International Journal of System of Systems Engineering (7 papers in press)
Towards a Framework for Enterprise-wide Operational Agility in Complex Environments
by Andreas Tolk, Polinpapilinho Katina, Anne Rainville, John Selby
Abstract: Decision-making within a complex operating environment spanning multiple domains necessitates enterprise-level operational agility. In this case, operational agility involves ability to react to dynamic opponents and the orchestration of technical resources as well as alignment of managerial processes. A shift from the system level to the enterprise view is necessary. However, there is a lack of frameworks addressing how operational agility at the enterprise level can be obtained. The aim of this study was two-fold: (i) to understand the concept of operational agility in context of recent developments and their challenges, and (ii) to propose an innovative metric feeding into operational agility as the enterprise level. Our results indicate that current commonly used systems engineering metrics focus on system specific measures of merit. In this research, we suggest new metrics to enable system/capability evaluation with an enterprise or portfolio context
Keywords: complexity; enterprise capability; interoperability; standardization; operational agility.
Cyber Threats for Operational Technologies
by Roberto Setola, Gabriele Oliva, Giacomo Assenza, Luca Faramondi
Abstract: Most critical sectors worldwide rely on operational technology (OT) whose cybersecurity, due to the primary need of availability, results to be obsolete and inadequate. Episodes like Stuxnet, Irongate, BlackEnergy3, etc., showed that cyberattacks causing kinetic effects have become a concrete threat. This is particularly concerning in relation to the chemical process industry (CPI) as disruptions could involve the release of hazardous materials and result in catastrophic effects. So far, OT-targeted cyber-attacks are considered so complex that only sophisticated teams with significant technical and organisational resources are likely to succeed. This paper provides a critical review of the most relevant elements with a focus on the petrol-chemical secotr. It will first discuss why OT is inherently insecure. It will then analyse how the cyber-threat has evolved and it will review relevant OT-targeted cyberattacks. Finally, it will introduce the concept of advanced persistent threats (APT) and discuss their characterisation and modus operandi.
Keywords: Cyber-security; Operational Technology; Cyber-Threat; Chemical Industry and Process Security.
Vision Emulation Methods for Intelligent Vehicle Radiated Immunity Test in Anechoic Chamber
by Yun Bai, Jin Jia, Biao Li
Abstract: Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) application helps enable a safer driving experience for drivers. This application provides additional information about the movement of the vehicle to the driver through front view system, and can warn the driver of dangerous situations through lane departure warning. The warning information is provided through varies sensors such as cameras, analog and digital interfaces, machine-vision processors. This means that every sensor and every process is safety-relevant and has to be comprehensively tested under the electromagnetic environment. A method to activate and conduct LDWS installed in Vehicle is put forward to test the electromagnetic immunity performance. A virtual vision emulation system which can activate LDWS warning repeatedly and continuously is built and based on the principle of camera imaging. Moreover, it is proved to be feasible for various vehicle by the proper adjustment. With this system, the radiated immunity test for LDWS and other applications based on front camera of intelligent vehicle can be performed in the anechoic chamber.
Keywords: Intelligent vehicle; lane departure warning systems; radiated immunity test; vision emulation; electromagnetic simulation.
Robust Finite Frequency H? Model Reduction for uncertain 2D Continuous Systems
by Abderrahim El-Amrani, Ahmed El Hajjaji, Bensalem Boukili, Ismail Boumhidi, Abdelaziz Hmamed
Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of robust H? model reduction for two-dimensional (2D) continuous systems described by Roesser model with polytopic uncertainties, over finite frequency (FF) domain. The problem to be solved in the paper is to find a reduced-order model such that the approximation error system is asymptotically stable, which is able to approximate the original continuous systems system with comparatively small and minimized H? performance when frequency ranges of noises are known beforehand. Via the use of the generalized Kalman Yakubovich Popov (gKYP) lemma, homogeneous polynomially parameter-dependent matrices, Finsler's lemma and we introduce many slack matrices, sufficient conditions for the existence of H? model reduction for different FF ranges are proposed and then unified in terms of solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). To highlight the effectiveness of the proposed H? model reduction design, two llustrative examples are given.
Keywords: Multidimensional Systems Uncertain Systems Model Reduction Finite Frequency.
A novel graph-based modelling approach for reducing complexity in model-based systems engineering environment
by Maxim Filimonov, Ilias Oraifige, Venkatesh Vijay
Abstract: Field of systems engineering is developing rapidly and becoming more complex, where multiple issues arise like overcomplexity, lack of communication or understanding of the design process. Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) has been introduced to overcome these issues and reduce systems complexity. Nonetheless, the system model remains static and the interactions among submodels are modelled in the form of hard-coded rules. Therefore, systems interaction in MBSE is not dynamic enough to satisfy the evolving nature of system models with growing complexity. In this paper, a novel approach for modelling logic is proposed to address the above challenge. The aim of the research is to improve existing methodologies and interaction modelling as well as deal with inconsistencies. The approach is based on graph theory, where pre-defined rules and relationships are substituted and reorganised dynamically with graphical constructs while metagraphs being the most applicable for systems modelling. Framework for reducing complexity is presented.
Keywords: model-based systems engineering; graph-based modelling; object-oriented approach; metagraph; systems engineering; design structure matrix; systems modelling language; design engineering.
ADDRESSING TENSIONS OF OVERLAPPING PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING WITH THE ELEGANCE OF A COMPLEX SYSTEMS GOVERNANCE APPROACH
by Keith Joiner, Rani Yesudas, Kaitlynn Castelle, Mahmoud Efatmaneshnik, Joseph Bradley
Abstract: Our research examined the efficiency impacts on project and engineering governance of widespread reporting of increased complexity in these domains, using diverse researchers with focused literature review and consultation at a combined industry and academic symposium on project governance. Our research confirmed that collaboration in project communities is often hindered, especially project management and systems engineering practice. Project communities need to develop a work culture that fosters collaboration, reduce conflict, and limits duplication of work. While project management and systems engineering approaches are complementary, they are often practiced separately. Overlays are likely inefficient and unlikely to persist without resolving the underpinning cultural differences enforced by governance weaknesses
Keywords: Project community tensions; Systems Theory; Project Failures; Complex Systems Governance; Project Management; Systems Engineering; Mega-project phenomenon.
A Framework to Improve Quality of a Java System by Performing Refactoring
by RANDEEP SINGH, AMIT BINDAL, ASHOK KUMAR
Abstract: Software quality is a key pillar that helps provides high reliability for a software system Refactoring helps in mitigating the design issues present in the source code of a software system without affecting its external behavior Several automated and/ or semi-automated tools/ approaches are available in the literature that performs refactoring However, all these approaches lack considering the role of human expertise during the process of refactoring and/ or they may produce side effects that can further negatively affect the quality of the software system The proposed framework systematically identifies the traces of code bad symptoms and then using the expertise of the developer to prioritize the list of code smells Further, the proposed framework applies different refactoring operations to improve the quality The proposed framework consumes less time and effort as it acts on the prioritized code smell list rather than acting on the whole code smells.
Keywords: Framework; Software Quality; Refactoring; Code Smells.