International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development (7 papers in press)
The Diffusion of Nationwide ICT Innovation and Socio-economic Context: Case of the Internet
by Dong Han Kim, Min Jae Park
Abstract: The Internet has spread more rapidly than any technological innovation in the history of mankind. The purpose of this study is to investigate the time required to reach the inflection point of the Internet, which is the innovation diffusion by country, using the time required to reach the saturation rate among various types of information that can be presented by the Bass Diffusion Model. The Bass Model is the model most frequently used in nationwide diffusion studies, because of its simplicity of application and robust theoretical basis. We also examine what socio-economic factors relate to this spreading time. This study then proposes the contexts by socio-economic indexes that can affect Internet penetration through decision trees. Based on the analysis, we classified countries into five groups. This study propose a new approach of national classification is introduced in the technology-based innovation policy by utilizing the advantages of the two methodologies of the Bass Diffusion Model and the decision tree.
Keywords: ICT Diffusion; Internet; Bass Diffusion Model; Decision Tree; Country Classification.
INNOVATION COMPETENCIES OF INDIVIDUALS AS A DRIVING SKILL SETS OF FUTURE WORKS AND IMPACT OF THEIR PERSONALITY TRAITS
by Ezgi Yildirim Saatci, Ceyda Ovaci
Abstract: Innovation is a strategic tool of economic growth for developing countries. Emerging economies wishing to take advantage of the power of innovation should have a competent workforce. Therefore, innovative individuals will be main driver of reaching the goal of sustainable growth through innovation. In this research, innovation is scrutinized through individual level from both competencies and personality dimensions. In the respective literatures, innovation business studies- and personality psychology- are indicated to be some compelling factors for business performances with innovation through people and innovative work behaviour dominating the field. The analysis of this research is based on hierarchical regression of the innovation competency model developed through Framework for Innovation Competencies Development and Assessment (FINCODA) EU Project and Big Five Personality traits to rather question direct relations of innovation which is innovation with the innovative competency holders. Results indicate that openness, conscientiousness, extraversion and neuroticism are relevant with individual innovation competencies.
Keywords: innovation; innovation competencies; big five personality; hierarchical regression.
Response to Disruptive Innovation with Hybrid Products
Transition of Oracles business applications to cloud computing
by Peter Fuzes
Abstract: Success and failure of the incumbents response to disruptive technologies have been in the focus of innovation and strategy research for decades. Recent papers have suggested that developing a hybrid product, which combines old and new technology, can be a stepping stone towards fully embracing new technology. Hybrid products can lower the risk of moving into the unknown and provide a learning mechanism for new technologies to take root. On the other hand, hybrid products can give the illusion of a response to disruptive technology, while tying a company to old technology. This paper explores the role of hybrid products in the response of a leading global IT company, Oracle Corporation, to cloud computing, a disruptive innovation. The development of a hybrid product allowed Oracle to successfully transition its business applications to a cloud offering while not abandoning the needs of its customers with respect to traditional products. The findings show that changing the positioning of a hybrid product by moving the focus from old technology entirely to the new can support an evolving response to disruptive innovation. Moreover, to fully embrace innovation and achieve faster growth, the sale of hybrid products can be complemented with acquisitions. The paper also considers the implication of cloud computing on Oracle's business in emerging countries.
Keywords: disruptive innovation; incumbent response; cloud computing; hybrid products; acquisitions; Oracle Corporation.
A comparative approach to national innovative capacity in the long-run
by José M. Ortiz-Villajos
Abstract: This article explores the evolution of Spanish innovative capacity from the 19th century to the present day compared to some countries in Western Europe and Latin America. To this end, three indicators proposed by previous studies have been used, all in per capita terms: patents granted in the United States, national patent applications in each country, and scientific publications. The first appears to be, within its limitations, the best measure of national innovative capacity, although the other two provide valuable complementary information. The study reveals that Spain has significantly improved its innovative capacity over time, although it still lags far behind the most innovative countries. On the other hand, Argentina and Mexico were ahead of Spain in the first half of the twentieth century, but since then, the latter has performed much better. Thus, today Spain has an innovative capacity several times greater than that of the two Latin American countries. In fact, Argentina and Mexico seem to have reversed their innovative capacity over time. In conclusion, Spain needs to introduce more powerful institutional incentives to increase private investment in innovation if it wants to catch up with Europe; and Argentina and Mexico need more radical public policies aimed at strengthening their knowledge institutions and the links between the latter and the industrial world. The study focuses on general trends, so a deeper analysis of specific aspects and periods is a pending task for the future.
