries were virtually forced to establish a system of cooperation that ensured stability, scientific and economic progress as well as healthy competition. Consequently, it is here where the roots of European integration are to be found. The paper argues that the growing importance of human capital and R & Din conjunction with the emerging world marketput the European countries in a difficult position. While growing competition put prices under pressure, growing demands on the quality of human capital required salaries and investments in labor-protection and social policy to rise. Moreover, growing investments in research and development made the matter of protecting innovations on an international level necessary. European cooperation of that time was thus driven by a common experience. As the examples of Germany and France show, the set of rules that characterized European integration was established during the era of internationalism.
Keywords: European integration; 1870-1914; patents; social policy; knowledge based economy.
Network Organisations for Externality Challenges: How Social Entrepreneurship Co-Evolves with ICT-Enabled Solutions
by Sabrina Bonomi, Francesca Ricciardi, Cecilia Rossignoli
Abstract: This study aims to investigate how network forms of organizing, information technology-enabled solutions, as well as their institutional context, co-evolve in social entrepreneurship. The results of an in-depth longitudinal study on a food donation organization suggest that: (1) social entrepreneurship manifests itself through a network-shaped organizational form, which is mainly expected to catalyse the transformation of externalities into successfully manageable commons for societal benefit; (2) social entrepreneurship evolves dynamically through specific organizational features and success factors, which are effectively understandable by leveraging the joint explanatory power of the theory of the commons and the theory of sustainability transitions; (3) these theories also provide sound conceptual tools to explain how information and communication technologies (ICTs) co-evolve with the social entrepreneurship organization, its business model, and the institutional context.Organisational forms, Network organisation, Sustainability, Social entrepreneurship, Social enterprise, Institutional work, Information systems, Socio-technical systems, Innovation ecosystems, Business model innovation, SES, STS.
Keywords: Organisational forms; Network organisation; Sustainability; Social entrepreneurship; Social enterprise; Institutional work; Information systems; Socio-technical systems; Innovation ecosystems; Business model innovation; Commons.
The communication of intellectual capital in healthcare organizations: what is disclosed and how?
by Romilda Mazzotta
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to analyze the communication of intellectual capital (IC), or the disclosure of an organizations IC assets through annual reports and supplementary corporate disclosure, in healthcare organizations. We pose two research questions: 1) what are the main components of IC disclosure in a healthcare organization?; 2) how do these organizations disclose/communicate their IC? To answer these questions the paper analyzes the case of an Italian healthcare organization (University Hospital Santa Maria della Misericordia of Udine) applying a qualitative research method over three years. The analysis highlights that the organization changes its intellectual capital communication slowly over time and that the most important area is that of structural capital. The form of communication is mainly narrative, although it is possible to highlight differences in the three areas of IC.
Keywords: Intellectual capital; healthcare; Italy; Intellectual capital report; University hospital; Human Capital; Relational Capital; Structural Capital.
Local public service productivity and performance measurement
by Ilpo Laitinen, Tony Kinder, Jari Stenvall
Abstract: A premise of new public management (NPM) is that productivity in public services is lower than the private sector, justifying the transfer of tools and techniques born in private sector manufacturing. Our focus is on public service effectiveness i.e. performance, while recognising that efficiency is always important. We believe attention to effectiveness will grow since new public governances (NPG; Osborne et al 2010; 2015) including the service management perspective (Normann 2002) are likely to result in new performance metrics including innovative ways of cross-departmental and inter-organisational working to deliver integrated services.
The purpose of this conceptual paper is to suggest a new performance framework for evaluating local public service productivity and performance: efficiency and effectiveness. We follow Carrillo and Batra (2012) in rejecting the reduction of performance simply to financial metrics. Our contribution is to suggest ways in which public value as a metric of performance can be measured by socially (and contextually) migrating public values into performance value.
Keywords: local public service; productivity; performance; services-as-a-system;
service systems learning and innovation.
Universities and the Knowledge Triangle Policy in New EU Member States, the Case of the Czech Republic
by Vladislav Čadil, Miroslav Kostić
Abstract: This paper explores the cooperation between universities and companies using the Knowledge Triangle concept and identifies factors that significantly influence this cooperation. In particular, this paper analyses national Knowledge Triangle policies and instruments and explores how national priorities, goals and measures are reflected in the behaviour of universities. The empirical analysis is based on a combination of a desk research analysis and structured interviews with researchers and university vice-rectors. The analysis revealed underdevelopment of science-industry links in the Knowledge Triangle. Not counting small technical universities, revenue from the knowledge transfer is still a marginal funding source for research activities of the majority of Czech universities. The low university-industry cooperation contrasts with considerable promotion of development of knowledge transfer activities in the national policy documents, and public financial support. The reason for the low collaboration lies mainly in the low interest of university management to collaborate and in the current evaluation methodology of research organisations, which favours scientific publications.
