International Journal of System of Systems Engineering (7 papers in press)
Towards a Framework for Enterprise-wide Operational Agility in Complex Environments
by Andreas Tolk, Polinpapilinho Katina, Anne Rainville, John Selby
Abstract: Decision-making within a complex operating environment spanning multiple domains necessitates enterprise-level operational agility. In this case, operational agility involves ability to react to dynamic opponents and the orchestration of technical resources as well as alignment of managerial processes. A shift from the system level to the enterprise view is necessary. However, there is a lack of frameworks addressing how operational agility at the enterprise level can be obtained. The aim of this study was two-fold: (i) to understand the concept of operational agility in context of recent developments and their challenges, and (ii) to propose an innovative metric feeding into operational agility as the enterprise level. Our results indicate that current commonly used systems engineering metrics focus on system specific measures of merit. In this research, we suggest new metrics to enable system/capability evaluation with an enterprise or portfolio context
Keywords: complexity; enterprise capability; interoperability; standardization; operational agility.
Cyber Threats for Operational Technologies
by Roberto Setola, Gabriele Oliva, Giacomo Assenza, Luca Faramondi
Abstract: Most critical sectors worldwide rely on operational technology (OT) whose cybersecurity, due to the primary need of availability, results to be obsolete and inadequate. Episodes like Stuxnet, Irongate, BlackEnergy3, etc., showed that cyberattacks causing kinetic effects have become a concrete threat. This is particularly concerning in relation to the chemical process industry (CPI) as disruptions could involve the release of hazardous materials and result in catastrophic effects. So far, OT-targeted cyber-attacks are considered so complex that only sophisticated teams with significant technical and organisational resources are likely to succeed. This paper provides a critical review of the most relevant elements with a focus on the petrol-chemical secotr. It will first discuss why OT is inherently insecure. It will then analyse how the cyber-threat has evolved and it will review relevant OT-targeted cyberattacks. Finally, it will introduce the concept of advanced persistent threats (APT) and discuss their characterisation and modus operandi.
Keywords: Cyber-security; Operational Technology; Cyber-Threat; Chemical Industry and Process Security.
Vision Emulation Methods for Intelligent Vehicle Radiated Immunity Test in Anechoic Chamber
by Yun Bai, Jin Jia, Biao Li
Abstract: Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) application helps enable a safer driving experience for drivers. This application provides additional information about the movement of the vehicle to the driver through front view system, and can warn the driver of dangerous situations through lane departure warning. The warning information is provided through varies sensors such as cameras, analog and digital interfaces, machine-vision processors. This means that every sensor and every process is safety-relevant and has to be comprehensively tested under the electromagnetic environment. A method to activate and conduct LDWS installed in Vehicle is put forward to test the electromagnetic immunity performance. A virtual vision emulation system which can activate LDWS warning repeatedly and continuously is built and based on the principle of camera imaging. Moreover, it is proved to be feasible for various vehicle by the proper adjustment. With this system, the radiated immunity test for LDWS and other applications based on front camera of intelligent vehicle can be performed in the anechoic chamber.
Keywords: Intelligent vehicle; lane departure warning systems; radiated immunity test; vision emulation; electromagnetic simulation.
On extending transitions logic in hybrid dynamic systems based on bond graph and Petri nets combination
by Mokhtar Bouhalouane, Larbi Sekhri, Hafid Haffaf
Abstract: In order to better take into account complexity of the heterogeneous dynamics in hybrid dynamic systems (HDS); we propose an unified and integrated fuzzy logic hybrid approach extending the concept of a classical switch bond graph modelling to a logical transition that takes into account a gradation instead of abrupt behavioural changes. It allows extension of the reachable states space where we propose real physical intermediate states (fluidification) that can be maintained with a sense. We also modify the mathematical structure of ideal primitive switching element (PSTS) by proposing a formula based on predictive and effective notions that fully comply with standard bond graph syntax and semantics as well as the Petri Nets, grants a freedom of the sampling instants according to the solver. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on a flow control bi-tank and its usefulness both in academia and industrial field. Finally, we discuss some ideas about discrepancy between the level of mathematical abstraction and that of the physical level.
Keywords: hybrid dynamic systems; HDS; STS; primitive switch transition system; PSTS; differential-algebraic equation; DAE; time Petri nets; TPN; bond graph; Petri nets.
Mission planning and scheduling for Earth observation space system
by Amr Qamar, Essam Eldin Salah, Khaled M. Badran, Gamal A. ElNashar
Abstract: Planning and scheduling systems are needed to manage Earth observing satellites for satisfying the optimum usage of the constellation's resources. This is a combinatorial optimisation NP-hard problem which is solved in this paper using the constraint programming technique. The proposed system can deal with a heterogeneous constellation that consists of satellites with different manoeuvrability, placed in different orbits, and loaded with different payloads. The system's user can choose one of six optimisation objectives, three of them were not used before, for constructing the satellites' mission plan. Searching within the system is performed using one of five different search algorithms. The system produces plans with different planning horizons ranging from one track to more than one month. The obtained results depict that the proposed system behaves, comparatively, in a perfect manner even when dealing with a complicated case study consisting of three satellites, 2,500 targets, and one month planning horizon.
Keywords: Earth observing satellites; EOS; planning and scheduling; mission management; constraint satisfaction problem; heterogeneous constellation; agile satellites.
Developing a systematic methodology to build a systems dynamics model for assessment of non-technical risks in power plants
by Sahar Mohammad Al Mashaqbeh, Jose Eduardo Munive-Hernandez, Mohammed Khurshid Khan, Awni Al Khazaleh
Abstract: In a dynamic business environment like the energy sector, power plants face several complex risks, including both technical and non-technical risks. These risks are not isolated, as their impact may affect a series of interrelated risks. Those risks may change with time, which in turn, makes the strategic decision-making process less effective. Understanding the dynamic behaviour of a complex system is very important to achieve a more sustainable overall performance of the power plants. Thus, it is important to further develop a systematic risk assessment methodology that could help to identify and analyse the interdependencies among risks and to understand the dynamics of these risks in complex systems. This paper develops a system dynamics (SD) methodology to support the development of risk assessment models. This paper highlights the environmental perspective. The first step to develop a SD model will be applied, while the final SD model will be discussed in another paper.
Keywords: system dynamic; risk assessment; failure mode and effect analysis; non-technical risks.
A parallelistic approach toward ontology design to overcome system's nuance in decision governance
by Faisal Mahmud
Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) or machine intelligence (MI) can be faster and more accurate in domain specific decision tasks than human, however, AI's inability to achieve true general human creative cognitive capacity is still a deficiency in the AI or MI decision-making systems. The fundamental problem of decision-making governance, thus, poses a great challenge in advancing human-intelligent and machine-intelligent systems. The purpose of this paper is to present a noble parallelistic approach that has recently been applied to build a top-level ontology for HI-MI decision governance. The objective of this paper thus is threefold: 1) to address the gap in existing knowledge in decision governance for HI-MI systems and as a potential solution to the problem; 2) outline an integrative methodology to detailing the top to application level ontological development, resulting in; 3) a more specific 'parallelistic approach' for the development of a top ontology for human-machine intelligence decision governance.
Keywords: systems engineering; knowledge generation; ontology; system's nuance; decision governance; parallelistic approach.