International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development (22 papers in press)
Universities and the Knowledge Triangle Policy in New EU Member States, the Case of the Czech Republic
by Vladislav Čadil, Miroslav Kostić
Abstract: This paper explores the cooperation between universities and companies using the Knowledge Triangle concept and identifies factors that significantly influence this cooperation. In particular, this paper analyses national Knowledge Triangle policies and instruments and explores how national priorities, goals and measures are reflected in the behaviour of universities. The empirical analysis is based on a combination of a desk research analysis and structured interviews with researchers and university vice-rectors. The analysis revealed underdevelopment of science-industry links in the Knowledge Triangle. Not counting small technical universities, revenue from the knowledge transfer is still a marginal funding source for research activities of the majority of Czech universities. The low university-industry cooperation contrasts with considerable promotion of development of knowledge transfer activities in the national policy documents, and public financial support. The reason for the low collaboration lies mainly in the low interest of university management to collaborate and in the current evaluation methodology of research organisations, which favours scientific publications.
Keywords: knowledge triangle; Czech Republic; universities; technical universities; knowledge commercialisation; knowledge transfer; science industry links; university industry links; science industry cooperation; university industry cooperation.
Resilience and localism through sustainable collaborative communities. The case of Rijeka
by Alessandra Ricciardelli
Abstract: The paper contributes to the discussion over the development of an innovative approach that would enable academics to revise the modes of collaboration and processes of engaging people. rnThis paper aims at filling the gap in the exiting literature on social capital and social engagement as it suggests steps or initiatives in the framework of the Transition approach that supports community engagement for transforming the highly vulnerable, non-resilient state to a resilient and more localised place. The purpose is to understand in what way Transition, as a new theoretical approach, can contribute to define a new model for collaboration while leveraging on two key aspects: resilience and localisation. The paper analyses what socio-economic and community-related structures as well as organisational systems are necessary to implement modes and places of collaboration in a resilient country such as the Croatian City of Rijeka while understanding the complexities of governing systems in the perspective of Community Governance and suggesting criteria for actions in creating a shared, integrated, networked-based and knowledge-based development. The evidence will show that the Transitions approach towards relocalisation could be effective in both catalysing community responses to critical issues and in generating engagement and setting up new enterprises. Moving from raising awareness and trying to interest people, the community organisation is enabled to: increase collaborative and social entrepreneurship setting up new businesses and infrastructure needed at the local level; increase local democracy by enhancing communitys ability to self-organise and make decisions sustainably; foster communitys attitude to learn and adapt since being resilient means having the necessary skills; enhance the intentional aspect of building resilience.
Keywords: collaboration; knowledge-based development; resilience; (re)localisation; community governance; organisation systems; transition.
Gold Coast Smart City Strategy: Informed by Local Planning Priorities and International Smart City Best Practices
by Tooran Alizadeh, Leila Irajifar
Abstract: This paper takes an applied approach to propose a smart city strategy informed by local planning priorities and international best practices. In doing so, it focuses on Gold Coast a midsized coastal city in Australia - which has been part of IBMs Smarter Cities Challenge, and Open and Agile Smart Cities Network. In this paper, local planning context and priorities in relation to smart cities are investigated, and benchmarked against best practice smart city initiatives from around the world. The result is a strategic smart city framework around organisational and operational capital, economic and financial capital, human and social capital, infrastructure and physical capital. The approach taken, and the lessons learned are applicable to other cities interested in taking a strategic approach towards the fast growing concept of smart cities.
Keywords: smart city; strategy; planning; best practice; Gold Coast; Australia.
A Review of Zero Energy Housing (ZEH) Regulations for Low-Income Households
by Jung Hoon Han, Sumin Kim, Jun-Hyung Kim, Sang-Young Lee
Abstract: This paper reviews zero energy building programs and regulations in the USA, Europe, Australia and South Korea and suggests the implication of Zero Energy Housing policy for low-income households to allow for better access, management and modification of homes. Low-income households in Australia are most vulnerable to energy poverty due to ever increasing energy costs such as electricity and gas services. This study identifies three barriers in promoting zero energy housing for low-income households, its affordability, accessibility and occupants behaviours. It suggests that both provision of financial incentives and assistance for Zero Energy Housing retrofit is required as a regulatory practice in Australia.
