Forthcoming and Online First Articles

International Journal of Sensor Networks

International Journal of Sensor Networks (IJSNet)

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International Journal of Sensor Networks (30 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • A Novel Skin-Inspired Model for Intelligent Object Recognition in Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Aaron Rababaah 
    Abstract: Extensive research work has been conducted in the area of wireless sensor networks with high concentration on target detection or/and tracking. Although, there is some work dedicated to target classification, but the considered sensor modalities require inexpensive hardware and complex algorithms such as video, audio, radar, infrared, etc. Our solution to this problem is to propose a novel concept inspired by the human skin. It is well-known that skin possesses simple sensing receptors, compared to sophisticated ones such as vision, through which humans can not only detect a stimulus but can identify its type such as a needle, glass, table, ball, etc. analogues to this biological behavior, we propose a stimulus data modeling, characterization and classification in a simulated sensor network. The technical development of the proposed model is presented and validated via training a convolution neural network and was found to be effective and promising for future extensions.
    Keywords: Skin-inspired model; object recognition; object classification; intrusion detection; sensor networks; deep neural networks; convolution neural networks.

  • Leak Detection and Localization on a Gas Pipeline using the Gradient of Squared Pressure   Order a copy of this article
    by Ghassan Alnwaimi, Hatem BOUJEMAA, Feras Alfosail, Nebras M. Sobhani 
    Abstract: In this paper, we suggest a new algorithm for leak detection and localization on gas pipeline. We decompose the pipeline in different sections of length L. We put two pressure sensors at the beginning of the studied section at location x=iL and two other pressure sensors at the end located at x=(i+1) L where i=0,,N-1 is the number of the studied section of pipeline. We also use two mass flow rate sensors at the beginning and end of each section. Our algorithm uses the Gradient of squared Pressure to locate the leak. We show that our new algorithm allows to locate the leak with 1.2% error in distance. We tested our algorithm on a pipeline of length 15km and the average error was around 180m. Therefore, the location error is around 180/15000=1.2%.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensors; Leak localization; Gas pipeline; Pressure sensors; Mass flow rate sensors.

  • A Nonlinear Outlier Detection Method in Sensor Networks Based on the Coordinate Mapping   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Jing, Peng Wang, Ningchao Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper designs a nonlinear outliers detection method based on the coordinate mapping. Because data in different coordinate systems have specific attributes, the data coordinates in different coordinate systems can be transformed by coordinate mapping. Then the stream data features in a sensor network can be extracted accurately by principal component analysis to improve the detection accuracy of abnormal data points. Clustering of convection data features is implemented to shorten the time of subsequent detection by rapidly classifying data. Finally, the difference point factor is used to detect the nonlinear outliers in the sensor network. Experimental results show that the maximum detection accuracy of this method can reach 97%, the maximum detection time required is only 15s, and the maximum miss rate of this method is 1.32%, indicating that this method can effectively detect nonlinear anomaly points.
    Keywords: Log polar coordinate mapping; Cartesian coordinate system; Principal component analysis; Sensor network; Nonlinear outlier detection.

  • A novel design of the multi-wire based solution for water leak detection and localization in buried pipes   Order a copy of this article
    by Raouia Khelif, Mohamed Kharrat, Mohamed Abid 
    Abstract: With the increase of the need for freshwater, concerns about leaks in water distribution systems have been increasing. These leaks may cause not only water losses but also significant damages to public property. Proposing an appropriate solution to identify them at an early stage is required to avoid extra problems. This paper presents a novel design of the multi-wire solution for water leak detection and localization in underground pipelines. The enhanced technique aims to overcome the limitations of the old design while preserving the same performance. The novel design uses a reduced number of sensing wires which facilitate the implementation phase, reduce energy consumption and lower the system cost. Several experimental trials were made in the laboratory to test the efficiency of the system. The obtained results confirm that the proposed methodology is highly sensitive to small leaks and accurate in locating them without triggering false alarms.
    Keywords: water conservation; leak detection; leak localization; sensors; multi-wire cable sensor; underground pipelines; water distribution system; soil moisture; system testing; sensitivity; accuracy.

