Journal of Design Research
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J. of Design Research (8 papers in press)
Abstract: As a first-time investigation of 'psychosocial inclusivity' in design, this paper introduces and establishes the concept of psychosocially inclusive design, and explores it within the context of supermarket shopping for older individuals, as one instrumental activity of daily living. Inclusive design theory and practice have been predominantly concerned with issues of physical access, limiting its scope and relevance to the wider more complex psychosocial issues. Employing research triangulation and rigorous empirical investigations, this paper advances the fundamental understanding, extends the general research agenda, and pushes the current boundaries of inclusive design towards non-physical inclusion by identifying any possible psychosocial constructs. Four constructs, including 'cognitive', 'emotional', 'social', and 'value', were identified in the context of supermarket shopping through ethnographic interviews; creative workshop; and observations conducted with a total of 58 older individuals. The results may play a crucial role in establishing the theoretical foundations to the concept of psychosocial inclusivity in design.
Keywords: ethnographic interview; creative workshop; observation; supermarket shopping; older people; inclusive design; human-centred design; psychosocial inclusivity.
Strive for what others want: the role of mindfulness, social pressure, time pressure and time perspectives on designers' happiness
by Chaehan So
Abstract: The present study investigated the specific life circumstances that determine designers' happiness measured in terms of life satisfaction and subjective well-being. To this aim, self-reports of 252 participants in an online survey were analysed using psychological measurement instruments for pressure, self-aspects, happiness and mindfulness. The findings highlight that social pressure and time pressure are negatively related to designers' happiness and to positive self-aspects (self-esteem, creative self-efficacy) by a small to medium effect size (r = .21). Judging partially mediates this detrimental effect by a small effect size (r = .09), is highly related to social comparison frequency (r = .50) and global happiness (r = .40). Present focus and present value relate more positively to global happiness than future focus and future value (r = .17). A positive implication for designers derives from the result that creative self-efficacy closely relates to positive emotions (r = .43) and life satisfaction (r = .40) but is unaffected by social and time pressure.
Keywords: social pressure; time pressure; temporal perspectives; self-esteem; creative self-efficacy; social comparison; positive emotions; life satisfaction; happiness; mindfulness.
The PSS design GuRu methodology: guidelines and rules generation to enhance PSS detailed design
by Claudio Sassanelli, Giuditta Pezzotta, Sergio Terzi, Fabiana Pirola, Monica Rossi
Abstract: Manufacturers are often compelled to navigate the transition towards servitisation. In relation to this phenomenon, the present work focuses on design problems related to physical product enhancement when the addition of a service component is needed. A methodology generating the most suitable technical directions and design ideas to be followed during the integrated product-service system (PSS) design is provided. These design directions are deployed per the Design for Product Service Supportability approach on two different levels: guidelines (non-company and PSS specific) and rules (derived through Design for X (DfX) approaches) specific to a company and a particular solution. An application case in an Italian company operating in the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration market is conducted.
Keywords: design knowledge; design methodology; product design; design for X; product service system.
Using models as boundary objects in early design negotiations: analysis and implications for decision support systems
by Massimo Panarotto, Marco Bertoni, Christian Johansson
Abstract: One common strategy to include more downstream lifecycle dimensions in early design is to enrich modelling and simulation techniques embedded in decision support systems. However, downstream dimensions are difficult to trade against more traditional engineering objectives. This research studied through individual interviews how six disciplines use models to negotiate design trade-offs. References to models were categorised according to whether models supported or hampered the duration of trade-off identification and how they impacted the duration of trade-off resolution. The results point to the difficulty of applying downstream lifecycle issues earlier in the design process because of the characteristics of the models that are used. A list of characteristics promoting and limiting the use of four models as boundary objects (CAD models, simulation results, total cost of ownership and decision matrices) is provided. The cross-analysis of these characteristics provides insights into how models need to be organised in decision support systems.
Keywords: collaborative design; decision-making; interdisciplinarity; product development; design models.