International Journal of System of Systems Engineering
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International Journal of System of Systems Engineering (6 papers in press)
Digital Collaborators for Complex Systems Development: A Research Agenda by Philip Barry, Steven Doskey, Holly Handley, Andreas Tolk, Sanith Wijesinghe Abstract: Increasingly complex systems exist in dynamic environments where system needs evolve faster than it is possible to identify, much less comprehend, through human observation alone. To build such complex systems, system engineering teams should be augmented with real-time digital collaborators, not only in the design process, but in the management of the system itself. These digital collaborators will aid engineering managers by providing risk-based alternatives, identifying hidden risks, and exposing hidden patterns in the human behavior of stakeholders. There are fundamental research questions that must be addressed for industry to employ digital collaborators. Resolving these questions will enable the evolution of todays current development paradigms to a future where Artificial Intelligence and humans seamlessly work as partners in developing new systems. These questions are codified into a research agenda to aid academia and industry in prioritizing initiatives that can help accelerate advancement of digital collaborators in the engineering of systems. Keywords: Adaptive Systems; Artificial Intelligence; Collective Intelligence; Complex Systems; Intelligent Systems; Multi-agent Intelligence; Sociotechnical Systems; Systems Engineering. DOI: 10.1504/IJSSE.2022.10042956
Human Focused Metrics for Enterprise Readiness Levels by Holly Handley, Andreas Tolk Abstract: Tolk et al. (2020) posits that an organizations ability to adapt to dynamic changes in its environment requires shifts in its managerial processes as well as reallocation of its resources. Adapting managerial processes requires a change in focus from the operational, or systems level of the organization, to the enterprise level. The Enterprise Readiness Level (ERL) is proposed as a metric to indicate the organizations agility in responding to unexpected events (Tolk et al., 2020). However, information on the human component of the organization is not included in the proposed metric. This paper follows the development of the ERL through three levels of technology, system, and enterprise and provides corresponding human-focused metrics that augment the ERL to provide a more robust model. The ERL, with the human metrics included, supports the consideration of the enterprise as a socio-technical system and includes human interoperability into the operational agility model. Keywords: complexity; enterprise readiness level; human readiness level; human viewpoint; operational agility; socio-technical systems. DOI: 10.1504/IJSSE.2022.10043737
Towards integrating systems thinking into systems engineering: theory and application in development of capability concepts by Ksenia Ivanova, Sondoss Elsawah Abstract: Systems thinking encompasses an extensive range of methods based on established theoretical traditions that can be valuable in the early stages of systems engineering and system of systems engineering projects. Despite the growing recognition of the complex and systemic nature of contemporary systems engineering endeavours, there are few reports of the application of systems thinking methods in this context. In our study, we propose a methodological framework for applying systems thinking methods to the concept phase of capability development. We illustrate application of the framework across five cases in the military domain, with a particular focus on iterative refinement of workshop designs through theory-practice cycles. In reflecting on the generalisability of our study findings, we discuss the theoretical implications and provide a set of practical tips for systems engineering practitioners who may be interested in exploring systems thinking methods within their own practice. Keywords: systems thinking; systems engineering; system of systems engineering; multi-method; capability development; problem structuring methods; critical systems practice; workshop design; emerging technology. DOI: 10.1504/IJSSE.2022.10044602
Designing of a biometric fingerprint scanner-based, secure and low-cost electronic voting machine for India by Shubhranil Chakraborty, Debabrata Bej, Dootam Roy, Sekh Arif Mahammad Abstract: A reliable Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) is proposed and implemented in this study, which is integrated with a biometric fingerprint scanner to ensure a secure election process. This biometric EVM includes features such as an interactive user interface, hack-free design and master lock. The EVM system has the capability of registering user data and storing them in a database through proper authentication. Moreover, the system proposed lowers the requirement for human resources. This paper provides a detailed description of the systematic development of the hardware and software used. The software part includes algorithm development and implementation. A thorough and in-depth understanding of the data and the communication protocols along with the pathways used for storage of data in the devices is provided. Additionally, the cost of the system is 62.82% less than the officially existing EVM machines of India. Keywords: Electronic Voting Machine; biometric fingerprint authentication; embedded systems applications; electronic voting technology; user friendly environment; system oriented approach. DOI: 10.1504/IJSSE.2022.10047673
Data privacy project efficiency with cross-functional data governance team by Milomir Vojvodic, Jindrich Spicka, Emil Velinov Abstract: The paper aims to observe the impact of data governance and leadership related cross-functional organizational practices on project efficiency, measuring several predictors, moderator, and mediator variables. The papers empirical data are collected from 98 data management professionals involved in recent European Union General Data Protection Regulation (EU GDPR) projects associated with party data in larger organizations across Europe. The study suggests that Cross-Functional Governance Integration (CFGI) leads to an increase of Privacy Project Speed (PPS). The strength of that relationship is increased by Line-of-Business Stakeholders Governance Participation (LOBS-GP) (moderation). The central construct in this research of CFGI is even more relevant as it is the underlying mechanism where Governance Team Leadership (GTL) also leads to an increase of PPS (mediation). Keywords: data governance; data management; data privacy; data protection; compliance; regulation; project efficiency; organizational design; leadership. DOI: 10.1504/IJSSE.2022.10047816
Sensory variability: rank models and neurophysiological prototypes by Gennady M. Alakoz, Alexander Vladimirovich Kotov, Morgan Madec, Sergey I. Plyaskota, Svetlana Mikhailovna Tolpygo, Elizaveta Bydanova Abstract: The starting point of this paper is the conceptual framework of Oparin-Kolmogorov-Anokhin on the constructive role of sensory variability mechanisms in various forms of life and processes of various structural and functional complexity occurring in them. The article justifies the necessity of changing the threshold paradigm of modern models of formal neurons to a rank paradigm. The main mechanism of this paradigm is an "uncountable" comparison of "incommensurable" properties of various physical-chemical or molecular-biological nature. Authors reveal the adaptive potential of variable in nature metabolic processes of neurons, which guarantees an adequate functional response of their ranked models to any external event, regardless of the time it occurred. The article illustrates the role of rank models in the analysis of natural processes of information transformation in all ranges Keywords: sensor variability; metabolic processes; neurons; modelling of brain activity; neurochemical mechanisms. DOI: 10.1504/IJSSE.2022.10048860