International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing (20 papers in press)
Special Issue on: GCSM 2018 Sustainable Manufacturing for Global Circular Economy
Sustainable engineering master module - insights from three cohorts of European Engineering Team
by Bartlomiej Gladysz, Marcello Urgo, Tim Stock, Cecilia Haskins, Felix Sieckmann, Elzbieta Jarzebowska, Holger Kohl, Jan Ola Strandhagen, Tulio Tollio
Abstract: Mobility and transnational migration are current social developments among the population of the European Union. These developments in both society-at-large and companies, linked to the challenges of sustainability, lead to new requirements for working in the European Union. Teaching and learning in higher education needs to adapt to these requirements. As a result, new and innovative teaching and learning practices in higher education should provide competencies for transnational teamwork in the curriculum of tomorrows engineers in order to ensure their competitiveness in the job market. A transnational project-oriented teaching and learning framework, which provides the future key competencies for young engineers was implemented in the course European Engineering Team (EET). Engineering students from four countries participated in a new project-based course that focused on the development of innovative and sustainable products and opportunities. The goal of this paper is to present results and lessons learnt from three cohorts of EET.
Keywords: sustainability; innovation; engineering education; multinational; multidisciplinary; project-based learning.
Sustainability analysis of Ti-6Al-4V machining using statistical design methods: effects of cooling techniques and machining strategies
by Hussien Hegab, Ali Hosseini, Ibrahim Deiab, Hossam Kishawy
Abstract: Minimising energy consumption and making machining processes more environmentally friendly are the two essential requirements of sustainable machining. As a result, development of technologically advanced yet efficient machining processes with minimum energy consumption and least toxic waste is an evolving field of research and study. In this paper, the effects of several lubrication techniques as well as different machining strategies (classic and hybrid), when machining Ti-6Al-4V, have been studied. Three different factors, namely energy consumption, surface quality, and flank wear, have been measured to evaluate the effectiveness of different lubrication techniques and machining strategies. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been employed to analyse the influence of process parameters on the above-mentioned factors to determine the optimum levels of machining parameters and verify the experimental results. the accuracy of the model has finally been verified using the ANOVA results.
Keywords: sustainability; Ti-6Al-4V; minimum quantity lubrication; hybrid machining.
Disassembly system design and analysis with environmental and economic parts selection using life cycle inventory database by input-output tables
by Tetsuo Yamada, Yusuke Suzuki, Yuki Kinoshita, Tadayuki Masui, Norihiro Itsubo, Masato Inoue
Abstract: To prevent material starvation and global warming caused by manufacturing, disassembly systems for End-of-Life (EOL) products should be environmentally and economically designed to promote a closed-loop supply chain for assembly products. With parts selection in the disassembly systems, parts/materials with higher CO2 volumes should be recycled for environmental reasons. On the other hand, parts/materials with higher profit, which is the difference between the revenue of recovered materials and disassembly costs, should be disassembled for economic reasons. A disassembly system design considering not only the environmental loads but also the recovered parts/materials are proposed by using a Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) tool. However, from a technical and financial standpoint, it is not easy for the disassembly factory sites to create the 3D-CAD models and obtain the environmental information using the PLM tool. This paper proposes a disassembly system design with the environmental and economic parts selection using a life cycle inventory database by input-output tables.
Keywords: CO2 emissions; reuse and recycling; product recovery values; environmentally conscious manufacturing; sustainable manufacturing; closed-loop supply chains.
Special Issue on: GCSM 2018 Sustainable Manufacturing for Global Circular Economy
Characterizing the sustainability performance of cyclic manufacturing processes: a hybrid manufacturing case
by Sriram Manoharan, Dustin S. Harper, Karl R. Haapala
Abstract: The drive for ever-increasing materials and energy efficiency and associated cost savings has compelled manufacturers to adopt flexible and rapid production systems. The technical limitations and sustainability concerns of conventional unit processes and sequential process flows have led to widespread adoption of advanced manufacturing processes that exhibit cyclic nature, termed cyclic manufacturing processes. While cyclic manufacturing processes enable efficient production through reduced time-to-market, lower production costs, and shorter manufacturing process chains, relatively little attention has been paid toward characterising their associated environmental, economic, and social impacts. A holistic manufacturing process modelling framework is developed to support sustainability performance characterisation of cyclic manufacturing processes. The developed framework enables model reusability, extensibility, and composability to characterize, assess, and extract product and process sustainability information. It is applied to characterise the environmental impacts of a low-cost, hybrid (additive-subtractive) process for production of polylactide parts, and compared with a conventional subtractive process (milling).
