International Journal of Technology and Globalisation
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International Journal of Technology and Globalisation (2 papers in press)
Entrepreneurship & Global Health: Activating the Ecosystem and Preventing Disease by Julia F. Li, Elizabeth Garnsey Abstract: What kind of business models can be used to provide affordable healthcare on a viable basis? This paper points to new business models that attract participants in a value chain for innovation. Public-private partnerships can help to activate a supportive ecosystem and draw in participants to contribute to the innovation value chain. There are few economic incentives stimulating R&D for diseases of poverty. But policies with global reach have created new sources of financing to accelerate healthcare innovation in resource-poor settings. Combining resource-based theory of the firm with ecosystem analysis, we extend entrepreneurship theory beyond conventional applications and point to new business models to achieve global health objectives. We use case study evidence from the Meningitis Vaccine Project to show how entrepreneurial innovation can build resources and create value in the healthcare ecosystem. Keywords: entrepreneurship; global health; innovation value chain; resource-based theory,technological innovation; ecosystem.
Agricultural biotechnology development challenges in Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia by Woldeyesus Sinebo, Kazuo Watanabe, Endale Gebre Abstract: Poor countries in Africa need to transition from subsistence to modern knowledge-based agriculture through adopting an array of technologies. However, a number of countries in Africa including Ethiopia have remained defensive towards modern biotechnology, notably genetically modified (GM) crops. In Ethiopia, biosafety, trade and socio-economic concerns raised against the adoption of GM crops are too generic, made without a critical look at the countrys development ambitions, specificities of crops and traits under consideration and without studying case examples of developing countries adopting GM crops. Ethiopia does not require upstream biotechnological capability to make use of GM crops. Existent capability in plant breeding is sufficient to introgress transgenic traits of interest to elite crop varieties. Case studies of other developing countries indicate successful commercialisation of modern biotechnology innovation mainly through partnerships with multinational corporations. The emerging private sector in Ethiopia is engaged with such corporations and has displayed interest in GM crops specifically Bt-cotton. However, further progress is hindered by prohibitive biosafety law issued in 2009 and by lack of clear guidelines with respect to the regulation of GM crop technologies. Ethiopia should integrate development exigencies with environmental concern in decision making, forge partnership with technology providers and resolve indecision and regulatory encumbrances to make use of less contentious non-food GM crops such as Bt-cotton. Developments in modern agricultural biotechnology in Ethiopia are hindered, inter alia, by a strong clout of its anti-GMO Environmental Protection Agency, the absence of influential individuals that champion the technology and inexperience of the scientists for interaction with the outside world, including the international private sector. An independent public biotechnology knowledge system may improve accurate information flow among the various stakeholders, in the end, leading to informed decision making by policy makers and the public at large. Keywords: biosafety; biotechnology; Ethiopia; genetically modified crops.