  • An Outlier-based Analysis for Behavior and Anomaly Identification on IoT Sensors   Order a copy of this article
    by Felipe C. Almeida, Adilson Eduardo Guelfi, Anderson A. A. Silva, Norisvaldo Ferraz Junior, Marvin Oliver Schneider, Vagner Luiz Gava, Sergio Takeo Kofuji 
    Abstract: The pervasive nature of WSN-based IoT devices provides benefits for the industry, healthcare, and other environments. Because of that, a secure network that identifies sensor measurement errors is essential. However, the sensors are sensitive to changes according to the environment in which they are installed. Therefore, this work proposes an outlier-based analysis for behavior and anomaly identification on IoT sensors which is twofold: first, cluster the sensors based on the variance of the devices' sensors; next, identify anomalies applying Mahalanobis distance within the clusters to identify anomalous devices. We use different datasets in the experimental process to validate our proposal. As a result, we demonstrate anomalous sensors identification without relying only on the neighbor measurements (which could lead to incorrect identification of anomalies), and by segregating the sensors' behavior based on day time.
    Keywords: IoT Sensor; Statistical Outliers; Clustering k-means; Mahalanobis Distance; Anomaly identification.

  • An Empirical Study of Fault Diagnosis Methods of A Dissolved Oxygen Sensor Based on ResNet-50   Order a copy of this article
    by Pu Yang, Qinghao Liu, Boning Wang, Weiran Li, Zhenbo Li, Ming Sun 
    Abstract: This work diagnoses online faults by classifying the real-time data collected by a dissolved oxygen sensor. Based on the three types of fault classification of dissolved oxygen parameters viz., complete failure faults, fixed deviation faults, and drifting faults, VGGNet, GoogLeNet, and ResNet-50 deep learning neural network models are used, respectively, to detect the faults. The experimental results show that the performance of the ResNet-50 model is the best, with a 98% dissolved oxygen failure accuracy rate. Whereas the accuracy rate of VGGNet and GoogLeNet can reach up to 0.9. The comparative experimental results of VGGNet and GoogLeNet show that the training loss function converges at 0.2. In contrast, the loss function of VGGNet and GoogLeNet after 150 rounds of training can only be reduced to about 0.3 and 0.5, respectively. The proposed model (ResNet-50) has good accuracy and reasonable generalization ability.
    Keywords: dissolved oxygen; fault diagnosis; deep learning; resNet-50; prediction accuracy.

  • Improved Fault-Tolerant SPRT Detection Method for Node Replication Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Hsin-Hsiu Chen, Cooper Cheng-Yuan Ku, David Yen 
    Abstract: As the Internet of Things (IoT) emerges, the application and usage of the wireless sensor network (WSN) have been increasing quickly. Meanwhile, there are many threats and risks of information security that need to be effectively dealt with. One of these network attacks is the node replication attack. The attackers may catch sensor nodes, clone them, release them into the original network, and launch various internal attacks. Many replica detection instruments/methods are proposed for this type of attack. However, most detections are characterized as high computation and communication costs. Some detection methods based on the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) indicate much lower requirements of system overhead, but these prior works may sacrifice efficiency due to frequent retransmission of the message. In this paper, we propose a fault-tolerant method for replica detection based on the SPRT in WSNs. To improve the efficiency and reliability, we use the residual energy and slope of energy consumption of the node as appendices and then apply the SPRT to adjust the detection rate dynamically. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme achieves a better performance on the efficiency of detection and reduction of error rates.
    Keywords: Clone attack; Wireless sensor network; Node replication detection; Sequential probability ratio test.

  • Wireless sensor system for chemical and biological parameters monitoring and classification   Order a copy of this article
    by Naser Zaeri, Rusul R. Qasim 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor systems provide powerful structures for monitoring and analysing data in complicated situations over extended periods of time. In this paper, we offer a smart integrated system composed of a number of buoys that are dispersed in the sea and are equipped with suites of sensors that can measure a variety of vital environmental, biological and chemical parameters. The system is a comprehensive, interactive multi-parameter monitoring structure with two-way communication through a wireless mobile network that implements machine learning to detect and categorize the various parameters. In pursuing so, four contemporary algorithms are applied and compared, namely: Logistic Regression, Na
    Keywords: chemical and biological monitoring; parameter classification; machine learning; sensors; wireless network.