Keywords: Zero Energy Housing; Zero Energy Building; Low Income Household; Regulation; Sustainability.
Impact of Knowledge Management and ICT on Operational Efficiency: An Empirical Study
by Salama S. Al Qubaisi, Mian M. Ajmal, Mehmood Khan
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between Knowledge Management Practices (KMPs), Information Communication Technology (ICT) and Operational Efficiency (OE) from financial perspective. Five hypotheses are developed with the help of literature review and are tested through the application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) in Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Altogether, 462 valid responses were collected from an Oil and Gas company in UAE. Four out of five KMPs have a significant relationship with OE. Also, ICT has been found to moderate the relationship between KMPs and OE. One KMP has shown an insignificant relationship with OE. The results also show that the standardized coefficients of these paths and the loadings of the indicators on their factors are all significant. A validity test shows strong evidence of the joint impact of KMPs and ICT on OE with the possible moderating impact of ICT on OE. One of the research limitations is the type of organization under study. Future studies may include other industries such as manufacturing and construction.
Keywords: KM; Operations; ICT; Technology; Efficiency; Excellence; Oil and Gas.
Blended work and opportunities for knowledge sharing: Human resource management practices to increase innovative work behaviour and life satisfaction of bridge workers
by Sari Mansour, Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay
Abstract: This research tests aims to verify in a sample of bridge workers (192) the mediating role of occupational self-efficacy on the relationship between availability of blended work and opportunity for knowledge-sharing with younger workers (or opportunities for generativity), as well as life satisfaction and innovative work behaviour. The results of bootstrap show that the availability of blended work has an indirect effect on life satisfaction and innovative work behaviour via occupational self-efficacy. Also, they reveal that the opportunity for knowledge transfer to younger workers, or generativity, impacts the life satisfaction and innovative work behaviour via occupational self-efficacy.
Keywords: knowledge transfer; generational knowledge transfer; blended work; generativity; occupational self-efficacy; life satisfaction; innovative work behaviour; work; age; aging worker.
Upgrading of Developing Countries Industrial Clusters Firms: Conceptual-Theoretical Framework
by Iffat Batool Naqvi, Zahid Ali Memon
Abstract: Industrial clusters in developing countries exhibit the properties of labor intensive, low-tech and low-cost manufacturing hubs in the global production networks. This research argues that institutional architecture of global production networks provides an opportunity to these industrial clusters of developing countries to create value through knowledge links between the firms and non-firms actors of global production networks and innovation systems (ISs) in which the clustered firms are embedded. The research develops a hypothesis for a potential upgrading of industrial cluster firms through the support of knowledge institutes embedded in the network structures of regional innovation systems, national innovation systems and global production networks. The conceptual-theoretical framework is designed by connecting the cluster theory, innovation system framework and global production networks theory for an assessment of the upgrading of developing countries industrial clusters within global production networks. From an institutional perspective, this research classifies the knowledge links as technological-knowledge and organizational-knowledge links between the firm and non-firms actors of global production networks and innovation systems. A further future research can empirically test this designed framework through data of the industrial clusters firms, participating in the global production networks.
Keywords: Industrial clusters; knowledge links; global production networks; upgrading; regional innovation system; national innovation system; developing countries.
A knowledge-based development model for primate cities of the developing world
by Paul Hector, Vincent Ribiere, Jean-Louis Ermine, Alex Bennet
Abstract: This paper presents the conceptual development and piloting of a knowledge-based development model for primate cities. Using UNESCOs Knowledge Societies Conceptual Framework, the study extends this framework substantiating relationships between the Frameworks components, intellectual capital, knowledge processes and macro-level sustainable development goals (economic, environmental, social as well as peace / security dimensions). An international Delphi panel of experts in the fields of knowledge management, knowledge cities and urban planning, validated the knowledge-based development model derived from the framework. Empirical field pilots were conducted with the model in primate cities in Ethiopia and Thailand to assess the relevance of the model and to explore what insights and guidance it could provide policy-makers. The model identified key resources and critical areas where policy interventions are needed. Feedback from respondents contributed to the models improvement. A K-SWOT policy dialogue further demonstrated the models potential for supporting decision-making.