Keywords: knowledge triangle; Czech Republic; universities; technical universities; knowledge commercialisation; knowledge transfer; science industry links; university industry links; science industry cooperation; university industry cooperation.
Visualized Bibliometric Mapping on Smart Specialisation: A Co-Citation Analysis
by Katharina Fellnhofer
Abstract: The primary purpose of this bibliometric study is to systematically explore the multidisciplinary, multilevel and multicontextual dimensions of smart specialisation strategies. Quantitatively based co-citation analyses, including qualitative aspects, are used to map the emerging and multifaceted S3 phenomenon. Data from Web of Science and Scopus shape the background of these visualizations, including 297 peer-reviewed documents and 8,173 cited references from 5,659 co-cited sources of 5,806 co-cited authors linked to 298 organisations and 45 countries. Additionally, co-authorship and bibliographic coupling maps are illustrated. As one of the first studies with such a focus, the outcomes emphasize the need for more research in this discipline to improve our familiarity with smart specialisation strategies. Thus, this effort highlights not only potential research avenues with a recommended step-by-step approach, but also valuable implications for theory and practice based on the previous work discussed in the course of clustering the co-citation analyses.
Keywords: bibliometric study; science mapping; smart specialisation; co-citation analysis; knowledge-based policy advice; e-policy platform; online mechanism policy advice.
Resilience and localism through sustainable collaborative communities. The case of Rijeka
by Alessandra Ricciardelli
Abstract: The paper contributes to the discussion over the development of an innovative approach that would enable academics to revise the modes of collaboration and processes of engaging people. rnThis paper aims at filling the gap in the exiting literature on social capital and social engagement as it suggests steps or initiatives in the framework of the Transition approach that supports community engagement for transforming the highly vulnerable, non-resilient state to a resilient and more localised place. The purpose is to understand in what way Transition, as a new theoretical approach, can contribute to define a new model for collaboration while leveraging on two key aspects: resilience and localisation. The paper analyses what socio-economic and community-related structures as well as organisational systems are necessary to implement modes and places of collaboration in a resilient country such as the Croatian City of Rijeka while understanding the complexities of governing systems in the perspective of Community Governance and suggesting criteria for actions in creating a shared, integrated, networked-based and knowledge-based development. The evidence will show that the Transitions approach towards relocalisation could be effective in both catalysing community responses to critical issues and in generating engagement and setting up new enterprises. Moving from raising awareness and trying to interest people, the community organisation is enabled to: increase collaborative and social entrepreneurship setting up new businesses and infrastructure needed at the local level; increase local democracy by enhancing communitys ability to self-organise and make decisions sustainably; foster communitys attitude to learn and adapt since being resilient means having the necessary skills; enhance the intentional aspect of building resilience.
Keywords: collaboration; knowledge-based development; resilience; (re)localisation; community governance; organisation systems; transition.
Gold Coast Smart City Strategy: Informed by Local Planning Priorities and International Smart City Best Practices
by Tooran Alizadeh, Leila Irajifar
Abstract: This paper takes an applied approach to propose a smart city strategy informed by local planning priorities and international best practices. In doing so, it focuses on Gold Coast a midsized coastal city in Australia - which has been part of IBMs Smarter Cities Challenge, and Open and Agile Smart Cities Network. In this paper, local planning context and priorities in relation to smart cities are investigated, and benchmarked against best practice smart city initiatives from around the world. The result is a strategic smart city framework around organisational and operational capital, economic and financial capital, human and social capital, infrastructure and physical capital. The approach taken, and the lessons learned are applicable to other cities interested in taking a strategic approach towards the fast growing concept of smart cities.
Keywords: smart city; strategy; planning; best practice; Gold Coast; Australia.
A Review of Zero Energy Housing (ZEH) Regulations for Low-Income Households
by Jung Hoon Han, Sumin Kim, Jun-Hyung Kim, Sang-Young Lee
Abstract: This paper reviews zero energy building programs and regulations in the USA, Europe, Australia and South Korea and suggests the implication of Zero Energy Housing policy for low-income households to allow for better access, management and modification of homes. Low-income households in Australia are most vulnerable to energy poverty due to ever increasing energy costs such as electricity and gas services. This study identifies three barriers in promoting zero energy housing for low-income households, its affordability, accessibility and occupants behaviours. It suggests that both provision of financial incentives and assistance for Zero Energy Housing retrofit is required as a regulatory practice in Australia.
Keywords: Zero Energy Housing; Zero Energy Building; Low Income Household; Regulation; Sustainability.