International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development
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International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development (9 papers in press)
Abstract: An increasing number of low and middle-income countries seek to boost electrification with renewable energy. However, in many of these countries the opportunities for domestic provision of renewable energy technology is constrained by limited manufacturing capacity. As a result, a high share of renewable energy equipment and services is imported from global technologies suppliers located mainly in high-income countries. The role of low and middle-income countries as technology-users in producer-driven global value chains is therefore central to research concerned with identifying ways to increase the diffusion of renewable energy. This article aims at learning from global suppliers of small wind turbines with particular focus on two questions: What can we learn from them about capabilities, opportunities and barriers for diffusion of small wind? What insights can we derive about organisational learning and policy learning to enhance diffusion?
Keywords: capabilities; low- and middle-income countries; diffusion; global suppliers; global value chains; learning from importing; renewable energy; small wind turbines; user-producer interaction.
Framework for Public Sector Participation in Public Private Partnership Projects in Nigeria
by Afeez Sanni
Abstract: The establishment of an appropriate guide for the participants in the implementation of public private partnership projects is considered very important to the success of the process. The objective of this study is to identify factors required for successful management of public private partnership projects and develop a framework that will guide public sector participants in order to create innovation in the process. A qualitative research approach was used through case study analysis and an extensive review of past studies to determine the parameters that are required for the success of public private partnership projects. The practices and status in some selected countries were reviewed to understand the process and establish best practices from those experiences. Also, three local cases were analysed to determine the parameters responsible for success and failure of those projects. The framework developed was then validated through questionnaire survey using the experts on public private partnership projects. This study produced a public private partnership implementation framework for the public participants in the project delivery. This framework also proposed a new agency to audit the projects implementation process.
Keywords: developing countries; public private partnership; public sector; public projects.
Near or Far? Spillovers in Patenting, Quality Upgrading, and Product Releases
by Claudio Bravo-Ortega, Daniel Lederman, Ana Cusolito
Abstract: The diffusion of knowledge plays a central role in endogenous growth theories. Simply put, in these models new knowledge can be generated from preexisting knowledge. In other words, existing knowledge is a pure public good, which can benefit any economic agent anywhere. More generally, endogenous growth theories rely on a broad set of assumptions that have not been tested sufficiently, especially for developing economies. The scope and nature of knowledge spillovers is, however, important for policy, because the presumed positive spillovers can jus- tify government intervention (if the spillovers are localized) or laissez faire (if the spillovers are international). This paper empirically assesses the scope and direction of knowledge spillovers in national patenting and, separately, product innovation by firms. The first set of exercises tests whether the cumulative knowledge specifications of the knowledge production function can explain international patterns of patenting or whether own research and development is nec- essary to produce patents. The second set of exercises analyzes whether firm product-quality upgrading and the introduction of new products depend on product innovation within industries, within or across countries. The evidence supports the view that existing stocks of knowledge, domestic and foreign, enhance national innovation and entrepreneurship in the form of prod- uct innovation. More specifically, the evidence suggests that within-country and international knowledge spillovers are positive, but international spillovers can be negative for firms that are far from innovative firms in terms of productivity. However, the results depend on the concept of distance between countries and firms.
Keywords: Endogenous Growth; Patent Production Function; Product Innovation; Spillovers.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ISSUES ARISING OUT OF THE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE USED IN THE SERVICE SECTOR: AN ANALYSIS
by Niharika Singh, Tapas Bandopadhyaya, Niharika Sahoo Bhattacharya, Kuhu Tiwari
Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI) has transformed almost every field of the service sector, such as finance, healthcare, manufacturing, logistics, automotive and aviation. The innovative technologies can identify uneven patterns like spam filtering or payment deceit, and aware businesses in actual time about questionable activities, hence helpful in the growth of a market. These innovations are protected under different forms of Intellectual Property (IP). However, the transformation from AI related inventions to AI lead inventions has raised substantial challenges to the existing IP infrastructure. This study aims at looking into different aspects of AI-related IP protection with an elaborative analysis of the patenting trends through landscape analysis of AI, which is widely used.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Service Sector; AI Generated Works; Intellectual Property; Ethical Issue; Banking industry; Financial institution; Machine Learning; Service sector; Patent Trends; Authorship/Ownership.
A task placement strategy through the citation index design of research equipment
by Donghun Yoon
Abstract: This paper aims to improve the effectiveness of analysis support services for research equipment. We designed the citation index of research equipment in order to improve the efficiency of our research support services, and to reflect the needs of the consumers and the demand agencies. In this paper, we discuss and present the results of an analysis on the citation index of research equipment. We find that according to the choice and focus of R&D, it is more efficient to expand the research equipment with the upper 20% of the demand and reduce the lower 80% of the demand. We are certain that the findings will improve the efficiency of the research equipment analysis services that reflect the needs of the demand agencies. We are also hoping that the findings will contribute greatly to the study, as well as the establishment of scientific and technical policies, regarding the support of public policies and services.