  • Fast Fingerprint Localization Based on Product Quantization and Convolution Neural Network in a Massive MIMO System   Order a copy of this article
    by Yijie Ren, Xiaojun Wang, Lin Liu, Xiaoshu Chen 
    Abstract: Location-based service (LBS) has recently been popular, such as auto-driving, navigation, and tracking. Fingerprint localization is one of the most effective localization schemes for both indoor and outdoor localization. In this paper, ?ngerprint localization algorithms are researched based on a massive multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) system. Firstly, the extraction of angle-delay channel power matrix (ADCPM) ?ngerprints and the channel model are introduced. Then, two new fast ?ngerprint localization algorithms based on product quantization (PQ) and convolution neural network (CNN) are proposed, respectively. PQ and CNN are applied to process the data in the online matching phase. Compared with other previously known positioning techniques, the test results show that the proposed algorithms achieve high accuracy, reduce delay, and greatly reduce computational complexity.
    Keywords: ?ngerprint localization; massive multiple-in-multiple-out; product quantization; convolution neural network.

  • Distributed Anchor Activation Schemes for RSS Localization   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Ababneh, Zouhair Al-Qudah 
    Abstract: The activation of a well-chosen set of anchors for localization is vital for preserving network energy and satisfying localization error requirements. Herein, we propose two distributed anchor activation schemes for agent localization employing received signal strength (RSS) measurements. The proposed schemes incorporate anchor energies, localization error requirement and submodular behavior of anchor activation on the localization error. In the first scheme, a distributed probabilistic anchor activation scheme is proposed. An anchor is activated according to an evolving activation probability that is locally calculated. In the second scheme, activation is executed over a number of rounds with each round having its own activation threshold. A proposed dynamic model for an anchor's inclination to activate is compared against the round's threshold and an activation decision is made. Simulation results show the efficacy of the proposed schemes in satisfying the error requirement as well as decreasing energy consumption in the network and thereby extending its life.
    Keywords: Sensor Networks; RSS Localization; Anchor Activation.

  • Human activity detection from inertial data using RNN and LSTM network   Order a copy of this article
    by Thanina Boultache, Brahim Achour, Mourad Laghrouche 
    Abstract: With the advancement of smartphones and the rapid development of artificial intelligence, human activity detection systems help to improve human welfare and health. However, these systems need to be constantly renewed, improved and updated. In this paper, we propose an automatic and real-time classification system of physical activities using deep learning architecture, recursive neural networks (RNN) and shortterm memory networks (LSTM). To develop and validate the learning model we gathered a dataset of 697964 recordings of accelerometer and gyroscope signals embedded in smartphones. The data was collected from 20 people aged 13 to 82 years old of different categories (sportsman, elderly, etc.). Then, the raw data is preprocessed and the learning model is trained. The results of the experiment show that the proposed algorithm achieves an average accuracy of 95%. The developed model was exported to an Android application for real-time predictions
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Deep learning; RNN; LSTM; Activity recognition; Smartphones; Accelerometer.

  • Implementing Lightweight Key Exchange Solutions for WSN with LoRa Connectivity   Order a copy of this article
    by Leila Nasraoui, Adnane Cabani, Hamdi Trimech 
    Abstract: The emerging applications of wireless sensor networks and Internet of Things require providing IP connectivity to any node in the network, which makes security a crucial issue to take into consideration. Due to the limited resources of connected nodes, new challenges taking into account these constraints have to be overcome. In this work, we investigate authenticated key agreement as a part of providing end-to-end security solutions for wireless sensor networks using LoRa connectivity. We present, along the way, a primer that describes general aspects of security in wireless sensor networks and Internet of Things at different levels. We then discuss the investigated methods for authenticated key agreement. Particularly, we study and implement lightweight key agreement methods based on the standardised Internet Key Exchange protocol. The evaluation is performed through experimentation to present a more realistic assessment that demonstrates communication costs in terms of power consumption and memory usage.
    Keywords: WSN and IoT security; LoRa; Lightweight Key management; Hash function; power consumption;memory usage; performance evaluation; IKEv2rn.