Keywords: cyclic manufacturing: process modelling framework; sustainability performance characterisation; unit manufacturing process modeling; hybrid manufacturing process.
Guidelines to compare additive and subtractive manufacturing approaches under the energy demand perspective
by Giuseppe Ingarao, Paolo C. Priarone, Rosa Di Lorenzo, Luca Settineri
Abstract: In order to characterise the environmental performance of Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, comparative analyses are required. Different manufacturing approaches (such as additive and subtractive ones), besides adopting different equipment, use different kinds and amounts of material. Therefore, the material-related flow has to be followed throughout the entire product life. Differences in environmental impact arise at each step of the life cycle: material production, manufacturing, use, disposal, and transportation. A life-cycle-based methodology able to take due account of all the factors of influence on the total energy demand for the production of metal components is given in this paper. Decision support tools for identifying the most sustainable manufacturing route (subtractive versus AM-based approaches) are presented for different scenarios. The aim of the present paper is to contribute to the debate concerning the environmental impact characterisation of AM processes.
Keywords: additive manufacturing; process comparison; energy saving; decision-support tools.
Modelling, simulation and optimisation of the comminution and flotation circuits of platinum for sustainable mineral processing
by Wilson R. Nyemba, Zvikomborero B. Kapumha, Tawanda Mushiri, Charles Mbohwa
Abstract: The quantum of minerals extracted from ore is critical for the success of mineral processing, hence the necessity to optimise the process flows in order to recover as much minerals as possible. The aim of this research was to identify bottlenecks and recovery-hampering factors within the comminution and flotation circuits of the concentrator plant at a platinum processing company in Zimbabwe. Modelling and simulation of the circuits were carried using Arena and Limn simulation software to optimise the process flows for improved throughput, maximum mineral recovery and enhanced efficiency and productivity. Alternative configurations of the layout of equipment were experimented on and compared with the original setup. The recommended reconfiguration of the circuits achieved increases of 2.97% in mineral recovery and 4 grams/ton in productivity resulting in a maximised output for the sustainable processing of platinum ore.
Keywords: comminution; modelling; flotation; platinum processing; optimization; simulation; sustainability.
Increasing the sustainability of composite manufacturing processes by using algorithm-based optimisation and evaluation for process chain design
by Florian Brillowski, Christoph Greb, Thomas Gries
Abstract: Fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) are predestined to be used in lightweight applications because of their superior weight-specific mechanical properties. Yet, many lightweight parts are still made of classic construction materials owing to the resource- and scrap-intensive FRP production. The methods of Operations Research (OR) are a key enabler to overcome this problem and to facilitate a more sustainable use of production, planning and material resources. OR models are being used in other industries to reduce the costs for process planning by up to 45%. However, those methods have yet to be transferred and validated for planning of FRP production. The use of novel optimisation models offers the potential to utilize resources more efficiently and reduce development times by proper planning. This paper is about the development of a sustainable and resource-efficient methodology that implements OR models into the FRP planning process and offers the potential to reduce costs significantly.
Keywords: fibre-reinforced plastics; composites; process chain design; operations research; optimisation; planning.
Environmental and social sustainability of the tea industry in the wake of global market challenges: a case study in Sri Lanka
by Kamalakkannan Sivappirakasam, Asela K.Kulatunga, Nicolas Kassel
Abstract: The tea industry is one of the main export earners of Sri Lanka with over 150 years of history. It faces severe threats to sustainability owing to contamination issues, low productivity, yield drop, climate change, labour shortage, internal migration of workforce, etc. This study focuses on examining the environmental and social impacts on the Sri Lankan tea processing industry to withstand global market challenges. The environmental impacts of tea processing were analysed using life cycle assessment techniques, while social impacts were evaluated by UNEP framework on social life cycle assessment. The fieldwork was carried out in one of the tea plantation companies located in multiple areas, within and external to the tea processing needs improvements in terms of environmental and social sustainability. Furthermore, the selected plantation company is lagging behind environmental sustainability when compared with the reference factory of Tea Research Institute Sri Lanka. Recommendations are provided to mitigate environmental and social hotspots identified in the study.