Keywords: innovative capacity; patents; scientific publications; Spain; Europe; Latin America.
INNOVATION POLICY AND TRIPLE HELIX MODEL IN MALAYSIA CONTEXT: A LITERATURE REVIEW
by Farah Atiqah Sharif, Aslan Amat Senin
Abstract: In Malaysia, the evolvement of national innovation system (NIS) is strongly influenced by national innovation policy and strategies proposed by government. This has resulted on shifting phenomenon of NIS from Triple Helix (TH) I to III in the last 68 years. The evolvement of NIS also has positively impacted and strengthen the role of universities, industries and governments in innovation and economy development. However, previous studies have illustrated the challenges faced by helixes especially the local universities in time of NIS shifting from TH I to III. This paper is aiming to revisited Triple Helix concept and the impact of innovation policymaking to innovation and economy performance. This paper is also to review the roles of universities in embarking on TH practices, identify the challenges to practice the model and the evolution of triple helix practices in context of Malaysia. The result from comprehensive review will allow researchers to establish a comprehensive understanding and knowledge on Malaysias NIS timeline in TH adoption.
Keywords: Challenges; Triple Helix; Research Universities; Malaysia; Policy; Strategy.
Entrepreneurial Capabilities of Successful Firms: A Study of Small and Medium-scale Equipment Manufacturers in Nairobi, Kenya
by Radha Upadhyaya, Dorothy McCormick
Abstract: It is widely recognised that a favourable business environment helps businesses to survive and thrive in developing countries. Yet it is also true that some businesses manage to succeed even in places where the business environment is less than ideal. How does this happen? What capabilities have enabled successful entrepreneurs to overcome the challenges of their environment? To answer this question, this study explored the entrepreneurial capabilities of a group of 19 successful metalworking firms manufacturing food processing equipment in Nairobi. Theoretically the study is rooted in the resource-based view of the firm, which recognises both tangible and intangible resources as drivers of success and defines capabilities as the ability to use resources productively. The studys research design followed a mixed methods approach, using both the answers to a survey questionnaire and results of a set of qualitative interviews. The survey showed that the majority of firms attribute their success to the vision and leadership of the entrepreneur. The case study interviews revealed qualities such as flexibility, adaptability, and resilience to be key entrepreneurial capabilities. The study highlights four particular capabilities: capability to envision and lead into the future; resilience, flexibility, and adaptability; ability to hire and retain skilled workers; and ability to design products and processes. Theoretically, the paper largely upholds the resource-based view of the firm. An interesting note is that firms perspectives on capabilities emphasise the softer capabilities of entrepreneurs, which reside mainly in the knowledge-based strand of the resource-based view. The findings have implications for theory, policy, and further research.
Keywords: entrepreneurship; industrialisation; firm capabilities; equipment manufacturing firms; Kenya; industrial policy.
Investigating the impact of technology and training on new service development through the mediating role of innovative behavior
by Iman Akour, Islam Bourini, Rawan Abukhait
Abstract: The current study investigates the impacts of orientation towards technological innovation and innovation-oriented training on development on new service development through the mediating role of Innovative Behaviour. Thus, data were collected and analyzed from 303 full-time employees working in the United Arab Emirates service sector. The data analyzed by using smart partial least square and the results reveal that Orientation Towards Technological Innovation (OTTI) and Innovation-Oriented Training and Development (IOTD) significantly influenced innovative employee behaviors, which consequently affect new service development. Moreover, innovative behaviors found to play a mediating role in the relationship between orientation towards technological innovation and innovation-oriented training, development, and new service development. These findings provide implications for managers about how to enhance a new service development program through technology, training, and innovative employee behaviors within developing economies.
Keywords: Innovative Behavior; Orientation Towards Technological Innovation; New Service Development; and Innovation-Oriented Training and Development.