  • D2D Resource Allocation Algorithm Based on Joint Interference Control in 5G Heterogeneous Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Benhong Zhang, Mingyue Zhang, Xiang Bi 
    Abstract: Device-to-device (D2D) communication is a promising technique to improve the spectral efficiency of cellular networks, by means of reusing the spectrum resource of cellular users (CUEs), but it also causes interference control and resource allocation problems. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose an interference management and resource allocation algorithm for D2D communication in heterogeneous networks, with the objective of maximizing the sum throughput of the cellular users and the D2D users (DUEs). Firstly, according to the principle of interference minimization, DUEs are grouped based on fuzzy clustering algorithm. Secondly, the channel allocation problem is modeled as an iterative combinatorial auction process. Under the premise of ensuring the quality of service (QoS) for both CUEs and DUEs, then allocate the channel to DUEs with the largest multiplexing throughput. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm can significantly improve the system performance.
    Keywords: Device-to-device communication; heterogeneous network; interference management; resource allocation; maximum throughput.

  • Hole Detection in Wireless Sensor Network with Force-directed Algorithm and Contour Tracing   Order a copy of this article
    by Se-Hang Cheong, Kuai-Un Mok, Yain-Whar Si 
    Abstract: Hole detection is an important task for preserving energy in wireless sensor networks. Distributed approaches are commonly used for detecting holes. In these approaches, complex calculations are performed at each node for determining the existence of holes in the network. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called FD-CT for detecting holes in wireless sensor networks by exploiting the power of force-directed algorithms for generating layouts from a given topology. The generated layouts are then processed with a contour tracing algorithm for identifying the sensors along the boundary of holes in the networks. By using force-directed and contour tracing algorithms, our approach is able to detect holes from a given topology without using location information or anchor nodes. The proposed approach is extensively evaluated on different type of networks and force-directed algorithms. Experiment results show that FD-CT with KK-MS-DS algorithm can achieve 90% sensitivity and 98% specificity among all the algorithms evaluated.
    Keywords: Hole Detection; Wireless Sensor Networks; Force-directed Algorithm; Contour Tracing.

  • One Health-Inspired Early Implementation of Airborne Disease Spread Mitigation Protocols aided by IoT-based Biosensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Uche Chude-Okonkwo 
    Abstract: The implementation of mitigation protocols in the event of the outbreak of viral epidemics typically comes only after a significant number of infected persons have been diagnosed, within which period the infection may have spread significantly over the population. The One Health initiative provides an alternative approach to this challenge. Based on the recent advances in biosensor technology capable of accurate real-time viral diagnosis, and the advances in the internet of things technology (IoT), this paper proposes the development of a pervasive biosensor network deployed at the animal habitats in communities and strategic positions in the environments. This enables the early detection of infectious diseases and the implementation of mitigation protocols. The model simulation results show that the use of the IoT-based biosensor network to inform the implementation of the epidemic mitigation protocol ensures the reduction in infection rate and the cumulative number of infected persons in a given population.
    Keywords: Biosensor network; One Health; Internet of things; epidemics.

  • Privacy Preservation and Security Challenges: A New Frontier Multimodal Machine Learning Research   Order a copy of this article
    by Santosh Kumar, Mithilesh Kumar Chaube, Srinivas Naik Nenavath, Sachin Kumar Gupta, Sumit Kumar Tetarave 
    Abstract: Multimodal machine learning is a vibrant multi-disciplinary field and achieved much attention due to its wide range of applications. A research problem is multimodal, for the impact of privacy preservation. It shields sensitive data in the cloud by using a single modality-based privacy system. The users biometric features are always stored in the database, primarily present in the cloud server to validate the user and his access. This facet provides a beneficial quality but at the same time has raised crucial affairs in security and privacy of biometric feature set. The main concern is to manage and stop the privacy breaches in clouds. The article discusses the detailed analysis of security schemes with a multimodal-based learning framework over sensitive data and systems at both ends. The article also accentuates frameworks and schemes that may apply in various applications to ensure privacy preservation of individuals and data security by multimodal algorithms.
    Keywords: Privacy; Preservation; Security; Biometrics; Attacks; Encryption; Cryptography; Security; Multimodal.