Keywords: life cycle assessment; environmental sustainability; social sustainability; tea processing; Sri Lanka.
Evolution of supply chain management: a sustainability focused review
by Wen Shen, Dan Hu, Elif Elcin Gunay, Gul Erdem Okudan Kremer
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review the past and current developments of supply chain management (SCM) to identify key possibilities and future trends. Through literature review and observations pertaining to SCM developments, the paper first reveals some early patterns of SCM in manufacturing and business operations. Then, it discusses the system integration and collaboration mechanisms that make up the dominant SCM foci in current research and applications. Finally, recent technological advances that are likely to impact SCM along with pressures for environmental sustainability are recognised as potential research directions. Contributions to sustainability along the SCM evolution is also noted. The paper is original in that it not only reviews the evolution of SCM but also includes a sustainability focus. The resultant discussion is likely to benefit SCM theorists and practitioners to meet future challenges.
Keywords: supply chain management; evolution and innovation of supply chain; green supply chain; sustainable supply chain.
Constant surface roughness over tool-lifetime due to online process monitoring and cutting parameter adaption in turning of gear steel
by Eckart Uhlmann, Tobias Holznagel, Patrick Berardi
Abstract: High process forces and temperatures in turning operations cause high tool wear rates. Tool wear such as flank face abrasion has direct impact on workpiece geometry and resulting surface roughness. Since tools are used until tool life criterion is reached, surface quality can vary widely over the workpiece even when constant cutting parameters are used. A measurement system based on laser triangulation has been developed which enables the online measurement of surface roughness on the workpiece during the turning process. Using the online surface roughness measurements, closed-loop controllers were developed in order to adapt the tool feed and the cutting velocity to retain constant surface roughness even when tool wear is progressing. An optimised process with constant cutting parameters was benchmarked to the developed processes with adaptive cutting parameters. It can be shown that parameter adaption has the potential to lead to efficient processes and greatly increase the tool lifetime.
Keywords: in-process measurement; surface roughness; process monitoring; process control; cutting parameter adaption; turning; sustainable machining.
A fracture mechanics approach to enhance product and process sustainability in diamond wire sawing of silicon wafers for solar cells through improved wire design
by Arkadeep Kumar, Shreyes N. Melkote
Abstract: By decreasing the subsurface damage in silicon wafers produced by diamond wire sawing, mechanical strength of wafers can be increased, and the amount of silicon to be etched in subsequent manufacturing steps can be minimised, enhancing both product and process sustainability. Apart from the sawing process parameters, the subsurface damage in as-sawn silicon wafers is influenced by the design of the diamond wire. We present a fracture mechanics approach for the design of fixed abrasive diamond wires used in wire sawing of silicon wafers for solar cells. Starting from an allowable damage (crack) depth, indentation fracture mechanics and contact analysis are used to determine the wire design parameters, namely the grit protrusion and peripheral distribution of diamond abrasives. The improved wire design can reduce subsurface damage and thereby improve the surface integrity (product sustainability), and reduce the processing time and chemicals used in the subsequent saw-damage removal step (process sustainability).
Keywords: sustainability; damage; diamond; silicon wafers; wire sawing; fracture mechanics; contact mechanics; surface; subsurface; crack; solar cells; product sustainability; process sustainability; design; manufacturing.
Comparison of abrasive water jet technologies in terms of performance and kerf geometry accuracy for cutting ceramics
by Florian Morczinek, Matthias Putz, Martin Dix
Abstract: Hard machining of brittle materials such as ceramics is a process-oriented challenge. For the machining of such materials, abrasive water jet cutting is an appropriate alternative to the commonly used diamond grinding and laser cutting processes. In abrasive water jet machining the injection technology is currently used almost exclusively. Owing to the realisation of the suspension jet technology a higher cutting performance can be achieved. In this article, the known injection technology and the suspension technology are compared. To do so, the influences on the quality were examined for trimming technical ceramics. The investigation illustrates that suspension technology trims with a higher accuracy than injection technology in matters of kerf geometry but with a lower material removal rate.
Keywords: abrasion; abrasive waterjet machining; ceramics; injection jet; kerf geometry; removal rate; suspension jet; sustainable machining.
