Chapter 9: Environmental Issues

Title: Modelling how changes in the driving cycle affect fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission rates: the first stage


Abstract/Summary: This paper describes a simplified procedure for estimating the fuel consumed and carbon dioxide emitted as a result of traffic demand management measures or other policy instruments. The usual methods may be based on second-by-second traffic simulation and the combination of the resulting speed profile with a relationship between fuel consumption rates (or emissions) and speed/acceleration, such as that due to Akelik. This paper shows that mathematical integration simplifies this to an analytic formula, in which the driving cycle becomes characterised by just three coefficients. These combine with the three vehicle-specific parameters of the Akelik model to produce the fuel consumption rate appropriate to that driving cycle and vehicle. The analytic method was validated against official data obtained for a set of new cars tested under two different sets of EC standards for official estimates of the fuel consumption rate for new cars and the technique enhanced in a second stage of the work.

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