  • Fault Diagnosis and prediction with Industrial Internet of Things on Bearing and Gear Assembly   Order a copy of this article
    by Gagandeep Sharma, Tejbir Kaur, Sanjay Kumar Mangal 
    Abstract: In the era of automation, mechanical components such as bearings and gears are widely used in industrial machinery to transmit power and motion. Failure in these components directly affects the functioning of the machinery and causes the loss of money and time. Therefore, fault diagnosis and prediction of these components in advance are necessary to avoid catastrophic consequences. In this research, an experimental set-up is developed to predict the fault for various cases such as proper configuration, defective bearing, and defective gear configuration. An IIoT and conventional time and frequency domain-based techniques are used for condition-based monitoring of bearing-gear assembly. IIoT based systems can perform three major tasks; measuring and displaying the real-time vibrational responses of bearing-gear assembly, comparing it with the prescribed threshold value, and sending a warning message to the end-user using Blynk application, if the acquired acceleration values are greater than the prescribed threshold value
    Keywords: Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT); Blynk application; Bearing; Gear; NodeMCU; Vibration analysis;.

  • An IoT based Intelligent Traffic Engagement System with Emergency Vehicles Preemption   Order a copy of this article
    by Bharat Pant, Harsh Sharma, Rashmi Chawla, Chirag Kumar 
    Abstract: The increase in vehicles beyond the handling capacity of transport infrastructure leads to congestion-like situations. As a consequence, vehicles experience extended waiting time on roads and a severe impact on emergency services. The existing works are either focused on normal traffic management or handling emergency situations. This manuscript aims to provide a complete solution to address these tasks. The proposed system updates the timer dynamically using Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence to measure the traffic density to handle the normal traffic. In the case of emergency vehicles (EV), the system is added with EV preemption. Finally, the system has the capability to handle multiple EVs appearing simultaneously in different lanes. For the efficacy of the proposed system, multiple experiments and comparisons with state-of-the-art techniques are carried out using the Simulation of Urban MObility (SUMO) traffic simulator.
    Keywords: Traffic management; emergency vehicle preemption; Internet of Things (IoT).

  • Detection and Defense Method of Low-Rate DDoS Attacks in Vehicle Edge Computing Network Using Information Metrics   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiao Bai, Shanzhi Chen, Yan Shi, Chengzhi Liang, Xiaochen Lv, F.Richard Yu 
    Abstract: In vehicle edge computing network, the edge nodes are usually deployed at the road-side units (RSU) and exposed to the external environment, and are vulnerable to low-rate DDoS (LR-DDoS) attacks. In this article, we raise the detection and defense issue of LR-DDoS attacks based on information metrics at the edge of vehicle network, in which multiple edge nodes cooperate to meet their defense requirements while reducing resource consumption. We formulate the problem as sampling the received traffic at the edge nodes, and automatically determine the attack traffic by comparing the real-time calculation information metrics value with the preset information metrics thresholds. Then, a defense algorithm for edge nodes to detect conflicting Mobile Subscriber International ISDN number (MSISDN) is proposed to ensure that the network continues to provide services to normal vehicles. Finally, extensive experimental evaluation and comparison are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
    Keywords: Attack Detection and Defense; Vehicle Edge Computing Network; Low-rate DDoS Attack; Information Metrics.