Decentralised identification of used exchange parts with a mobile application
by Jan Lehr, Marian Schlüter
Abstract: Sustainable product development and use requires an extended life cycle of used and defective mechanical parts. Remanufacturing saves resources and helps the industry to use the product more efficiently. Reverse logistics is one of the most important challenges towards efficient remanufacturing. To improve this process, we propose an on-site part identification at the workshops. A fast on-site identification is essential for assisting repair shop personnel and saving time on searching for the right spare parts. Based on images taken by a mobile device our application provides various machine vision services, e.g. visual identification of used parts, already successfully tested in a sorting facility for remanufacturing parts. The mobile application provides a robust visual identification for different environments. We show that enhancing data for machine vision approaches with images from decentral sensors, i.e. mobile devices, leads to an improved identification accuracy.
Keywords: remanufacturing; visual identification; decentralised identification; exchange parts; used parts; mobile application; object recognition; machine vision; deep learning; convolutional neural networks; reverse logistics; logistics; machine learning.
Investigating the microstructure and morphology of chips in dry, flood coolant and MQL machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy
by Ashutosh Khatri, Muhammad Pervej Jahan
Abstract: The objective of this research is to investigate the morphology and microstructure of the chips formed during milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using conventional flood coolant and sustainable dry and MQL machining conditions. It was found that the chips formed in dry machining suffered a higher degree of serration indicating higher chip temperature and ineffective cooling of the chips. The bi-modal structure of Ti-6Al-4V remained the same in the bulk part of the chips. However, phase transformations were seen for all three machining conditions at the shearing plane of the chips. The chips formed in dry machining had comparatively higher percentage of B-phase due to phase transformation. For the chips obtained in flood coolant machining, the transformed B-phase possibly returned to martensitic A-phase owing to rapid cooling. The MQL machined chips had the least transformation of B-phase, indicating minimal changes in mechanical properties of the machined parts in sustainable MQL machining.
Keywords: sustainable machining; dry machining; MQL machining; milling; Ti-6Al-4V alloy; chip morphology; microstructure.
Quantitative risk modelling for evaluating sustainable product designs
by Christian Enyoghasi, Adam Brown, Ridvan Aydin, Fazleena Badurdeen
Abstract: A major limitation in sustainable product design is the lack of comprehensive methods to evaluate the effect of various risks on its total lifecycle sustainability performance. Most risk management methods are qualitative in nature, making them unsuitable to fully capture the interdependencies between risk events. In this paper, we propose a methodology for identifying risks related to a product design over its total lifecycle and developing a risk network map to capture the interdependencies between these risks. A Bayesian belief network-based method is employed to quantitatively model and evaluate risks and to conduct risk sensitivity analysis on the total lifecycle sustainability performance. An industrial case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology and evaluate risks related to toner cartridge design. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the likelihood of performance measures, such as total lifecycle cost, global warming potential (GWP), water and energy use, being influenced as various risks related to the product design changes. The proposed methodology can be useful for product designers to assess how different product design performance can be affected by risks and to identify those that will meet desired performance indicators.
Keywords: sustainable product design; total lifecycle sustainability performance; risk network map; risk sensitivity analysis.
Multicriteria decision-making for the life cycle of sustainable high pressure die casting products
by Emanuele Pagone, Michail Papanikolaou, Konstantinos Salonitis, Mark Jolly
Abstract: Although a significant body of literature has been devoted to establish metrics
capable of measuring the performance of manufacturing systems (including foundries)
and their influence on decision-making, there is a scarcity of comprehensive and organic studies on performance indicators encompassing sustainability. The objective of this investigation is the selection of the most suitable material for the manufacture of an automotive component using the High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) process. The performance of three different alloys (Aluminium-A380, Magnesium-AZ91D and Zinc-ZA8) was evaluated based on four different classes of metrics, namely: (a) cost, (b) time, (c) quality and (d) sustainability. The metrics selected refer to the overall product life cycle and process characteristics and have been normalised by mass to extend the applicability of the selection method to parts produced with similar process and design specifications but different mass. The deterministic TOPSIS method has been adopted to weigh and combine the different metrics used and drive the decision making process. According to the results, although the zinc alloy appears to be the most expensive option, it should be favoured over the two alternatives due to its significantly superior performance with respect to the quality and sustainability criteria. The current investigation demonstrates that the implementation of the TOPSIS method in combination with the added sustainability dimension influences the decision making process and challenges well-established decision making trends in the automotive industry during the past few decades.