Keywords: Addis Ababa; Bangkok; Delphi method; design science research; developing countries; intellectual capital; knowledge-based development; knowledge cities; knowledge economy; knowledge societies; primate cities; United Nations; UNESCO; urbanization; 2030 Sustainable development goals.
Understanding knowledge and creativity-based development in well-established cities and urban regions
by Simón Sánchez-Moral, Marco Bontje, Sako Musterd
Abstract: Developing creative and knowledge-intensive economic activities is an objective for many well-established cities and urban regions. We aim to enhance the understanding of that process by focusing on the institutional and local/regional contexts in which the activities take place. We offer a thick description showing the role played by deep structural and contemporary contexts in the growth of these activities. The regions of Madrid and Amsterdam have been selected to illustrate our ideas and method. They appear equally well-established, are well-embedded in the global economy and are both strong economic centres. However, they are also well-positioned to demonstrate that specific contexts have influenced their development. In particular, Madrids political and economic ruptures seem decisive in its development, while in Amsterdam it is self-reinforcing paths that appear crucial. We suggest developing tailored context-sensitive urban policies. These will be effective, but will also reduce the risk of losing local characteristics that may offer a unique competitive advantage.
Keywords: creative knowledge cities; urban pathways; institutions; place-based strategies.
Areas of Innovation in cities: The evolution of 22@Barcelona
by Josep Miquel Pique, Francesc Miralles, Jasmina Berbegal-Mirabent
Abstract: Areas of Innovation (AOIs) are on the agenda of urban planners in the revitalization of inner cities. The knowledge-based economy provides the opportunity to base these revitalization efforts in creating AOIs as an evolution of the old industrial districts. Although many theoretical insights have been proposed to understand different perspectives of this process, this research stream lacks a comprehensive model that describes and maps the evolution steps entailed in this process.
Grounded in some of the most widely spread conceptual frameworks in this research fieldTriple Helix model, Knowledge Based Urban Development paradigm, Clusters of Innovation framework, co-evolutionary theory, Learning Region theory and lifecycle of a new ventureas a reference, this work contributes to the existing literature by proposing a comprehensive model for the evolution of AOIs. The proposed model integrates previous theoretical insights that have been applied for the revitalization of inner cities with an evolutionary perspective, providing a better understanding of how extant insights can fit into the different steps of the evolution of an Area of Innovation.
Based on a case research study approach, this work uses the 22@Barcelona case, an area of innovation that transformed an old industrial district into a knowledge-based one, to analyse its evolution and to elaborate a model.
The academic value of this work stems from shedding new light on a new perspective for theorizing the evolution of AOIs from inception to maturity. Urban planners can benefit from the outcomes of this work by getting additional clues in planning revitalization efforts in inner cities.
Keywords: Areas of Innovation; Science Parks; Triple Helix; Knowledge Based Urban Development; Clusters of Innovation; Innovation Districts; Knowledge Cities; Lifecycle; Co-evolution; 22@Barcelona.
Planning a Global Knowledge City: Experience from Melbourne, Australia
by Sajeda Tuli, Richard Hu, Lain Dare
Abstract: This study investigates planning policy shifts to shape a global knowledge city in the dual contemporary transformative processes of globalisation and the knowledge economy. It develops an integrative conceptual and policy analytical framework from cross-fertilising the global city and the knowledge city, and tests it by applying it to Melbourne as a case study. The empirical analysis involves a content analysis of strategic plans and elite interviews with key policy makers and informants. The findings are mixed. At both the State and the City levels, the strategic plans demonstrate a growing presence and importance of key themes that define Melbourne as an emerging global knowledge city. However, the absence of a national policy and problematic inter-governmental coordination in strategic directions, and a lack of focus on human capital without due considerations of home grown talent and international students, are limiting Melbourne from fully reaching its potential as a global knowledge city. Drawing on these findings, this study concludes with a discussion about the effectiveness of the constructed framework in conceptualising the global knowledge city and policy analysis; it also points out a few limitations of this exploratory study that require further research.
Keywords: planning policy shift; global city; knowledge city; strategic plan; Melbourne.