    by Manash Mahanta, Attaphongse Taparugssanagorn, Bipun Man Pati 
    Abstract: Cognitive Radio (CR) is an up-and-coming technology to help us rectify the issue of under-utilization of allocated spectrum as well as meet the increasing demand for free spectrum. Spectrum sensing, which is the bedrock behind this novel technological idea, empowers the CR to adjust to its surroundings by locating free spectrum or white space. Although spectrum sensing using a Support Vector Machine (SVM), which is the most effective machine learning algorithm, is already found in literature, but an SVM combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and varying the Kernel scale is yet to be investigated. In this paper, we perform spectrum sensing using an SVM and evaluate the performances of various Kernel functions used in the SVM as well as how the performances of the learning algorithm change as we apply PCA and vary the Kernel scales. We found that for the purpose of maximising the Probability of Detection (PD), it is better not to use PCA while for the purpose of minimising Probability of False Alarm (PFA), it is better to use PCA. Moreover, we found that for the purpose of maximising the PD, it is most advised to keep the value of Kernel scale low, around 10 while for the purpose of decreasing the PFA, the value of Kernel scale is suggested to be high, around 40-45. We then compare the training time of the SVM Kernels. Finally, we calculate the contributions of power, variance, skewness, and kurtosis of the received signal towards the decision making process of the learning algorithm.
    Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing; spectrum scarcity; cognitive radio; spectrum sensing; Machine Learning; principal component analysis; Support Vector Machine; large margin classifier; Kernel scale value; feature importance; Internet of Things;.

  • HAPS-SMBS 3D Installation for 5G FANET Performance Optimization Using a DNN, WCOP and NetSim Based Scheme   Order a copy of this article
    by Joyeeta Rani Barai, Attaphongse Taparugssanagorn 
    Abstract: High altitude platform stations (HAPSs) can be installed as flying super macro base stations (SMBSs) to serve the existing terrestrial infrastructure as a flying ad hoc network (FANET) keeping enhanced and continuous wireless network connections in normal and disaster scenarios. This dynamic process becomes inefficient if the mobility and locations of the user equipment (UE) are unknown and uncertain. Although increasing the number of HAPSs provides more user connectivity it is too expensive and impractical. Hence, installations of the available HAPSs in the optimum positions can solve the problem in cost effective manner. This paper proposes a novel combinational scheme consisting of the two following stages, i.e., the deep learning (DL)-based forecasting of the ground user (GU) locations and the weighted combinatorial optimisation problem (WCOP)-based HAPS-SMBS positioning to optimise the 5G FANET performances in both normal and disaster scenarios.
    Keywords: super macro base station; SMBS; high altitude platform station; HAPS; DNN; weighted combinatorial optimisation problem; WCOP; NetSim; 5G.

  • Development and Evaluation of a Low-Cost Data Acquisition System using Heterogeneous Sensors   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Zubair, Hafiza Nida Ishaq, Ali Raza, Hafiz Farhan Maqbool, Saqib Zafar 
    Abstract: Acquiring the humans musculoskeletal movements is pivotal in conducting physiotherapeutic studies, rehabilitation exercises and, designing assistive devices to cater mobility impairments. Existing studies are generally more focused on measuring a specific phenomenon and/or lack the diversity needed to cover a range of human activities. In this context, the research presented herein is aimed to develop a low-cost wearable sensory system, having a diverse set of sensors, which can acquire data of healthy and rehabilitated subjects alike during diverse locomotor activities in both indoor and outdoor environments. The system consists of twenty wearable sensors, and two off-the-shelf NIs myRIO microcontroller boards. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between and among the subjects for various locomotor activities (P-values < 0.05), hence, showing the systems reliability and reproducibility. Gait-event identification (i.e., heel contact/toe off) has also been evaluated and showed promising results (overall time difference=
    Keywords: Heterogeneous sensors; locomotor activities; gait events; data acquisition; public dataset; low-cost.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2022.10047635
  • Environment-aware vehicle lane change prediction using a cumulative probability mapping model   Order a copy of this article
    by Yongxuan Sun, Bowen Zhang, Zhizhong Ding, Momiao Zhou, Mingxi Geng, Xi Wu, Jie Li, Wei Sun 
    Abstract: Vehicles lane change is a major cause of serious traffic accidents. Therefore, it is imperative to implement an efficient and reliable lane change prediction and warning sub-system, for example in Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS), to improve driving safety. Many approaches concerning the issue have been proposed so far. To have a good prediction performance, however, most of them require a large number of training data, and/or need radar or video equipment. Motivated by the demand in our development of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) terminals, a cumulative probability mapping (CPM) model for the prediction of lane change is proposed in this paper. The CPM model is constructed by taking into account both the vehicle motion information and the traffic context information that is acquired from VANET communications. The results based on the Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) dataset, which is made up of real vehicle trajectories, show that the accurate rate of the proposed method is 95.8%, and the false alarm rate is 11.6%. From the view of implementation, the proposed approach has the characteristics of low cost and low computational complexity, and can be used for embedded devices.
    Keywords: Lane change prediction; Probability mapping; VANET; ADAS.

