Complementarity between patents, trademarks and copyrights: evidence from the food and beverage industry
by Jasper Grashuis
International Journal of Intellectual Property Management (IJIPM), Vol. 12, No. 4, 2022

Abstract: Many food and beverage manufacturers engage in product and process innovation to address segmented preferences. Manufacturers use various mechanisms to protect the intellectual property associated with innovation. Unfortunately, the empirical literature is defined by the inattention to copyrights as indicators of intellectual property and their complementarity to patents and trademarks. Therefore, we use data from 128 US food and beverage manufacturers for the 2010-2018 period to study if patents, trademarks, and copyrights are complements or substitutes when protecting the value associated with product and process innovation. Generally, we conclude that patents are complementary with both trademarks and copyrights. Put differently, food and beverage manufacturers who obtain patents also obtain more trademarks and more copyrights; food and beverage manufacturers who obtain trademarks or copyrights also obtain more patents. Trademarks and copyrights are only complementary for beverage manufacturers.

Online publication date: Fri, 18-Nov-2022

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