Keywords: task placement; research equipment; analysis support; R&D strategy; citation index design; science and technology; South Korea.
Job Crafting and Innovative Behavior: Examining Mediation and Moderation Mechanism
by Hina Ikram, Muhammad Qaiser Shafi, Iram Naz, Mehwish Ali
Abstract: The impact of entrepreneurial intentions on employees behavioral aspects remains an area that seeks more attention in the 21st century. Based on the social cognitive theory, the current study investigates the impact of entrepreneurial leadership towards job crafting and innovative work behavior through the mediating and moderating role of creative self-efficacy and entrepreneurial orientation respectively. Thus, data were collected from 200 full-time employees working in banks, based in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. The data has been analyzed using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and SPSS. The results reveal that entrepreneurial leadership significantly influences job crafting and innovative work behavior. Moreover, entrepreneurial orientation was found to have a mediating role in the relationship between entrepreneurial leadership and job crafting, and innovative work behavior. The results also show that creative self-efficacy strengthens the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior. This research study contributes to entrepreneurship and innovation literature by probing the role of entrepreneurial leadership in the augmentation of innovative work behavior. Furthermore, it also suggests existing and prospective business leaders in identifying the key roles they can play to improve employees innovative capabilities.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial leadership; Entrepreneurial orientation; Creative Self Efficacy; Job Crafting; Innovative Work Behavior.
Can open government support innovation for inclusive development? A South African case study
by Paul Plantinga, Rachel Adams
Abstract: The opening of government in a number of countries has implications for innovation processes and the potential for inclusive development outcomes. After unpacking key thinking around openness and its attendant values, we explore the adoption of open government practices in innovation by considering four instruments: the opening of innovation and technology policy processes, co-creation and collaborative solution development by civil servants, government entities acting as innovation brokers, and public sector procurement of innovation. Through a case study of South Africa, we highlight how innovation actors prioritise particular values of openness over others, oftentimes at the expense of legality and impartiality. This oversight leads to project failures, legitimacy crises and exploitation of openness by more powerful entities. In response, we suggest that public sector innovation programmes and platforms can more explicitly recognise and balance different values through appropriate institutional forms and legislation, and thereby enable sustainable application of open government practices.
Keywords: Innovation; technology policy; openness; Popper; values of openness in government; public sector innovation; inclusive development; open government; procurement; co-creation; South Africa.
THE IMPERATIVE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: LESSONS FROM THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
by Morolake Bolaji, John Adeoti, Joshua Adeyemi Afolabi
Abstract: The advent of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) threw the world into pandemonium as most countries were unprepared for its sudden outbreak. Industrialised countries swung into action by applying technology to monitor COVID-19 cases while accentuating research and development (R&D) activities to develop COVID-19 vaccines and drugs. However, Nigeria has not significantly contributed to global research efforts aimed at addressing the challenges posed by the pandemic. This paper applied a case study approach and situational analysis to examine the state of R&D in Nigeria relative to other economies. The paper goes on to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on Nigerias health sector and the economy at large while emphasising the imperativeness of R&D in effectively handling future outbreaks and, thus, achieving economic and technological catch-up. This study revealed that Nigeria remains a laggard in R&D spending as well as R&D activities, particularly in the health sector as exposed by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. This further reinforces the imperative for Nigeria to significantly and urgently increase its R&D spending not only to combat subsequent health challenges but also to facilitate rapid structural transformation and economic development.
Keywords: rnKey words: R&D; COVID-19; health sector; economic development; Nigeriarn.
Factors affecting Technological Learning through collaboration in Developing Countries Case study: Oil & Gas sector
by Soroush Ghazinoori, Maryam Nozari
Abstract: Technological learning is one of the most important functions of technological collaboration in developing countries, and the success of collaborations also depends on it. In the current qualitative study using a case study approach, an attempt has been done to determine the dimensions of technological learning in the foreign investment contracts of the oil industry. Data analysis was performed using theme analysis method and a qualitative research model was designed. According to the findings of this study, the technological learning framework has several main categories, namely:1)contract features 2)infrastructural aspects, 3) characteristics of technology receiver 4)characteristics of the foreign partner, and 5)the nature of knowledge.
Keywords: technological learning; technological collaboration; oil & gas sector; developing countries; Iran.