  • Performance of Cognitive Radio Networks using Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces with RF Energy Harvesting for Nakagami channels   Order a copy of this article
    by Raed Alhamad 
    Abstract: In this paper, we derive the performance of Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN) with energy harvesting using Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) for Nakagami fading channel with m-fading figure $M$. We derive the detection probability when the Primary Source ($PS$) harvests energy using Radio Frequency (RF) signals. A RIS is located between $PS$ and Secondary Source ($SS$) where spectrum sensing is performed. We also derive the primary and secondary throughput and optimize harvesting duration to maximize the throughput. We observed significant performance enhancement in detection probability and throughput with respect to CRN without RIS.
    Keywords: CRN; RIS; Energy harvesting; throughput analysis; detection probability.

  • A bi-level mathematical model to protect gateways in underwater wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahra Maleki, Hamid Reza Maleki, Reza Akbari 
    Abstract: Since energy resources in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are limited and non-renewable, energy efficiency in these networks is essential. Jamming attacks are the most common denials of service attacks in UWSNs that increase the amount of energy consumption. In this paper, a bi-level model for the protection of gateways in underwater sensor networks is introduced. In this model, the attacker intends to increase the networks energy consumption by placing a determined number of jammers on the gateways; Hence, the network manager wants to assign anti-jamming techniques to a subset of gateways to protect them against these attacks. The efficiency of this model in reducing energy consumption after a jamming attack is shown in several instances. These instances are solved with hybridization from genetic, simulated annealing, and dragon?y algorithms with CPLEX solver, and their performances are evaluated with the two-sample t-test.
    Keywords: bi-level model; underwater wireless sensor networks; jamming attacks.