Application of the Triple Helix Model in the revitalization of Cities: the case of Brazil
by Josep Miquel Pique, Francesc Miralles, Clarissa Stefani Teixeira, Jadhi Vincki Gaspar, José Roberto Branco Ramos Filho
Abstract: A new trend in urban projects has risen around a common problem: old urban spaces are losing most of their productive capabilities and becoming obsolete. In most cases, these spaces are revitalized by transforming them in knowledge based development areas. The aim of this paper is to understand how these transformation projects are developed. After reviewing the theoretical framework of the Triple Helix Model and Knowledge Based Urban Development, we analyse several Brazilian cities that are in the process of urban revitalization, transforming old industrial districts into knowledge and creativity districts. Specifically, four cases are examined in detail in this multiple-case study: the Porto Digital initiative, which performs an important role in the City of Recifes renewal; the Porto Maravilha project, already regarded as the major Rio de Janeiro Olympics legacy for revitalizing the port; the 4o Distrito, which seeks to transform part of the old industrial region of Porto Alegre; and the Centro Sapiens, created to give the eastern sector of the historic center of Florian
Keywords: Brazilian cities; 22@Barcelona; urban revitalization; urban transformation; urban renewal; knowledge based economy; innovation districts; creativity districts; triple helix; knowledge based urban development.
Knowledge creation in knowledge-intensive small and medium sized enterprises
by Elsa Grimsdottir, Ingi Runar Edvardsson, Susanne Durst
Abstract: The paper presents insights into the knowledge creation process in three Icelandic knowledge-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Data were obtained through a case study methodology. The findings indicate that the three knowledge-intensive companies use complex, non-routine knowledge to deal with complex problems. Often, practical problems are a starting point for new ideas and knowledge development. Brainstorming, collaboration, teamwork, informal and formal gathering and other knowledge creation activities are used in the knowledge creating process. The companies showed many characteristics of SMEs with little formal structure and strategies. The subject of knowledge creation has received little attention in the literature. Thus, the study responds to this situation by giving insights into the knowledge creation processes in knowledge intensive SMEs.
Keywords: Knowledge creation; knowledge-intensive companies; knowledge management; small and medium sized enterprises.
Boosting the entrepreneurial scene in cities: experiences and reflections from the InFocus networka short communication
by Willem Van Winden
Abstract: This short communication contains a reflection on local entrepreneurial ecosystems and how to boost them, in the context of smart specialisation strategies of cities and regions. It is based on a literature study and inputs from 10 member cities of the InFocus project (sponsored by the EUs URBACT programme), that exchange and develop knowledge about the development of smart specialisation strategies on the urban level. In September 2017, the network held a meeting in Turin, dedicated to the topic of promoting an entrepreneurship ecosystems. The paper discusses several specific aspects of policies regarding entrepreneurship: the relation with smart specialisation approach, startup promotion policies, fostering a culture of entrepreneurship, and the different development stages in entrepreneurship: Starting, scaling, growing, with examples from cities in the InFocus network. Among other things, it concludes that a stronger alignment between the urban and regional policy levels is required to link the urban-focused startup ecosyetems to the regional industrial tissue.
Keywords: entrepreneurship ecosystems; startups; smart specialisation; cities; incubators; innovation systems.
Capturing Innovation in Surgeries: An Evaluation from a Management Perspective
by Gökçen Arkalı Olcay, Hacer Özgen Narcı, Metin Gürler, Melih Bulu
Abstract: Surgery is considered as an integral part of any health system, comprising 30% of global burden of disease alongwith serious access problems and catastrophic payments across the world. And more than 230 million major surgeries are done every year. Surgical innovations typically represent the greatest part of innovations in terms of their contributions to ensuring safer and high-quality care and thus saving lives in the field of healthcare management. Such innovations also contribute significantly to the knowledge society. Correctly identifying innovations in surgery and enabling them to be known and adapted by other surgeons is a critical concern for all stakeholders in healthcare. There exists no information on surgical innovations from a managerial perspective in Turkey. This study aims to explore how surgeons identify surgical innovations based on their real experiences of past surgeries using a semi-structured questionnaire distributed to surgeons in a major hospital chain in İstanbul, Turkey. The results shed light on recognizing and evaluating surgical innovations provided by the practicing surgeons via a management perspective.
Keywords: Surgery; Surgical innovation; Innovation process; Healthcare management.