Keywords: high pressure die casting; multicriteria decision making; lifecycle analysis; manufacturing systems; foundries; material selection; sustainability metrics; key performance indicators; automotive products.
Design of disassembly-to-order system for reused components and recycled materials using linear physical programming
by Yuki Kinoshita, Tetsuo Yamada, Surendra Gupta
Abstract: To reduce the consumption of natural resources, a disassembly-to-order (DTO) system is required, where end-of-life (EOL) products are purchased and disassembled for component reuse and material recycling. A DTO system involves multiple uncertainties due to different qualities of EOL products. These uncertainties make it difficult to determine the number of take-back EOL products from suppliers to reuse, recycle, or send to disposal facilities, in order to satisfy multiple goals. To solve the multi-criteria DTO problem, linear physical programming (LPP) is used. LPP can seek a solution to satisfy preferences of a decision maker with respect to each criterion. This study attempts to achieve higher aspiration levels for multiple goals simultaneously in a DTO system by using LPP. A numerical example is conducted with three different EOL products composed of eight different components. It is found that only three components need to be procured from an outside components supplier to satisfy the demands by determining the number of purchased EOL products from the suppliers in the numerical experiment.
Keywords: end-of-life products; multi-criteria decision-making problem; reverse supply chain; material recycling; component reuse.
Methodology for manufacturing sustainability evaluation of human-robot collaborations
by Uwe Goetze, Melanie Schildt, Barbara Mikus
Abstract: The various challenges of a sustainable industrial production, such as demographic change and resource scarcity, induce the increasing need for a resource-efficient, eco-friendly, flexible and adaptive production with human-centred and ergonomic suitable working stations and conditions. The novel production approach of human-robot collaboration promises to contribute to meeting these requirements. Nevertheless, for designing and realising concrete applications, a significant evaluation comprising the economic, ecological and social dimensions of sustainability is needed. The paper presents a methodology for such evaluations of human-robot collaboration with respect to their contribution to sustainability. Additionally, the application of the methodology is illustrated by assessing a human-robot collaboration solution in a concrete industrial use case.
Keywords: evaluation; human-robot-collaboration; industrial production; key indicator method; life cycle costing; life cycle assessment; net present value method; resource efficiency; sustainability; utility value method.
Demand-oriented barriers and potentials for remanufacturing in Vietnam
by Thomas Guidat, Aleksandra Wewer, Holger Kohl, Günther Seliger
Abstract: Since the liberalisation of its economy, Vietnam has become a key location for investment in workforce-intensive assembly processes, through an available and cheap workforce. Soaring national consumption levels for goods and services generate in turn unprecedented amounts of waste to be treated locally. In 2015, governmental decision 16/2015/QĐ-TTg set the basis for a national waste legislation for mechanical and electronic equipment goods. Remanufacturing is a non-destructive, industrial reuse strategy which aims at restoring products to original specifications by reusing a maximum number of original components in their current form. It has the potential to provide Vietnam with an alternative to low value-added repair activities. As Vietnam is the fourth largest market for motorcycles in the world, this paper presents a case study about barriers and potentials for remanufacturing from the market and customer perspective. Potential solutions for supporting industrial development are suggested.
Keywords: remanufacturing; barriers and potentials; market acceptance; Vietnam; aftermarket motorcycle parts.
Augmented learning for industrial education
by Jan P. Menn, Mustafa Severengiz, Andrea Lorenz, Jonas Wassermann, Carsten Ulbrich, Günther Seliger
Abstract: An efficient learning environment is required to cope with todays increasing innovation speed. Companies need methods and tools to transfer knowledge to employees in a fast way. Learners cognitive focus should be shifted towards learning at the learning object, instead of transferring information from teaching material to the real world. Current learning environments are mostly incapable to merge physical learning tools with digital content at its point of use; therefore, the learner has to do it. Augmented reality offers the opportunity to show learning content directly on physical objects and to interact with it. Within this paper, two approaches on how to use augmented reality for teaching purposes are shown. One is for special machinery assembly of turbomachinery and the other for cocoa liquor production.
Keywords: augmented reality; learning; learnstruments; special machinery; cocoa liquor production.