  • A Brain-inspired Multibranch Parallel Interactive Vision Mechanism for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Ou, Zihan Jin, Shiying Huang, Danlei Du, Jun Ye, Wenbao Han 
    Abstract: Brain-inspired research promotes the intersection and integration of brain science, computers, and other disciplines, driving a new round of scientific and technological revolution. This paper discusses the research content, features, and current status of researches on brain-inspired computing and proposes a brain-inspired multibranch parallel interaction model. The feature extraction of the proposed model consists of two parallel Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs): the main feature extractor connected to the classifier and the auxiliary feature extractor. Additionally, four parallel branches are introduced in our CNN to learn the information on the importance of different feature map positions. Given the existing attacks on self-driving cars (in the case of shining attacks), we use the proposed model for training and detection. The experimental results show that the proposed model effectively reduces the redundant information on the feature maps, improves image classification accuracy to a certain extent, and has high learning efficiency and accuracy.
    Keywords: Brain-inspired; CNNs; Multibranch parallel interaction; Feature extraction; Shining attack.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2022.10045695
  • Blockchain in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks: Applications, Challenges and Solutions   Order a copy of this article
    by A. F. M. Suaib Akhter, Mohiuddin Ahmed, Adnan Anwar, A. F. M. Shahen Shah, Al-Sakib Khan Pathan, Ahmet Zengin 
    Abstract: Blockchain has been adopted in a wide range of application domains to enhance security and privacy. VANET (Vehicular Ad hoc Network) is an important application domain in today's communication systems where incorporation of blockchain is very timely. Recent literature highlights the prospects of blockchain technology in VANET, however, it is imperative to investigate the effectiveness to ensure viability. In this paper, a thorough investigation is conducted to identify the suitability of blockchain for VANET by identifying and answering key research issues. Unlike other existing surveys, challenges related to blockchain integration, evaluation criteria, privacy preservation, cyber security, etc. are also critically analysed. Future research directions such as 6G, large scale deployment are also identified which need to be addressed by both VANET and blockchain community. Not only VANET but also Vehicular Communication Systems (VCSs) and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) have been considered in this survey.
    Keywords: Blockchain; cyber; intelligent; security; system; transport; VANET; cyber security.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2022.10046926
  • Time Series Representation for Information Gathering via Low Resolution Wireless Sensor Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Jorge Navarro, Isaac Martin De Diego, Ana R. Redondo 
    Abstract: New applications of the internet of things are emerging in sectors as diverse as military, environmental, health, or food due to the improvements achieved in the development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In many of these applications, as the connected devices are hardly accessible and energy harvesting is not possible, it is essential to provide long-term autonomies to the end user. Hence, there is a need for developing energy-efficient strategies for data gathering that send few messages accumulating as much information as possible. This paper proposes a new strategy for sending summarised information from commercial accelerometers deployed through WSNs. An exhaustive evaluation has been performed using data from experimental devices that gathered 106 different daily time series related to animal behaviour. The obtained results show that the proposed strategy highly improves the current operation mode of the commercial devices.
    Keywords: internet of things; IoT; wireless sensor networks; WSN; data science; time series; animal behaviour; information gathering; accelerometers.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2022.10045983
  • Energy efficiency clustering based on fuzzy logic in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Xiao Yan, Cheng Huang, Lili Wang, Xiaobei Wu 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) must be decentralised and independent of wireless sensor nodes that can track physical or environmental status. The operation of a node depends on the battery’s life. Therefore, the battery’s life is one of the key issues that limit the wide application of WSNs. In this article, a fuzzy logic system-based energy-efficient clustering (FLEEC) in heterogeneous WSN is introduced to solve the problem of maximising the network lifetime. To be more precise, three factors are considered, such as node remaining energy, distance, and proximity of the neighbour nodes and combined with fuzzy logic, to select the appropriate sensor node as cluster head (CH), thereby balancing the energy consumption of sensor nodes, and prolonging the network lifetime. Finally, the simulation results show that the FLEEC algorithm is superior to the existing algorithms in the aspects of the stable period, half node death, throughput, and network lifetime.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; WSN; fuzzy logic system; cluster head selection; energy; network lifetime.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJSNET.2022.10046582
  • Trust Assessment based Stable and Attack Resistant Grouping Strategy for Data Dissemination in IoV   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Sharma, Teek Parval Sharma, Ajay Kumar Sharma 
    Abstract: The coalescence of Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) with the Internet of Things (IoT) results in the concept of the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). IoV structures a strong backbone for Intelligent Transport System (ITS), however due to highly dynamic vehicular networks the trustworthiness of disseminated messages is significant since a fake message might cause fatal mishaps on the road. To address these issues, in this article trust assisted grouping approach has been proposed to limit the malicious communication among vehicles in both dense and sparse traffic scenarios and enhance security. The key highlights consolidated in our proposed approach incorporate trust-based GH selection based on direct and indirect trust assessment parameters. Trust assessment is performed by Road Side Unit (RSU) to maintain the degree of trust among vehicles of the group by evaluating direct trust assessment based parameters like realization, reputation, experience and indirect trust assessment based parameters like suggestion factor. Vehicle attaining supreme trust value is elected as Group Head, which enhances trust among Group Member. The performance and accuracy of our approach is rigorously evaluated under various trust assessment parameters (including Group head lifetime, average group lifetime, fake message generation attack detection, Sybil attack detection, data overhead and detection performance) in both sparse and dense scenarios. Furthermore, the efficiency of our approach is evaluated under malicious vehicles presence and performance is benchmarked compared to two earlier trust assessment models which concludes that the malicious vehicles are unable to gain higher trust assessment values. Extensive simulations performed in Network Simulator (NS3) and mobility simulator Simulation Mobility (SUMO) indicate that our approach achieve promising results compared to two earlier trust assessment models.
    Keywords: IoV; Direct trust assessment; Attack Model; NS3; SUMO.