Special Issue on: Knowledge Based Development, Theory and Applications on the Knowledge Economy
Big Data Modelling the Knowledge Economy
by Robert B. Mellor
Abstract: A computer-generated 3D model is used to illustrate the advantages of in silico techniques in virtual reality. The model is derived from data available for SMEs in service industries and for example enables a business owner (or consultant) to identify where the particular organization is on this three-dimensional landscape and draw quantitative conclusions about fruitful future directions for the organization, as well as how high the resulting benefits will be and what costs will be due along the journey.
Clearly this landscape map is of immense value for academics and practitioners alike, and is available ready-to-go in a generic and easily-applicable form. Today anyone can create the basic 3-dimensional fold in software like Maple and discuss the implications for SME growth and development, including the growth and development prospects of specific clients. Markov Chain Monte Carlo modelling is presented which - put simply - is throwing virtual balls down the basic fold to show how the fold can be used and manipulated to model and predict outcomes of Knowledge Engineering projects. In particular, results are shown for; adding multi-skilled innovators, adding network input from the external environment, looking at the cost of controlling management by showing how much bad information gatekeeping at departmental manager level actually costs and finally investigating the value-adding effect of intellectual capital, such as patents.
Keywords: Business Analysis; Computer model; Entrepreneurship; Innovation; KBV; Profitability; SME.
The Influence of Knowledge Sharing on Portuguese Healthcare Organisations Performance
by Carmem T. Leal, Carlos P. Marques, Carla Marques, Maria Cruz
Abstract: Knowledge sharing (KS) lies at the core of knowledge management and reflects employees willingness to share valuable expertise. The benefits of KS have been documented in many settings, but its effectiveness varies considerably among organisations.
This research sought, first, to identify healthcare workers perception of the importance of KS practices and the way they relate to organisational performance. Second, this study focused on verifying the (in)existence of the mediation effects of job satisfaction and turnover intention in the relationship between KS and organisational performance.
Two dimensions of KS were considered: informal (IKS) and formal (FKS). To model their effects on performance, job satisfaction and turnover intention were considered mediators. Measurements of these four latent variables were collected from a sample of Portuguese healthcare professionals and validated via confirmatory factor analysis. Path structural equation modelling was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between the four variables.
The results suggest that, while FKS increases job satisfaction, it also increases the perceived performance of healthcare professionals regardless of their satisfaction levels. Keeping sample limitations in mind, our preliminary conclusion is that investing in FKS is beneficial to healthcare services, favouring the retention of satisfied workers who value non-financial organisational performance.
Keywords: Knowledge sharing; job satisfaction; organisational performance; turnover intentions; Portuguese healthcare organisations.
The Economic Role of Small Knowledge Intensive Firms in European Member States
by Diogo Ferraz, Elisabeth Pereira
Abstract: The Europe 2020 strategy considers the micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) the backbone of European member states to achieve a smart, sustainable and inclusive economic growth. The present study has as purpose to investigate the relationship between a set of variables that characterizes the small knowledge intensive firms (SKIFs) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the importance of their business expenditure on research and development (BERD). To achieve this propose, 24 European member states were analyzed during the period between 2008 and 2012 using the econometric analysis of panel data. The obtained results allow to conclude that countries with high growth values on SKIFs also have growth in GDP and BERD, being a direct relation of SKIF to country macroeconomic variables.
Keywords: SKIFs; SMEs; European Countries; Innovation; Economic Development.
The impact of Entrepreneurship Framework Conditions in Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurship Activity: An international approach
by Carla Sampaio, Aldina Correia, Vitor Braga, Alexandra Braga
Abstract: The original Global Entrepreneurship Monitor model predicts that the business activity at the national level varies with the General National Framework Conditions, while entrepreneurial activity varies with the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions (Reynolds et al., 2005). The aim of the National Expert Survey is to provide a general diagnostic approach to the Entrepreneurship Institutions that can be applied to any territorial level: as nation, region, city or others. It selects a representative sample of experts and asks them to make valuations on the target territory, using questionnaires. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor also provides the Total early-stage Entrepreneurship Activity for the studied countries which is the percent of working age population both about to start an entrepreneurial activity, and that have started one from a maximum of 3 years and half. Therefore, this paper examines data collected from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2011 National Expert Survey Global Individual Level Data in order to assess the impact of the environmental variables on entrepreneurship. Results show that the variables Entrepreneurial level of education at Vocational, Professional, College and University, Research and development level of transference, Physical infrastructures and services access and Cultural, social norms and society support, have more impact in the Total early-stage Entrepreneurship Activity.
