Effectiveness of cow dung and effective microorganisms on composting of napkins and diapers
by Namasivayam Vasudevan; Greeshma Odukkathil; Gomathi Ravi
International Journal of Environment and Waste Management (IJEWM), Vol. 33, No. 4, 2024

Abstract: Absorbent hygiene products (AHPs) have become an indispensable feature of modern-day living for all humans. AHPs are the products designed to absorb excreted body fluids at various stages of a consumer's life and are popularly known as 'diapers', 'napkins', or 'sanitary pad'. The AHP wastes are not biodegradable under composting conditions unless they are pre-processed. Based on the survey, the total quantity of napkins sold in Chennai was calculated to be approximately 253 tonnes per year. Based on the composition, most of the brands constitute biodegradable material as major component. The napkin contains 60%-70% of biodegradable materials and diapers contain 85%-92% of the biodegradable materials. In the present study, composting was carried out using amendments like cow dung and effective microbes for composting AHPs (napkins and diapers). The duration of composting was 60 days. pH, moisture, C/N ratio, phosphorus, sodium and potassium were monitored periodically. The final compost characteristics were pH 7-8, moisture 50%, C/N ratio 15-20:1, and phosphorus 2-3 g/kg. About 70% to 85% of volume and weight reduction were observed during composting.

Online publication date: Fri, 12-Apr-2024

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