Keywords: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; National Expert Survey; Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurship Framework Conditions; Total early-stage Entrepreneurship Activity; Linear Regression; Confirmatory Factorial Analysis.
Influence of Knowledge Sharing on Organizational Performance
by NICKSON ODONGO, Daoping Wang
Abstract: Purpose-This research aims to study the association between knowledge sharing principles and organizational development. Design/methodology/approach-Theoretical relationships are verified through an empirical assessment of 237 Kenyan firms in petroleum and telecommunication industries.Findings-This paper demonstrates how firms that appreciate knowledge sharing principles enjoy superior gains than their rivals.Research limitations/implications-The issue of dissemination of stocks of knowledge has not been factored as a practice of knowledge sharing. Fresh studies can be conducted on the subject in totality.Practical implications-It demonstrates knowledge sharing actions that have a positive influence on organizational development.Originality/value-The visualization of knowledge sharing principles illustrates theoretical creativity. This innovation can be adopted by various knowledge embracing industries. The research acknowledges that these actions have a positive influence on organizational performance.
Keywords: Competitive advantage; Knowledge management; Organizational Development; Knowledge sharing; Organizational learning.
Applying Open Innovation to Promote the Development of a Knowledge City: the Culiacan Experience
by Pedro Flores, Francisco Javier Carrillo, José Guadalupe Robles, Magda Alicia Leal
Abstract: Purpose. The aim of this article is to explain the generation of positive impacts on the social accounts of a knowledge-based city applying open innovation initiatives, as in the case of Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico.
Design - Methodology - Approach. The article addresses the subject of the capital system model from the perspective of a knowledge city, as well as the open innovation funnel model that can be applied to generate value for the social accounts of a city.
Findings. The initiatives that promote open innovation encourage the development of the knowledge capital of a city, which includes citizen participation, the experience of civic values and trust. The integration of open innovation initiatives into permanent communication media such as social networks provides a continuous platform for promoting events and messages that boost the social accounts of a city.
Limitations and implications of the research. The participation indicators were integrated into the open innovation initiative promoted in the city and into the activity of two social network accounts provided by the city administration. Access to hard participation data collected over 12 months was a key factor in the review of both initiatives and in the development analysis of the capital system of the city. Statistical tests (ANOVA) and specialized software (SSPS) were used to analyze the information.
Value of the research. The article presents open innovation initiatives in the social accounts of a city from a knowledge-based development perspective.
Keywords: Capital System, Knowledge City, Open Innovation
Keywords: Capital System; Knowledge City; Open Innovation.
A conceptual approach to integrating health care services: an investigation of the Portuguese case
by Ana Dias, Jorge Simões, Silvina Santana
Abstract: The aging of the Portuguese population and the need to ensure the financial sustainability of the National Health Service claim for urgent changes in the way health care is being delivered in Portugal. Better coordination between different levels of care is fundamental to achieve higher levels of efficiency and effectiveness but the provision of health care in the country is still very fragmented. Therefore, how to integrate health care is a central issue in the design and management of the healthcare system, assumed as a condition to optimize the use of resources and to improve the outcomes of the health care provision, especially regarding value created for patients. In this paper, we identify determinants of health care integration and discuss strategic dimensions and structural alternatives that encourage care integration. The research was carried out in two phases. First, we have conducted a literature review and four initial exploratory interviews, in order to position the study in relation to existing knowledge and to ground the next steps. In a second phase, the object of study was deepened and redefined by a more exhaustive literature review and fifteen semi-structured interviews with key experts, in order to define the central concepts under study and its various dimensions, as well as to delimit the field of study with a view to build a conceptual model for the analysis and understanding of health care integration. Based on the results, we propose a service model more focused on the requirements of the demand, for example through alternative models of organization, which do not necessarily entail the creation of new structures and which can lead to an increasingly de-institutionalized care system.
Keywords: Integration of care; determinants of care integration; dimensions of care integration; models; evaluation.